Sample records for expanded ascitic fluid

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid ascites. a case report and literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver, cardiac and renal causes of ascites were diagnostically ruled out. Cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry was normal but ascitic fluid biochemistry and electrophoresis of the ascitic fluid were deranged. The ascites resolved gradually within two weeks of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Cases recorded in literature are ...

  2. Ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren

    is put on the description of this entity. Ascites of other aetiologies are mentioned along with hepatic ascites, in particular, if the pathophysiology differs from ascites of hepatic origin. Table of Contents: Abbreviations / Introduction / Pathophysiology of Ascites / Systemic Elements in the Ascites......-stage congestive heart failure. The addition of complications like the hepatorenal syndrome and bacterial peritonitis, whether spontaneous or secondary, adds heavily to the bad prognosis. Since hepatic ascites are by far the most complex with respect to pathophysiology, complications, and treatment, emphasis...

  3. Ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren

    This volume deals with the history, aetiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, prognosis, and rational treatment of ascites. During the past decade, our knowledge of the pathophysiology of ascites has increased substantially and more specific therapies are now based on aetiology and pathophysio...

  4. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal


    Feb 29, 2012 ... Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis;. Complement 3;. Opsonic activity;. Cirrhosis. Abstract Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP [1].

  5. Variability of hydrostatic hepatic vein and ascitic fluid pressure, and of plasma and ascitic fluid colloid osmotic pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    The variability of hydrostatic hepatic vein and ascitic fluid pressures and of plasma and ascitic fluid colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressures was assessed during hepatic venous catheterization by repeated measurements on different days and at different locations in patients with cirrhosis of the li......The variability of hydrostatic hepatic vein and ascitic fluid pressures and of plasma and ascitic fluid colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressures was assessed during hepatic venous catheterization by repeated measurements on different days and at different locations in patients with cirrhosis...... during catheterization give a good reproducibility in determination of the hydrostatic pressures in hepatic vein and ascitic fluid and of the colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure in plasma and ascitic fluid in the resting supine patient with cirrhosis, which substantiates the use of measurements during...

  6. Ascites (United States)

    ... the lining of the abdomen and abdominal organs. Causes Ascites results from high pressure in the blood vessels of the liver (portal hypertension) and low levels of a protein called albumin . Diseases that ...

  7. Intraperitoneal pressure: ascitic fluid and splanchnic vascular pressures, and their role in prevention and formation of ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Stage, J G; Schlichting, P


    pressure, (b) decreased interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure, (c) increased lymph flow, and it is concluded that the peritoneal space can be considered as a special part of the interstitium in which IFP is considered to play an important role in regulation of ascitic fluid........005). After diuretic therapy WHVP decreased to an average of 20 mmHg. Mean plasma colloid osmotic pressures were 20 mmHg (range 18-24 mmHg)( and 23 mmHg (range 19-29 mmHg) in patients with and without ascites, the values being significantly different (P Colloid osmotic pressure of ascitic fluid...

  8. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Kamal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP. Aim of the work: To compare the level of ascitic fluid C3 concentration in cirrhotic patients with and without ...

  9. Detection and Comparison of Cytomegalovirus DNA Levels in Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Ascites in a Second-Trimester Fetus With Massive Ascites, Hyperechogenic Bowel, Ventriculomegaly and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Chih-Ping Chen


    Conclusion: A prenatal diagnosis of fetal ascites in association with ventriculomegaly, hyperechogenic bowel and intrauterine growth restriction should alert physicians to congenital CMV infection in addition to aneuploidy. The present case provides evidence that CMV DNA levels are higher in amniotic fluid (amniocytes and amniotic fluid supernatant than in ascites (ascitic cells and ascitic supernatant in cases of congenital CMV infection.

  10. [Dielectric parameters of ascitic and pleural fluids in the microwave range in different nosologies]. (United States)

    Romanov, A N; Kovrigin, A O; Grigorchuk, O G; Lubennikov, V A; Lazarev, A F


    The dielectric parameters of ascitic and pleural fluids formed in the human body in oncological and nononcological diseases of different nosology have been estimated in the range between 400 MHz and 1.2 GHZ. The dependence of refractive and absorption indices of ascitic and pleural liquids on the signal frequency and mass concentration of dissolved substances was found. Common regularities and distinctions in the behavior of their dielectric properties were revealed.

  11. Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.

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    Malde H


    Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

  12. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J


    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...

  13. Hepatitis B-Surface Antigen In Ascitic Fluid Of Patients With Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective evaluation of eleven consecutive cases of chronic liver disease over a twelve-month period was carried out clinically and ultrasonographically. By the use of the method of reverse passive haemagglutination, sera and ascitic fluid of the patients were tested for the presence of the Hepatitis B surface antigen.

  14. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R


    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  15. Serum and Ascitic Fluid Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Coskun


    Full Text Available Serum and ascitic fluid superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in 43 patients with cirrhosis and in a 10 healthy control group. Compensated cirrhotic patients had no clinically detectable ascites, but decompensated patients had massive ascites. Cirrhotic patients were divided into three groups: patients with compensated cirrhosis (n = 16, patients with decompensated cirrhosis with Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP (n = 14, and patients with decompensated cirrhosis without SBP (n = 13. All cirrhotic patients in the experimental group had significantly higher serum SOD (p 0.05. These results suggest that the increase in serum SOD and MDA levels are not related to the presence of SBP and the status of liver cirrhosis. To sum up, clarifying the impact of increased serum SOD and MDA levels in cirrhotic patients needs further investigation.

  16. Prognostic value of lectin pathway molecules and complement proteins in ascitic fluid and blood in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glargaard, Signe; Boysen, Trine; Pilely, Katrine


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites have a poor prognosis with increased risk of infection related death, as advanced stages of cirrhosis are associated with immunodeficiency. We aimed to investigate immunologically active molecules in ascitic fluid and blood and their p......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites have a poor prognosis with increased risk of infection related death, as advanced stages of cirrhosis are associated with immunodeficiency. We aimed to investigate immunologically active molecules in ascitic fluid and blood...... and their potential association to survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an exploratory pilot study; blood and ascitic fluid from 34 patients with liver cirrhosis of different etiology were analyzed for pattern recognition molecules (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3 and MBL) and complement proteins (C4 and C3...... of Child-Pugh score. CONCLUSION: Levels of lectin-complement pathway molecules in ascitic fluid and blood are lower in patients with more advanced stage of cirrhosis. Low C4 and C3 in serum and C3 and ficolin-1 in ascitic fluid are risk factors for all-cause mortality or liver transplantation independently...

  17. Cross-infection enhancement among African flaviviruses by immune mouse ascitic fluids. (United States)

    Fagbami, A H; Halstead, S B; Marchette, N J; Larsen, K


    Cross-infection enhancement of seven African flaviviruses by subneutralising concentrations of antibody in immune ascitic fluids was investigated in P388D1 cell culture. Infection by all the seven flaviviruses tested was enhanced by homologous and at least one of six heterologous immune mouse ascitic fluids (IMAF) tested. Enhancement ratios and enhancing antibody titres were higher in homologous than in heterologous enhancement. Zika, Wesselsbron, Uganda S and West Nile viruses were enhanced in culture by all the IMAF tested. Enhancement of Dakar bat and Yellow fever viruses was produced by five heterologous IMAF, but Potiskum virus was enhanced by one heterologous flavivirus antibody. The antibody to Potiskum virus was the most potent mediator of heterologous infection enhancement; all six heterologous flaviviruses were markedly enhanced by this antibody.

  18. Disregarded Effect of Biological Fluids in siRNA Delivery: Human Ascites Fluid Severely Restricts Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Dakwar, George R; Braeckmans, Kevin; Demeester, Joseph; Ceelen, Wim; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien


    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a great potential for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Nevertheless, inefficient in vivo siRNA delivery hampers its translation into the clinic. While numerous successful in vitro siRNA delivery stories exist in reduced-protein conditions, most studies so far overlook the influence of the biological fluids present in the in vivo environment. In this study, we compared the transfection efficiency of liposomal formulations in Opti-MEM (low protein content, routinely used for in vitro screening) and human undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient (high protein content, representing the in vivo situation). In Opti-MEM, all formulations are biologically active. In ascites fluid, however, the biological activity of all lipoplexes is lost except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX. The drop in transfection efficiency was not correlated to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, such as premature siRNA release and aggregation of the nanoparticles in the human ascites fluid. Remarkably, however, all of the formulations except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX lost their ability to be taken up by cells following incubation in ascites fluid. To take into account the possible effects of a protein corona formed around the nanoparticles, we recommend always using undiluted biological fluids for the in vitro optimization of nanosized siRNA formulations next to conventional screening in low-protein content media. This should tighten the gap between in vitro and in vivo performance of nanoparticles and ensure the optimal selection of nanoparticles for further in vivo studies.

  19. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Christiansen, Lasse


    Overall transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Patients with tense ascites due to liver cirrhosis...... and pigs with posthepatic portal hypertension and intraperitoneally instilled fluid were studied before and after abdominal paracentesis in order to evaluate the effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on the transvascular escape rate of albumin. TERalb of the ascitic patients (n = 6) were on average...... 7.8% IVMalb.h-1, which is somewhat higher but not significantly above normal (mean 5.6% IVMalb.h-1). After paracentesis and removal of the ascitic fluid, TERalb rose significantly to an average of 11.9% IVMalb.h-1 (P less than 0.05). The fraction of IVMalb passing into the peritoneal cavity...

  20. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A


    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found betwee...... in the 'lymph-imbalance' theory of ascites formation, whereas a 'fluid equilibrium' theory seems to be too simple, especially with respect to explain protein sequestration in the peritoneal cavity....

  1. Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF on Ascitic Fluid Samples for Detection of Abdominal Tuberculosis. (United States)

    Rufai, Syed Beenish; Singh, Sarman; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Jitendra; Vishal, Anand


    Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) from ascitic fluid samples using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to its paucibacillary nature. Although performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay has been evaluated extensively on pulmonary samples, its performance on extrapulmonary samples is still under evaluation. The objective of this study was to find out the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF on ascitic fluid samples obtained from suspected cases of abdominal TB. Performance was compared with Mycobacterium growth indicator tube-960 (MGIT-960) culture and in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The latter detects and differentiates Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria simultaneously. Sixty-seven patients suspected of probable/possible abdominal TB were included in this observational, prospective study. All samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, MGIT-960 culture, in-house multiplex PCR, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. All 67 samples were smear negative. Seventeen (25.4%) were MGIT-960 culture positive while 12 (17.9%) were detected positive by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and 9 (13.4%) by in-house multiplex PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared with the MGIT-960 culture were 70.6% (95%, confidence interval [CI]: 44.1-89.7) and 100% (95%, CI: 92.8-100) and that of in-house multiplex PCR were 52.9% (95%, CI: 30.9-73.8) and 100% (95%, CI: 92.8-100), respectively. Diagnostic yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay on ascitic fluid samples was lower than MGIT-960 culture. We thus emphasize on the need for urgent discovery of new biomarkers for paucibacillary TB.

  2. Fibronectin in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients: correlation with biochemical risk factors for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Mesquita


    Full Text Available Cirrhotic patients (23 with alcoholic cirrhosis, 5 with posthepatitic cirrhosis and 2 with cryptogenic cirrhosis with ascites and portal hypertension were studied and divided into two groups corresponding to high or low risk to develop spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP related to the concentration of total protein in the ascitic fluid (A-TP: group I (high risk: A-TP£1.5 g/dl and group II (low risk: A-TP>1.5 g/dl. Fibronectin (FN, C3 and C4 concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion while total protein was measured by the biuret method. The mean values (group I vs group II of C3 (12.59 ± 4.72 vs 24.53 ± 15.58 mg/dl, C4 (4.26 ± 3.87 vs 7.26 ± 4.14 mg/dl and FN (50.47 ± 12.49 vs 75.89 ± 24.70 mg/dl in the ascitic fluid were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the group considered to be at high risk for SBP. No significant difference was observed in the plasma/ascites fibronectin ratio (3.91 ± 1.21 vs 3.80 ± 1.26 or gradient (131.46 ± 64.01 vs 196.96 ± 57.38 between groups. Fibronectin in ascites was significantly correlated to C3 (r = 0.76, C4 (r = 0.58, total protein (r = 0.73 and plasma FN (r = 0.58 (P<0.05. The data suggest that the FN concentration in ascites is related to the opsonic capacity of this fluid, and that its concentration in the ascitic fluid may be a biochemical risk factor indicator for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

  3. Ascitic fluid of experimental severe acute pancreatitis modulates the function of peritoneal macrophages. (United States)

    Satoh, A; Shimosegawa, T; Masamune, A; Fujita, M; Koizumi, M; Toyota, T


    Although the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis appears to be greatly influenced by the production of ascites, little is known about the mechanism. To investigate the effects of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) on macrophage function, we examined the effects of PAAF obtained from a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis on the ability of peritoneal macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition, we compared the responses of PAAF-treated and PAAF-untreated macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by evaluating their TNF-alpha production and nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) activation. Incubation of peritoneal macrophages with the PAAF led to the rapid and prolonged activation of NF-kappaB and to TNF-alpha production. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation, attenuated the macrophage TNF-alpha production by PAAF. Macrophages produced TNF-alpha in response to LPS, but the cytokine production was significantly reduced when macrophages were pretreated with PAAF. The suppression of TNF-alpha production by PAAF pretreatment accompanied the impairment of NF-kappaB activation in response to LPS. These results indicate that the PAAF of severe acute pancreatitis may play important roles in the pathologic course of this disease through its effects on macrophage function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko


    Full Text Available Thirty two with the ascitic form of Stages IIIC—IV ovarian cancer underwent 1 to 3 courses of intraperitoneal multidrug therapy using a protein ascitic fluid concentrate (PAFC as a solvent of drugs (cisplatin, cyclophosphan, doxorubicin according to the CAP regimen. The induction chemotherapy allowed remission to be achieved in 78.1% of cases (against 40% with standard intraperitoneal therapy, the stan- dard volume of surgical treatment was performed in 28 (87.5% patients (21 (70% receiving the control regime; with the use of PAFC, the size of minimum residual tumour (less than 1 cm was achieved in 81.3% versus 63.3% with standard intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This treatment enables the use large-dose chemotherapy regimens that cause no severe systemic toxic reactions. The method is highly-effective, low-toxic and may be recommended for the treatment of patients with the ascitic form of Stages III—IV ovarian cancer.

  5. Bacterial isolation with on-site inoculation of ascites fluid into hemoculture bottle in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (United States)

    Charoenhirunyingyos, Sumittra; Dhiraputra, Chertsak; Leelarasamee, Amorn


    To compare the on-site bacterial inoculation of ascites fluid into hemoculture bottle with routine method in the patients who were preliminary diagnosed of SBP. A retrospective analysis of case records during January-December 2001. A total of 673 specimens from 325 patients were retrieved from the data records at the Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital in 2001. The neutrocytic ascites were found in 163 specimens (94 patients). The routine method and on-site inoculation into the hemoculture bottle were employed in 107 and 56 specimens respectively. Culture-positive neutrocytic ascites was found in the routine method 16 (14.9%) specimens and in the on-site inoculation 26 (46.4%) specimens (p < 0.0001). Among these samples, the two methods were simultaneously performed in 42 specimens of which 18 paired specimens were eligible for analysis. Positive culture was found in 2 samples in which the routine method and in an additional 5 samples in which on-site inoculation into hemoculture bottle method. Using Kappa analysis (e score = 0.328, 95% CI = -0.172 to 0.829) that can be interpreted the on-site inoculation method had a higher yield than the routine technique. Moreover, 21 cases also had their blood and ascites samples simultaneously collected and cultured. 4 of ten (19%) and 5 of eleven (23.8%) cases were found in the routine and on-site and direct inoculation groups respectively. These finding suggested that the severity of infection in among two groups were similar and unlikely to be the cause of the difference of the positive isolation rate in both groups. The on-site and direct inoculation of ascites into hemoculture bottle method had a significantly higher isolation rate than routine method (i.e. 46.4% versus 14.9% p < 0.0001) either with separated or paired samples of ascites.


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    S.S. BABA


    Full Text Available The antigenic relationship of 9 flaviviruses, Yellow fever (YF , Wesselsbron (WSL , Uganda S (UGS , Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN , Banzi (BAN , Zika (ZK , Dengue type 1 (DEN-1 and Dengue type 2 (DEN-2, was assessed by cross-haemagglutination-inhibition (Cross-HI and cross-complement fixation (Cross-CF reactions between each of the viruses and their homologous immune mouse ascitic fluids. Titre ratios were calculated using the heterologous and homologous titres. Cross-CF reactions revealed wider antigenic variations among viruses than Cross-HI reactions. There was no significant antigenic variation between WSL, POT and YF viruses using either of those methods. However, definite differences in antigenicity were observed between them and UGS, BAN and ZK viruses. There were no significant differences between UGS, BAN and ZK or between DEN-1 and DEN-2. The serological relationship among flaviviruses is important in establishing diagnosis and epidemiology of these infections in Africa.A relação antigênica de 9 Flavivirus, Febre amarela (YF, Wesselsbron (WSL, Uganda S (UGS, Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN, Banzi (BAN, Zika (ZK, Dengue tipo 1 (DEN-1 e Dengue tipo2 (DEN-2, foi avaliada por reação de inibição da hemaglutinação cruzada (cross-HI e reação de fixação do complemento cruzada (Cross-CF entre cada um dos virus e seu fluido ascítico homólogo em camundongos. Médias de títulos foram calculadas usando os títulos heterólogos e homólogos. Reações cruzadas CF revelaram maiores variações antigênicas entre virus do que reações cruzadas HI. Não houve variação antigênica significativa entre virus WSL, POT e YF usando cada um dos métodos. Todavia, diferenças definidas da antigenicidade foram observadas entre eles e os vírus UGS, BAN e ZK. Não existiram diferenças significativas entre UGS, BAN e ZK ou entre DEN-1 e DEN-2. A relação sorológica entre Flavivirus é importante para se estabelecer o diagnóstico e a

  7. Evaluation of reagent strips for ascitic fluid leukocyte determination: is it a possible alternative for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis rapid diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsila C.R. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the accuracy of a urine reagent dipstick (Multistix 10SG® to determine ascitic fluid leukocyte count, we prospectively studied 106 cirrhotic patients from April 2003 to December 2004, in two different centers (Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP-EPM and Federal University of Juiz de Fora - HU-UFJF for the rapid bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The mean age 54 ± 12 years, there was a predominance of males (eighty-two patients, 77%, and alcohol was the most frequent etiology (43%. Forty-four percent of patients were classified as Child B and fifty-one as Child C (51%. Abdominal paracentesis was performed both in outpatient and inpatient settings and the Multistix 10SG® was tested. Eleven cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were identified by means of polymorphonuclear count. If we considered the positive Multistix 10SG® result of 3 or more, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were respectively 71%, 99%, 91% and 98%. With a positive reagent strip result taken as grade 2 (traces or more, sensitivity was 86% and specificity was 96% with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 99%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 95%. We concluded that the use of a urine reagent dipstick (Multistix 10SG® could be considered a quick, easy and cheap method for ascitic fluid cellularity determination in SBP diagnosis.

  8. The validity of the proteins concentrations in the ascitic liquid and serum for the differential diagnosis of the ascitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdivia R, Mario; Llanos C, Alejandro; Zapata S, Carlos; Muñoz O, Norvinda


    ... in the ascitic serum and fluid, for the discrimination of possible etiological causes of ascites, including in these parameters Protein Concentration in the Ascitic Fluid, the Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient...

  9. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, J H; Hegnhøj, J


    by Escherichia coli (n = 3), coagulase negative staphylococcus (n = 1), and Bacteroides species (n = 1). Abdominal tenderness, abnormal intestinal sounds, fever and hepatic encephalopathy were equally frequent in the group with SBP and in patients with sterile ascites. Infection was not anticipated in any...

  10. Effect of time duration of digestion/decontamination technique on yield of mycobacteria and contamination rates from sterile body fluids (pleural and ascitic fluid) and pus specimens. (United States)

    Shafiq, Samreen; Saleem, Faryal; Jabeen, Kauser; Farooqi, Joveria; Alam, Warda; Hanif, Sadia; Ali, Shazia; Shakoor, Sadia; Hasan, Rumina


    Duration of digestion/decontamination has a considerable impact on yield of mycobacteria especially from sterile body fluids and pus specimens. Additionally, duration of digestion/decontamination affects the contamination rates. This study evaluates the effect of digestion/decontamination protocol for 15 and 20min versus inoculation of media directly from the sample on contamination rates as well as the yield of mycobacteria from pus and sterile fluids other than cerebrospinal fluids. Pleural fluid (n=60), pus (n=48) and ascitic fluid (n=12) specimens were cultured for mycobacteria and evaluated for contamination and mycobacterial yield using three different processing methodologies: without digestion/decontamination with 5% NaOH-NALC (D/D), D/D for 15min and D/D for 20min. All samples >3mL in volume were spun at 3000 RCF for 15min, whereas those less than 3mL were used as is. They were simultaneously processed using the three different methods as mentioned above, and inoculated on LJ media and MGIT. Smear was made from samples treated for 20min and stained with fluorescent stain. Kinyoun staining was done on smears with dubious findings. Mycobacterial culture yield and contamination rates were recorded at 6weeks as recommended by the Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI) laboratory manual 2014. Pleural fluid and pus contamination rates were substantially lowered by increasing decontamination time from 15 to 20min, but it did not have any effect for ascitic fluid (Table 1). The 5-min difference in the decontamination procedure improved mycobacterial culture yield for pus samples by 10%, but there was no substantial effect on pleural and ascitic fluids. Prolonged decontamination did not compromise the culture yield in any of the mentioned specimens. In areas where specimen delay is common and sterility of collection procedure cannot be ensured, digestion/decontamination with NaOH-NALC for up to 20min can reduce contamination rates without considerably compromising

  11. Low ascitic fluid total protein levels is not associated to the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cohort of 274 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Silje; Bendtsen, Flemming; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard


    Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication to decompensated cirrhosis. Fluoroquinolones may prevent SBP. However, predictive markers for SBP are wanted. Guidelines suggest that patients with ascitic fluid protein below 15 g/l receive fluoroquinolones to prevent SBP...

  12. Microscopy and polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania chagasi in the pleural and ascitic fluid of a patient with AIDS: Case report and review of diagnosis and therapy of visceral leishmaniasis


    Ada RS Diehl; dos Santos, Rodrigo P; Ricardo Zimmerman; Luz, Letícia P; Tanara Weiss; Pedro Jacobson; Goldani, Luciano Z.


    Atypical visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly reported in immunocompromised patients, including patients with AIDS. A case of visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV-infected Brazilian patient with pulmonary and peritoneal involvement is reported. Histological evaluation of pleural fluid and ascites aspirate revealed macrophages with intracellular Leishmania. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was positive for Leishmania in the pleural and ascitic fluid with use of primers specific for Leishmania ...

  13. Pregnancy outcome in severe OHSS patients following ascitic/plerural fluid drainage


    Haas, Jigal; Yinon, Yoav; Meridor, Katya; Orvieto, Raoul


    Background Various inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, as well as, various pregnancy complications, including preterm labor, pregnancy induced hypertension/preeclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. We aim to determine whether severe OHSS, complicated by third space fluid accumulation necessitating drainage, is associated with increased risk of late obstetrics complications. Methods We assessed the obstetrics ...

  14. Gram's stain of peritoneal fluid is rarely helpful in the evaluation of the ascites patient. (United States)

    Chinnock, Brian; Fox, Casey; Hendey, Gregory W


    We determine the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility of the Gram's stain of peritoneal fluid in patients undergoing paracentesis. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all peritoneal fluid analyses in a 3-year period in an urban 3-hospital system. Peritoneal dialysis and diagnostic peritoneal lavage patients were excluded. Data collected included Gram's stain, cell count, and culture results. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was defined as an absolute neutrophil count greater than 250 cells/mm(3). In patients with a positive Gram's stain result, charts were reviewed for antibiotic changes. Primary outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the Gram's stain for the detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Of 796 fluid samples, Gram's stain demonstrated an organism in 31 (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6% to 5.4%). Gram stain had a sensitivity of 10% (95% CI 6% to 15%), specificity of 97.5% (95% CI 96.7% to 98.3%), positive predictive value of 48% (95% CI 32% to 65%), and negative predictive value of 81.3% (95% CI 80.7% to 82.0%) in the detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Antibiotic treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was changed after Gram's stain results in only 1 case, and 16 of 31 positive Gram's stain results occurred in patients without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, likely representing contaminants. The Gram's stain result was rarely positive in patients undergoing paracentesis, and when positive, it rarely provided clinically useful information.

  15. Reinfusion of ascites during hemodialysis as a treatment of massive refractory ascites and acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Wei Hsu


    Full Text Available Ta-Wei Hsu1, Yi-Chuan Chen2, Meei-Ju Wu2, Anna Fen-Yau Li3, Wu-Chang Yang2, Yee-Yung Ng21Department of Medicine, I-Lan Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Refractory ascites can occur in patients with various conditions. Although several procedures based on the reinfusion of ascitic fluid have been reported after the failure of bed rest, salt and water restriction, diuretics, intravenous administration of albumin, and repeated paracentesis, these procedures are performed for ascitic fluid removal without dialytic effect. In this study, a flow control reinfusion of ascites during hemodialysis (HD was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of this method in a lupus patient with massive refractory ascites and respiratory and acute renal failure (ARF. The alleviation of ascites and ARF attests to the success of the flow control reinfusion of ascites during HD. This procedure can control the rate of ascites and body fluid removal simultaneously during HD using the roller pump. In conclusion, with a normal coagulation profile, the procedure of flow control reinfusion of ascites during HD is an effective alternative treatment for the alleviation of refractory ascites with renal failure.Keywords: ascites, lupus, renal failure, reinfusion

  16. [Chylous ascites in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients]. (United States)

    Casafont, F; López-Arias, M J; Crespo, J; Dueñas, C; Sánchez-Antolín, G; Rivero, M; Pons Romero, F


    Chylous ascites is an accumulation of lymph in the abdominal cavity. The diagnosis is established when the concentration of triglycerides in plasma is greater than in ascitic fluid over a level of 200 mg/dl. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of 22 patients with chylous ascites (11 cirrhotics and 11 non cirrhotics) were studied in order to assess differences between patients with and without hepatic cirrhosis. The cirrhotic patients with chylous ascites showed lower protein (1.3 +/- 0.74 mg/dl, p = 0.002) and cholesterol concentration (46.0 +/- 45.2 mg/dl, p = 0.02) in ascitic fluid than non cirrhotic patients (3.1 +/- 1.09 mg/dl, and 100.85 +/- 41.7 mg/dl, respectively). In addition, the cellularity in the ascitic fluid was also lower in cirrhotic patients (209.09 +/- 113.96 cel/mm3) versus (831.8 +/- 945.08 cel/mm3; p < 0.05). Four patients (18.18%) presented high adenosine deaminase levels (ADA) in the ascitic fluid in the absence of tuberculous peritonitis. The authors conclude that the biochemical differences observed in the ascitic fluid of the cirrhotic patients with chylous ascites may be explained by a dilutional mechanism due to the combination of "clear" ascites secondary to portal hypertension and chylous ascites. Furthermore, chylous ascites could be the cause of an elevation in ADA in the absence of tuberculous peritonitis.

  17. Four Cases of Chylous Ascites following Robotic Gynecologic Oncological Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Göçmen


    Full Text Available Chylous ascites is an uncommon form of ascites characterized by milky-appearing fluid caused by blocked or disrupted lymph flow through chyle-transporting vessels. The most common causes of chylous ascites are therapeutic interventions and trauma. In this report, we present four cases of chylous ascites following robot-assisted surgery for endometrial staging and the treatment strategies that we used. After retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, leaving a drain is very useful in diagnosing chylous ascites and observing its resolution; furthermore, the use of octreotide in conjunction with TPN appears to be an efficient treatment modality for chylous ascites and should be considered before any invasive intervention.

  18. The chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavi, Seyed Farid


    As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot QCD matter coupled to QED allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit of small chemical potential. Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center of mass energy and that the effec...

  19. Management of cirrhotic ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Julie Steen; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren


    in the natural history of chronic liver failure it predicts a poor outcome with a 50% mortality rate within 3 years. Patients with ascites are at high risk of developing complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hyponatremia and progressive renal impairment. Adequate management of cirrhotic......The most common complication to chronic liver failure is ascites. The formation of ascites in the cirrhotic patient is caused by a complex chain of pathophysiological events involving portal hypertension and progressive vascular dysfunction. Since ascites formation represents a hallmark...

  20. [Ascites drainage at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeboer, J.; Erkel, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Meer, R.W. van der


    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled

  1. Association between ascites and primary hyperfibrinolysis : A cohort study in 210 dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoia, Andrea; Drigo, Michele; Simioni, Paolo; Caldin, Marco; Piek, Christine J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828807


    Coagulation profiles were determined in 70 dogs with ascites, 70 healthy control dogs and 70 sick control dogs without ascites. Dogs with ascites were divided into four sub-groups based on the pathophysiology of fluid formation. Coagulation profile, serum C-reactive protein and frequency of

  2. Triple solutions of Casson fluid flow between slowly expanding and contracting walls (United States)

    Raza, Jawad; Rohni, Azizah Mohd; Omar, Zurni


    This study focuses on Casson fluid flow in a channel with slowly expanding and contracting walls. Main structures of partial differential equations were taken in the form of continuity, momentum and energy equations. Governing partial differential equations were converted into set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformation and then solved numerically by employing shooting technique and triple solutions are obtained depending on Reynolds, Casson, expanding or contracting ratio and magnetic parameters considered.

  3. Case Report: Detection and quantification of tumor cells in peripheral blood and ascitic fluid from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient using the CellSearch® technology [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Tu


    Full Text Available Analysis of ascitic fluid should help to identify and characterize malignant cells in gastrointestinal cancer. However, despite a high specificity, the sensitivity of traditional ascitic fluid cytology remains insufficient, at around 60%. Since 2004 the CellSearch® technology has shown its advantages in the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in peripheral blood, which can perform an accurate diagnosis and molecular analysis at the same time. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored the potential utility of this technology for the detection and quantification of tumor cells in ascitic fluid samples. Herein we report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 70-year-old man presenting with dysphagia and a large amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Analysis of a peripheral blood sample and ascites sample with the CellSearch® technology both revealed the presence of putative tumor cells that were positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and cytokeratin (CK expression. This study confirmed the hematogenous dissemination of esophageal cancer by the detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood, and is the first to demonstrate that tumor cells can be identified in ascitic fluid by using CellSearch® technology.

  4. [Treatment of refractory ascites]. (United States)

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín


    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Ascite: estado da arte baseado em evidências Ascite: state of the art based on evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior


    Full Text Available A ascite é o acúmulo de líquido livre de origem patológica na cavidade abdominal, fenômeno presente em várias doenças da prática clínica. A doença mais associada com ascite é a cirrose hepática. Na sua fisiopatologia destacam-se três teorias que ocorrem sempre em determinado paciente, porém em momentos diferentes de sua doença: vasodilatação, "overflow" e "underfill". O conceito mais moderno sugere que as três teorias estão presentes no mesmo paciente com cirrose, dependendo do tempo de evolução de sua doença. A teoria da vasodilatação estaria presente desde a fase pré-ascítica até a ascite de longa data. A teoria do overflow seria predominante nos primeiros meses de ascite e a teoria underfill explicaria a maioria dos achados em pacientes com ascite por longo tempo. Neste artigo são comentadas em detalhes as várias doenças que produzem ascite, os métodos diagnósticos empregados na pesquisa clínica da ascite, as complicações da ascite e as opções terapêuticas disponíveis. Em cada item é mostrado o grau de evidência (A até C presente na literatura médica.The accumulation of free fluid of pathological origin in the peritoneal cavity is named ascites, and, in clinical practice this phenomenon is present in several diseases. The most common cause of ascites is liver cirrhosis. In the pathophysiology of ascites three theories are noteworthy: vasodilation, overflow and underfill. The modern concept suggest that these three theories are present in the same patient with cirrhosis depending on the disease evolution time. The vasodilation theory would be important in the pre-ascitic phase as well as during all the ascites evolution time. The overflow theory would be important in the first months of development of ascites in cirrhosis, and the underfill theory would explain most of the findings in patients with ascites for a long time. This article comments in detailed, several diseases that produce ascites, the

  6. Ascites: Pathogenesis and therapeutic principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming


    Ascites is a classic complication of advanced cirrhosis and it often marks the first sign of hepatic decompensation. Ascites occurs in more than 50% of patients with cirrhosis, worsens the course of the disease, and reduces survival substantially. Portal hypertension, splanchnic vasodilatation......, liver insufficiency, and cardiovascular dysfunction are major pathophysiological hallmarks. Modern treatment of ascites is based on this recognition and includes modest salt restriction and stepwise diuretic therapy with spironolactone and loop-diuretics. Tense and refractory ascites should be treated...

  7. A Trial Diagnosis of Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens. (United States)

    Liu, Wuyi

    Ascites syndrome is currently a serious disease issue for the global chicken industry. Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder frequently found in fast growing broilers including abdominal distention and standing fluid collection in chicken abdomen. It is one of the most common nutrition metabolic disorders. In this study, the clinical diagnosis technology of broiler ascites symptoms mainly included the trial inquiry of feeders and administrators, local observation, detection of farm gas and faeces and pathological autopsy. The study investigated the case of broiler ascites syndrome of local commercial broiler chickens at the age of 4-5 weeks to reduce outburst of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Through the trial clinical diagnosis of broiler ascites symptoms and pathological autopsy and observation, it came to the definite diagnosis of broiler ascites. Subsequent investigation found that the rearing houses were closed and sealed with poor ventilation and a high breeding density and much ammonia gas. Under the comprehensive management and drug treatments, there were 800 chickens found ill and later came back to normal from illness after the treatments, except for the death of 38 sick chickens. The appetite and drink of broiler chicken came to normal gradually.

  8. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites. (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan


    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive.

  9. Mean platelet volume as a novel predictor of systemic inflammatory response in cirrhotic patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gálvez-Martínez, Marisol; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Rivera-Gutiérrez, Xaira; Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima


    .... Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to identify the best cutoff value of several parameters from hematic cytometry, including MPV, to predict the presence of ascites fluid infection...

  10. Clinical Features of Refractory Ascites in Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Regina Caly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the clinical features and outcomes of outpatients who suffer from refractory ascites. METHODS: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites who submitted to a clinical evaluation, a sodium restriction diet, biochemical blood tests, 24 hour urine tests and an ascitic fluid analysis. All patients received a multidisciplinary evaluation and diuretic treatment. Patients who did not respond to the diuretic treatment were controlled by therapeutic serial paracentesis, and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was indicated for patients who required therapeutic serial paracentesis up to twice a month. RESULTS: The most common etiology of cirrhosis in both groups was alcoholism [49 refractory (R and 11 non-refractory ascites (NR]. The majority of patients in the refractory group had Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis (p=0.034. The nutritional assessment showed protein-energy malnutrition in 81.6% of the patients in the R group and 35.5% of the patients in the NR group, while hepatic encephalopathy, hernia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, upper digestive hemorrhage and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome were present in 51%, 44.9%, 38.8%, 38.8% and 26.5% of the patients in the R group and 9.1%, 18.2%, 0%, 0% and 0% of the patients in the NR group, respectively (p=0.016, p=0.173, p=0.012, p=0.012, and p=0.100, respectively. Mortality occurred in 28.6% of the patients in the R group and in 9.1% of the patients in the NR group (p=0.262. CONCLUSION: Patients with refractory ascites were malnourished, suffered from hernias, had a high prevalence of complications and had a high postoperative death frequency, which was mostly due to infectious processes.

  11. The role of fluid dynamics on compressed/expanded surfactant monolayers (United States)

    Higuera, Maria; Perales, Jose M.; Vega, Jose M.


    A typical experiment to measure monolayer surface rheological properties consists of two parallel, slightly immersed, moving solid barriers that compress and expand a shallow liquid layer that contains the surfactant monolayer in its free surface. The area between the barriers controls the surfactant concentration, which is frequently assumed as spatially constant. In order to minimize the fluid dynamics and other non-equilibrium effects, the barriers motion is very slow. Nevertheless, the surfactant concentration dynamics exhibit some unexpected features such as irreversibility, suggesting that the motion is not slow enough. We present a long wave theory that takes into account the fluid dynamics in the bulk phase coupled to the free surface elevation. In addition, apparent irreversibility is also discussed that may result from artifacts associated with the menisci dynamics when surface tension is measured using a Wilhelmy plate. Instead, additional, purely chemical, non-equilibrium effects are ignored. Results from this theory are discussed for varying values of the parameters, which permit establishing specific predictions on experiments. On the other hand, these results compare fairly well with the available experimental observations, at least qualitatively. The overall conclusion is that the fluid dynamics should not be ignored in the analysis of these experimental devices.

  12. A case of inflammatory ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biolato


    Full Text Available Even ascites appears mainly as sign of portal hypertension in patiens with liver cirrhosis, in some case depends on a different lying condition such as right congestive heart failure, peritoneal carcinomatosis or tuberculosis. In these cases, paracentesis represents the key tool for diagnosis. We report a case of cardiac ascites in a 71-years-old woman who developed in four-month an abdominal distension. Preliminary exams showed exudative ascites related to portal hypertension, a pelvic mass with caseous apparence, and inflammatory status ad an elevation of CA-125. Successive evaluation exluded peritoneal carcinomatosis or tuberculosis, underlyng a tricuspidal regurgitation. The literature on ascites has also been reviewed.

  13. A case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with massive ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Nalcaci


    Full Text Available An 81-year old woman with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL was admitted with night sweats and abdominal distension. A complete blood count showed hemoglobin 5 g/dL, white blood cell (WBC count 28.5x109/L and platelets 38.4x109/L. Peripheral blood smear examination showed a large number of smudge cells and lymphocytosis composed of mature-looking lymphocytes with clumped nuclear chromatin. Computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged cervical, axillary, paraaortic, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes with concomitant omental thickening and ascites. Also, the liver and the spleen were enlarged in the presence of multiple ill-defined hypoechoic areas in the latter. Histopathological analysis of the cervical lymph node biopsy was consistent with CLL. Bone marrow examination showed diffuse infiltration of the marrow with small lymphocytes. Analysis of the ascitic fluid revealed an exudate with WBC 1220 cells/mL. Cytocentrifuge preparation of the ascitic fluid showed small mature lymphoid cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei with coarsely gran- ular chromatin. On flow cytometric analysis of the ascitic fluid, expression of CD5, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD45 and HLA-DR was compatible with a diagnosis of CLL, in accordance with the results of the peripheral blood analysis. The patient was treated with chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone but died within one month after development of non-chylous ascites.

  14. Risk factors for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis after expanded endoscopic endonasal surgery. (United States)

    Ivan, Michael E; Iorgulescu, J Bryan; El-Sayed, Ivan; McDermott, Michael W; Parsa, Andrew T; Pletcher, Steven D; Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey; Aghi, Manish K


    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery, which can lead to meningitis and often requires reparative surgery. We sought to identify preoperative risk factors for CSF leaks and meningitis. We reviewed 98 consecutive expanded endoscopic endonasal surgeries performed from 2008-2012 and analyzed preoperative comorbidities, intraoperative techniques, and postoperative care. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The most common pathologies addressed included pituitary adenoma, Rathke cyst, chordoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. There were 11 CSF leaks (11%) and 10 central nervous system (CNS) infections (10%). Univariate and multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors showed that patients with non-ideal body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher rate of postoperative CSF leak and meningitis (both p<0.01). Also, patients with increasing age were associated with increased CSF leak (p = 0.03) and the length of time a lumbar drain was used postoperatively was associated with infection in a univariate analysis. In addition, three of three endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries combined with open cranial surgery had a postoperative CSF leak and CNS infection rate which was a considerably higher rate than for transsphenoidal surgeries alone or surgeries staged with open cases (p<0.01 and p=0.04, respectively) In this series of expanded endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, preoperative BMI remains the most important preoperative predictor for CSF leak and infection. Other risk factors include age, intraoperative CSF leak, lumbar drain duration, and cranial combined cases. Risks associated with complex surgical resections when combining open and endoscopic approaches could be minimized by staging these procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The postmortem findings of dogs (carcasses) that died "ith ascites showed granular or nodular contracted kidneys i.e chronic nephritis and the li,cr appears cirrhotic with rough and granular or nodular lesion. About IOOO milliliter (I litre) of clear fluid was aspirated from the peritoneal cavit) of three Alsatian dogs (li,e) and.

  16. Chronic lupus peritonitis with ascites.


    Kaklamanis, P; Vayopoulos, G; Stamatelos, G; Dadinas, G; Tsokos, G C


    A 28 year old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed chronic lupus peritonitis and ascites is described. Lupus peritonitis appeared with abdominal fullness, postprandial abdominal discomfort, and painless ascites. Four months later the patient developed vertigo, headaches, visual disturbances, serositis, and glomerulonephritis. Lupus peritonitis and the other disease manifestations responded to treatment with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone (four 1 g/m2 injections at one w...

  17. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu [Nippon Medical School, Inba, Chiba (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kato, Tomoyasu; Yamashita, Takashi [and others


    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  18. Palliative treatment of malignant ascites: profile of catumaxomab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ammouri


    Full Text Available Lila Ammouri, Eric E PrommerMayo Clinic Hospice and Palliative Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Scottsdale, AZ, USAAbstract: Malignant ascites is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity associated with several intrapelvic and intra-abdominal malignancies. The development of ascites leads to significant symptoms and poor quality of life for the cancer patient. Available therapies for palliation include treatment of the underlying disease, but when there are no treatment options, the use of diuretics, implantation of drainage catheters, and surgical shunting techniques are considered. None of these symptom palliation options affect the course of disease. The development of trifunctional antibodies, which attach to specific overexpressed surface markers on tumor cells, and trigger an immune response leading to cytoreductive effects, represents a new approach to the management of malignant ascites. The purpose of this review is to highlight current therapies for malignant ascites and review data as to the effectiveness of a new trifunctional antibody, catumaxomab.Keywords: catumaxomab, ascites, trifunctional

  19. Prognosis assessment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites treated with a peritoneovenous shunt. (United States)

    Guardiola, J; Xiol, X; Escribá, J M; Castellví, J M; Castellote, J; Baliellas, C; Rafecas, A; Casais, L A


    The role of peritoneovenous shunt in the management of refractory ascites has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine readily accessible predictive survival factors in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites treated with a peritoneovenous shunt. We studied a cohort of 100 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites who underwent peritoneovenous-shunt placement in a university-based reference hospital. The estimated median survival of patients after shunt placement was 11 months (95% CI, 7-14 months). Multivariate analysis based on the proportional hazards model disclosed four independent variables associated with poor survival: high Pugh score, nonalcoholic etiology, low ascitic fluid protein concentration, and history of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Mortality of cirrhotic patients treated with a peritoneovenous shunt can be determined by a prognostic index using four easily available variables. Such a prognostic index, once prospectively validated, could be used as an adjunct in planning treatment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites.

  20. Pregnancy complicated by haemorrhagic ascites in a woman with newly diagnosed HIV. (United States)

    Morgan, Catrin; Nicholls, Kate; Gangat, Nusraat; Sansome, Stafford


    A young pregnant Zambian woman was referred from a district hospital in South Zambia to the university teaching hospital, Lusaka with severe anaemia and ascites. The ascites had developed over a month and the woman was currently 15 weeks pregnant. Further workup revealed that the patient was HIV-positive and the ascitic tap showed haemorrhagic fluid. After being reviewed by multiple doctors, the cause of the haemorrhagic ascites remained unclear; therefore, the decision was made to do a laparotomy. The laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a large cyst attached to the liver containing 5 L of bloodstained fluid. The histopathology report revealed features consistent with a giant haemangioma. There were many barriers to accessing optimum healthcare in this case. These included limited access to blood, poor communication resulting in the patient being unaware of her HIV status and lack of patient education about HIV. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Difficulties in differentiating the nature of ascites based on ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński


    Full Text Available Transabdominal ultrasound not always allows to determine the nature of ascites based solely on its characteristics. Aim: The aim of the study was to present difficulties in determining the nature of ascites using transabdominal ultrasonography solely based on extra-organ lesions as well as, after the inclusion of the overall abdominal assessment and the clinical picture. Materials and methods: A total of 18 patients with non-neoplastic ascites and 62 patients with neoplastic ascites whose final diagnosis was based on cytological and histopathological findings were evaluated between 2005 and 2015. Abdominal ultrasound was performed to detect the presence of fluid in all accessible spaces, and, additionally, to determine the presence of potential peritoneal tumor implants as well as to evaluate the parietal peritoneum and the greater omentum. Different digital ultrasound machines equipped with 3–6 MHz and linear 7–12 MHz transducers were used in the study. Double-sided Fisher’s exact test with statistical significance at p < 0.05 was used for the analysis of the obtained results. Results: Statistically significant differences between benign and neoplastic ascites were found for: anechoic peritoneal fluid (<0.0001; fluid and thickened omentum with smooth surface (<0.0001; fluid and thickened omentum with smooth surface and varices (0.01; fluid and thickened omentum with hypoechoic foci (0.049; fluid and thickened omentum with tumor implants (0.009. The inclusion of the overall assessment of abdominal organs and the clinical data allowed for an improvement in ultrasonographic diagnostic accuracy in benign and neoplastic ascites from 83.3% and 67.7% to 94.4% and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusions: When used alone, an assessment of acoustic fluid characteristics and extra-organ peritoneal lesions limits the possibility to differentiate between benign and malignant ascites. These results improve after the inclusion of sonographic assessment of all

  2. Chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow and heat transfer between expanding or contracting walls with ion slip, Soret and Dufour effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelu Ojjela


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the Hall and ion slip currents on an incompressible free convective flow, heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid in a porous medium between expanding or contracting walls with chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour effects. Assume that the walls are moving with a time dependent rate of the distance and the fluid is injecting or sucking with an absolute velocity. The walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and concentrations. The governing partial differential equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and then the resultant equations are solved numerically by quasilinearization technique. The results are analyzed for velocity components, microrotation, temperature and concentration with respect to different fluid and geometric parameters and presented in the form of graphs. It is noticed that with the increase in chemical reaction, Hall and ion slip parameters the temperature of the fluid is enhanced whereas the concentration is decreased. Also for the Newtonian fluid, the numerical values of axial velocity are compared with the existing literature and are found to be in good agreement.

  3. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype. (United States)

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D


    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. A case of delayed-onset ventriculo-peritoneal shunt infection with Corynebacterium presented as ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yang


    Full Text Available Shunt infection is one of the most common complications related to VPS insertion. Most shunt infections occur within the first year of surgery. We present a case of delayed infection 4 years after shunt insertion without intervening shunt manipulation. Our patient presented with recurrent ascites, and cultures of peritoneal fluid and CSF both recovered Corynebacterium afermentans. This case demonstrates that a delayed onset of ascites after shunt insertion can be secondary to infection with uncommon indolent pathogen.

  5. Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit using Multi-Component Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo


    for an organic Rankine cycle unit utilizing waste heat from low temperature heat sources. The study addresses a case where the minimum temperature of the heat source is constrained and a case where no constraint is imposed. The former case is the wasteheat recovery from jacket cooling water of a marine diesel...... engine onboard a large ship, and the latter is representative of a low-temperature geothermal, solar or waste heat recovery application. Multi-component working fluids are investigated, as they allow improving the match between the temperature pro-files in the heat exchangers and, consequently, reducing...... the irreversibility in the ORC system. This work considers mixtures of R245fa/pentane and propane/isobutane. The use of multi-component working fluids typically results in increased heat transfer areas and different expander designs compared to purefluids. In order to properly account for turbine performance...

  6. Ascite meconial - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Gomez Sardinha Oshiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ascite meconial resultante da perfuração intestinal fetal tem baixa incidência (1:30.000 nascimentos e elevada mortalidade (50%. Os achados ecográficos fetais incluem ascite e calcificações intra-abdominais. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de ascite meconial neonatal no Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba. METODOLOGIA: Descrição do referido caso e revisão de literatura. RELATO DE CASO: Recém-nascido de J.A.P., masculino, de parto cesáreo por iteratividade em 12/05/2016, cuja mãe com 44 anos, sem intercorrências no pré-natal, negou consanguinidade, vícios e infecções; ultrassonografia obstétrica evidenciou ascite moderada, circunferência abdominal >p95, hepatomegalia e hidrocele. Ao nascimento, idade gestacional 3 8 2 /7 semanas, peso=3630g, comprimento=49 cm, Apgar 8/9. Apresentava abdome globoso, fígado a 4 cm do rebordo costal direito e hidrocele volumosa. Realizada paracentese com saída de 310 ml de líquido esverdeado (meconial. No 5o dia de vida, durante laparotomia, observou-se aderência de alças intestinais, perfuração de íleo terminal a 8 cm da vávula íleo-cecal, sendo realizada ileostomia. O anátomo-patológico de apêndice cecal evidenciou processo inflamatório crônico, neovascularização e fibrose. Paciente recebeu nutrição parenteral por 14 dias; houve progressão da dieta do 6o ao 36o dia de vida, recebendo alta em aleitamento materno e boa recuperação clínica. CONCLUSÃO: A ascite meconial por perfuração intestinal deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de ascite fetal. O diagnóstico ecográfico pré-natal é fundamental para o prognóstico pós-natal.

  7. A new fluid distribution system for scale-flexible expanded bed adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Hobley, Timothy John


    . At a rotation rate of 2.5 rpm, no significant dead zones were observed, and a discrete band was formed that moved up through the bed. Furthermore, the pattern of dye movement could be used to calculate interstitial linear fluid velocities of 460 cm (.) h(-1) and 572 cm (.) h(-1) at the column wall and center...

  8. Critical evaluation and comparison of fluid distribution systems for industrial scale expanded bed adsorption chromatography columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Hubbuch, Jürgen


    distributor at large scale were apparent: dead zones were present which could not be removed by increasing rotation rates or flow rates, and such changes led to a deterioration in hydrodynamic properties. In contrast, during fluid introduction through a rotating distributor no dead zones were observed...

  9. Peritoneal tuberculosis as a cause of ascites in a patient with cirrhosis. (United States)

    Vaz, Ana Margarida; Peixe, Bruno; Ornelas, Rita; Guerreiro, Horácio


    A 59-year-old Portuguese Caucasian man with a history of heavy alcohol intake and no significant medical history presented with ascites, weight loss and general malaise. The ascitic fluid analysis showed 921 cells/mm(3) with mononuclear predominance (93.6%), elevated total proteins and a slightly elevated serum-ascites albumin gradient. The abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of chronic liver disease with ascites, and additionally on CT there was evidence of peritoneal thickening. On repeat paracentesis, the ascitic fluid analysis showed elevated adenosine deaminase but it was negative for the presence of mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Löwenstein-Jensen culture and PCR amplification. Due to the persistent suspicion of tuberculosis, a laparoscopy was performed showing multiple small white tubercles scattered over the peritoneum. Peritoneal biopsies showed the presence of necrotising granulomas and cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. After a 6-month course of tuberculostatics, the ascites resolved completely. The patient remained asymptomatic. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Experimental Comparison Of Working Fluids For Organic Rankine Cycle With Single-Screw Expander


    Gusev, Sergei; Ziviani, Davide; Bell, Ian; De Paepe, Michel; van den Broek, Martijn


    This paper describes the behavior of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) fed by a heat source with adaptable temperature and mass flow. For a suitable choice of working fluid, the setting of its evaporation pressure is crucial for the performance of an ORC installation. The higher the evaporation pressure, the higher the cycle efficiency on the one hand, but the lower the energy recovered from the heat source due to a higher outlet temperature on the other hand. An optimum has to be found to achie...

  11. Nephrogenic ascites - Still an intractable problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana Nayak-Rao


    Full Text Available Nephrogenic ascites or ascites associated with renal failure is seen in end-stage renal disease in-patients on hemodialysis but has been described occasionally in earlier stages of renal failure. The cause can be multifactorial and a combination of inadequate dialysis and ultrafiltration, poor nutrition and increased peritoneal membrane permeability in uremia. Generally, the onset of nephrogenic ascites is insidious and portends a grim long-term prognosis. We describe herein three patients who presented with refractory ascites of nephrogenic origin and review this entity.

  12. Ascites revisited: the value of serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascites is derived from the Greek word “askos”, meaning bag or sack. Approximately 85% of patients (in the USA) with ascites have liver cirrhosis. Ascites may be reversible in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis if the patient ceases consumption of alcohol, as well as in non-alcoholic cirrhosis, with effective therapy.

  13. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  14. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan


    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  15. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan


    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatment...

  16. Massive Ascites Complicating Pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma-Lee Ko


    Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of ascites in patients with severe pre-eclampsia. If the hypertension is controlled and the fetus is healthy, abdominal paracentesis without pregnancy termination is an efficacious procedure for the management of massive ascites complicating severe pre-eclampsia.

  17. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  18. Successful treatment of massive ascites due to lupus peritonitis with hydroxychloroquine in old- onset lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Hammami, Sonia; Bdioui, Fethia; Ouaz, Afef; Loghmari, Hichem; Mahjoub, Sylvia; Saffar, Hamouda


    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an auto-immune disease with multiple organ involvements that occurs mainly in young women. Literature data suggest that serositis is more frequent in late-onset SLE. However, peritoneal serositis with massive ascites is an extremely rare manifestation. We report a case of old-onset lupus peritonitis treated successfully by Hydroxychloroquine. A 77-year-old Tunisian woman was hospitalized because of massive painful ascites. Her family history did not include any autoimmune disease. She was explored 4 years prior to admission for exudative pleuritis of the right lung without any established diagnosis. Physical examination showed only massive ascites. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia: 3100/mm3, lymphopenia: 840/mm3 and trace protein (0.03 g/24 h). Ascitic fluid contained 170 cells mm(3) (67% lymphocytes), 46 g/L protein, but no malignant cells. The main etiologies of exudative ascites were excluded. She had markedly elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer of 1/1600 and a significantly elevated titer of antibody to double-stranded DNA (83 IU/mL) with hypo-complementemia (C3 levl was at 67 mg/dL). Antibody against the Smith antigen was also positive. Relying on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with SLE and treated with Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg daily in combination with diuretics. One month later, there was no detectable ascitic fluid and no pleural effusions. Five months later she remained free from symptoms while continuing to take chloroquine. This case was characterized by old age of onset of SLE, the extremely rare initial presentation with lupus peritonitis and massive painful ascites with dramatic response to only hydroxychloroquine treatment.

  19. Antibodies produced by clonally expanded plasma cells in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid cause demyelination of spinal cord explants. (United States)

    Blauth, Kevin; Soltys, John; Matschulat, Adeline; Reiter, Cory R; Ritchie, Alanna; Baird, Nicholas L; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Owens, Gregory P


    B cells are implicated in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgG synthesis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands and lesional IgG deposition suggest a role for antibody-mediated pathology. We examined the binding of IgG1 monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) derived from MS patient CSF expanded B cell clones to central nervous system (CNS) tissue. MS rAbs displaying CNS binding to mouse and human CNS tissue were further tested for their ability to induce complement-mediated tissue injury in ex vivo spinal cord explant cultures. The staining of CNS tissue, primary human astrocytes and human neurons revealed a measurable bias in MS rAb binding to antigens preferentially expressed on astrocytes and neurons. MS rAbs that recognize myelin-enriched antigens were rarely detected. Both myelin-specific and some astrocyte/neuronal-specific MS rAbs caused significant myelin loss and astrocyte activation when applied to spinal cord explant cultures in the presence of complement. Overall, the intrathecal B cell response in multiple sclerosis binds to both glial and neuronal targets and produces demyelination in spinal cord explant cultures implicating intrathecal IgG in MS pathogenesis.

  20. Urinary ascites in a preterm female neonate: a rare case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report a rare case of urinary ascites due to spontaneous bladder rupture in a preterm female neonate. The baby presented with respiratory distress, abdominal distension, anuria, and renal insufficiency. The diagnosis of bladder rupture was confirmed by peritoneal fluid aspiration with biochemical analysis and ...

  1. Infected ascites: Distinguishing secondary peritonitis from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cirrhotic patient with classic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Louis Roy Lu


    Conclusion: Persistence of signs and symptoms of peritonitis despite improvement in ascitic fluid analysis in cirrhotic patients treated for or early relapse of peritonitis with the same organism should prompt the physician to evaluate for secondary peritonitis and surgical management should be considered for potentially correctable sources.

  2. Congenital transmesenteric hernia presenting as neonatal ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Felizes


    Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernia is an internal hernia without sac, which forms through a congenital mesentery defect. Mostly diagnosed intraoperatively, it as a variable prognosis, which can lead to high morbidity and mortality.The authors describe a case of transmesenteric hernia that presented as isolated fetal ascites. A 34 week preterm baby was delivered by forceps, with respiratory compromise due to abdominal distension. Orotracheal intubation and evacuation paracentesis were performed. After excluding major causes of neonatal ascites and persistent bowel loop distension, the newborn underwent an exploratory laparotomy, where a transmesenteric hernia and pellets of meconium were identified. Hernia reduction, enterectomy and enterostomies were performed, with good outcome. Cystic fibrosis was diagnosed during post-operatory period.This is the first reported case of transmesenteric hernia presenting as fetal ascites, without associated morbidity or mortality due to an early intervention. Keywords: Transmesenteric hernia, Fetal ascites, Cystic fibrosis

  3. Isolation and characterization of stromal progenitor cells from ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chih-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least one-third of epithelial ovarian cancers are associated with the development of ascites containing heterogeneous cell populations, including tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. The components of ascites and their effects on the tumor cell microenvironment remain poorly understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize stromal progenitor cells from the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOA. Methods Seventeen ascitic fluid samples and 7 fresh tissue samples were collected from 16 patients with EOA. The ascites samples were then cultured in vitro in varying conditions. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to isolate and characterize 2 cell populations with different morphologies (epithelial type and mesenchymal type deriving from the ascites samples. The in vitro cell culture model was established using conditional culture medium. Results The doubling times of the epithelial type and mesenchymal type cells were 36 h and 48 h, respectively, indicating faster growth of the epithelial type cells compared to the mesenchymal type cells. Cultured in vitro, these ascitic cells displayed the potential for self-renewal and long-term proliferation, and expressed the typical cancer stem/progenitor cell markers CD44high, CD24low, and AC133+. These cells also demonstrated high BMP-2, BMP4, TGF-β, Rex-1, and AC133 early gene expression, and expressed EGFR, integrin α2β1, CD146, and Flt-4, which are highly associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. The epithelial type cells demonstrated higher cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression than the mesenchymal type cells. The mesenchymal type cells, in contrast, demonstrated higher AC133, CD73, CD105, CD117, EGFR, integrin α2β1, and CD146 surface marker expression than the epithelial type cells. Conclusion The established culture system provides an in vitro model for the selection of drugs that target cancer

  4. Isolation and characterization of stromal progenitor cells from ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Ming; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Hsiao, Chih-Chiang; Chien, Tsai-Yen; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi


    At least one-third of epithelial ovarian cancers are associated with the development of ascites containing heterogeneous cell populations, including tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. The components of ascites and their effects on the tumor cell microenvironment remain poorly understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize stromal progenitor cells from the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOA). Seventeen ascitic fluid samples and 7 fresh tissue samples were collected from 16 patients with EOA. The ascites samples were then cultured in vitro in varying conditions. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to isolate and characterize 2 cell populations with different morphologies (epithelial type and mesenchymal type) deriving from the ascites samples. The in vitro cell culture model was established using conditional culture medium. The doubling times of the epithelial type and mesenchymal type cells were 36 h and 48 h, respectively, indicating faster growth of the epithelial type cells compared to the mesenchymal type cells. Cultured in vitro, these ascitic cells displayed the potential for self-renewal and long-term proliferation, and expressed the typical cancer stem/progenitor cell markers CD44(high), CD24(low), and AC133(+). These cells also demonstrated high BMP-2, BMP4, TGF-β, Rex-1, and AC133 early gene expression, and expressed EGFR, integrin α2β1, CD146, and Flt-4, which are highly associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. The epithelial type cells demonstrated higher cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression than the mesenchymal type cells. The mesenchymal type cells, in contrast, demonstrated higher AC133, CD73, CD105, CD117, EGFR, integrin α2β1, and CD146 surface marker expression than the epithelial type cells. The established culture system provides an in vitro model for the selection of drugs that target cancer-associated stromal progenitor cells, and for the development of ovarian

  5. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay. (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Chick, Jeffrey F B; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Shyn, Paul B


    Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Peripherally located hepatic tumors can be difficult to access or located adjacent to critical structures that can be injured. As a result, ablation of peripheral tumors may be avoided or may be performed too cautiously, leading to inadequate ablation coverage. In these cases, separating the tumor from adjacent critical structures can increase the efficacy and safety of procedures. Artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum are techniques that utilize fluid and gas, respectively, to insulate critical structures from the thermal ablation zone. Induction of artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum can enable complete ablation of otherwise inaccessible hepatic tumors, improve tumor visualization, minimize unintended thermal injury to surrounding organs, and reduce post-procedural pain. This pictorial essay illustrates and discusses the proper technique and clinical considerations for successful artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum creation to facilitate safe peripheral hepatic tumor ablation.

  6. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Gojayev


    Full Text Available Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures.

  7. Treatment of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis - Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Bach


    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period and is freq......National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period...

  8. Strategies to alleviate the incidence of ascites in broilers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Aftab


    Full Text Available Ascites is a complex problem caused by many interacting factors such as genetics, environment and management. Many nutritional, medicinal and management strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. Higher levels of dietary vitamin C and E along with selenium yeast might be beneficial, presumably because of their role in improving cellular integrity. Oils rich in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce pulmonary hypertension and, consequently, ascites incidence. The potential use of flax oil has already been demonstrated, whereas the effects of other oils rich in n-3 fatty acids (fish, linseed and canola oils remain to be investigated. The assessment of the effects of dietary electrolyte balance on ascites incidence seems to be a promising field of research in broiler nutrition. In general, reducing the dietary level of salt (NaCl and adding bicarbonates to the diet and drinking water have been proposed as potential "cost-effective" methods to reduce ascites incidence. The use of nutrients/drug agents that increase the vascular capacity of the lungs or decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance may help to alleviate the problem, but economic and local feed regulations might restrict such use. Diuretics have also shown positive effects, presumably because there is a reduction of sodium and fluid retention in the body; litter humidity however must be closely monitored if diuretics are continuously administered. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. Under practical conditions, it might be interesting to test the additive effects of

  9. Chylous ascites post open cholecystectomy after severe pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheung, Cherry X


    Chylous ascites a rare complication post cholecystectomy. There are to our knowledge only 3 reported cases in the literature. We describe a case of chylous ascites post open cholecystectomy in a patient with recent severe pancreatitis. We propose a potential relationship between acute biliary pancreatitis and the development of chylous ascites.

  10. Umbilical arterial necrotic vasculopathy associated with fetal ascites. (United States)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Cosmi, Erich; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cappellari, Ambra; Andrisani, Alessandra; Visentin, Silvia; Chiarelli, Silvia; Zanardo, Vincenzo


    Immune and nonimmune neonatal ascites may be part of hydrops fetalis or may be an isolated finding. However, a significant percentage of nonimmune ascites do not have an identifiable pathogenesis and are considered idiopathic. We report a case of fetal ascites and umbilical arterial necrotic vasculopathy, an association not previously described. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Chylous ascites and chylothorax: a case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 7, 2010 ... The treatment of the chylothorax and chylous ascites usually involves the treatment of the underlying cause. Malignant chylous serositis requires specific therapy directed at the primary cause with chemotherapy, radia- tion, and surgery with supportive therapy (8). Treatment of chylous pleural effusions with ...

  12. Interleukin 6 Present in Inflammatory Ascites from Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2-Expressing Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Chandralega Kampan


    Full Text Available BackgroundEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs.MethodsAscites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control. In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2− Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.ResultsHigh levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ production by effector T cells, and was

  13. Interleukin 6 Present in Inflammatory Ascites from Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2-Expressing Regulatory T Cells. (United States)

    Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Madondo, Mutsa Tatenda; McNally, Orla M; Stephens, Andrew N; Quinn, Michael A; Plebanski, Magdalena


    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs. Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2 + Tregs and TNFR2 - Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC. High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2 + Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2 + Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2 + Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2

  14. Tratamento cirúrgico da ascite quilosa Surgical treatment of chylous ascites

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    Claudia Stein Gomes


    Full Text Available A ascite quilosa é uma complicação rara após procedimentos cirúrgicos e trauma abdominal, apresentando elevada morbidade e difícil manejo. Nos casos refratários ao tratamento clínico habitual, o tratamento cirúrgico se impõe, apesar da baixa taxa de sucesso. Dois casos são apresentados: o primeiro paciente foi vítima de trauma abdominal contuso e o segundo foi submetido a hernioplastia hiatal a Nissen videolaparoscópica, ambos evoluindo com ascite quilosa que necessitou de tratamento cirúrgico através da ligadura do ducto torácico, junto aos pilares diafragmáticos. Os pacientes evoluíram com melhora clínica e ausência de ascite após 24 meses de seguimento.Chylous ascites is a rare complication after abdominal procedures and blunt abdominal trauma, associated with high morbidity and difficult management. When clinical treatment fails, surgical intervention is necessary, despite the limited success rate. Two cases are reported: the first patient had a blunt abdominal trauma and the second patient underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication; both developed chylous ascites and required surgical treatment with suture repair of the thoracic duct, close to the diaphragm. There was clinical improvement and ascites was absent at a 24-month follow-up.

  15. An Extremely Uncommon Case of Parasitic Infection Presenting as Eosinophilic Ascites in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Oncu


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old male patient admitted for recent ascites and splenomegaly of unknown origin. The patient was referred to our institution with complaints of diarrhea, epigastric pain, abdominal cramping and weight loss over the past three weeks. The acute onset presented with colicky abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion. History revealed reduced appetite and weight gain of 7 kg over the last one month. His past medical history and family history was negative. He had no history of alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis infection. Laboratory data revealed normal transaminases and bilirubin levels, and alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyltransferase were within normal range. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed free peritoneal fluid and normal abdominal viscera. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed a few days later revealed diffuse severe erythematous pangastritis and gastroduodenal gastric reflux. Duodenal biopsies showed chronic nonspecific duodenitis. Antrum and corpus biopsies showed chronic gastritis. The ascitic fluid was straw-colored and sterile with 80% eosinophils. Stool exam was negative for parasitic infection. Treatment with albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 5 days led to the disappearance of ascites and other signs and symptoms. Three months after albendazole treatment the eosinophilic cell count was normal. The final diagnosis was consistent with parasitic infection while the clinical, sonographic and histological findings suggested an eosinophilic ascites. We emphasize the importance of excluding parasitic infection in all patients with eosinophilic ascites. We chose an alternative way (albendazole treatment to resolve this clinical picture. With our alternative way for excluding this parasitic infection, we treated the patient and then found the cause.

  16. Comparison of clinical characteristics and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and culture negative neutrocytic ascites. (United States)

    Na, Sun Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Nam, Eun Young; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Nam Joong


    Ascitic fluid infections (AFI) in cirrhotic patients can be classified into two groups: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and culture-negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the two groups of patients with AFI. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cirrhotic patients with AFI. We evaluated demographic data, clinical presentations of AFI, laboratory findings, liver function, and mortality rates. Between January 2005 and December 2014, 533 patients with AFI were evaluated; 259 (48.6%) had SBP and 274 (51.4%) CNNA. Ascites neutrophil count (4410/mm 3 versus 1046/mm 3 , p < .001) and the blood culture positive rate (38.1% versus 20.1%, p < .001) were higher in the SBP group, which also had a higher MELD score (24.29 versus 22.05, p = .004). Seven-day mortality was higher in the SBP group (9.4% versus 4.5%, p = .027) but there was no significant difference in 30-day (22.1% versus 17.5%) or 90-day mortality rate (36.1% versus 36.4%). Patients in the SBP group had a higher MELD score, ascites neutrophil count, and positive blood culture rate. Although seven-day mortality rate was higher in the SBP group, the 30-day and 90-day mortality rates were similar in the two groups.

  17. Lie point symmetries for a magneto couple stress fluid in a porous channel with expanding or contracting walls and slip boundary condition

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    Rabea El Shennawy Abo Elkhair


    Full Text Available In this paper, an incompressible couple stress fluid flow with magnetic field in a porous channel with expanding or contracting walls and slip boundary condition is considered. Lie group analysis and group invariant solutions are obtained, the governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved analytically, also this equations are solved by using Adomian method. The graphs for the axial and the normal velocity components and the pressure distribution for different values of the physical and geometric parameters are plotted and discussed. Finally, the comparison between the analytic and Adomian methods is discussed. It is found that for no-slip case ϕ=0 the fluid adheres to the walls and axial velocity is maximum at the center of the channel, also by increasing the slip parameter the velocity at the channel walls increases. However, it decreases at center of the channel by increasing slip parameter.

  18. Alpha-2A Adrenoceptor Agonist Guanfacine Restores Diuretic Efficiency in Experimental Cirrhotic Ascites: Comparison with Clonidine.

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    Giovanni Sansoè

    Full Text Available In human cirrhosis, adrenergic hyperfunction causes proximal tubular fluid retention and contributes to diuretic-resistant ascites, and clonidine, a sympatholytic drug, improves natriuresis in difficult-to-treat ascites.To compare clonidine (aspecific α2-adrenoceptor agonist to SSP-002021R (prodrug of guanfacine, specific α2A-receptor agonist, both associated with diuretics, in experimental cirrhotic ascites.Six groups of 12 rats were studied: controls (G1; controls receiving furosemide and potassium canrenoate (G2; rats with ascitic cirrhosis due to 14-week CCl4 treatment (G3; cirrhotic rats treated (over the 11th-14th CCl4 weeks with furosemide and canrenoate (G4, furosemide, canrenoate and clonidine (G5, or diuretics and SSP002021R (G6. Three rats of each group had their hormonal status and renal function assessed at the end of 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th weeks of respective treatments.Cirrhotic rats in G3 and G4 gained weight over the 12th-14th CCl4 weeks. In G4, brief increase in sodium excretion over the 11th-12th weeks preceded worsening of inulin clearance and natriuresis (diuretic resistance. In comparison with G4, the addition of clonidine (G5 or guanfacine (G6 to diuretics improved, respectively, sodium excretion over the 11th-12th CCl4 weeks, or GFR and electrolytes excretion over the 13th-14th CCl4 weeks. Natriuretic responses in G5 and G6 were accompanied by reduced catecholamine serum levels.α2A-receptor agonists restore glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis, and delay diuretic-resistant ascites in experimental advanced cirrhosis. Clonidine ameliorates diuretic-dependent natriuresis just for a short time.

  19. Late onset of chylous ascites following distal gastrectomy with D1(+ dissection for gastric cancer: A case report

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    Hüseyin Çiyiltepe


    Full Text Available Chyloperitoneum is the accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Chylous ascites can occur if it is not recognized during surgery. The incidence of chylous ascites after oncological surgery was approximately 7.4% however, the incidence of lymphorrhea after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer is so low. Extensive lymph node dissection leads to a higher incidence of lymphorrhea. There have been few cases associated with D1 dissection In most patients conservative treatment is recommended that includes paracentesis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN, a medium chain triglyceride (MCT based diet, and somatostatin. Surgery is the last choice only when conservative treatment fails. In this case we aimed to present a late onset of chylous ascites after subtotal gastrectomy and D1+ dissection that was treated with percutaneous drainage and conservative management.

  20. Prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis with ascites


    Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande; Temi, Adegun Patrick; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer; Taiwo, Raimi Hassan; Ayokunle,Dada Samuel


    Introduction Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Methods Thirty one patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites who were admitted into the Medical ward of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria fr...

  1. Mean platelet volume as a novel predictor of systemic inflammatory response in cirrhotic patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. (United States)

    Gálvez-Martínez, Marisol; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Rivera-Gutiérrez, Xaira; Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima


    To identify a mean platelet volume (MPV) cutoff value which should be able to predict the presence of bacterial infection. An observational, analytic, retrospective study. We evaluated medical records of cirrhotic patients who were hospitalized from January 2012 to January 2014 at the Gastroenterology Department of "Hospital General de México Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", we included 51 cirrhotic patients with ascites fluid infection (AFI), and 50 non-infected cirrhotic patients as control group. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to identify the best cutoff value of several parameters from hematic cytometry, including MPV, to predict the presence of ascites fluid infection. Of the 51 cases with AFI, 48 patients (94.1%) had culture-negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA), 2 (3.9%) had bacterial ascites, and one (2%) had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infected patients had greater count of leucocytes and polymorphonuclear cells, greater levels of MPV and cardiac frequency (P 0.80). A cutoff MPV value of 8.3 fl was the best to discriminate between cirrhotic patients with AFI and those without infection. Our results support that MPV can be an useful predictor of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cirrhotic patients with AFI, particularly CNNA.

  2. Fetal ascites. A report of 3 autopsy cases. (United States)

    Sakamoto, A; Matsuo, K; Kawai, K; Yoshida, K; Fukuda, K; Nakano, M; Nakatani, A; Tsuchiyama, H; Tagawa, H


    Three rare autopsy cases of fetal ascites were presented and the etiology of each case was described. Case 1 was a male neonate, delivered by cesarean section at 32 weeks' gestation, and died of respiratory failure. The abdomen was remarkably distended with 1020 ml of ascites. The etiology of Case 1 remained unknown even after macroscopic and microscopic examinations. We considered this as "idiopathic" fetal ascites. Case 2 was a female neonate, delivered at 31 weeks' gestation, with marked abdominal distension and cyanosis. Autopsy revealed 435 ml of ascites, and she was considered to have had "polysplenia syndrome" with cardiovascular malformations. Intrauterine heart failure due to cardiac anomalies was thought to be the cause of this ascites. In case 3 embryotomy was carried out under the diagnosis of fetal ascites by ultrasound examination at 22 weeks' gestation. An urachal cyst connected to the dilated urinary bladder and deficiency of musculature of the abdominal wall composed of loose connective tissue with calcification were observed. The abdominal wall was ruptured and 1,960 ml of ascites was measured. Polycystic kidney with renal dysplasia was also found. Case 3 showed "Prune-Berry syndrome" and fetal ascites may have arisen from these anomalies.

  3. Massive Haemorrhagic Ascites and Pleural effusion: An Unusual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between endometriosis and haemorrhagic (bloody) ascites is rare.Since its first description by Brews in 1954,only a few sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of massive haemorrhagic ascites associated with right-sided pleural effussion.Therapeutic paracentesis of eight litres ...

  4. Chylous ascites due to signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chylous ascites is a rare presentation of peritoneal effusion. The signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma is also relatively rare presentation of gastric cancer. We present a quite rare case of chylous ascites associated with signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma. Case report: a 47-years-old Caucasian man presented to our ...

  5. Chylous ascites due to signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 4, 2011 ... and anorexia. He had medical history of high alcohol consumption about 100 g daily, myocardial infarction in. 1997, and percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stent placement. He had no surgical and familial relevant history. On physical examination, he had ascites without signs. Chylous ascites due to ...

  6. Beta-blockers in cirrhosis and refractory ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Feineis, Martin; Møller, Søren


    OBJECTIVE: It is currently discussed if beta-blockers exert harmful effects and increase mortality in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. In this study, we provide an overview of the available literature in this field in combination with a retrospective analysis of 61 patients...... with cirrhosis and refractory ascites in a tertiary unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of literature in May 2014. In addition, 61 patients with cirrhosis and ascites were identified and followed from development of refractory ascites until death or end of follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen...... trials (9 trials on propranolol, 1 case-control study and 4 retrospective analyses) were identified. One trial suggested an increased mortality in patients treated with beta-blockers and refractory ascites. The results of the remaining trials were inconclusive. No increase in mortality among beta...

  7. Chylous ascites following radical nephrectomy: a case report

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    Shah Shahzad S


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chylous ascites may result from diverse pathologies. Ascites results either due to blockage of the lymphatics or leak secondary to inadvertent trauma during surgery. Case presentation We report the first case of chylous ascites following radical nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma involving the right half of a crossed fused renal ectopia. The patient was managed conservatively. Conclusion Post-operative chylous ascites is a rare complication of retroperitoneal and mediastinal surgery. Most cases resolve with conservative treatment which aims at decreasing lymph production and optimizing nutritional requirements along with palliative measures. Refractory cases need either open or laparoscopic ligation of the leaking lymphatic channels. A review of the current literature on the management of post-operative chylous ascites is presented.

  8. Disaggregation and invasion of ovarian carcinoma ascites spheroids

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    Pambuccian Stefan E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant ascites often develops in advanced stages of ovarian carcinoma, consisting of single and aggregated tumor cells, or spheroids. Spheroids have commonly been used as tumor models to study drug efficacy, and have shown resistance to some chemotherapies and radiation. However, little is known about the adhesive or invasive capabilities of spheroids, and whether this particular cellular component of the ascites can contribute to dissemination of ovarian cancer. Here, we examined the invasive ability of ascites spheroids recovered from seven ovarian carcinoma patients and one primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC patient. Methods Ascites spheroids were isolated from patients, purified, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed by a pathologist to confirm diagnosis. In vitro assays were designed to quantify spheroid disaggregation on a variety of extracellular matrices and dissemination on and invasion into normal human mesothelial cell monolayers. Cell proliferation and viability were determined in each assay, and statistical significance demonstrated by the student's t-test. Results Spheroids from all of the patients' ascites samples disaggregated on extracellular matrix components, with the PPC spheroids capable of complete disaggregation on type I collagen. Additionally, all of the ascites spheroid samples adhered to and disaggregated on live human mesothelial cell monolayers, typically without invading them. However, the PPC ascites spheroids and one ovarian carcinoma ascites spheroid sample occasionally formed invasive foci in the mesothelial cell monolayers, suggestive of a more invasive phenotype. Conclusion We present here in vitro assays using ascites spheroids that imitate the spread of ovarian cancer in vivo. Our results suggest that systematic studies of the ascites cellular content are necessary to understand the biology of ovarian carcinoma.

  9. Post meningocele repair urinary ascites in a neonate--a rare presentation. (United States)

    Ranjan, Ritesh; Kothari, Paras R; Gupta, Rahul K; Gupta, Abhaya R; Sandlas, Gursev; Karkera, Parag J; Kesan, Krushna K


    A full-term female neonate with a large lumbosacral meningocele developed sudden abdominal distension and urinary retention after meningocele repair. An erect abdominal radiograph showed homogeneously opacified areas with a paucity of intestinal gas. Abdominal ultrasound revealed ascites with multiple internal echoes. With a provisional diagnosis of hollow viscus perforation, an emergency laparotomy was performed, which failed to reveal any leak from the urinary tract. However, fluid analysis confirmed the diagnosis of urinary ascites. The patient developed repeated episodes of urinary retention after catheter removal. She was started on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) to ensure adequate bladder drainage. At 6 months of follow-up, ultrasound of the urinary tract, voiding cystourethrogram, and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine were all within normal limits. The CIC was discontinued, and the patient was observed. At present, she is voiding normally with a good stream. Failure to establish normal micturition after meningocele repair and CIC requirements suggested a neurogenic cause. Bladder rupture, secondary to spinal shock resulting in bladder atonia, could not be ruled out. The perforation (leading to urinary ascites) could be owing to bladder atonia and spinal shock rather than detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Umbilical hernia rupture with evisceration of omentum from massive ascites: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W


    Abstract Introduction The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia. Case presentation An 81-year-old Caucasian man with a history of alcoholic liver disease presented to our emergency department with an erythematous umbilical hernia and clear, yellow discharge from the umbilicus. On straining for stool, after initial clinical assessment, our patient noted a gush of fluid and evisceration of omentum from the umbilical hernia. An urgent laparotomy was performed with excision of the umbilicus and devitalized omentum. Conclusion We report the case of a patient with a history of alcoholic liver disease with ascites. Ascites causes a chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure. A sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, vomiting, gastroscopy or, as in this case, straining for stool can cause rupture of an umbilical hernia. The presence of discoloration, ulceration or a rapid increase in size of the umbilical hernia signals impending rupture and should prompt the physician to reduce the intra-abdominal pressure.

  11. Removal of ascites up to 7.5 liters on one occasion and 45 liters in total may be safe in patients with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. (United States)

    Ozgun, Mahmut T; Batukan, Cem; Oner, Gokalp; Uludag, Semih; Aygen, Ercan M; Sahin, Yilmaz


    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious and potentially lethal complication of ovulation induction. We report herein a case with OHSS treated by serial vaginal paracentesis. A 31-year-old patient was hospitalized due to severe OHSS after in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer. Transvaginal drainage was performed with a standard 17-gauge IVF needle connected to a vacuum pump through a drainage set in nine courses. We removed 45 liters of ascitic fluid in total and 7.5 liters of ascitic fluid in one course, leading to improvement of the patient's condition and laboratory parameters. In conclusion, removal of ascites up to 7.5 liters on one occasion and 45 liters in total by serial vaginal paracentesis may be performed in patients with severe OHSS.

  12. Intraperitoneal xenon for the detection of early intestinal ischemia: effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; LaFrance, N.; Zuidema, G.D.


    Significant delay in the washout of intraperitoneal xenon (/sup 133/Xe) in rats and dogs with decreased splanchnic blood flow (bowel strangulation, superior mesenteric artery and vein occlusion) has been previously demonstrated as the basis for radionuclide imaging to detect early (prenecrotic) intestinal ischemia. In this study, the effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections on the validity of this technique is evaluated. Xenon-133 (0.6 mCi) in 3 ml saline was injected into the peritoneal cavity of anesthetized rats and the washout of gamma activity monitored externally for 90 min. Gamma camera images were obtained at 30-min intervals. After 60 min, only 12 +/- 2% of injected activity remained in the controls. Sham option (13 +/- 1%) and simple obstruction (12 +/- 2) had been previously shown not to significantly slow washout, but segmental strangulation had done so dramatically (32 +/- 2%, P less than 0.0001). In these experiments, ascitic fluid (Ringer's lactate) in volumes of 10 ml (13 +/- 1%), 20 ml (13 +/- 1%), and 40 ml (13 +/- 1%), did not significantly slow washout in nonischemic rats. Sixty and eighty milliliters produced very tense ascites and slight but significant delay in washout (14 +/- 1%, 17 +/- 1%, respectively, P less than 0.05). Moderate (11 +/- 1%) and severe (11 +/- 1%) adhesions produced by serosal scarification did not delay washout nor affect imaging. Injections of isotope intentionally misdirected into the abdominal wall (32 +/- 2%), bowel wall (18 +/- 1%), and bowel lumen (19 +/- 2%), each significantly (P less than 0.001) slowed washout. However, such misdirected injections were easily recognizable as such on the 1-min gamma camera images and could thereby be excluded as artifactual. It is concluded that the intraperitoneal xenon technique is not invalidated by mild to moderate ascites nor by moderate to severe adhesions.

  13. Diagnostic significance of ascites adenosine deaminase levels in suspected tuberculous peritonitis in adults

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    Anil Chander


    Full Text Available Objective: There are contradictory reports about the use of adenosine deaminase (ADA as a diagnostic marker intuberculous peritonitis patients. Reports evaluating significance of ADA activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitisin adults are lacking in Nepal. We thus set out to investigate the ascitic fluid ADA levels in suspected tuberculousperitonitis patients and to determine the diagnostic significance of the test statistically.Methods: This study population comprised of two different adult patients groups. Group I - 35 suspected cases oftuberculous peritonitis and Group II - 35 cases of transudative ascites - the control group (patients with biochemicallyproved transudates or hypoproteinaemia and peritoneal tap was done. ADA estimation was carried out by spectrophotometry.Results: ADA levels (Mean ± SD in suspected tuberculous peritonitis and transudative ascites cases were 48.5±17.9U/L and 19.8±7.7 U/L respectively (P<0.001. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for ascites, ADA cut-offlevel of 41.5 U/L was found to yield the best results of differential diagnosis; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivevalue, negative predictive value and accuracy of the test in tuberculous peritonitis cases were 80.0%, 97.2 %, 96.6%,82.9%, 88.6% respectively.Conclusion: ADA levels are elevated in suspected tuberculous peritonitis cases and it is a simple, rapid, inexpensiveand the least invasive test. It is thus a useful biochemical marker for the early diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis whilewaiting for the results of mycobacterial cultures or biopsies. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 104-108Key words: adenosine deaminase, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic significance, tuberculous peritonitis

  14. Effects of Atenolol on Growth Performance, Mortality Due to Ascites, Antioxidant Status and Some Blood Parameters in Broilers under Induced Ascites

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    mokhtar fathi


    ventricle hypertrophy, cardiac muscle laxation; (2 swollen and stiff liver; (3 clear, yellowish, colloidal fluid in the abdominal cavity. Hematological, biochemical and pathological tests were done at day 49; total red blood cell (RBC, Wight blood cell (WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD total antioxidant status (TAS and Malondialdehyde (MDA content of plasma were determined. At the end of experiment (wk 7, 2 chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Then ascetic Index, RV/TV, (ratio of right ventricle weight to total ventricle weight were calculated. Results and Discussion The results showed that, the atenolol-treated birds had lower right ventricle to total ventricle ratio and mortality due to ascites compared with the control birds. Moreover, atenolol, significantly, reduced feed conversion ratio & average daily feed intake and reduced feed conversion ratio. It is also, atenolol, significantly lowered the lactate dehydrogenase activity in plasma. Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity in plasma were not significantly affected by atenolol supplementation. Other blood parameters and antioxidant incidences were not affected by atenolol. It has been proved that exposure to high altitude results in increases in Plasma and urinary catecholamine, hormones that are known to increase hypertrophic actions of heart tissue and consequently changes in the function of myocardial cells such as contractile activity and cardiac output that could lead to ventricular hypertrophy. It has also been reported that the b1-adrenoceptor blocker numerically reduces the ascites incidence in broiler chickens and may have been used as a prophylactic agent. It is known that that the hypertrophic effect of catecholamine in rats such

  15. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for chylous ascites in a patient with recurrent cirrhosis following liver transplantation

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    Jason T. Salsamendi, MD


    Full Text Available Chylous ascites (CA is the extravasation of lipid-rich lymphatic fluid into the peritoneal space following trauma or obstruction of the lymphatic system. Refractory cases of cirrhosis-related CA may be amendable to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS. We present a case of TIPS in the setting of refractory CA secondary to cirrhosis of a transplanted liver graft. Following TIPS, the patient reported immediate improvement in abdominal pain and no longer requires paracentesis. Our case suggests TIPS to be a safe and effective treatment option for CA in liver transplant patients with cirrhosis.

  16. The Angiogenic Activity of Ascites in the Course of Ovarian Cancer as a Marker of Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gawrychowski


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer cells are able to create invasive implants in the peritoneum and their growth is directly associated with the angiogenetic potential. This effect is probably stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and interleukin-8 (IL-8, which are both found in ascites. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ascites produced by ovarian cancer on the angiogenesis. Peritoneal fluid was collected from patients with advanced ovarian cancer; cancer cells were separated from CD45+ leukocytes. Angiogenesis was assessed in mice, after intradermal injection of full cellular suspension together with supernatant or phosphate buffered saline, purified cancer cells suspension, or CD45+ leukocytes suspension. The angiogenesis index (AI was assessed after 72 hours. VEGF and Il-8 were measured in the supernatant and cellular suspension. AI was the highest in the isolated cancer cells suspensions as well in the group stimulated with supernatant. Both VEGF and IL-8 were high in supernatants from ascites rich in cancer cells (>45%. A significant correlation was revealed between IL-8 concentration and AI. We conclude that ascites in patients with advanced ovarian cancer stimulates angiogenesis and this mechanism is dependent mostly on cancer cells activity and enhanced by cooperation with infiltrating leukocytes.

  17. Ascites and other incidental findings revealing undiagnosed systemic rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Szeto, Matthew Chak Hin; Disney, Benjamin; Perkins, Philip; Wood, Gordon


    We describe a case of a 43-year-old man presenting to the gastroenterology outpatient department with exudative ascites. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pericardial effusion and pleural effusion were detected on further imaging. Further clinical examination revealed subcutaneous nodules on the left arm, which were confirmed to be rheumatoid nodules on histology. Inflammatory markers were elevated with positive serology for rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody. Our investigations excluded tuberculosis, pancreatitis and malignancy in the patient. Following review by a rheumatologist, a diagnosis of systemic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was made. Pleuritis and pericarditis are well recognised as extra-articular manifestation of RA. Ascites, however, is rarely recognised as a manifestation of RA. Our literature search revealed two other cases of ascites due to RA disease activity, and both patients had long-standing known RA. This case adds to the discussion on whether ascites and peritonitis should be classified as extra-articular manifestations of RA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Cases with Refractory Ascites and a Delayed Response to Tolvaptan (United States)

    Hagiwara, Satoru; Nishida, Naoshi; Chishina, Hirokazu; Ida, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Komeda, Yoriaki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi


    The patient was a 67-year-old female with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. She was administered furosemide at 20 mg/day and spironolactone at 25 mg/day, but the ascites did not improve. Despite the additional administration of tolvaptan at 3.75 mg/day, the response to ascites was still poor. While the dose of tolvaptan was thereafter increased to 7.5 mg/day on the 7th hospital day, the ascites still persisted. However, she continued to receive tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day) because the worsening of her subjective symptoms was mild and she wished to do so. The ascites was later found to have almost completely disappeared on computed tomography (CT) at 6 months. PMID:27853068

  19. Giant Renal Cyst Mimicking Ascites on Abdominal Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Borovec


    Full Text Available An article describes diagnostic difficulties in patient with giant renal cyst, erroneously diagnosed as ascites on ultrasonographic examination. Patient was initially suspected to have disseminated intraabdominal malignancy. Abdominal paracentesis of supposed ascites was performed. The diagnosis of giant renal cyst was finally made by CT and patient was treated surgically. The limitations of ultrasonographic examination are pointed out are and a brief review of similar cases is given.

  20. Clinical Meaning of Ascites in Patients with Endomyocardial Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barretto Antonio Carlos Pereira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical meaning of ascites and the main features of patients with ascites and endomyocardial fibrosis. METHODS: We studied 166 patients with endomyocardial fibrosis (mean age 37 years, 114 women treated over the last 20 years. Ventriculography findings, surgery or necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. Most patients belonged to New York Heart Association Functional Class III/IV (134, 83.7%. Eighty-one (50.6% had biventricular, 28 (17.5% had right ventricular, and 51 (31.8% had left ventricular involvement. During follow-up, 56 patients died. RESULTS: Ascites was present in 67 (41.8% patients, and right ventricular involvement was present in 59 (88%. In the comparison between patients with or without ascites, those with ascites had higher mortality (49.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Patients with ascites had a higher incidence of edema (95% vs. 43%, hepatomegaly (5.8cm vs. 4.1cm, mean right atrium pressure (19.3 vs. 12mmHg, and final right ventricle diastolic pressure (18.7 vs. 12.9mmHg. Also, patients with ascites had a longer history of illness (5.1 and 3.9 years, respectively and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44.7% vs. 30.1%. CONCLUSION: Ascites was observed in less than 50% of cases of endomyocardial fibrosis and was associated with greater involvement of the right ventricle and with a longer duration of the disease, thus being a characteristic of a worse prognosis.

  1. Treatment of cancerous ascites and radical gastrectomy with intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water and cis-diaminodichloro-platinum perfusion (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Xing; Chen, Jia-Ping; Chen, Zhong; Peng, De-Shu; Zhen, Ji-Xiang; Tan, Jian-San


    AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water and cis-diaminodichloro-platinum (DDP) perfusion for cancerous ascites and radical gastrectomy. METHODS: LACA mice were injected peritoneally with H22 cancer cells (2 × 107 tumor cells). Five days later, the mice received treatments with either intraperitoneal perfusion of 37 °C isotonic fluid (group I), or 43 °C simple hyperthermic double-distilled water (group II), isotonic fluid (group III), DDP (group IV) or a combination of the hyperthermic double-distilled water with DDP (group V). A clinical experiment with intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water perfusion with DDP was carried out from September 1991 through September 1993 with 32 advanced gastric cancer patients who had undergone radical gastrectomy. RESULTS: In comparison with the untreated control group of cancer cell-bearing LACA mice, the mice in all treatment groups showed near complete obliteration of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity, markedly reduced ascites, prolonged survival times, and reduced growth of peritoneal cancerous nodes. In the clinical experiment, all 32 patients with advanced carcinoma had achieved satisfactory results at the 1-year follow-up, but had unsatisfactory results at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water perfusion with DDP inhibited the occurrence of ascites in LACA mice bearing cancer cells, and prolonged the lifetime of patients with gastric cancer who had undergone radical gastrectomy. PMID:27053879

  2. Tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay is of limited use in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis in patients with exudative ascites. (United States)

    Bera, Chinmay; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Burad, Deepak; Shirly, Suzana B; Gibikote, Sridhar; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Goel, Ashish; Eapen, C E


    Xpert™ MTB/Rif is a multiplex hemi-nested real-time PCR-based assay to detect presence of M. tuberculosis within 2 hours of sample collection. The present study aimed at assessing efficacy of Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay for diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis. Patients with exudative ascites, fluid negative for acid-fast bacilli on auramine O fluorescence staining and unyielding fluid cytology for malignant cells, were included. Ultrasound-guided omental biopsy samples were obtained in all. Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay on tissue samples was assessed against a composite "reference" standard for diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis, defined as presence of any of the three-culture showing M tuberculosis, granulomatous inflammation on histology or resolution of ascites with 2 months of antitubercular therapy. During January 2012-July 2013, 28 patients (age:43 ± 15 years; mean ± SD; male:20) were recruited. Serum ascitic albumin gradient was MTB/Rif assay was positive in 4/21 patients with peritoneal tuberculosis and in none of the 7 patients with alternative diagnosis. Thus, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis were 19% (95% C.I: 6% to 42%), 100% (95% C.I: 59% to 100%), 100% (40% to 100%), and 29% (95% C.I: 13% to 51%), respectively. Tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay was of limited use in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis.

  3. Treatment of ovarian cancer ascites by intra-peritoneal injection of diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 vector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-lail Rasha


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian cancer ascitic fluid, which contains malignant cells, is usually present in women with an advanced stage disease. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer ascitic fluid. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. She suffered from progressive disease, accumulation of malignant ascites that needed to be drained weekly, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and severe weakness. Infusion of the diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 plasmid into the peritoneum of our patient resulted in complete resolution of the ascites with minimum adverse events. Conclusion On the basis of this preliminary experience, we are currently conducting an extensive Phase I study on a larger number of patients in order to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of this novel patient-oriented treatment approach.

  4. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim; Erol, Bekir; Ciftci, Tuerkmen T. [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan, E-mail: [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Between July 2005 and June 2009, 41 tunneled peritoneal catheters were placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in 40 patients (mean age, 55 years; 22 women) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. No procedure related mortality was observed. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.5%) in the form of serious bacterial peritonitis that necessitated catheter removal. Minor complications such as minor bacterial peritonitis, catheter dislodgement, tunnel infection, and catheter blockage occurred in 11 patients (27.5%). The mean duration of survival after catheter placement was 11.8 weeks. All patients expired of their primary malignancies in the follow-up. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter is safe and effective in palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites.

  5. Long-evolution ascites in a patient with constrictive pericarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Nunes

    Full Text Available Constrictive pericarditis (CP is an uncommon disease resulting from chronic pericardial inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Since there are atypical forms of presentation, with subtle or nonexistent cardiorespiratory symptoms, diagnosis may be challenging and difficult. Recurrent ascites in patients with congestive hepatopathy due to constrictive pericarditis is, in most cases, reversible after pericardiectomy. Nevertheless, development of persistent liver dysfunction may be a long-term complication. The present case describes a 23 years old man with growth delay, dyspnoea and long evolution ascites, whose exhaustive etiological investigation led to diagnosis. Afterwards the patient underwent elective surgery with symptom and general condition improvement. Ascites differential diagnosis and its association with constrictive pericarditis are briefly reviewed in this article.

  6. Successful radiation treatment of chylous ascites following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Niemoeller, Olivier M. [University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Liebig, Sylke [Gemeinschaftspraxis Prof. Zwicker and Partner, Konstanz (Germany); Zwicker, Felix [Gemeinschaftspraxis Prof. Zwicker and Partner, Konstanz (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular and Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lamade, Wolfram [Helios Privatklinik, Allgemein- and Viszeralchirurgie, Ueberlingen (Germany)


    Chylous ascites is a rare complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy. We report on a case of chylous ascites following pancreaticoduodenectomy in a 76-year-old patient diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. There are various known conservative management strategies, including dietary measures or total parenteral nutrition. Unfortunately, conservative treatment - with total parenteral nutrition and fasting over a period of 4 weeks - was not successful in the present case. The daily output volume of chylous ascites was up to 2500 ml/day. Based on clinical experiences with successfully treated lymphocutaneous fistulas, low-dose radiotherapy was initiated. External beam radiotherapy comprising a total dose of 8.0 Gy to the paraaortic lymph node region was administered in daily single fractions of 1.0 Gy (five fractions/week). Throughout the course of external beam radiotherapy, the secretion of abdominal ascites rapidly decreased, resulting in complete resolution after 2 weeks. There was no clinical evidence of chylous ascites on follow-up. As a result of this experience, we believe that external beam radiotherapy should be considered as an alternative therapy in refractory cases of chylous ascites. (orig.) [German] Das Chyloperitoneum ist eine seltene Komplikation nach Pankreatikoduodenektomie. Wir berichten ueber einen 76-jaehrigen Patienten mit Chyloperitoneum nach Resektion eines Pankreaskarzinoms. Die konservativen Therapiestrategien, wie beispielsweise diaetetische Massnahmen oder totale parenterale Ernaehrung, waren im vorliegenden Fall ueber einen Zeitraum von 4 Wochen nicht erfolgreich. Es bestand eine persistierende Sekretion von Chylaszites von bis zu 2500 ml/Tag. Basierend auf den klinischen Erfahrungen bei erfolgreich behandelten lymphokutanen Fisteln, wurde eine perkutane Radiotherapie eingeleitet. Die Bestrahlung des paraaortalen Lymphabflusses ueber ventrodorsale Gegenfelder wurde bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 8,0 Gy in 1,0 Gy Einzeldosis (5 Fraktionen

  7. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers


    A Pakdel; Bijma, P; Ducro, B.J.; Bovenhuis, H.


    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulati...

  8. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients]. (United States)

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat


    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakdel, A.; Bijma, P.; Ducro, B.J.; Bovenhuis, H.


    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for

  10. Establishment of triglyceride cut-off values to detect chylous ascites and pleural effusions. (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Schulz, Christoph; Luppa, Peter B


    Lipoprotein electrophoresis is the gold standard for the detection of chylous ascites and pleural effusions. It is, however, not suitable as a front-line test and not widely available. Most clinicians must rely solely on the quantitative determination of lipids. The aim of this work was to establish lipid cut-off values for the presence of chylomicrons in pleural and peritoneal fluid. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels from 113 peritoneal and 154 pleural fluid samples investigated for chylomicrons via lipoprotein electrophoresis were considered. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and cut-off levels determined. 54 peritoneal and 59 pleural fluid samples were positive for chylomicrons. In peritoneal fluid, triglycerides and triglycerides/cholesterol ratio exhibited areas under the curve (AUC) not significantly different from each other, but significantly larger than cholesterol alone. The AUC for triglycerides in pleural fluid was significantly larger than the AUCs for cholesterol and the triglycerides/cholesterol ratio. Triglyceride cut-offs with maximum Youden-Index, sensitivity >95%, and specificity >95% were calculated to be 187, 148, and 246mg/dl (2.13, 1.69, and 2.80mmol/l) for peritoneal fluid, and 240, 94, and 240mg/dl (2.74, 1.07, and 2.74mmol/l) for pleural fluid. Triglyceride levels are the best parameter to detect chylous body fluids when lipoprotein electrophoresis is not available. Single-point triglyceride cut-offs of 187 and 240mg/dl (2.13 and 2.74mmol/l) or alternatively equivocal ranges of 148-246 and 94-240mg/dl (1.69-2.80 and 1.07-2.74mmol/l) were established for peritoneal and pleural fluid, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice treated with aqueous ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor effect of a latex extract from Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicity. Methods: Aqueous ethanol and petroleum ether extracts were obtained through maceration. .Maximum tolerated dose was determined in healthy mice. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites.

  12. Therapy of the refractory ascites: Total paracentesis vs. TIPS. (United States)

    La Mura, Vincenzo; Salerno, Francesco


    This revision was aimed to report the evidences on the treatment of patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Mainly, we wished to explore which of the predicting variables could be used to prefer large-volume paracentesis or TIPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Fetal Ascites and Second Trimester Maternal Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Ling


    Conclusion: Second trimester perinatal HCV infection with possible CMV coinfection associated with fetal ascites is a rare event. Fetal therapy resulting in a successful outcome has not been reported. Prompt fetal therapy with paracentesis in this case led to the delivery of a healthy term liveborn baby with anti-HCV seropositivity.

  14. Aetiological considerations in 96 consecutive cases of ascites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The three most common causes of ascites in this series were liver diseases-36.5% (chronic liver disease 27.1%, hepatocellular carcinoma 9.4%), renal diseases 30.2% (chronic renal failure 23.9%, nephrotic syndrome 6.3%), and cardiac diseases 23.9% (congestive cardiac failure 22.9%, Endomyocardial fibrosis ...

  15. Ascites alone as the presentation of Congenital Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purkait


    Full Text Available Congenital tuberculosis is a rare disease. It usually presents with respiratory distress, fever and organomegaly. We report a case of congenital tuberculosis presenting with ascites only.DOI: Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 37-40

  16. Predictive parameter of tolvaptan effectiveness in cirrhotic ascites. (United States)

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Fukui, Hiroshi; Moriya, Kei; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Uejima, Masakazu; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Takeda, Kosuke; Okura, Yasushi; Kaji, Kosuke; Nishimura, Norihisa; Takaya, Hiroaki; Aihara, Yousuke; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Sato, Shinya; Seki, Kenichiro; Mitoro, Akira; Yamao, Junichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi


    The efficacy of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan for difficult-to-treat cirrhotic ascites has recently been reported. However, its effect is variable among patients. This study aimed to clarify the predictive factors for obtaining a good response to tolvaptan in patients with difficult-to-treat ascites. Data were collected from 50 patients with liver cirrhosis having ascites (hepatitis B, n = 1; hepatitis C, n = 22; alcoholism, n = 11; and others, n = 16) after treatment with tolvaptan (3.75-7.5 mg/day) in addition to conventional diuretics. A follow-up assessment was carried out after 7-day tolvaptan treatment for all patients. After an uneventful 7-day tolvaptan treatment, 18 patients (36.0%) lost more than 2 kg of their body weight (responders). Twenty-six patients (52.0%) showed an increase in urine volume (>300 mL) on day 2. Tolvaptan was also effective for patients with pleural effusion, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Basal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone levels were significantly higher in the poor responders (Tolvaptan is useful and safe for the treatment of cirrhotic ascites. This report showed that BUN will predict the response of tolvaptan even when measured before tolvaptan treatment. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. Successful treatment of Ascites of hepatic origin in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan M. S.


    Full Text Available Detailed clinico-pathological study of a Doberman pinsiner female, 8 years of age confirmed the ascites of hepatic origin. Administration of diuretic, liver tonic, antibiotics and hepatobiliary drug resulted in complete recovery. [Vet World 2008; 1(1.000: 23-23

  18. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma | Ozaslan | African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental tumors have great importance in modeling, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) is one of the commonest tumors. EAC is referred to as an undifferentiated carcinoma and is originally hyperdiploid, has high transplantable capability, no-regression, rapid proliferation, shorter life span, 100% malignancy and also ...

  19. Continuous Furosemide Infusion in the Management of Ascites (United States)

    Rogers, Nicholas A.; Gupta, Samir; Cuthbert, Jennifer A.


    Background The current therapy for patients hospitalized with ascites requires titration of oral diuretics and often needs several days. A faster method for predicting the response to a given dose of diuretic may allow this process to be completed more rapidly. Aim Describe the short-term safety and efficacy of a diuretic infusion to predict net sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis, ascites and edema using a fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) of ≥1% as the target. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series of patients admitted for management of ascites who received intravenous furosemide by continuous infusion in ascites management. Patients were stratified depending on whether they had edema, received an intravenous bolus of furosemide or a large-volume paracentesis. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving a FENa of ≥1% during the infusion. Secondary outcomes included development of electrolyte abnormalities or acute kidney injury (AKI) during or immediately following the infusion and natriuresis on titrated oral furosemide. Results 47 patients meeting criteria were identified from 721 patients seen in consultation. 10 of the patients had edema and received neither bolus intravenous diuretic therapy nor therapeutic paracentesis; all ten achieved a FENa ≥1%. One patient had transient hypokalemia. Of 37 patients who either had no edema or received additional treatment options, all but six patients achieved a FENa of ≥1%. Transient complications in the 31/37 patients with natriuresis included hyponatremia (n = 1), hypokalemia (n = 5) and AKI (n = 3). 24 hour urine sodium averaged > 4 g/d on the titrated oral furosemide regimen in 19 patients completing the collection. Conclusion Use of a short continuous furosemide infusion can achieve a FENa ≥ 1% in patients with cirrhotic ascites and may be safe and efficacious for diuresis, meriting further study. PMID:22373660

  20. Seminal Fluid Regulates Accumulation of FOXP3(+) Regulatory T Cells in the Preimplantation Mouse Uterus Through Expanding the FOXP3(+) Cell Pool and CCL19-Mediated Recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerin, Leigh R.; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M.; Prins, Jelmer R.; Bromfield, John J.; Hayball, John D.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells facilitate maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogeneic conceptus in early pregnancy, but the origin and regulation of these cells at embryo implantation is unclear. During the preimplantation period, factors in the seminal fluid delivered at coitus cause expansion of a

  1. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers. (United States)

    Pakdel, A; Bijma, P; Ducro, B J; Bovenhuis, H


    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulation. In addition to the consequences of current selection (i.e., selection for increased BW only) alternative selection strategies including information on different ascites-related traits measured under normal or cold conditions and the consequences of having information on the underlying genes (i.e., MAS) were quantified. Five different breeding schemes were compared based on the selection response for BW, ascites susceptibility, and the rate of inbreeding. Traits investigated in the index as indicators for ascites were hematocrit value (HCT) and ratio of right ventricle to the total ventricular weight of the heart (RV:TV). The results indicated that by ignoring ascites susceptibility in the breeding goal, the gain for BW is 130 g and the birds will become more susceptible to ascites. Testing 50% of the birds under cold temperature conditions and including information of ascites related traits (HCT and RV:TV) measured under normal and cold conditions makes it possible to achieve a relatively high gain for BW (111.4 g) while controlling the genetic level for ascites susceptibility (selection response was 0). The results of scenarios including QTL information of ascites susceptibility showed that QTL information could be used very effectively in controlling ascites susceptibility.

  2. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Lu, Hongjuan [Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)


    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  3. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  4. Pathogenic background for treatment of ascites and the hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming


    Abstract Ascites and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) are the major and challenging complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension that significantly affect the course of the disease. Liver insufficiency, portal hypertension, arterial vasodilatation, and systemic cardiovascular dysfunction are major...... or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. New treatment strategies include the use of vasopressin V2-receptor antagonists and vasoconstrictors. The HRS denotes a functional and reversible impairment of renal function in patients with severe cirrhosis with a poor prognosis. Attempts of treatment should...

  5. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Dietrich


    Full Text Available Background: We present the case of a 64-year-old patient who presented to his primary care physician with fatigue, worsening shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort and a rapidly growing abdominal girth, although he had lost 5 kg of weight within 3 months. He had a history of untreated hypertension, compensated renal insufficiency and COPD. Despite weight loss and fatigue, the patient did not experience any other constitutional symptoms such as fever, night sweats or loss of appetite. Investigations: Physical examination, blood tests, CT scan of the abdomen, MRI scan of the abdomen, fine needle biopsy, excisional biopsy, Video Capsule Endoscopy, histology, PET scan. Diagnosis: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, chylous ascites, chyloperitoneum. Management: Systemic chemotherapy, total parenteral nutrition and octreotide therapy. Conclusion: We describe the case of a patient in whom two extremely rare phenomena are present in combination: the diagnosis of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and chylous ascites. While the tumor could be stabilized by different regimens of chemotherapy, the chyloperitoneum was treated with parenteral nutrition and subcutaneous octreotide injections, which resulted in a significant reduction of the amount of chylous ascites drained during regular paracentesis.

  6. Methods of increasing net work output of organic Rankine cycles for low-grade waste heat recovery with a detailed analysis using a zeotropic working fluid mixture and scroll expander (United States)

    Woodland, Brandon Jay

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a thermodynamic cycle that is well-suited for waste heat recovery. It is generally employed for waste heat with temperatures in the range of 80 °C -- 300 °C. When the application is strictly to convert waste heat into work, thermal efficiency is not recommended as a key performance metric. In such an application, maximization of the net power output should be the objective rather than maximization of the thermal efficiency. Two alternative cycle configurations that can increase the net power produced from a heat source with a given temperature and flow rate are proposed and analyzed. These cycle configurations are 1) an ORC with two-phase flash expansion and 2) an ORC with a zeotropic working fluid mixture (ZRC). A design-stage ORC model is presented for consistent comparison of multiple ORC configurations. The finite capacity of the heat source and heat sink fluids is a key consideration in this model. Of all working fluids studied for the baseline ORC, R134a and R245fa yield the highest net power output from a given heat source. Results of the design-stage model indicate that the ORC with two-phase flash expansion offers the most improvement over the baseline ORC. However, the level of improvement that could be achieved in practice is highly uncertain due to the requirement of highly efficient two-phase expansion. The ZRC shows improvement over the baseline as long as the condenser fan power requirement is not negligible. At the highest estimated condenser fan power, the ZRC shows the most improvement, while the ORC with flash expansion is no longer beneficial. The ZRC was selected for detailed study because it does not require two-phase expansion. An experimental test rig was used to evaluate baseline ORC performance with R134a and with R245fa. The ZRC was tested on the same rig with a mixture of 62.5% R134a and 37.5% R245fa. The tested expander is a minimally-modified, of-the-shelf automotive scroll compressor. The high

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  8. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. O-Linked glycome and proteome of high-molecular-mass proteins in human ovarian cancer ascites: Identification of sulfation, disialic acid and O-linked fucose. (United States)

    Karlsson, Niclas G; McGuckin, Michael A


    The O-linked glycosylation of the main acidic high-molecular-weight glycoprotein from ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed. The O-linked oligosaccharides were shown to consist of mainly highly sialylated core 1 and 2 structures with a smaller amount of sulfated core 2 structures. These structures were shown to be able to be further extended into small keratan sulfate (KS)-type oligosaccharides with up to four N-acetyllactosamine units. Proteomic studies of the acidic fraction of ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer showed that this fraction was enriched in proteoglycans. Among them, lumican, agrin, versican and dystroglycans were potential candidates, with threonine- and serine-rich domains that could carry a significant amount of O-linked glycosylation, including also the O-linked KS. Glycomic analysis using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) also showed that the disialic acid NeuAc-NeuAc- was frequently found as the terminating structure on the O-linked core 1 and 2 oligosaccharides from one ascites sample. Also, a small amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-associated O-linked fucose structure Gal-GlcNAc-Fucitol was detected with and without sialic acid in the LC-MS/MS analysis. Candidate proteins containing O-linked fucose were suggested to be proteoglycan-type molecules containing the O-linked fucose EGF consensus domain.

  10. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel


    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016

  11. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Yasuda


    Full Text Available A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum, but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  12. Efficacy and safety of alternating norfloxacin and rifaximin as primary prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic ascites: a prospective randomized open-label comparative multicenter study. (United States)

    Assem, M; Elsabaawy, M; Abdelrashed, M; Elemam, S; Khodeer, S; Hamed, W; Abdelaziz, A; El-Azab, G


    Primary prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an important strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Efficacy and safety of alternating rifaximin and norfloxacin as primary prophylaxis is questionable. Three hundred thirty-four cirrhotic patients with high SAAG (≥1.1) ascites, protein level in ascitic fluid less than 1.5 g/dL with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh score >9 points with serum bilirubin level >3 mg/dL) or renal impairment (serum creatinine level >1.2 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen level >25 mg/dL, or serum sodium level <130 mEq/L) were included in an open-label, randomized study aimed at comparing alternating use of norfloxacin and rifaximin vs. norfloxacin or rifaximin alone as primary prophylaxis for SBP. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol efficacy analyses were done after 6 months of treatment by assessment of ascitic fluid neutrophil count. Safety analysis was done for all intention-to-treat populations. Alternating norfloxacin and rifaximin showed superior prophylaxis by intention-to-treat (74.7 vs. 56.4% vs. 68.3%, p < 0.048). Pairwise analysis showed that alternating regimen had lower probability to develop SBP when compared to a norfloxacin-based regimen in intention-to-treat (p = 0.016) and per protocol analysis (p = 0.039). There was no difference among the studied groups regarding the incidence and severity of adverse events reported. Alternating norfloxacin- and rifaximin-based primary prophylaxis for SBP showed higher efficacy with the same safety profile when compared with monotherapy of norfloxacin.

  13. Síndrome ascítica em frangos de corte: uma revisão sobre a fisiologia, avaliação e perspectivas Ascitic syndrome in broiler chickens: a review about physiology, evaluation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário


    Full Text Available Os programas de melhoramento genético de frangos de corte que buscam máxima velocidade de ganho de peso, alta eficiência alimentar, alta viabilidade, maior rendimento de carcaça e menor deposição de gordura podem desencadear algumas síndromes fisiológicas, dentre as quais destacam-se o estresse calórico, a morte súbita e a ascite. A ascite se enquadra no conceito das síndromes multifatoriais, uma vez que sua manifestação ocorre quando certos fatores genéticos e ambientais atuam em conjunto determinando o processo. As limitações anatômica e fisiológica da circulação sanguínea nos pulmões provocam a síndrome de hipertensão pulmonar (PHS; esta pode provocar grande acúmulo de fluido na cavidade abdominal, quadro este denominado de ascite. Ocorre redução da eficiência da circulação sangüínea, levando as aves à morte por hipóxia, predominantemente no período entre 30 e 40 dias de idade. Uma vez desencadeado o processo ascítico, a ave dificilmente é aproveitada no abate já que a mesma restringe o consumo de alimento, ganhando menos peso. Adicionalmente, a carcaça apresenta aumento do volume da cavidade abdominal e conseqüente congestão dos órgãos internos. A descrição da fisiologia, medidas de avaliação e perspectivas são apresentadas neste trabalho.Poultry genetic breeding programs which look for maximum weight gain, improved feed conversion, high viability, high carcass yield and low fat deposition may cause some physiologic syndromes, for example caloric stress, sudden death and ascites. Ascites is framed in concept of the multifactorial syndromes, once its manifestation happens when certain genetic and environment factors act together, determining the process. Anatomical and physiological limitations in blood circulation in the lungs give rise to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, producing great fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity, which is denominated ascites. Ascites causes reduction of blood

  14. IL-17 and IFN-γ producing NK and γδ-T cells are preferentially expanded in synovial fluid of patients with reactive arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Chaurasia, Smriti; Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Aggarwal, Amita; Misra, Ramnath


    The IL-17/1L-23 axis is important in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathy. Innate cells produce IL-17 in addition to Th17 cells. We studied the frequencies of natural killer (NK) (total, CD56 bright , CD56 dim , perforin+ and granzyme+), NK-T, γδ-T, and IFN-γ+, IL-17+ NK and γδ-T cells in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of ReA/uSpA patients. PB from 45 patients and paired SF from 39 patients were studied, together with PB from 18 healthy controls (HC). The frequency of γδ-T cells was decreased (pIL-17 producing NK and γδ-T cells were increased (pIL-17+, IFN-γ+ NK and γδ-T cells was higher in SF as compared to PB (p<0.05). We suggest that innate cells by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of ascites volume on clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer: A cohort study. (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Emmons, Tiffany; Belliotti, Sarah; Dickson, Danielle; Khan, Aalia; Morrell, Kayla; Khan, A N M Nazmul; Singel, Kelly L; Mayor, Paul C; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H; Eng, Kevin H


    To investigate the impact of ascites volume on ovarian cancer outcomes. Clinicopathologic features of a cohort of patients with ovarian cancer were obtained from a curated database at a single institution. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. Ascites volume at primary surgery was dichotomized at 2000mL and comparisons for high and low volume ascites were made. Additionally, to elucidate interactions between ascites and ovarian tumor progression, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administrations of murine cell-free ascites versus saline in a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer. Out of 685 patients identified, 58% had ascites present at the time of initial surgery. Considering the volume of ascites continuously, each liter of ascites was associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17) and OS (HR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.07-1.17). Patients with ascites greater than the median of 2000mL had significantly shorter PFS (14.5months vs. 22.7months; povarian cancer progression in mice. The volume of ascites at initial diagnosis of ovarian cancer correlated with worse PFS and OS. The effect of large volume on prognosis is likely to be in part related to reduced likelihood for complete resection of tumor (R0). If these findings are confirmed in independent studies, consideration should be made to add the presence of large volume ascites at diagnosis to the staging criteria for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Validation of a Symptom Scale Specific for Ascites Accompanied with Cirrhosis: The ASI-7. (United States)

    Onishi, Yoshihiro; Wakita, Takafumi; Fukuhara, Shinichi; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Okada, Mitsuru; Sakaida, Isao; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Kenji


    Ascites markedly affects the quality of life of patients with cirrhosis; however, there is currently no scale to measure the symptoms of ascites. We developed a scale to measure ascites-specific symptoms according to psychometric procedures. A team consisting of specialists developed constructs representing the symptoms of ascites and question item pool. The constructs were verified in a qualitative study involving a small number of patients. The item pool was improved through a pilot study, and a prototype of the scale was prepared. To establish the scale and assess its properties, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 175 patients with ascites accompanied with cirrhosis. On the basis of the results of factor analysis and item response theory-based analyses, seven items, covering a wide range of severities and diverse symptoms, were selected to comprise the final scale (Ascites Symptom Inventory-7; ASI-7). The ASI-7 had a unidimensional factorial structure and high reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.96). The scale score was correlated with the degree of ascites evaluated by physicians, Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical functioning (PF), and SF-36 vitality (VT; P<0.001 each), indicating the criterion validity. The responsiveness after treatment was demonstrated by the mean standardized response of 1.18. Moreover, responses in the scale score were correlated with those in the degree of ascites, body weight, SF-36 PF, and SF-36 VT, respectively (P<0.001 each). An ascites-specific symptom scale was developed and its reliability, validity, and responsiveness were demonstrated. This simple scale may be used for the evaluation of ascites treatment and monitoring of treatment responses in patients with ascites.

  17. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio


    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  18. Monovalent ions control proliferation of Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Preisler, Sarah; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig


    of Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. We measured the intracellular concentration of each ion in G(0), G(1), and S phases of the cell cycle following synchronization by serum starvation and release. We show that intracellular concentrations and content of Na+ and Cl(-) were reduced in the G(0)-G(1) phase...... effect. Western blots showed reduced chloride intracellular channel CLIC1 and chloride channel ClC-2 expression in the plasma membrane in S compared with G(1). Our results suggest that Na+ regulates ELA cell proliferation by regulating intracellular pH while Cl(-) may regulate proliferation by fine...

  19. Urinary ascites secondary to delayed diagnosis of laparoscopic bladder injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mandeel Hazem


    Full Text Available We present a case of urinary ascites in a young woman secondary to unrecognized bladder injury during gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Delayed diagnosis occurred due to the absence of expected changes in serum biochemistry, which made the diagnosis of urinoma less likely. High suspicion of bladder injury following laparoscopic surgery should be present in patients with ill-defined symptoms even if no biochemical changes are seen. The case demonstrates important points in relation to the consequences of delayed diagnosis as well as overview on detection and prevention of such injury.

  20. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. (United States)

    Nicotina, P A; Ruggeri, P; Ferlazzo, G; Fimiani, V


    Some cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were carried out on actively growing Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. These cells displayed an intense granular alpha-naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE) staining while the alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (ANBE) reaction was in part fluoride-sensitive and marked particularly in the large-size malignant cells. Acid phosphatase as well as peroxidase activities were not detected. The lack of immunoreactive lysozyme and alpha 1-antitrypsin suggested a poor differentiation of the above-mentioned tumor cells, but fibronectin and S-100 protein where highly expressed, as in tumors arising from the mononuclear phagocyte system.

  1. Toxicity and metabolism of 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide in mice and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Karsten Ramløv; Overgaard-Hansen, Kay; Frederiksen, Sune


    Medicinsk biokemi, 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide, metabolism, Ehrlich ascites cells, toxicity, mice......Medicinsk biokemi, 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide, metabolism, Ehrlich ascites cells, toxicity, mice...

  2. Stability of artemisinin in aqueous environments : Impact on its cytotoxic action to Ehrlich ascites tumour cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, A.C; Woerdenbag, H.J.; van Uden, W; Pras, N.; Konings, A.WT; Wikström, H.V


    We have recently shown artemisinin to be cytotoxic against Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of this compound in the aqueous environment of the in-vitro Ehrlich ascites tumour cell system (RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with 10% foetal

  3. An experimental study on the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract and its mechanism. Mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was established with cisplatin as the control to observe the inhibitory effect of purified toad venom extract on malignant peritoneal effusion in mice.

  4. Ascites in chickens : oxygen consumption and requirement related to its occurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, C.W.


    The present thesis describes the etiology of heart failure syndrome (HFS) and ascites in broiler chickens.

    In The Netherlands, ascites, as a cause of mortality in broiler chickens, is increasing steadily. Rates of mortality in broiler flocks in practice, related to HFS and

  5. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Closter, A.M.; As, van P.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.


    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure

  6. Direct and maternal genetic effects for ascites-related traits in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakdel, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Bovenhuis, H.


    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities for ascites-related traits in broilers and to assess the importance of maternal genetic effects for these traits. Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4,000 broilers kept under cold conditions. Heritabilities

  7. Expanded Dengue. (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay


    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  8. Management of refractory ascites in cirrhosis: Are we out of date? (United States)

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Wisdom, Lauren; Herada, Megan; Nourredin, Mazen; Ayoub, Walid; Sundaram, Vinay; Klein, Andrew; Nissen, Nicholas


    Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with liver transplantations as it only possible cure. In the face of a significant organ shortage many patients die waiting. A major complication of cirrhosis is the development of portal hypertension and ascites. The management of ascites has barely evolved over the last hundred years and includes only a few milestones in our treatment approach, but has overall significantly improved patient morbidity and survival. Our mainstay to ascites management includes changes in diet, diuretics, shunt procedures, and large volume paracentesis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and portal hypertension has significantly improved in the last couple of decades but the changes in ascites management have not seemed to mirror this newer knowledge. We herein review the history of ascites management and discuss some its current limitations. PMID:27729954

  9. Terlipressin improves renal function in patients with cirrhosis and ascites without hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H


    was to evaluate if terlipressin also improves renal function in patients with ascites without HRS. Twenty-three patients with cirrhosis participated; 15 with nonrefractory ascites were randomized to either terlipressin (N group, n = 11) or a placebo (P group, n = 4), and 8 had refractory ascites and received......Patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites are characterized by circulatory dysfunction with splanchnic vasodilatation and renal vasoconstriction, which often lead to ascites. The vasoconstrictor terlipressin improves renal function in hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The aim of this study...... terlipressin (R group). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium clearance (C(Na)), lithium clearance (C(Li)), osmolal clearance (C(Osm)), and urine sodium concentration (U(Na)) were assessed before and after the injection of 2 mg of terlipressin or the placebo. GFR increased in the N group (69 +/- 19...

  10. Therapeutic effects of short- and intermediate-term tolvaptan administration for refractory ascites in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. (United States)

    Akiyama, Shintaro; Ikeda, Kenji; Sezaki, Hitomi; Fukushima, Taito; Sorin, Yushi; Kawamura, Yusuke; Saitoh, Satoshi; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Kumada, Hiromitsu


    Tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, became available for hepatic ascites. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tolvaptan administration to treat refractory ascites. Data were collected from 15 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis (hepatitis C, 10; alcoholism, five) after adding tolvaptan (3.75-11.25 mg/day) to conventional diuretics. Bodyweights and serum sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured. Tolvaptan was continued for 4 weeks or longer for a median follow-up period of 42 days (range, 28-56). In the first week (introduction phase), tolvaptan significantly reduced median weight (66.6, 65.9 and 63.1 kg on days 0, 1 and 7, respectively; P tolvaptan for 2 weeks or longer and six (40%, three good responders and three responders) were treated for a median of 42 days without additional intervention. During this intermediate-term administration of tolvaptan, the median weight reduction was statistically significant (65.4, 61.9 and 56.9 kg on days 0, 7 and 42, respectively; P Tolvaptan safely alleviated fluid retention caused by hepatic cirrhosis. Intermediate-term administration of tolvaptan apparently helped maintain weight reduction achieved during the introduction phase. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. Lymphatic ascites after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancer. (United States)

    Perez-Medina, Tirso; Pereira, Augusto; San-Frutos, Luis; García-Espantaleón, Manuel; Chiverto, Yoana; Engels, Virginia; Ronchas, Marina; Troyano, Juan


    The incidence, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of lymphatic ascites (LA) are studied on 85 consecutive patients with gynecologic cancer who had undergone pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy by means of laparotomy or laparoscopy. Patients were distributed in two groups depending in the access: Laparoscopy (study group: 44 patients) and laparotomy (control group: 41 patients). All surgical parameters were collected and patients underwent ultrasound examination on postoperative days 7, 14, and 28. The main outcome measure was the development of symptomatic or asymptomatic LA. Prospective cohort study. LA developed in 3 patients (6.8%) in the study group and 9 in the control group (22%), with statistical difference (p < 0.05). The relative risk to develop lymphatic ascites after surgery performed by laparotomy was 3.2 (95% CI 1.05-11.07). Mean nodes harvested during the surgery was 18.6 (SD 6.6) in the LA group and 20.4 (SD 9.1) in the group with no LA (p = 0.527). The incidence of LA after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancer patients is lower in the patients treated by laparoscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia-associated Acute Pancreatitis with Chylous Ascites in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chuang


    Full Text Available Both cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum increase progressively during pregnancy. Hypertrigly-ceridemia is a well-recognized cause of acute pancreatitis, while pancreatitis-associated chylous ascites has rarely been reported. We report a 28-year-old female with coexistence of hypertriglyceridemia, acute pancreatitis, and chylous ascites during pregnancy. After emergency cesarean section, she was treated with nil per os, intravenous hydration, antibiotics, and analgesics as required. Due to the development of positive peritonitis 5 days later, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Surgical interventions included pancreatic necrosec-tomy, right hemicolectomy and ileostomy, cholecystostomy, gastrostomy, and feeding jejunostomy. Postoperative treatment included antibiotics, total parenteral nutrition, and then low-fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. She was discharged on the 43rd day after surgery and was free of symptoms during 6 months of follow-up. Ileocolostomy was performed 6 months after discharge. Fasting lipid profile should be regularly monitored during pregnancy due to the association of hypertriglyceridemia with development of acute pancreatitis in the mother.

  13. Malignant ascites in ovarian cancer and the role of targeted therapeutics. (United States)

    Smolle, Elisabeth; Taucher, Valentin; Haybaeck, Johannes


    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most lethal gynecological malignancy and the main cause of gynecological cancer death in industrialized countries. Malignant ascites is often found in OC, with about 10% of patients suffering from recurrent OC. Tumor cells in OC-associated malignant ascites promote disease recurrence and patient mortality is mainly associated with widespread metastasis to serosal surfaces and accompanying peritoneal effusions. Targeted therapies have recently been developed as novel therapeutic options for malignant ascites. The tri-functional anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule and anti-cluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody catumaxumab has been assessed in the therapy of malignant ascites, and proven to significantly reduce the ascitic flow rate when applied into the peritoneal cavity. The anti-angiogenic targeted agent bevacizumab has also shown good effects in the symptomatic treatment of malignant ascites, significantly prolonging the time until the next paracentesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap, or aflibercept, is a fusion protein that inhibits VEGF-receptor binding. Aflibercept has proven to be effective in reduction of ascites, diminishing clinical symptoms of ascites and prolonging the time to next paracentesis. All three agents we review in the present article are effective in symptomatic control of ascites, leading to a rapid reduction of effusion and prolonging the time interval between paracenteses. However, no improvement in overall survival was observed in any of the clinical trials reported. We, thus, conclude that further investigations on larger patient series are needed to clarify whether the reduction of ascites by these targeted agents leads to a prolongation in tumor-related survival or not.

  14. Combined Gene Therapy Using AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 With Chemotherapy Reduces the Growth of Human Ovarian Cancer and Formation of Ascites in Mice. (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Laura; Sallinen, Hanna; Karvonen, Anni; Valkonen, Elina; Laakso, Hanne; Liimatainen, Timo; Hytönen, Elisa; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Anttila, Maarit; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo


    Ovarian cancer is highly dependent on tumor microvessels and angiogenesis regulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) and angiopoietins (Ang) and their Tie receptors. We studied the efficacy of adenoviral (Ad) gene therapy with soluble VEGFR2 and Tie2 combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin for the treatment of ovarian cancer. An intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft model in nude mice (n = 44) was used in this study. Gene therapy was given intravenously when the presence of sizable tumors was confirmed in magnetic resonance imaging. The study groups were as follows: AdCMV as a control (group I), AdCMV with chemotherapy (group II), AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 (group III), and AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 with chemotherapy (group IV). Antitumor effectiveness was assessed by overall tumor growth, ascites, immunohistochemistry, microvessel density, and sequential magnetic resonance imaging analyses. AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 gene therapy (group III) significantly reduced tumor weights as compared with group II (P = 0.007). Accumulation of ascites was significantly reduced when the mice were treated with AdsVEGFR2 and AdsTie2 gene therapy or with combined gene therapy and chemotherapy as compared with controls (P = 0.029 and P = 0.010, respectively). Vascular endothelial growth factor and Ang2 levels in ascites fluid were elevated after the gene therapy. Combined inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 and Ang/Tie2 pathways provided efficient therapy for ovarian cancer in mice. In addition, antiangiogenic gene therapy has potential as a treatment for the accumulation of ascites.

  15. Ascites with right heart failure in a dog: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlapudi Satish Kumar


    Full Text Available A female Labrador dog presented with a history of distended abdomen was subjected for clinical, physical, hemato-biochemical, eletrocardiographic, and ultrasonographic evaluations. Respiratory distress, weakness, fluid thrill on palpation of abdomen, cough, cyanotic tongue, and syncope were the significant manifestations. Elevated levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase with normal blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were the common serum chemistry findings. Low voltage QRS complexes were the electrocardiographic abnormalities. Classical ground glass appearance of abdomen, and enlarged heart with increased sternal contact were the radiographic findings of abdomen and thorax. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed floating viscera in the anechoic effusion with engorged and distended hepatic vasculature. 2-dimensional echocardiography revealed dilated right ventricle both on B- and M-mode. Further, insufficiency in mitral and tricuspid valves were recorded on pulsed and color flow Doppler. Hence, right heart failure due to ascites was confirmed, and the condition was successfully managed with losartas, spiranolactone, co-enzyme Q10 and tricholine citrate, and sorbitol.

  16. [Supportive care for malignant ascites in palliative phase: Place of paracentesis and diuretics]. (United States)

    Gamblin, Vincent; Da Silva, Arlette; Villet, Stéphanie; El Hajbi, Farid


    Malignant ascites, occurring in advanced stages of cancer, is linked with poor prognosis and can cause invalidating symptoms. Physiopathological mechanisms of ascites formation are complex and have yet to be fully elucidated. In most cases, ascites is due to peritoneal carcinomatosis in which vascular permeability is enhanced by VEGF production while lymphatic drainage decreases. Ascites can also be secondary to portal hypertension, for example in case of multiple liver metastases, or due to lymphatic obstruction. While paracentesis and diuretics are commonly used, their efficiency has never been compared in a randomized controlled study. Paracentesis brings immediate but temporary relief in over 90% of cases, and implies multiple hospitalizations. Literature reports ascites control by aldosterone alone or in association with furosemide. But, available data is controversial, and there is no predictive factor to identify patients that respond to diuretic treatment. The indication of diuretic treatment is left to the appreciation of physicians. Existing recommendations are old, and practices influenced by results obtained in non-neoplastic ascites. Additional evidences are required before guidelines can be established for the palliative management of malignant ascites. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonimmune fetal ascites: identification of ultrasound findings predictive of perinatal death. (United States)

    Baccega, Felipe; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Jornada Krebs, Vera Lúcia; Vieira Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli; Zugaib, Marcelo


    To determine the ultrasonographic findings that predict death in fetal ascites. This was a retrospective cohort study involving pregnancies with ultrasonographic findings related to fetal ascites. The inclusion criteria were as follows: single pregnancy with a live fetus; ultrasound findings of ascites; ascites unrelated to maternal fetal alloimmunization; and pregnancy follow-up at our institution. The χ2-test was used to evaluate the association of ultrasound findings and death. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the ultrasound findings that are predictive of death prior to hospital discharge. A total of 154 pregnancies were included in the study. In 8 (5.19%) cases, ascites was an isolated finding, and in 146 cases, other alterations were observed during the ultrasound evaluation. Death before hospital discharge occurred in 117 cases (76.00%). The following ultrasonographic findings were significantly associated with death: gestational age at diagnosis death. Based on ultrasound examination, the presence of hydrops, malformation of the respiratory tract, and stable/progressive evolution of ascites increase the chances of death in cases of fetal ascites.

  18. Midodrine and tolvaptan in patients with cirrhosis and refractory or recurrent ascites: a randomised pilot study. (United States)

    Rai, Nitish; Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Akash; Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Navneet; Bhalla, Ashish; Singh, Virendra


    Splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and subsequent sodium and water retention play an important role in cirrhotic ascites. Midodrine and tolvaptan have been used separately in these patients. However, there are no reports on the use of combination of midodrine and tolvaptan in the control of ascites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of midodrine, tolvaptan and their combination in control of refractory or recurrent ascites in cirrhotics. Fifty cirrhotic patients with refractory or recurrent ascites were randomised to receive midodrine (n=13), tolvaptan (n=12) or both (n=13) plus standard medical therapy (SMT) or SMT alone (n=12). A significant increase in urinary volume and urinary sodium at 1 and 3 months (Ptolvaptan but not tolvaptan alone was superior to SMT in control of ascites at 3 months (Ptolvaptan better controls ascites without any renal or hepatic dysfunction. The combination therapy rapidly controls ascites as compared to midodrine or tolvaptan alone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ascitic microbiota composition is correlated with clinical severity in cirrhosis with portal hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraint B Rogers

    Full Text Available Identification of pathogenic bacteria in ascites correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Ascites samples are commonly reported culture-negative, even where frank infection is indicated. Culture-independent methods have previously reported bacterial DNA in ascites, however, whether this represents viable bacterial populations has not been determined. We report the first application of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR in conjunction with propidium monoazide sample treatment to characterise the viable bacterial composition of ascites. Twenty five cirrhotic patients undergoing paracentesis provided ascites. Samples were treated with propidium monoazide to exclude non-viable bacterial DNA. Total bacterial load was quantified by 16S rRNA Q-PCR with species identity and relative abundance determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Correlation of molecular microbiology data with clinical measures and diagnostic microbiology was performed. Viable bacterial signal was obtained in 84% of ascites samples, both by Q-PCR and pyrosequencing. Approximately 190,000 ribosomal pyrosequences were obtained, representing 236 species, including both gut and non gut-associated species. Substantial variation in the species detected was observed between patients. Statistically significant relationships were identified between the bacterial community similarity and clinical measures, including ascitic polymorphonuclear leukocyte count and Child-Pugh class. Viable bacteria are present in the ascites of a majority of patients with cirrhosis including those with no clinical signs of infection. Microbiota composition significantly correlates with clinical measures. Entry of bacteria into ascites is unlikely to be limited to translocation from the gut, raising fundamental questions about the processes that underlie the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

  20. Occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction presenting as anuria and urinary ascites in an infant with antenatal, unilateral hydronephrosis. (United States)

    Hirselj, Daniel A; Zmaj, Paul M; Firlit, Casimir F


    To discuss an unusual case of occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction. A premature male infant with severe, unilateral hydronephrosis presented to the emergency room with 20 h of dry diapers. Placement of urethral catheter did not return urine. Imaging revealed persistent hydronephrosis on the previously affected side and new-onset hydronephrosis with perirenal fluid on the contralateral side. Patient was taken to the operating room and forniceal rupture from occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction with urinary ascites was identified. The obstruction was surgically repaired at that time and his postoperative course was uncomplicated. While most agree on postnatal evaluation for some children with antenatal hydronephrosis, there is no consensus as to the timing and frequency of evaluation. The risk of significant obstruction in children with low grades of hydronephrosis is very low, and many are not followed. This is a rare case in which low-grade postnatal hydronephrosis resulted in significant clinical obstruction.

  1. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L


    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  2. A survey of treatment approaches of malignant ascites in Germany and Austria. (United States)

    Jehn, C F; Küpferling, S; Oskay-Özcelik, G; Lüftner, D


    Malignant ascites (MA) is a common manifestation of advanced cancer. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of MA. We conducted a survey with physicians throughout Germany and Austria, to get an overview of current approaches and opinions in the treatment of MA. One hundred and twenty-eight medical oncologists (MO), gastroenterologists (GE), and gynecologists (GYN) completed an electronic questionnaire consisting of 33 questions. Ninety percent of the physicians were from Germany and 10% from Austria; 48% of those were MO, 30% were GYN, and 14% were GE. Most physicians treated an average of 34 patients (pts)/year with MA. Twenty-six percent of these pts suffered from ovarian, 20% from pancreatic, 17% from gastric, and 14% from colorectal cancer. The majority of the physicians associated MA with poor prognosis (92%) and significant reduction in quality of life (87%). One third felt that MA was a contraindication for full dosing of systemic chemotherapy. Paracentesis (PC) was performed in 70% of pts with symptom relieve and quality of life being the main reasons. Almost half of the pts required 3-5 PC, 50% even more than 5 PC during the course of their disease. Only 15% of pts needed multiple PC per week; the majority (79%) needed the procedure either once a week or every 14 days. In 61% of pts, 3-5 L of ascites fluid was drained. Only in 8%, 5 L and more were removed. Volume substitution with IV albumin was performed in 40% of pts. Most pts (55%) had to stay 1-3 h in a healthcare facility for the procedure. However, 21% had to stay ≥1 day. While almost all physicians (89%) performed a PC at some point in the treatment of MA, 75% felt that a systemic chemotherapy and 55% thought a concomitant diuretic therapy were a necessary adjunct. Seven percent of the pts received a targeted treatment with catumaxomab. Repeated PC is the main pillar of treatment of MA; its effect is only temporary and requires significant hospital resources

  3. Myelomatous ascites as an initial manifestation of extramedullary involvement of multiple myeloma

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    Choi, Seo Youn; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Hee Kyung; Park, Seong Kyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Multiple myeloma is a common hematological malignancy. Aggressive myeloma invades the organs outside the bone marrow, lymph, or reticuloendothelial systems. Among the extramedullary involvements of multiple myeloma, myelomatous ascites are extremely rare and are associated with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of myelomatous ascites as an initial manifestation of extramedullary involvement of multiple myeloma in 39-year-old patient. The patient was treated with high-dose chemotherapy, but extensive extramedullary involvement progressed, and the patient expired approximately five months after the initial detection of ascites.

  4. Portal Hypertension and Ascites Due to an Arterioportal Fistula: Sequela of a Remote Traumatic Liver Laceration. (United States)

    Hulkower, Benjamin M; Butty, Sabah; Ghabril, Marwan


    Arterioportal fistulas (APFs) are a group of vascular disorders, in which systemic arteries communicate with the portal circulation, presenting as a congenital syndrome or more commonly acquired from iatrogenic instrumentation or abdominal trauma. We report the case of a 58-year-old man who developed ascites without underlying risk factors for portal hypertension, which was attributed to an APF found on imaging, manifesting 43 years after sustaining a liver laceration. After angiographic embolization of the APF, the patient's ascites resolved completely. The prolonged latent period between the patient's abdominal trauma and eventual presentation with ascites highlights the need to consider vascular malformations in the differential diagnosis of unexplained noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

  5. Low cardiac output predicts development of hepatorenal syndrome and survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, A; Bendtsen, F; Møller, S


    compared to those with a higher CI (N = 16), padvanced cirrhosis and ascites seem to be related to a cardiac......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that cardiac dysfunction precedes development of the hepatorenal syndrome. In this follow-up study, we aimed to investigate the relation between cardiac and renal function in patients with cirrhosis and ascites and the impact of cardiac systolic function...... on survival. Patients and DESIGN: Twenty-four patients with cirrhosis and ascites were included. Cardiac function was investigated by gated myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for assessment of cardiac index (CI) and cardiac volumes. The renal function was assessed by determination of glomerular filtration...

  6. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick


    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared...... serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P ... of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins...

  7. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Artificial Ascites for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Hepatic Dome: Initial Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil


    ...) in the hepatic dome. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sonographically guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation with artificial ascites was performed in 25 patients with 34 HCCs using an internally cooled electrode radiofrequency system...

  8. Urinary ascites in late onset of bladder injury post laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josette C. Dawkins


    Vesicoperitoneal fistulae (VPF are rare and should be included in the differential diagnosis of the patient with acute onset ascites following gynecologic surgery. This case is the first case report of a VPF occurring 5 years following surgery.

  9. Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites

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    Mélissa Ratelle


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are data suggesting a link between proton pump inhibitor (PPI use and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP in cirrhotic patients with ascites; however, these data are controversial.

  10. Urinary ascites and anuria caused by bilateral fungal balls in a premature infant. (United States)

    Ku, J H; Kim, M E; Jeon, Y S; Lee, N K; Park, Y H


    A case is reported of anuria and urinary ascites secondary to bilateral ureteropelvic obstruction by fungal balls. Management consisted of bilateral nephrostomy drainage with local irrigation with amphotericin B, and systemic antifungal treatment without surgery. Aspiration by paracentesis was performed for the urinary ascites and continuous drainage through an 8 Fr pig tail catheter for the urinoma. The literature on renal fungus balls in neonates and infants is reviewed.

  11. Post-Bypass Extensive Ascites due to Splanchnic Bypass and the Effectiveness of Hyperalimentation Treatment

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    Veysel Temizkan


    Full Text Available Reperfusion edema may develop in the early periods of chronic ischemic tissue reperfusion. Reperfusion edema may be represented after the splanchnic bypass with ascites, abdominal distension, and liver and kidney function impairment. In this article, we are reporting the hyperalimentation treatment and its results for the common ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, after a coeliac and superior mesenteric artery bypass. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 124-128

  12. A rare case of normotensive HELLP syndrome complicated with massive ascites: Spontaneous resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Samy El-Agwany


    Full Text Available HELLP develops in approximately 0.1–0.8% of pregnancies overall and as many as 15–20% of patients with HELLP syndrome do not have antecedent hypertension or proteinuria. The risk factor for development of ascites is extensive structural damage of the microvasculature in patients complicated by HELLP. The aim of this study is to report a case with HELLP syndrome complicated with massive ascites after vaginal delivery that eventually resolved spontaneously.

  13. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor) in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni


    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira; Pedro Raso; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho


    Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation) started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was short...

  14. Macrophages Reprogrammed In Vitro Towards the M1 Phenotype and Activated with LPS Extend Lifespan of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma. (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey V; Lyamina, Svetlana V; Usanova, Elena A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Larionov, Nikolai P; Malyshev, Igor Y


    BACKGROUND The majority of tumors trigger macrophage reprogramming from an anti-tumor M1 phenotype towards a pro-tumor M2 phenotype. The M2 phenotype promotes tumor growth. We hypothesized that increasing the number of M1 macrophages in a tumor would limit carcinogenesis and extend the lifespan of the tumor host. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). The objectives were to evaluate effects of 1) EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vivo; 2) ascitic fluid from mice with EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vitro; and 3) in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages on lifespan of mice with EAC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted using C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS Concentration of nitrite, a stable NO metabolite and an index of NO production, was measured spectrophotometrically. Shifts of macrophage phenotype were assessed by changes in NO production as well as by amounts of CD80, a marker of M1 phenotype, and CD206, a marker of M2 phenotype. The CD markers were measured by flow cytometry. Macrophages were reprogrammed towards the M1 phenotype using two reprogramming factors: 0% FBS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ. The study results showed that 1) EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vivo and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; 2) ascitic fluid of mice with EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vitro and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; and 3) injection of in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages into mice with EAC significantly increased the lifespan of mice. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that promising biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth could be developed based on the in vitro macrophage reprogramming.

  15. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma (United States)

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; Ørtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan


    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  16. Transport of calcium ions by Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. (United States)

    Landry, Y; Lehninger, A L


    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells accumulate Ca2+ when incubated aerobically with succinate, phosphate and rotenone, as revealed by isotopic and atomic-absorption measurements. Ca2+ does not stimulate oxygen consumption by carefully prepared Ehrlich cells, but des so when the cells are placed in a hypo-osmotic medium. Neither glutamate nor malate support Ca2+ uptake in 'intact' Ehrlich cells, nor does the endogenous NAD-linked respiration. Ca2+ uptake is completely dependent on mitochondrial energy-coupling mechansims. It was an unexpected finding that maximal Ca2+ uptake supported by succinate requires rotenone, which blocks oxidation of enogenous NAD-linked substrates. Phosphate functions as co-anion for entry of Ca2+. Ca2+ uptake is also supported by extra-cellular ATP; no other nucleoside 5'-di- or tri-phosphate was active. The accumulation of Ca2+ apparently takes place in the mitochondria, since oligomycin and atractyloside inhibit ATP-supported Ca2+ uptake. Glycolysis does not support Ca2+ uptake. Neither free mitochondria released from disrupted cells nor permeability-damaged cells capable of absorbing Trypan Blue were responsible for any large fraction of the total observed energy-coupled Ca2+ uptake. The observations reported also indicate that electron flow through energy-conserving site 1 promotes Ca2+ release from Ehrlich cells and that extra-cellular ATP increase permeability of the cell membrane, allowing both ATP and Ca2+ to enter the cells more readily. PMID:988829

  17. The Development of an Angiogenic Protein "Signature" in Ovarian Cancer Ascites as a Tool for Biologic and Prognostic Profiling.

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    Sofia-Paraskevi Trachana

    Full Text Available Advanced ovarian cancer (AOC is one of the leading lethal gynecological cancers in developed countries. Based on the important role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer oncogenesis and expansion, we hypothesized that the development of an "angiogenic signature" might be helpful in prediction of prognosis and efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies in this disease. Sixty-nine samples of ascitic fluid- 35 from platinum sensitive and 34 from platinum resistant patients managed with cytoreductive surgery and 1st-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy- were analyzed using the Proteome ProfilerTM Human Angiogenesis Array Kit, screening for the presence of 55 soluble angiogenesis-related factors. A protein profile based on the expression of a subset of 25 factors could accurately separate resistant from sensitive patients with a success rate of approximately 90%. The protein profile corresponding to the "sensitive" subset was associated with significantly longer PFS (8 [95% Confidence Interval {CI}: 8-9] vs. 20 months [95% CI: 15-28]; Hazard ratio {HR}: 8.3, p<0.001 and OS (20.5 months [95% CI: 13.5-30] vs. 74 months [95% CI: 36-not reached]; HR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.8-11.2]; p<0.001. This prognostic performance was superior to that of stage, histology and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ascites. In conclusion, we developed an "angiogenic signature" for patients with AOC, which can be used, after appropriate validation, as a prognostic marker and a tool for selection for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  18. The clearance concept with special reference to determination of glomerular filtration rate in patients with fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik L; Henriksen, Jens H


    In subjects without fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of a renal filtration indicator (inulin, (99m) Tc-DTPA, (51) Cr-EDTA) is close to the urinary plasma clearance. Conversely, in patients with fluid retention (oedema, pleural effusions, ascites), there is a substantial discrepancy...

  19. Maternal ascites an independent prognostic factor in severe preeclampsia: a matched cohort study. (United States)

    Suriya, J Yavana; Keepanasseril, Anish; Manikandan, K; Maurya, Dilip Kumar; Veena, P; Soundara Raghavan, S


    Preeclampsia is a multi-systemic, multi-organ dysfunction associated with increased maternal and perinatal complications. The presence of maternal ascites, a manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and increased capillary permeability, is shown to be associated with adverse outcomes. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal ascites on pregnancy outcome in women with severe preeclampsia. A matched cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India between March 2014 and March 2015. One hundred and twenty-one severe preeclamptic women with ascites formed the study cohort while age-, parity-, and gestational age-matched group of 121 severe preeclamptic women without ascites formed the control. Primary outcome was the composite maternal adverse outcome defined as the development of any of eclampsia, pulmonary edema, renal failure, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Secondary outcome was the composite perinatal outcome defined as the occurrence of any of still birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy or early neonatal death. Four maternal deaths occurred in the study group. The rates of pregnancies with composite maternal adverse outcome [42 vs 9% RR 4.6 (95% CI 2.5-8.4)] and composite perinatal adverse outcome [36 vs 17% RR 2.1, (95% CI 1.3-3.3)] were significantly more in ascites group than in control group. After adjusting for other confounding variables, ascites was independently associated with adverse maternal events [adjusted OR 16.40 (95% CI 2.88-93.31)] but not adverse perinatal outcome. In women with severe preeclampsia, maternal ascites is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal outcome.

  20. Unusual morphology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor from an ascitic fluid in the postchemotherapy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo González-Arango


    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a malignant neoplasm that most often presents in male adolescents as an abdominal mass. Cytological features have been previously described, but only two reports noted post chemotherapy changes on effusions. We report a case of a 15-year-old male with DSRCT status postchemotherapy that presented with ascitis. Unusual morphology was seen: Numerous malignant large and single cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm in a background without the stroma, occasional mitosis, and the abundant apoptosis. Cell block immunocytochemistry was confirmatory. Awareness of the postchemotherapy changes in this tumor will allow us to diagnose recurrence.

  1. Differential diagnosis of human ascites: inhibitors of the contact system and total proteins. (United States)

    Buø, L; Karlsrud, T S; Dyrhaug, G; Jacobsen, M B; Bell, H; Johansen, H T; Aasen, A O


    To assess their accuracies as markers for malignancy, we assayed alpha 2-macroglobulin, C1-inhibitor, alpha 1-protease inhibitor, and total proteins in ascites and plasma from patients with gastrointestinal cancer (n = 15) and non-malignant liver disease (n = 13), using functional and immunologic assays. For all inhibitors and total proteins determined in ascites, the values in the cancer group were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the group with non-malignant liver disease. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating malignancy-related from non-malignant ascites was 93% for a alpha 1-protease inhibitor value > or = 50% of the pool plasma value and 90% for alpha 2-macroglobulin > or = 16%, C1-inhibitor > or = 40% (all functional assays), and total proteins > or = 20 g/l (biuret). In conclusion, functional assays for alpha 2-macroglobulin, C1-inhibitor, and alpha 1-protease inhibitor and determination of total proteins in ascites appeared to be very informative tests for the differential diagnosis of ascites. The test for alpha 1-protease inhibitor gave higher specificity (92% versus 77%) and likelihood ratio for a positive test (12 versus 4) compared with the other tests.

  2. Emerging treatment options for management of malignant ascites in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskander RN


    Full Text Available Ramez N Eskander, Krishnansu S TewariDivision of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and is associated with troublesome symptoms, including abdominal pressure and distension, dyspnea, bloating, pelvic pain, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. To date, no effective therapy has been identified for the treatment of malignant ascites in patients with recurrent, advanced ovarian cancer. In this article, we discuss currently existing options for the treatment of ascites associated with ovarian cancer, and review the literature as it pertains to novel, targeted therapies. Specifically, preclinical and clinical trials exploring the use of the antiangiogenic agents, bevacizumab and vascular endothelial growth factor-trap, as well as the nonangiogenic agent, catumaxomab, will be reviewed. Despite current limitations in treatment, knowledge regarding management options in the palliation of ascites is critical to practicing physicians. Ultimately, as with all novel therapies, symptom relief and treatment goals must be weighed against patient discomfort and potentially significant adverse events.Keywords: angiogenesis, ascites, epithelial ovarian cancer

  3. Massive Ascites in a Renal Transplant Patient after Laparoscopic Fenestration of a Lymphocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Kawaguchi


    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal lymphocele is a common complication of renal transplantation. Here, we report the case of a 67-year-old woman with massive ascites after fenestration surgery for a lymphocele that developed following renal transplantation. She had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 9 years. Living donor renal transplantation was performed and an intrapelvic lymphocele subsequently developed. The lymphocele did not resolve after aspiration therapy; therefore, laparoscopic fenestration was performed. Although the lymphocele disappeared, massive ascites appeared in its stead. Half a year later, the ascites was surgically punctured, which then gradually resolved and disappeared 6 weeks later. Aspiration therapy should be considered in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis, although laparoscopic fenestration is safe and effective.

  4. Improved migration of tumor ascites lymphocytes to ovarian cancer microenvironment by CXCR2 transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Olsen, Maria; Halldórsdóttir, Hólmfrídur Rósa


    suppressive tumor sites. We hypothesized that equipping T cells with chemokine receptors matching the chemokines of the tumor microenvironment, could improve tumor homing of T cells. T cells from malignant ascites (n = 13); blood from ovarian cancer (OC) patients (n = 14); and healthy donors (n = 13) were......Chemokines are essential mediators of cellular trafficking, interactions and tumor development. Though adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has been a tremendous success in the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM), a major obstacle for successful ACT, is limited homing of effector T cells to immune...... analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that FoxP3+ regulatory T cells accumulation in patients with OC associates with CCR4 expression. We characterized a chemokine profile of ascites chemokines, and expression of corresponding receptors on circulating T cells and tumor ascites lymphocytes (TALs). CCL22...

  5. The Impact of Tunneled Catheters for Ascites and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on Patient Rehospitalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Chuanxing [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale Cancer Center (United States); Ghodadra, Anish; McCluskey, Kevin M.; Santos, Ernesto; Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeThe aim of the study is to assess patient outcomes, complications, impact on rehospitalizations, and healthcare costs in patients with malignant ascites treated with tunneled catheters.Materials and MethodsA total of 84 patients with malignant ascites (mean age, 60 years) were treated with tunneled catheters. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and malignant ascites treated with tunneled drain catheter placement over a 3-year period were studied. Overall survival from the time of ascites and catheter placement were stratified by primary cancer and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Complications were graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE). The differences between pre- and post-catheter admissions, hospitalizations, and Emergency Department (ED) visits, as well as related inpatient expenses were compared using paired t tests.ResultsThere were no significant differences in gender, age, or race between different primary cancer subgroups. One patient (1 %) developed bleeding (CTCAE-2). Four patients (5 %) developed local cellulitis (CTCAE-2). Three patients (4 %) had prolonged hospital stay (between 7 and 10 days) to manage ascites-related complications such as abdominal distention, discomfort, or pain. Comparison between pre- and post-catheter hospitalizations showed significantly lower admissions (−1.4/month, p < 0.001), hospital stays (−4.2/month, p = 0.003), and ED visits (−0.9/month, p = 0.002). The pre- and post-catheter treatment health care cost was estimated using MS-DRG IPPS payment system and it demonstrated significant cost savings from decreased inpatient admissions in post-treatment period (−$9535/month, p < 0.001).ConclusionsTunneled catheter treatment of malignant ascites is safe, feasible, well tolerated, and cost effective. Tunneled catheter treatment may play an important role in improving patients’ quality of life and outcomes while controlling health care expenditures.

  6. Few complications after paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming


    The relevance of needle type and ultrasound guidance in connection with complications and technical problems in paracentesis in cirrhotic patients has only been sparsely described. The aim of this study was to evaluate paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites, focusing on techni......The relevance of needle type and ultrasound guidance in connection with complications and technical problems in paracentesis in cirrhotic patients has only been sparsely described. The aim of this study was to evaluate paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites, focusing...

  7. [Endometriosis with massive hemorrhagic ascites: a case report and review of the literature]. (United States)

    Ekoukou, D; Guilherme, R; Desligneres, S; Rotten, D


    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It generally involves the peritoneum, ovaries and rectovaginal septum. Its characteristic symptoms include dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, deep dyspareunia and infertility. It may also involve the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract or extra abdominal sites, giving rise to a wide variety of clinical symptoms such as bloody stools, renal haemorrhage, hemoptysis and pleural effusion during menstruation. Recurrent hemorrhagic ascites secondary to endometriosis is an unusual occurrence, 41 cases have been reported since 1954. Here we report an additional case, in order to draw attention to this condition. A 28 years-old black nulligravida woman was seen for the first time in april 2000 with a chief complaint of infertility. Her past medical history was unremarkable. She had regular menses but associated with severe dysmenorrhea. She also recalled abdominal and pelvic pain for several years. She underwent an ovulation induction with gonadotrophin, which resulted in a progressive increase of pelvic pain. A first laparoscopy was performed, revealing voluminous ascites (10 I). Two years later the ascites recurred spontaneously. Ultrasound examination revealed suspect "para uterine masses". A second exploratory laparoscopy showed a voluminous bloody ascites (71), and extensive adhesions. On histologic examination all specimens (peritoneal biopsies) were compatible with endometriosis and ruled out malignancy. Treatment with Gn RH analog was performed and full remission was obtained after 6 months. One year later the ascites recurred again spontaneously, leading to a third laparoscopy in an other medical institution. Histologic examination showed endometrial stromal tissue and fibrous proliferation. Later she became pregnant after in vitro fertilization. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the pelvic ultrasound showed only a small effusion in the pouch of Douglas. Still, the ascites did

  8. Cell Swelling Activates Phospholipase A2 in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoroed, S.M.; Lauritzen, L.; Lambert, I.H.


    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells! loaded with H-labeled arachidonic acid and C-labeled stearic acid for two hours, were washed and transferred to either isotonic or hypotonic media containing BSA to scavenge the labeled fatty acids released from the cells. During the first two minutes of hypo-osmotic ......Ehrlich ascites tumor cells! loaded with H-labeled arachidonic acid and C-labeled stearic acid for two hours, were washed and transferred to either isotonic or hypotonic media containing BSA to scavenge the labeled fatty acids released from the cells. During the first two minutes of hypo...

  9. Clinical study on the therapeutic role of midodrine in non azotemic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Farid, S; AminAmin, M


    BACKGROUND: Midodrine is an α-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine used for the management of hypotension. Midodrine has demonstrated usefulness in hepatorenal syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to study the role of midodrine in patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis with tense...... ascites. METHODS: This prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 67 non azotemic inpatients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites (52 men and 15 women; age range, 45-72). One patient declined to participate in the study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to take...

  10. Paracentesis with intravenous infusion of albumin as compared with peritoneovenous shunting in cirrhosis with refractory ascites. (United States)

    Ginès, P; Arroyo, V; Vargas, V; Planas, R; Casafont, F; Panés, J; Hoyos, M; Viladomiu, L; Rimola, A; Morillas, R


    There is no satisfactory treatment for refractory ascites in patients with cirrhosis. Both peritoneovenous shunts and paracentesis have been used, but there is uncertainty about their relative merits. We studied 89 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites who were randomly assigned to receive either repeated large-volume paracentesis plus intravenous albumin or a LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt. Patients in the paracentesis group in whom recurrent tense ascites developed during follow-up were treated with paracentesis, and those in the peritoneovenous-shunt group with diuretic agents or by the insertion of a new shunt if there was shunt obstruction. During the first hospitalization, ascites was removed in all 41 patients in the paracentesis group and in 44 of the 48 patients in the peritoneovenous-shunt group. The mean (+/- SD) duration of hospitalization in the two groups was 11 +/- 5 and 19 +/- 9 days, respectively (P less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in the number of patients who had complications or died. During follow-up, 37 patients in each group were hospitalized again. In the paracentesis group, the number of rehospitalizations for any reason (174 vs. 97 in the peritoneovenous-shunt group) or for ascites (125 vs. 38) was significantly higher, and the median time to a first readmission for any reason (1 +/- 1 vs. 2 +/- 2 months) or for ascites (2 +/- 2 vs. 8 +/- 17 months) was significantly shorter than in the peritoneovenous-shunt group. The total times in the hospital during follow-up, however, were similar in the two groups (48 +/- 49 and 44 +/- 39 days, respectively). Three patients had obstructions of their peritoneovenous shunts during their first hospitalizations, and 15 patients had a total of 20 obstructions during follow-up. Survival was similar in both groups. The LeVeen shunt and paracentesis are equally effective in relieving refractory ascites. The former may provide better long-term control of ascites, but shunt

  11. Effect of paracentesis on metabolic activity in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne Wilkens; Krag, Aleksander; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge


    Objective Patients with decompensated cirrhosis often suffer from malnutrition. To enable appropriate nutritional supplementation a correct estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) is needed. It is, however, unclear whether the volume of ascites should be included or not in the calculations...... of the REE. Material and methods In 19 patients with cirrhosis and ascites, measurements of REE by indirect calorimetry were performed before paracentesis, after paracentesis, and four weeks after paracentesis. Moreover, handgrip strength (HGS), dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and biochemistry were assessed...

  12. Chylous ascites and chylothorax due to constrictive pericarditis in a patient infected with HIV: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summachiwakij Sarawut


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chylothorax and chylous ascites are uncommon and usually associated with trauma or neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, constrictive pericarditis leading to chylothorax and chylous ascites in a person infected with HIV has never previously been described. Case presentation A 39-year-old Thai man was referred to our institute with progressive dyspnea, edema and abdominal distension. His medical history included HIV infection and pulmonary tuberculosis that was complicated by tuberculous pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Upon further investigation, we found constrictive pericarditis, chylothorax and chylous ascites. A pericardiectomy was performed which resulted in gradual resolution of the ascites and chylous effusion. Conclusions Although constrictive pericarditis is an exceptionally rare cause of chylothorax and chylous ascites, it should nonetheless be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potentially reversible cause.

  13. Liver cirrhosis associated wiht a non-responsive ascites in a 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten month old Alsatian bitch presented with complaint of recurring ascites over a period of three months and had 'been refractory to diuretic therapy. The condition was diagnosed as liver cirrhosis by serum chemistry, exploratory laparotorny and histopathology of the liver. Result of the serum chemistry showed a ...

  14. Effect of ascitic liquid on growth in vitro of embryoid bodies derived from teratocarcinoma. (United States)

    Monzó, M; Martínez-Rubio, G; de Anta, J M; Saltó, C; Ruano-Gil, D


    Embryoid bodies (EB) derived from teratocarcinoma (TC) OTT6050 were cultured with ascitic liquids (AL) from animals carrying 16-, 22- and 35-day evolved EB. At the same time the presence of fibronectin (FN) in AL were analyzed by immunoblotting. Results indicate the probable existence of growth-stimulatory factors for EB, as well as the presence of FN in the 22-day AL.

  15. Effect of ascitic liquid on growth in vitro of embryoid bodies derived from teratocarcinoma


    Monzó, M.; Martínez Rubio, G.; Anta,; Saltó, C.; Ruano-Gil, D.


    Embryoid bodies (EB) derived from teratocarcinoma (TC) OTT6050 were cultured with ascitic liquids (AL) from animals carrying 16-, 22- and 35-day evolved EB. At the same time the presence of fibronectin (FN) in AL were analyzed by immunoblotting. Results indicate the . probable existence of growth-stimulatory factors for EB, as well as the presence of FN in the 22-day AL.

  16. Few complications after paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming


    The relevance of needle type and ultrasound guidance in connection with complications and technical problems in paracentesis in cirrhotic patients has only been sparsely described. The aim of this study was to evaluate paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites, focusing...

  17. Study on anti-ehrlich ascites tumor effect of Pinellia Ternata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the anti-tumour activity of Pinellia ternata polysaccharide in vivo, and to preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of its antitumour action. Mouse model of Ehrlich ascites tumour (solid tumour) was used to detect the serum SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in mouse and to ...

  18. Umbilical hernia rupture with evisceration of omentum from massive ascites: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W


    The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia.

  19. Non-selective β-blockers do not affect mortality in cirrhosis patients with ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Lars; Krag, Aleksander; Vilstrup, Hendrik


    The safety of non-selective β-blockers (NSBBs) in advanced cirrhosis has been questioned. We used data from three satavaptan trials to examine whether NSBBs increase mortality in cirrhosis patients with ascites. The trials were conducted in 2006-2008 and included 1198 cirrhosis patients with asci...

  20. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 1. High carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, C.W.; Klis, van der J.D.; Kwakernaak, C.; Buys, N.; Decuypere, E.


    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain

  1. Premature parturition, edema, and ascites in an alpaca infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum


    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Firshman, Anna M.; Sharkey, Leslie C.


    An 8-year-old alpaca was presented for fever, anorexia, edema, ascites, and premature parturition. She was determined to have Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection based on positive blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and positive acute and convalescent serum titers. Antibiotics and supportive therapies were administered and the alpaca made a complete recovery.

  2. Premature parturition, edema, and ascites in an alpaca infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (United States)

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Firshman, Anna M.; Sharkey, Leslie C.


    An 8-year-old alpaca was presented for fever, anorexia, edema, ascites, and premature parturition. She was determined to have Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection based on positive blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and positive acute and convalescent serum titers. Antibiotics and supportive therapies were administered and the alpaca made a complete recovery. PMID:23633715

  3. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay


    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2...

  4. New-onset ascites as a manifestation of virologic relapse in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua DL


    Full Text Available Deborah Lim Chua, Thomas Hahambis, Samuel H SigalDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: Chronic hepatitis C is the most common cause of cirrhosis in industrialized countries. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis has significant benefits, including improvements in inflammation, fibrosis, and portal hypertension, with prevention of esophageal varices and clinical decompensation.Case: In this report, we present two patients with well-compensated hepatitis C cirrhosis who achieved an end-of-treatment response on a direct-acting antiviral therapy-based triple regimen for hepatitis C virus, but subsequently presented with new-onset ascites associated with virologic relapse.Conclusion: We propose that the development of ascites in this setting is due to the adverse impact of inflammation of the virologic relapse on portal hypertension. Our observation that ascites formation can be a manifestation of virologic relapse has potentially important clinical implications, as it highlights not only the importance of close monitoring of cirrhotic patients after achieving end-of-treatment response but also the impact of active inflammation on the severity of portal hypertension.Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis, virologic relapse, portal hypertension, ascites

  5. Risk factors for drainage-requiring ascites after refractory peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Tu, Kun-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Hui; Chang, Ming-Yang; Hung, Cheng-Chieh


    Refractory peritonitis remains a thorny issue for patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Shortly after catheter removal, some patients develop persistent peritoneal inflammation and ascites formation, which require percutaneous drainage for symptom relief. Our study aimed at finding the risk factors for this kind of event. A total of 47 PD patients complicated with refractory peritonitis who underwent catheter removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were enrolled in this study. Data were compared between patients with and without the development of symptomatic ascites requiring drainage during hospitalization. Among the 47 refractory peritonitis patients, 15 patients developed symptomatic ascites that needed further drainage shortly after catheter removal during hospitalization. The following factors were associated with an increased risk: longer dialysis duration, higher peritoneal Kt/V urea, and a significant rise in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level after catheter removal. These patients had a prolonged hospital stay (62 vs 21 days, P peritonitis experienced ascites requiring drainage shortly after catheter removal, which led to a prolonged hospitalization. Whether routine drain placement at the time of catheter removal for this high-risk group would be of benefit warrants further prospective studies.

  6. Effect of magnetic fields on antioxidant system enzymes in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. (United States)

    Sergeeva, E Yu; Titova, N M; Sherbinina, A S; Sergeev, N V; Shirokova, A V


    The combination of weak steady-state and weak low-frequency alternating magnetic fields activates SOD in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and catalase in liver cells by 3.7 and 1.3 times, respectively (pmagnetic fields with the specified parameters.

  7. Post-hepatectomy Refractory Ascites in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factor Analysis to Overcome this Problematic Complication. (United States)

    Itoh, Shinji; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yasuharu; Morita, Kazutoyo; Harada, Noboru; Sugimachi, Keishi; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Korenaga, Daisuke; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Takenaka, Kenji; Maehara, Yoshihiko


    Refractory ascites is a serious post-hepatectomy complication in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In order to avoid this complication, surgeons should preserve as much liver parenchyma as possible in performing hepatectomy in such patients. However, we still occasionally encounter refractory ascites even after limited or small hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for post-hepatectomy refractory ascites in cirrhotic patients, focusing on limited or small hepatectomy. The data of 73 cirrhotic patients with HCC who underwent limited or small hepatectomy were analyzed. Limited or small hepatectomy was defined as hepatectomy equal to or of less than subsegmentectomy. We compared the clinicopathological factors between patients with and without postoperative refractory ascites. Fourteen cirrhotic patients suffered postoperative refractory ascites. Total cholesterol, duration of operation, duration of Pringle maneuver, resection of segment VII, intraoperative blood loss, and intraoperative blood transfusion were found to be significant risk factors for postoperative refractory ascites in univariate analyses. Multivariate analysis revealed that resection of segment VII was an independent risk factor. Resection of segment VII necessitates extensive dissection of the right triangular or coronary ligaments, which could explain that it was an independent risk factor for post-hepatectomy refractory ascites. Surgeons should avoid extensive dissection of these ligaments in order to avoid this detrimental complication. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Ascites Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Identifies Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Cirrhosis. (United States)

    Cullaro, Giuseppe; Kim, Grace; Pereira, Marcus R; Brown, Robert S; Verna, Elizabeth C


    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker of both tissue injury and infection. Urine NGAL levels strongly predict acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but ascites NGAL is not well characterized. We hypothesized that ascites NGAL level is a marker of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and mortality risk in patients with cirrhosis. Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites undergoing diagnostic paracentesis were prospectively enrolled and followed until death or discharge. Patients with secondary peritonitis, prior transplantation, or active colitis were excluded. NGAL was measured in the ascites and serum. Ascites NGAL level was evaluated as a marker of SBP (defined as ascites absolute neutrophil count > 250 cells/mm 3 ) and predictor of in-patient mortality. A total of 146 patients were enrolled, and of these, 29 patients (20%) had SBP. Baseline characteristics were similar between subjects with and without SBP. Median (IQR) ascites NGAL was significantly higher in patients with SBP compared to those without SBP (221.3 [145.9-392.9] vs. 139.2 [73.9-237.2], p peritonitis in hospitalized patient with cirrhosis and an independent predictor of short-term in-hospital mortality, even controlling for SBP and MELD.

  9. Tolvaptan regulates aquaporin-2 and fecal water in cirrhotic rats with ascites. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Chen, Ren-Pin; Lin, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Wen-You; Huang, Xie-Lin; Huang, Zhi-Ming


    To investigate the role of tolvaptan in regulating aquaporin (AQP)-2 expression and fecal water content in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Cirrhosis with ascites was induced in rats by repetitive dorsal injection of CCl4 for 14 wk. In total, 84 cirrhotic rats with ascites divided into three groups (vehicle, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg tolvaptan), and then further divided into five subgroups (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Blood samples were obtained to measure vasopressin and sodium concentrations. Rats were killed and colonic mucosa was scraped for analysis of protein expression and AQP-2 transcriptional level. The whole layer was fixed for hematoxylin&eosin (HE) staining and feces were collected for determination of fecal water content. Compared with vehicle, vasopressin decreased significantly in the tolvaptan groups from day 2 to a similar level in each treatment group. AQP-2 showed significant upregulation in cirrhotic rats with ascites compared with an untreated control group (100% ± 22.9% vs 22.2% ± 10.23%, P tolvaptan, AQP-2 expression began to decrease significantly from day 2 in each treatment group, but no significant difference was finally found between the treatment groups. Fecal water content in the distal colon was increased by 5 mg/kg tolvaptan on day 1 (66.8% ± 9.3% vs 41.4% ± 6.3%, in the vehicle group, P tolvaptan. Upregulation of AQP-2 in the distal colon is found in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Tolvaptan inhibits its expression and may decrease water reabsorption and induce diarrhea.

  10. Tolvaptan is effective in treating patients with refractory ascites due to cirrhosis. (United States)

    Tahara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kiyoto; Mochizuki, Mari; Ishiyama, Ryoko; Noda, Marin; Hoshi, Hitomi; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Shinozaki, Satoshi


    The treatment of refractory ascites due to cirrhosis is a clinical challenge for hepatologists. Tolvaptan, a novel aquaporin modulator, was made available in Japan in 2013 for the treatment of patients with refractory ascites due to cirrhosis. Despite the potential of this drug, few reports are available regarding its clinical use. The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of tolvaptan in patients with refractory ascites due to cirrhosis and to review the clinical outcomes of treatment. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 65 patients with refractory ascites due to cirrhosis who were treated daily with 7.5 mg tolvaptan. The median follow-up time, defined as the period between starting tolvaptan and the last clinic visit or date of mortality, was 175 days (interquartile range 56-406). After one week of tolvaptan treatment, the mean weight reduction was 3.4 kg, with a response rate of 69% (45/65). Subsequently, factors associated with the response to tolvaptan were analyzed. On univariate analysis, maintaining serum sodium (Na) ≥140 mEq/l and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥55 ml/min were significant predictors of response (Ptolvaptan was a predictor of long-term survival (P=0.002), and hyperbilirubinemia was associated with short-term survival (P=0.028). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test indicated longer survival times in tolvaptan responders than non-responders (P=0.011). In conclusion, tolvaptan was effective in treating patients with refractory ascites due to cirrhosis. In particular, tolvaptan treatment was highly effective for patients with hepatitis C virus etiology and normal serum Na and renal function. Furthermore, response to tolvaptan was associated with longer survival time while hyperbilirubinemia was associated with shorter survival time.

  11. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for symptomatic uterine adenomyosis: initial experience. (United States)

    Hai, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ruifang; Han, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Fang Yi


    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and technical efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for adenomyosis. Between May 2015 and May 2016, a total of 25 patients with symptomatic adenomyosis who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites were included in this retrospective study. A matching cohort of 50 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation without artificial ascites as controls. The technical efficacy, complications and short-term treatment effectiveness were assessed and compared with the controls. Artificial ascites was successfully achieved in all of the 25 patients with the administration of a median of 550 mL (range, 250-1200 mL) of solution. There was substantial improvement in achieving a better antenna path in 100% (20/20) of the cases with a poor antenna path. The complete separation was achieved in 23 of 25 patients. The mean ablation time was 26.5 ± 7.3 min and the median non-perfusion volume ratio was 76% which was similar to the control group (p > .05). No serious complications were observed. Patient pain scores for dysmenorrhoea showed a statistically significant decline from the baseline of 6.71 ± 0.96 to 2.92 ± 0.79 and the symptom severity score declined statistically significantly from 21.8 ± 5.5 to 16.4 ± 4.8 at 3 months follow-up. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites is feasible, safe and can be effective in improving access for treatment of adenomyosis.

  12. Ascites interferes with the activity of lurbinectedin and trabectedin: Potential role of their binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. (United States)

    Erba, E; Romano, M; Gobbi, M; Zucchetti, M; Ferrari, M; Matteo, C; Panini, N; Colmegna, B; Caratti, G; Porcu, L; Fruscio, R; Perlangeli, M V; Mezzanzanica, D; Lorusso, D; Raspagliesi, F; D'Incalci, M


    Trabectedin and its analogue lurbinectedin are effective drugs used in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Since the presence of ascites is a frequent event in advanced ovarian cancer we asked the question whether ascites could modify the activity of these compounds against ovarian cancer cells. The cytotoxicity induced by trabectedin or lurbinectedin against A2780, OVCAR-5 cell lines or primary culture of human ovarian cancer cells was compared by performing treatment in regular medium or in ascites taken from either nude mice or ovarian cancer patients. Ascites completely abolished the activity of lurbinectedin at up to 10nM (in regular medium corresponds to the IC90), strongly reduced that of trabectedin, inhibited the cellular uptake of lurbinectedin and, to a lesser extent, that of trabectedin. Since α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is present in ascites at relatively high concentrations, we tested if the binding of the drugs to this protein could be responsible for the reduction of their activity. Adding AGP to the medium at concentration range of those found in ascites, we reproduced the anticytotoxic effect of ascites. Erythromycin partially restored the activity of the drugs, presumably by displacing them from AGP. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that both drugs bind AGP, but the affinity of binding of lurbinectedin was much greater than that of trabectedin. KD values are 8±1.7 and 87±14nM for lurbinectedin and trabectedin, respectively. The studies intimate the possibility that AGP present in ascites might reduce the activity of lurbinectedin and to a lesser extent of trabectedin against ovarian cancer cells present in ascites. AGP plasma levels could influence the distribution of these drugs and thus they should be monitored in patients receiving these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver failure after transarterial chemoembolization for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and ascites: incidence, risk factors, and prognostic prediction. (United States)

    Hsin, I-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Chiang, Jen-Huey; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Shou-Dong


    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is widely used in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Post-TACE liver failure may occur, especially in patients with poor hepatic reserve. Ascites is often present in patients with HCC with coexisting cirrhosis. This study investigated the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic predictors in patients with HCC and ascites receiving TACE. A total of 614 patients with HCC were enrolled and analyzed. Liver failure was defined as an increase of serum bilirubin level (≥2.0 mg/dL), increasing or newly developed ascites, or hepatic encephalopathy within 2 weeks of TACE. Ascites that were present in 100 (16.2%) patients at study entry, independently predicted a poor prognosis in the Cox proportional hazard model [relative risk (RR)=1.75, P=0.004]. Post-TACE liver failure occurred in 17 (17.3%) of 98 patients with HCC who had ascites and long-term follow-up. Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B (odds ratio=10.1, P=0.038) and post-TACE gastrointestinal bleeding (odds ratio=10.86, P=0.006) were independent risk factors associated with liver failure in the multivariate analysis. Of the 17 patients with post-TACE liver failure, 16 (94%) died within the first year of treatment. Liver failure (RR: 2.13, P=0.029), serum α-fetoprotein level >51 ng/mL (RR=2.0, P=0.013) and poor performance status (RR: 2.17, P=0.003) independently predicted a poor prognosis in patients with ascites receiving TACE. Preexisting ascites increases the mortality in patients with HCC receiving TACE. In patients with HCC and ascites, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B and gastrointestinal bleeding are associated with liver failure after TACE. Post-TACE liver failure is a common event and predicts a decreased survival in patients with HCC and ascites.

  14. Spontaneous resolution of chylous ascites following delivery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babic Inas


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chyloascites or chyloperitoneum, which can be caused by different factors, is a process of eruption of one or many lymphatic vessels spontaneously. Malignant processes, inflammation or trauma can cause a sudden burst in a lymphatic vessel which will lead to a collection of milky fluid in any space of the human body with the abdominal cavity being the most common location. Chyloperitoneum is rare during pregnancy and this case is the fifth described worldwide. Case presentation We describe a case of chyloascitis in a 27-year-old primigravida Middle Eastern woman, found coincidentally during cesarean section. Free fluid was found in the abdominal cavity with no source of trauma or masses. An abdominal drain remained in situ for six days. The milky fluid was sent for biochemical analysis and found to be positive for triglycerides. Her postoperative course was uneventful. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was negative for fluid collection, tumors or other lesions. While this is the fifth case of chylous ascitis associated with pregnancy, it is the second found to be spontaneous with no obvious cause described to date. Conclusion Chylous ascitis is not always associated with tumors, inflammation or trauma. It can, although rarely, be associated with pregnancy. The course of pregnancy is usually uncomplicated in the cases published to date. This fifth case serves as a reminder for obstetricians, when presented with similar findings, to consider chylous ascitis as one of the differential diagnoses. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is vital for improved outcomes for the mother and the fetus.

  15. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  16. What Expands in an Expanding Universe? (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas


    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  17. Impaired free water excretion in child C cirrhosis and ascites: relations to distal tubular function and the vasopressin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, A.; Møller, S.; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard


    Abstract Background: Water retention in advanced cirrhosis and ascites may involve disturbances in renal distal tubular function and in the vasopressin system. Methods: Twelve patients with Child B cirrhosis and ascites were compared with 11 patients with Child C cirrhosis and ascites. The subjects...... were studied during a 400 ml/h oral water load. Results: Child C patients had a lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (32 vs 63 ml/min, Purinary flow rate (V(u)) (0.86 vs 1.95 ml/min, P


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova


    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the functional activity of natural killer cells in peripheral blood and ascites from patients with different stages of colorectal and ovarian cancers and benign ovarian tumors. Material and methods. The study included 10 patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer (FIGO, 2009, 5 patients with benign ovarian tumors (BOTs, and 15 patients with colorectal cancer (T2–4N0–2M0 . The control group consisted of 5 healthy donors. To evaluate the number and functional activity of NK-cells in peripheral blood and ascites, the FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer was used. Results. In peripheral blood of patients with ovarian and colorectal cancers, the relative number of activated NK-cells capable of secreting granzyme B (GB (CD56 + CD107a + GB + PF- was significantly lower and the proportion of degranulated NK-cells (CD56 + CD107a + GB- PF- was higher than those of healthy donors. Low total NK-cell counts in peripheral blood were a distinctive feature of ovarian cancer patients (p<0.05. The proportion of activated peripheral blood NK-cells, containing granules of cytolytic enzymes GB and perforin (PF increased with tumor growth. However, lymph node metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer did not affect the level and activation of NK-cells. The comparative analysis of NK-populations in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors revealed that the level of CD56 + cells was significantly higher in tumor ascites compared to peripheral blood. In patients with BTs, the levels of CD56 + CD107a + and activated CD56 + CD107a + GB-PF-degranulated cells was higher in ascites than in blood. In patients with ovarian cancer, the level of degranulated cells was higher in peripheral blood than in malignant ascites. Conclusion. The tumor cells and tumor microenvironment were found to affect the number and the functional activity of NK-cells. The accumulation of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity in patients with both benign and malignant

  19. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers. (United States)

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H


    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study

  20. Layouts of Expander Graphs


    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.


    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  1. Isolation and characterization of tumor cells from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients: molecular phenotype of chemoresistant ovarian tumors.

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    Ardian Latifi

    Full Text Available Tumor cells in ascites are a major source of disease recurrence in ovarian cancer patients. In an attempt to identify and profile the population of ascites cells obtained from ovarian cancer patients, a novel method was developed to separate adherent (AD and non-adherent (NAD cells in culture. Twenty-five patients were recruited to this study; 11 chemonaive (CN and 14 chemoresistant (CR. AD cells from both CN and CR patients exhibited mesenchymal morphology with an antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. Conversely, NAD cells had an epithelial morphology with enhanced expression of cancer antigen 125 (CA125, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and cytokeratin 7. NAD cells developed infiltrating tumors and ascites within 12-14 weeks after intraperitoneal (i.p. injections into nude mice, whereas AD cells remained non-tumorigenic for up to 20 weeks. Subsequent comparison of selective epithelial, mesenchymal and cancer stem cell (CSC markers between AD and NAD populations of CN and CR patients demonstrated an enhanced trend in mRNA expression of E-cadherin, EpCAM, STAT3 and Oct4 in the NAD population of CR patients. A similar trend of enhanced mRNA expression of CD44, MMP9 and Oct4 was observed in the AD population of CR patients. Hence, using a novel purification method we demonstrate for the first time a distinct separation of ascites cells into epithelial tumorigenic and mesenchymal non-tumorigenic populations. We also demonstrate that cells from the ascites of CR patients are predominantly epithelial and show a trend towards increased mRNA expression of genes associated with CSCs, compared to cells isolated from the ascites of CN patients. As the tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian cancer patients play a dominant role in disease recurrence, a thorough understanding of the biology of the ascites microenvironment from CR and CN patients is essential for effective therapeutic interventions.

  2. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira


    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.

  3. A case of the yellow nail syndrome associated with massive chylous ascites, pleural and pericardial effusions. (United States)

    Malek, N P; Ocran, K; Tietge, U J; Maschek, H; Gratz, K F; Trautwein, C; Wagner, S; Manns, M P


    A 26-year-old male patient with a history of chronic peripheral lymphedema, yellowish coloured slow growing nails and pleural effusions since early childhood is described. After 23 years he developed a chylous ascites and scintigraphy with technetium-99m labeled albumin clearly demonstrated a diffuse protein loss involving the whole jejunum and ileum. Subsequent jejunal and duodenal biopsies showed the typical histological findings of intestinal lymphangiectasia thereby confirming a diffuse intestinal lymphatic damage. In addition to the gastrointestional symptoms the patient developed a pericardial effusion diagnosed by echocardiographic imaging. Dietary treatment with middle chained triglycerides and intravenous human albumin supplementation was followed by the reduction of the ascites and improvement of the peripheral lymphedema. To our knowledge this is the first description of the yellow nail syndrome associated with a diffuse lymphangiectasia involving the whole small bowel.

  4. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aseptic Ascites in a 2-Year-Old Child

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    J. F. Moreau


    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare inherited immunodeficiency syndrome that results from abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase function. This defect leads to recurrent catalase-positive bacterial and fungal infections as well as associated granuloma formation. We review the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with ascites and fever of an unknown origin as manifestations of CGD. Cultures were negative for infection throughout his course, and CGD was suspected after identification of granulomas on peritoneal biopsy. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the CYBB gene underlying his condition. This paper highlights the importance of considering CGD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and ascites in children.

  5. Delayed-Onset Chylous Ascites After a Living-Donor Liver Transplant: First Case Successfully Treated With Conservative Treatment? (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Han; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lu, Min-Chi; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Yin, Wen-Yao


    Chylous ascites is a rare complication in liver transplant. Few cases have been reported to date. In most cases, chylous ascites is diagnosed within 1 month after surgery because of intraoperative injury of the hilar lymphatic system. Preoperative massive ascites and use of a LigaSure vessel sealing system for hilar dissection have been reported as risk factors. We report a case of chylous ascites after a living-donor liver transplant that was diagnosed after 6 months of uneventful follow-up. Sirolimus was added to cyclosporine early (2 wk after the operation) owing to poor renal function and it was found to be high (> 22 ng/mL) when the chylous ascites occurred. The patient was treated with total parenteral nutrition in combination with Sandostatin and rapid tapering of sirolimus after the failed initial conservative treatment. Residual abdominal fullness after meals and lymphedema of the legs disappeared 1 month after discontinuing sirolimus. This is the first case of delayed-onset chylous ascites after a liver transplant that was successfully treated conservatively.

  6. Do vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists benefit cirrhotics with refractory ascites?


    Fukui, Hiroshi


    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication of advanced cirrhosis with ascites associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by an impairment in the renal capacity to eliminate solute-free water and is considered to be related to persistent secretion of vasopressin despite low serum osmolality. This nonosmotic release of vasopressin is mediated by the autonomic nervous system, which senses the underfilling of arterial vascular component. This reduction of effective arterial bloo...

  7. The effects of midodrine on the natriuretic response to furosemide in cirrhotics with ascites (United States)

    Misra, V. L.; Vuppalanchi, R.; Jones, D.; Hamman, M.; Kwo, P. Y.; Kahi, C.; Chalasani, N.


    SUMMARY Background Resistance to loop diuretics is common in patients with ascites. Diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is thought to mediate resistance to loop diuretics. Midodrine, a commonly used alpha-1 agonist, has been shown to improve GFR in non-azotemic patients with cirrhosis. Aim To conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to test the hypothesis that midodrine significantly increases natriuretic response of IV furosemide in non-azotemic cirrhotics with ascites. Methods All subjects participated in both phases, which were (i) furosemide IV infusion + oral midodrine 15 mg administered 30 min before furosemide (ii) furosemide IV infusion + oral placebo administered 30 min before furosemide. Primary outcomes were 6-h urine sodium excretion and 6-h total urine volume. Results A total of 15 patients (men: 8; age: 52.7 ± 7.6 years; serum creatinine: 1.06 ± 0.2 mg/dL) were studied. Total 6-h urine sodium excretion was 109 ± 42 mmol in the furosemide + midodrine treatment phase and was not significantly different from that in the furosemide + placebo treatment phase (126 ± 69 mmol, P = 0.6). Similarly, mean 6-h total urine volume was not significantly different between two groups (1770 ± 262 mL vs. 1962 ± 170 mL, P = 0.25). Conclusions Oral midodrine does not increase the natriuretic response to furosemide in non-azotemic cirrhotic patients with ascites. Orally administered midodrine does not increase natriuretic response to furosemide in non-azotemic cirrhotic patients with ascites. PMID:20937051

  8. The value of sonographic gallbladder wall patterns in differentiating malignant from benign ascites

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    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Hae Won; Lee, Young Uk; Oh, Won Ja [Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This investigation evaluates whether the appearance and thickness of the gallbladder (GB) wall can be clinically useful to determine the etiology of ascites by ultrasonography. Another purpose of this study is to verify the existence of statistically significant relationship between GB wall patterns and serum albumin level. Findings on ultrasonogram were reviewed retrospectively in 90 patients with ascites. The statistical analysis of the results reveals no correlation between hypoalbuminemia and GB wall patterns (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in GB wall patterns between benign (group 1 and 2) and malignant (group 3 and 4) conditions (P>0.05). The carcinoma, with the exception of hepatocellular the gallbladder wall was significantly thicker in the cirrhosis brougs than in the malignant group. Twenty-seven patients (87%) in group 1 had thickened GB walls, whereas 16 patients (76%) in group 3 showed normal single layered GB walls. This difference was statistically significant (P>0.05). However no statistically significant difference was found between liver cirrhosis (group 1) and liver cirrhosis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (group 4) (P>0.05). Also, with the except of hepatocellular carcinoma (group 3) there also was no significant difference found between benign noncirrhotic pathology (group 2) and malignancy. These results suggests that there is a distant sonographic appearance of the GB wall according to different ascitis etiologies. This can pathology be seen when comparing patients with liver carrhosis and malignancy other than hepatocellular carcinoma. However sonographic findings of the GB wall patterns in ascites lacks diagnostic value in differentiating benign from malignant disease causing ascites.

  9. Peritonite meconial como diagnóstico diferencial de ascite fetal: relato de caso Meconium peritonitis in the differential diagnosis of fetal ascites: a case report

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    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim


    Full Text Available Introdução: a peritonite meconial, como resultado da perfuração intestinal fetal, apresenta baixa incidência (1:30.000 nascimentos e elevada mortalidade (em torno de 50%. Os achados ecográficos pré-natais incluem ascite e calcificações intra-abdominais. Há evidências de que o diagnóstico pré-natal possa melhorar o prognóstico pós-natal. Relato do Caso: R.C.M.S., 22 anos, II gesta O para, realizou ultra-sonografia em 02/12/98 com diagnóstico de ascite fetal. Fez investigação para hidropisia fetal, afastando-se causas imunes e não-imunes. Foram realizados ecografias seriadas em que se manteve a imagem de ascite fetal acentuada, sem calcificações. Parto normal em 02/01/99, com 36 semanas, observando-se volumoso poliidrâmnio. Recém-nascido do sexo feminino pesando 2.670 gramas, com sinais de desconforto respiratório, abdome distendido e com petéquias. Apresentou aumento progressivo da distensão abdominal, palpação de massa pétrea no hipocôndrio direito e eliminação de muco branco ao toque retal. Raios-x em 04/01/99 com imagem de extensas calcificações abdominais, distensão de alças intestinais e ausência de gás na ampola retal. Hipótese diagnóstica de peritonite meconial. Indicada laparotomia exploradora em 04/01/99, encontrando-se volumoso cisto meconial e atresia ileal, realizando-se lise de aderências e ileostomia em dupla boca. Evolução satisfatória nos primeiros dias de pós-operatório, complicada posteriormente por quadro séptico, verificando-se o óbito neonatal em 09/01/99. Conclusão: a peritonite meconial deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial das causas de ascite fetal. O diagnóstico pré-natal no presente caso poderia ter antecipado a indicação cirúrgica, com possível melhora da evolução neonatal.Introduction: meconium peritonitis as result of fetal intestinal perforation has a low incidence (1:30,000 deliveries and high mortality (50% or more. Prenatal ultrasound findings

  10. Monitoring of transtubular potassium gradient in the diuretic management of patients with cirrhosis and ascites. (United States)

    Lim, Young-Suk; Han, Jin Suk; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk


    Aldosterone antagonists are the diuretics of first choice in the treatment of cirrhotic ascites. However, there is still no reliable clinical parameter to evaluate their efficacy. Transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG), the accurate indicator of aldosterone bioactivity, may serve as a guide for the proper use of the aldosterone antagonists. In 23 patients with cirrhotic ascites, the daily administered initial dosage of 100 mg of spironolactone was increased by 100 mg/day at intervals of 5 days until either diuresis commenced or TTKG fell below 3.0, the value indicating complete blockade of aldosterone bioactivity. For the non-responders with TTKG lower than 3.0, furosemide was given in addition to spironolactone. Basal TTKG correlated significantly with plasma aldosterone concentration (r = 0.60, P = 0.002). Spironolactone induced the decrease of TTKG in 20 patients, from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SE, P < 0.001). A TTKG value of 3.0 could classify seven patients, who did not respond to low dose spironolactone, into two distinct groups at that time, indicating different further diuretic regimen. All patients achieved diuretic responses without complication by this TTKG-guided modification of diuretics. TTKG may be a suitable guide for the diuretic management of cirrhotic ascites by accurately reflecting the effect of aldosterone antagonists.

  11. Successful Treatment of Resistant Hypertension Associated Ascites in a Renal Transplant Patient

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    Ižhsan Yildiz


    Full Text Available Transplante renal artery stenosis (TRAS is defined as renal artery diameter reduction of more than 50%, which causes a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and a rise in plasma creatinine concentration. Current treatments are endovascular-balloon-angioplasty and stent implantation. We present the case with renal artery stenosis and ascites was treated with endovascular-balloon-dilatation. A 52-year-old female patient who was admitted to the nephrology clinic five months after the transplantation with blood pressure: 180/110 mmHg, ascites , and the chest radiograph did not show a pulmonary oedema, creatinine: 1.69 mg/dL other laboratory tests were normal. An occlusion of 80 % in a segment and the stenosis was reduced to 10 % by endovascular-balloon dilation. Following endovascular-balloon dilation, arterial blood pressure were normal and no ascites. Endovascular balloon dilation is minimally invasive method that is also successful, contemporary and valid procedures with easy applicability for the management of TRAS.

  12. Bilateral Ovarian Fibrothecoma Associated with Ascites, Bilateral Pleural Effusion, and Marked Elevated Serum CA-125

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    Védi André Serges Loué


    Full Text Available Background. The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in the association of ovarian tumor, ascites, and hydrothorax with the significant elevated tumor marker CA-125. However, this association can be observed in a rare clinical and benign pathological entity, that is Demons-Meigs’ syndrome. Objective. To describe a rare case of Demons-Meigs' syndrome observed in our department. Methods. A black African woman of 35 years old, seventh gravida and fourth parous, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy for large bilateral ovarian masses associated with significant ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and particular highly elevated tumor marker CA-125 (1835 UI/mL in a pronounced general alteration condition. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful characterized by a complete remission of hydrothorax and ascites with normal level of CA-125 three months after tumor excision. Histology of both masses revealed a bilateral ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary, thus confirming the diagnosis of Demons-Meigs’ syndrome. Conclusion. The Demons-Meigs syndrome, although it strongly mimics the clinical picture of malignant metastatic ovarian cancer, remains a disease with benign prognosis after surgical tumor resection. This is a rare condition that must be known and recognized by practitioners to avoid unnecessary practices.

  13. Influência da ascite na avaliação da função pulmonar em portadores de hipertensão portal Influence of ascites in the pulmonary function of patients with portal hypertension

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    Angela Maria Stiefano Nitrini


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A oxigenação inadequada nos pacientes com hipertensão portal pode ser secundária a alterações na mecânica respiratória, determinadas pela presença da ascite. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a função pulmonar de doentes com hipertensão portal antes e após redução do volumeda ascite. Método: Quinze doentes com hipertensão portal e ascite foram submetidos a provas de função pulmonar, constituindo-se de espirometria e gasometria arterial, antes e após redução do volume da ascite. Os parâmetros analisados foram: capacidade vital forçada (CVF; volume expiratório no primeiro segundo (VEF1; fluxo expiratório entre 25 e 75% da CVF (FEF 25-75% ; volume de reserva expiratória (VRE; relação VEF1 / CVF; pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2, pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e saturação arterial de oxigênio (SaO2. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significativa dos volumes pulmonares analisados após a diminuição da ascite com o tratamento diurético associado ou não à paracentese. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que nos doentes com hipertensão portal e ascite, há diminuição dos volumes pulmonares emrelação aos valores preditos, com melhora significativa após diminuição da ascite. Do mesmo modo, observamos aumento na PaO2 e na SaO2.BACKGROUND: Oxygen deficiency in patients with portal hypertension may be secondary to changes in respiratory mechanics due to ascites. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate pulmonary function in patients with portal hypertension before and after reduction of the ascites. METHOD: Fifteen patients with portal hypertension and ascites were submitted to pulmonary function tests, comprising spirometry and arterial blood gas determination, before and after reduction of ascites. The analysed parameters were: forced vital capacity (FVC; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF 25-75%; expiratory reserve volume (ERV; FEV1/CVF; arterial

  14. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum: An effective method to trace the origin of unclear ascites

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    Que Yanhong [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Xuemei [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Liu Yanjun [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Li Ping [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Ou Guocheng [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Zhao Wenjing [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:


    Objectives: Thickened greater omentum is encountered with high frequency in patients with ascites. The purpose of our study was to assess the utility of greater omentum biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound (US) in tracing the origin of unclear ascites and differentiating benign and malignant ascites. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for all records of greater omentum biopsy cases. One hundred and ninety-four patients with unclear ascites and thickened greater omentum were included in the study. The sonograms of greater omentum were evaluated before undergoing the ultrasound-guided biopsy and a biopsy was considered successful if a specific benign or malignant diagnosis was rendered by the pathologist. Results: Successful biopsy was rendered for 182 biopsy procedures (93.8%, 182/194) including tuberculosis (n = 114), chronic inflammation (n = 3), metastases (n = 58), malignant mesothelioma (n = 6) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 1). Twelve biopsies were non-diagnostic. According to the results of biopsy and follow-up, the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascities were respectively 95.6% (65/68) and 92.9% (117/126). The greater omentum of 84 cases of tuberculous peritonitis showed 'cerebral fissure' sign and was well seen as an omental cake infiltrated with irregular nodules when involved by carcinomatosis. No 'cerebral fissure' sign was observed in peritoneal carcinomatosis. The sensitivity and specificity of this sign in indicating the existence of tuberculous peritonitis were 73.5% (89/121) and 100% (73/73). Moreover, if the specific 'cerebral fissure' sign was combined with the biopsy results, the specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascits increased to 96.8% (122/126). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum is an important and effective method to diagnose the unclear ascites for

  15. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario


    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  16. An Approach to Diagnosis and Endovascular Treatment of Refractory Ascites in Liver Transplant: A Pictorial Essay and Clinical Practice Algorithm. (United States)

    Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Fan, Ji


    Recipients of liver transplant are surviving longer as both the surgical procedure and postsurgical care have improved. Despite improvements, serious complications from the procedure remain that significantly affect patient outcome and may result in retransplant. Refractory ascites is one complication, occurring in about 5.6% of transplant recipients. Management of refractory ascites after liver transplant presents a challenge to the multidisciplinary team caring for these patients. We discuss approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplant, based on a literature review, with a primary focus on vascular causes. These approaches are illustrated by case examples highlighting our experiences at an academic tertiary medical center. We propose a clinical practice algorithm for optimal endovascular treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplant. The cornerstone of refractory ascites care is diagnosis and treatment of the cause. Vascular causes are not infrequently encountered and, if not treated early, are associated with graft loss and high morbidity and mortality and are major indications for retransplant. For patients with recurrent disease or graft rejection needing large volume paracentesis, the use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may serve as a bridge to more definitive treatment (retransplant), although it may not be as effective for managing ascites as splenic artery embolization, arguably underused, which is emerging as a potential alternative treatment option. A multidisciplinary strategy for the diagnosis and care of patients with refractory ascites after liver transplant is crucial, with endovascular treatment playing an important role. The aim is for this document to serve as a concise and informative reference to be used by those who may care for patients with this rare yet serious diagnosis.

  17. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy. (United States)

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R


    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  18. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail:; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)


    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova


    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  20. Amniotic fluid (United States)

    ... or movements Too much amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios . This condition can occur with multiple pregnancies (twins ... development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ...

  1. Peritonitis bacteriana espontánea: estudio en pacientes cirróticos descompensados con ascitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated cirrhotic patients with ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya Maya


    . coli y estreptococos del grupo viridans debe tenerse en cuenta para la adecuada selección de la terapia empírica antibacteriana.

    Between February 1993 and March 1994 a prospective descriptive study was carried out in 25 cirrhotic patients (three of them on two occasions with clinical or ultrasonographic ascites; they were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine ward of San Vicente de Paúl Hospital, in Medellín, Colombia, because of decompensation. All of them went through diagnostic paracentesis with cytologic, bacteriologic and chemical studies. Average age was 43.9 years (13 to 77 years, 13 were women (52% and 12 men (48%. Infection of the ascitic fluid was found in 11 cases (39.3%, namely: Bacterascites 6 cases (monomicrobial 3 cases (27.3%, polymicrobial 3 cases (27.3%», spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 3 cases (polymicrobial 2 cases (18.2% and monomicrobial1 case (9.1 %» and neutrocytic ascites 2 cases (18.2%. Seventy two percent of the infectious episodes caused fever (p < 0.01 and in 46% there was abdominal pain (p < 0.1. AII patients with infected ascites belonged to Child's classification C. Serum albumin levellower than 2 g/dl was a risk factor for developing infection. Escherichia coli was cultivated on 5 occasions (45.5%, viridans group of Streptococci in 5 (45.5%, anaerobes in 3 (27.3% and other bacteria in 3 (27.3%. Mortality due to infected ascites was 27.3% (3 cases, comparable to that produced by other causes that was 29.4% (5/17. We conclude that ascitic fluid infection is a common complication in decompensated cirrhotic patients. Thecardinal clinical signs are fever and abdominal pain. The frequent isolation of E. coli and viridans group Streptococci has to be taken into account for the initiation of antibiotic therapy in cases with clinical suspicion.

  2. Expanding the potential of chiral chromatography for high-throughput screening of large compound libraries by means of sub-2μm Whelk-O 1 stationary phase in supercritical fluid conditions. (United States)

    Sciascera, Luca; Ismail, Omar; Ciogli, Alessia; Kotoni, Dorina; Cavazzini, Alberto; Botta, Lorenzo; Szczerba, Ted; Kocergin, Jelena; Villani, Claudio; Gasparrini, Francesco


    With the aim of exploring the potential of ultra-fast chiral chromatography for high-throughput analysis, the new sub-2 micron Whelk-O 1 chiral stationary phase (CSP) has been employed in supercritical fluid conditions to screen 129 racemates, mainly of pharmaceutical interest. By using a 5-cm long column (0.46cm internal diameter), a single co-solvent (MeOH) and a 7-min gradient elution, 85% of acidic and neutral analytes considered in this work have been successfully resolved, with resolution (Rs) larger than 2 in more than 65% of cases. Moreover, almost a half of basic samples that, for their own characteristics, are known to be difficult to separate on Whelk-O 1 CSP, have shown Rs greater than 0.3. The screening of the entire library could be accomplished in less than 24h (single run) with 63% of positive score. For well-resolved enantiomers (Rs roughly included between 1 and 3), we show that method transfer from gradient to isocratic conditions is straightforward. In many cases, isocratic ultra-fast separations (with analysis time smaller than 60s) have been achieved by simply employing, as isocratic mobile phase, the eluent composition at which the second enantiomer was eluted in gradient mode. By considering the extension and variety of the library in terms of chemico-physical and structural properties of compounds and numerousness, we believe that this work demonstrates the real potential of the technique for high-throughput enantioselective screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of entecavir combined with alprostadil in treatment of hepatitis B-related cirrhotic ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Huili


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy of entecavir combined with alprostadil in the treatment of hepatitis B-related cirrhotic ascites. MethodsA total of 100 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhotic ascites who were admitted to Dezhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May 2012 to February 2014 were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 50 patients in each group. The patients in both groups received the liver-protecting treatment, diuretic treatment, and intermittent supplementation of albumin(Alb. Additionally, the patients in the treatment group received oral entecavir 0.5 mg once a day, combined with intravenous infusion of alprostadil 20 μg+5% glucose injection 100 ml once a day, and those in the observation group only received oral entecavir 0.5 mg once a day. The patients were hospitalized and treated for 4 weeks. Ascites regression, changes in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (TBil, Alb, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, and hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA, and prothrombin activity (PTA were observed in both groups. After discharge, the patients in both groups continued to take oral entecavir 0.5 mg once a day, and the long-term therapeutic effect was observed through follow-up for 3 months. The t-test was applied for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThe patients in both groups had varying degrees of reduction in the amount of ascites after treatment, and the treatment group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group (χ2=6.018, P<0.05. The patients in both groups had varying degrees of improvement in each index of liver and renal function (ALT, TBil, Alb, BUN, and Cr and PTA after treatment; the treatment group had a better treatment outcome than the control group, and there were significant differences in each index

  4. Origin of increased deoxycytidine excretion into urine of rats bearing Yoshida ascites sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Fujimura, S.


    The metabolism of deoxycytidine (dCyd) and dCyd nucleotides in Yoshida ascites sarcoma (YS) cells and the host rat liver was investigated with reference to the increased excretion of urinary dCyd. Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid into the livers of rats at the fifth day after the transplantation of YS cells, was 2 times higher than that into the normal rat livers. After the injection of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid, the ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytidylate to uridylate moieties of the host liver RNA was measured and found to be higher than that of normal rat liver RNA and to be similar to that of YS cell RNA. When (/sup 14/C)orotic acid was injected into rats followed by the transplantation of YS cells, the radioactivities present in the livers disappeared more rapidly than those in the control rat livers. The activities of pyrimidine de novo synthesis enzymes, such as cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase, in YS were higher than those in both rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, the transplantations of which did not induce increased excretion of dCyd into urine of the hosts. The activities of dCyd kinase and dCyd deaminase in YS cells were lower than those in the other two tumors investigated. The activities of cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase in the livers of YS-bearing rats were elevated compared with those in the livers of rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974- or Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats and normal rats, while the activities of dCyd kinase, 5'-nucleotidase, and dCyd deaminase were similar between normal rat livers and tumor-bearing rat livers.

  5. Clinical efficacy of tolvaptan for treatment of refractory ascites in liver cirrhosis patients. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Zheng, Jun-Fu; Zhao, Wen-Min; Li, Peng; Fan, Chun-Lei; Li, Bing; Dong, Pei-Ling; Li, Lei; Ding, Hui-Guo


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan to treat refractory ascites in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients with or without further complications, such as hepatorenal syndrome and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 55 years, males: 32) with decompensated liver cirrhosis and refractory ascites were enrolled. All patients received a combination of tolvaptan (15 mg/d for 5-14 d) and diuretics (40-80 mg/d of furosemide and 80-160 mg/d of spironolactone). The etiology of cirrhosis included hepatitis B (69.2%), hepatitis C (7.7%) and alcohol-induced (23.1%). Changes in the urine excretion volume, abdominal circumference and edema were assessed. The serum sodium levels were also measured, and adverse events were recorded. A follow-up assessment was conducted 1 mo after treatment with tolvaptan. Tolvaptan increased the mean urine excretion volume (1969.2 ± 355.55 mL vs 3410.3 ± 974.1 mL, P tolvaptan in all patients was 89.7%; the efficacies in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatorenal syndrome were 84.2% and 77.8%, respectively. The incidence of hyponatremia was 53.8%. In patients with hyponatremia, the serum sodium levels increased after tolvaptan treatment (from 128.1 ± 4.22 mEq/L vs 133.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L, P Tolvaptan is a promising aquaretic for the treatment of refractory ascites in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.

  6. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms. (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon


    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of persistent urogenital sinus with duplicated hydrometrocolpos and ascites--a case report. (United States)

    Pauleta, Joana; Melo, Maria Antonieta; Borges, Gertrudes; Carvalho, Rui; Marques, João Paulo; Dupont, Juliette; Monteiro, Cecília Pardal; Graça, Luís Mendes


    We report a successful case of persistent urogenital sinus associated with a duplicated nonsyndromic form of hydrometrocolpos and ascites diagnosed prenatally. Though urogenital malformations are extremely rare and variable in presentation, the conjugation of those anomalies in a newborn is reported here for the first time. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis was suspected at 25 weeks' gestation and MRI imaging supported the diagnosis. Periodic ultrasound surveillance was conducted until birth at 35 weeks' gestation by cesarean section. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed after birth. One month later, the newborn underwent reconstructive surgical intervention with good outcome. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Peritoneovenous shunt in treatment of ascites in patients with cirrhosis. A preliminary report with special reference to pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Malchow-Møller, A; Ring-Larsen, H


    Peritoneovenous shunts (LeVeen type) were implanted in seven patients with cirrhosis complicated by ascites refractory to diuretic treatment. Three patients died of gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic coma 1 to 7 weeks after the shunt implantation. The patients who died were those with the most...... severely impaired liver and kidney function. In two of the four surviving patients (observation time, 5-24 months) the shunt was patent during the observation time, and ascites disappeared. In the other two the shunt closed, in one patient repeatedly following several re-implantations. Enhanced urinary...... sodium excretion was observed in patients with patent shunts. After disappearance of ascites, the splanchnic venous pressures became less deranged. Long-term change in plasma volume or circulating albumin mass could not be detected. A patent shunt increases the drainage from the peritoneal cavity...

  9. The Denver Tube Combined with Antiviral Drugs In the Treatment of HBV-related Cirrhosis with Refractory Ascites: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-jin


    Full Text Available Treatment of nucleos(tide antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis can significantly improve the prognosis. But those patients with refractory ascites possibly deteriorate due to the complications of ascites before any benefit from anti-viral drugs could be observed. Therefore, it is important to find a way to help the patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and refractory ascites to receive the full benefits from antiviral therapy. Peritoneovenous shunt (PVS using Denver tube enables ascites to continuously bypass into systemic circulation, thereby reducing ascites and albumin input and improving quality of life. We report herein 3 cases of decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites, PVS using Denver tube was combined with lamivudine for antiviral treatment before and after. Then, ascites was alleviated significantly or disapeared and viral responsed well. All patients achieved a satisfactory long-term survival from 6.7 to 14.7 years. It was suggested that the Denver shunt could be used as an adjuvant method to antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites to help the patients reap the full benefits and maximize efficacy of antiviral treatment.

  10. Interaction among two subpopulations of Ehrlich ascites tumor in vivo: evidence of a contact mediated immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, K; Vindeløv, L L; Skovsgaard, T


    .15) on a fast growing subpopulation (E1.95) was demonstrated only when the cells had contact during solid tumor growth. The effect was dependent on the relative proportion of the suppressing cell line. An identical effect was exerted by radiation killed inhibitor cells. The inhibition was only transient....... If the tumor cell lines were grown intraperitoneally as ascites tumors without cellular contact, no interaction was found using flow cytometric DNA analysis to determine alterations in the relative proportions of the cell lines. Ascites from the inhibitor cell line E1.15 had no inhibitory effect on E1.95. Pre...

  11. The ratio of calprotectin to total protein as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. (United States)

    Lutz, Philipp; Pfarr, Kenneth; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Krämer, Benjamin; Goeser, Felix; Glässner, Andreas; Wolter, Franziska; Kokordelis, Pavlos; Nattermann, Jacob; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Hoerauf, Achim; Strassburg, Christian P; Spengler, Ulrich


    Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is based on a differential ascites leukocyte count which does not provide prognostic information. We performed a pilot study to assess calprotectin in ascites as an alternative diagnostic and prognostic marker. We collected ascites from patients with liver cirrhosis from March 2012 to July 2013. Routine clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded. Ascites calprotectin levels were determined by ELISA. Overall, we collected 120 ascites samples from 100 patients with liver cirrhosis and from eight patients with malignant peritoneal effusion as disease control. Samples without infection had significantly lower calprotectin levels (median 34 ng/mL, range 5-795) than SBP samples (median 928 ng/mL, range 21-110,480; pmarker for SBP than calprotectin alone (AUROC=0.93; pdiagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with liver cirrhosis and SBP and should be evaluated further.

  12. Expandable LED array interconnect (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd


    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  13. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  14. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo. (United States)

    Patra, Satyajit; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram


    Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract.

  15. Antineoplastic activity of poly(L-lysine) with some ascites tumor cells. (United States)

    Arnold, L J; Dagan, A; Gutheil, J; Kaplan, N O


    We have found that poly(L-lysine) can be a very effective agent in preventing the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumors in mice. When given optimal doses of poly(L-lysine) (Mr 60 x 10(3)) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days, beginning on day 1 after inoculation with Ehrlich ascites cells. White Swiss mice show nearly a 100% remission from subsequent tumor growth. Rechallenge of "cured" animals with tumor cells, however shows no long-term immunological protection. In tissue culture, poly(L-lysine) shows a related potent cytotoxicity with HeLa cells; interestingly, the D isomer. In addition, there is a strong molecular weight dependence in that the small polylysine (Mr 3 x 10(3)) possesses less than 1/20th the cytotoxicity of large polymers (Mr 70 x 10(3)) on a weight basis in both cell culture and animal studies. At the same time, none of these lysine polymers gives any significant increase in life span to BDF1 mice infected with L1210 murine leukemia cells. We have also further explored the mechanism by which the polylysines express their cytotoxicity. These data indicate that lysine polymers show cell specificity in their action and in some cases they may be beneficial as potent antineoplastic agents, particularly when molecular weight is taken into consideration. PMID:291000

  16. [The inhibitory effects of Realgar bioleaching solution on S180 ascites-tumor and its toxicity]. (United States)

    Xie, Qin-Jian; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Bai, Lu; Li, Hong-Yu


    To investigate the inhibitory effect of Realgar bioleaching solution (RBS) on tumor S180 cells line and estimate its toxicity, to provide experimental evidence for the further exploit of Realgar. 24 hours after the models of ascites-tumor bearing mice were established, the mice were injected RBS once a day. The survival rates of S180 ascites-tumor bearing mice injected in RBS was studied, and the RBS acute toxicity of mice produced by oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous was evaluated by Drug Median Lethal Dose (LD50). The inhibitory effect of S180 cells in vivo had a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of mice were 10% - 60% in the different dose in 15 days. The LD50 values of RBS by oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous were 5.27 mg/kg, 3.63 mg/kg and 2.68 mg/kg, respectively. RBS has potent antitumor effect, LD50 value of RBS is lower than that of traditional medicine.

  17. Unique proteome signature of post-chemotherapy ovarian cancer ascites-derived tumor cells (United States)

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Greening, David; Samardzija, Chantel; Escalona, Ruth M.; Chen, Maoshan; Findlay, Jock K.; Kannourakis, George


    Eighty % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed at an advanced-stage have complete remission after initial surgery and chemotherapy. However, most patients die within <5 years due to episodes of recurrences resulting from the growth of residual chemoresistant cells. In an effort to identify mechanisms associated with chemoresistance and recurrence, we compared the expression of proteins in ascites-derived tumor cells isolated from advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients obtained at diagnosis (chemonaive, CN) and after chemotherapy treatments (chemoresistant/at recurrence, CR) by using in-depth, high-resolution label-free quantitative proteomic profiling. A total of 2,999 proteins were identified. Using a stringent selection criterion to define only significantly differentially expressed proteins, we report identification of 353 proteins. There were significant differences in proteins encoding for immune surveillance, DNA repair mechanisms, cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle pathways, cellular transport, and proteins involved with glycine/proline/arginine synthesis in tumor cells isolated from CR relative to CN patients. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and energy metabolism pathways in CR tumor cells. In conclusion, this is the first proteomics study to comprehensively analyze ascites-derived tumor cells from CN and CR ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27470985

  18. Humanized mouse model of ovarian cancer recapitulates patient solid tumor progression, ascites formation, and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Bankert

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological cancer. Understanding the biology of this disease, particularly how tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts contribute to the progression and metastasis of the tumor, has been impeded by the lack of a suitable tumor xenograft model. We report a simple and reproducible system in which the tumor and tumor stroma are successfully engrafted into NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null (NSG mice. This is achieved by injecting tumor cell aggregates derived from fresh ovarian tumor biopsy tissues (including tumor cells, and tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts i.p. into NSG mice. Tumor progression in these mice closely parallels many of the events that are observed in ovarian cancer patients. Tumors establish in the omentum, ovaries, liver, spleen, uterus, and pancreas. Tumor growth is initially very slow and progressive within the peritoneal cavity with an ultimate development of tumor ascites, spontaneous metastasis to the lung, increasing serum and ascites levels of CA125, and the retention of tumor-associated human fibroblasts and lymphocytes that remain functional and responsive to cytokines for prolonged periods. With this model one will be able to determine how fibroblasts and lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment may contribute to tumor growth and metastasis, and will make it possible to evaluate the efficacy of therapies that are designed to target these cells in the tumor stroma.

  19. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  20. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi


    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  1. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin


    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  2. Characterization of Poly(A)-Protein Complexes Isolated from Free and Membrane-Bound Polyribosomes of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Counotte-Potman, Anda D.; Venrooij, Walther J. van


    Proteins present in messenger ribonucleoprotein particles were labeled with [35S]-methionine in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in which synthesis of new ribosomes was inhibited. Poly(A)-protein complexes were isolated from free and membrane-bound polyribosomes by sucrose gradient centrifugation and

  3. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira


    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.Camundongos infectados com 60 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni tomaram-se mais resistentes ao sarcoma 180 na forma de tumor ascítico. A inoculação das células tumorais foi feita no 50º dia de infecção e a evolução do tumor foi acompanhada através dapesagem dos animais com intervalos de 48 horas. Nos camundongos infectados o ganho de peso (formação da ascite começou mais tarde e foi menor do que nos controles não infectados. Também o número de células tumorais na cavidade peritoneal 72 horas após a implantação do tumor foi menor no grupo infectado. Este aumento de resistência a um tumor transplantávelpossivelmente está relacionado ao efeito de endotoxinas sobre a atividade tumoricida dos macrofagos ativados pela infecção. A imunossupressão induzida pela infecção favorece a proliferação de bactérias da flora endógena aumentando a quantidade de endotoxinas absorvidas pelo intestino.

  4. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, Helmer; Lassen, N A


    was on the average 0.22 of that of plasma and directly correlated to the plasma concentration (rlin = 0.68, P less than 0.01). The hydrostatic pressure difference across the splanchnic microvasculature (assessed as wedged hepatic vein minus inferior vena caval pressure) was directly correlated to the effective...

  5. Congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with imperforate hymen causing fetal urinary ascites and abdominal cystic lesions: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ohno


    Full Text Available A primipara presented to our hospital due to fetal ascites, bilateral hydronephrosis and hydrometrocolpos. The female baby had two giant abdominal cysts, a single atrium and foot polydactyly. Absence of the vaginal orifice was noticed, and the hymen was broken through; the left cyst collapsed after fluid drainage. The right cyst was punctured and drained, which improved the hydronephrosis. Contrast imaging showed medium pouring into the abdominal cavity via the uterine tube; the right cyst was a 6 × 5 cm closed cavity. Vaginal uroplania persisted even after hospital discharge. At the age of 4 years, cystoscopy showed a fistulous opening on the urethra 5 mm distal from the internal urethral orifice. A catheter inserted via the opening was found in the vagina. In our case, urine poured into the abdominal cavity through the fistula and uterine tube; following obstruction of the uterine tube, giant hydrometrocolpos and hydrosalpinx appeared. Three cases of congenital urethrovaginal fistula (CUVF with imperforate hymen have been reported. A remnant of communication between the uterovaginal primordium and urogenital sinus may be responsible for CUVF.

  6. Fluid Mechanics. (United States)

    Drazin, Philip


    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  7. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius


    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  8. In vitro NMR proton"/> measurements in peritoneal ascites (United States)

    Yilmaz, A.; Tez, M.; Göral, V.; Boylu, S.; Kaplan, A.; Kavak, G.


    The proton spin - lattice relaxation rate" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant and non-malignant ascites was measured with an FT NMR spectrometer operating at 60 MHz. The mean relaxation rate in non-malignant ascites was significantly smaller than that of malignant ascites. However, the" ALIGN="TOP"/> of malignant ascites overlaps with that of non-malignant ascites over all concentrations of total protein (TP) in samples. The" ALIGN="TOP"/> in non-malignant ascites correlates strongly with TP, whilst the" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant ascites shows only a moderate correlation." ALIGN="TOP"/> measurements before and after addition of ascorbic acid (reductant) suggest that there is a small paramagnetic contribution of ions to the" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant ascites. The least-squares fitting of" ALIGN="TOP"/> versus TP for non-malignant data gives a linear relationship, and suggests that the" ALIGN="TOP"/> mechanism in non-malignant ascites is caused by a fast chemical exchange of water molecules between protein-bound water and free water.

  9. Immunological changes in the ascites of cancer patients after intraperitoneal administration of the bispecific antibody catumaxomab (anti-EpCAM×anti-CD3). (United States)

    Fossati, Marco; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Monego, Giovanni; Catzola, Valentina; Scambia, Giovanni; Fattorossi, Andrea; Battaglia, Alessandra


    To explore the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion of catumaxomab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody (anti-EpCAM×anti-CD3), on T cells, NK cells and macrophages in ascites of cancer patients and to understand how ascitic immune cells can be activated despite the pervasive immunosuppressive ability of ascites microenvironment. Six patients with malignant ascites received i.p. catumaxomab infusion. Ascitic immune cells were profiled by flow cytometry and gene expression at baseline and after i.p. catumaxomab infusion. In vitro experiments enabled investigations on the adverse effect of ascites microenvironment on catumaxomab-stimulated immune cells. I.p. catumaxomab infusion enhanced the expression of the CD69 and CD38 activation molecules in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, NK cells and macrophages, and favoured CD8(+) T cell accumulation into the peritoneal cavity. An analogous immune cell activation as well as IFN-γ and IL-2 production were induced by catumaxomab in vitro. In vitro experiments showed that the immunosuppressive milieu of ascites abrogated all the immunostimulatory activities of catumaxomab. Adding EpCAM(+) tumour cells to the culture permitted both catumaxomab Fab regions to engage cognate antigens and restored immunostimulatory catumaxomab activity. This is the first demonstration in a clinical setting that i.p. catumaxomab infusion activates NK cells and macrophages in addition to T cells in ascites and favours CD8(+) T cell accumulation into the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, our findings indicate that the concomitant binding of both catumaxomab Fab regions delivers an activation signal that is strong enough to activate immune cells despite the prevailing immunosuppressive environment of malignant ascites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J


    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...... rate constant for the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 45% (high-affinity system) and 49% (low affinity system) in the resistant subline whereas the affinity of the transporters to taurine was unchanged. By immunoblotting we identified 3 TauT protein bands in the 50-70 kDa region. A visible...... reduction in the intensity of the band with the lowest molecular weight was observed in resistant cells. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated a significant reduction in the amount of taurine transporter mRNA in the resistant cells. Drug resistance in DNR Ehrlich cells is associated with overexpression of the mdr1...

  11. Benzodiazepines and risk for hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Watson, Hugh; Vilstrup, Hendrik


    Background: There is limited evidence to support the belief that benzodiazepines increase cirrhosis patients’ risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Objective: We aimed to examine the association between benzodiazepine use and HE development in cirrhosis patients. Methods: We used data on 865...... cirrhosis patients with ascites from three trials to study the effect of benzodiazepine use on development of first-time HE. For each patient, we classified periods of benzodiazepine use by the numbers of days since initiation. We used Cox regression to compare the risk of HE in current benzodiazepine users...... vs. non-users adjusting for confounders. Results: Cirrhosis patients were not at increased risk of HE for the first 2 days of benzodiazepine use, but then faced a five-fold increased risk of HE during days 3 to 10 of benzodiazepine use. The risk of HE was not increased for those who had been using...

  12. Effect of cytochalasins on F-actin and morphology of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, J W; Falsig Pedersen, S; Walmod, P S


    that, in intact cells, different cytochalasins can have varying effects on cell morphology and F-actin content and organization. To examine this problem in more detail, we analyzed the effects of cytochalasins on the cell morphology of and F-actin content and organization in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT......) cells. After a 3-min exposure to 0.5 microM cytochalasin D, B, or E, F-actin content was equally reduced in all cases and this correlated with a reduction in the amount of cortical F-actin associated with the EAT cell membrane. However, only with CE was cell morphology markedly altered......, with the appearance of numerous blebs. At 10 microM, blebbing was present in all conditions and the organization of cortical F-actin was disrupted. F-actin content, however, was not further reduced by this higher concentration and in CD it was identical to control levels. Exposure of EAT cells to similar...

  13. Regulation of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 Expression in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Cells by Abrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramnath


    Full Text Available The role of abrin, a toxic lectin isolated from seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn in inducing apoptosis in murine Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA cells was evaluated. Abrin when incubated at the concentration of 10 ng per million DLA cells could bring about cell death as typical morphological changes with apoptosis. However, necrotic cell death dominated when a higher dose of abrin was used. DNA samples, isolated from DLA cells treated with abrin showed fragmentation. Abrin brought about induction of apoptosis by stimulating the expression of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3, at the same time blocking the expression of Bcl-2, which is an anti apoptotic gene. However, the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 has not been observed in control and abrin-treated DLA cells. Results suggested that abrin effectively induced apoptotic changes in the tumor cells that led to cellular death.

  14. Antitumour and antioxidant activity of some Red Sea seaweeds in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Hegazi, Muhammad M; Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Eskander, Emad F; Ellithey, Mona S


    The antitumour activities of extracts from the Red Sea seaweeds Jania rubens, Sargassum subrepandum, and Ulva lactuca were investigated in an in vivo mice model based on intramuscular injection of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. In parallel, antioxidant activities were measured. Tumour marker levels, liver biochemical parameters, and hepatic oxidant/antioxidant status were measured to prove the anticancer and antioxidant nature of the algal extracts. Significant decreases in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, activities of liver enzymes, levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were recorded in groups treated with the algal extracts. Jania rubens was selected for phytochemical screening of its phytoconstituents. In addition, carotenoids, halides, minerals, lipoidal matters, proteins, and carbohydrates were studied. Furthermore, 7-oxo-cholest-5(6)-en-3-ol (1) and cholesterol (2) were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction.

  15. The effect of magnesium on glycolysis of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. (United States)

    Wolf, F I; Bossi, D; Cittadini, A


    We have previously observed that extracellular Mg2+ influences the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity of intact Ehrlich Ascites tumour cells (EATC). In this study we have investigated the mechanism by which Mg2+ modulates this key glycolytic enzyme in EATC made permeable to the cation by either digitonin or dextran sulphate. Results showed that when Mg2+ is freely permeable to the cytosol, the in vivo PFK activity, calculated as FDP/G6P ratio, is not increased as it is in intact cells. We also observed that in permeabilized cells Mg2+ determines the increase of glucose 6 phosphate (G6P), fructose 1,6 bisphosphate (FDP) and lactate production. We hypothesize that extracellular Mg2+ regulates PFK and glycolysis in these neoplastic cells not by entering the cytosol but by a specific interaction with the plasma membrane.

  16. Lack of therapeutic improvement of liver fibrosis in rats by dexamethasone in spite of ascites amelioration. (United States)

    Ki, Sung Hwan; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Choon Won; Kim, Sang Geon


    Pathophysiology of liver fibrosis (LF) includes hepatic parenchymal cell destruction and connective tissue formation. Although dexamethasone has been used in the liver diseases, there is controversy over the beneficial effects of dexamethasone on LF. Previous studies showed that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta) activation contributes to hepatocyte regeneration and dissolution of fibrosis and that dexamethasone activates C/EBPbeta whereas C/EBPbeta-mediated gene induction by dexamethasone is antagonized by a corepressor. The present study investigated the possible therapeutic effect of dexamethasone for the treatment of LF in rats. We injected rats with multiple doses of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for 4 weeks and then used the LF rats to determine whether dexamethasone treatment therapeutically improved liver functions and resolved fibers accumulated in the liver. Dexamethasone (100 microg/kg, po, three times per week for 4 weeks) failed to restore the body weight gain and liver weight decreased by LF. The body weight gain reduced during LF was further decreased by dexamethasone treatment. Animals were subjected to blood biochemical, liver histopathological and immunochemical analyses. Although dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced ascites in LF rats, the plasma albumin and total protein levels decreased in fibrotic rats were not restored. Impaired liver functions during LF including elevated plasma aminotransferases and bilirubin levels along with GSTA2 repression were not recovered by dexamethasone. Dexamethasone failed to decrease the fibrosis score and to eliminate the extracellular matrix and alpha-smooth muscle actin accumulated in the fibrotic liver. The results of the present study showed that dexamethasone ameliorated ascites in LF rats but failed to improve the liver functions and fiber accumulation, and that the possible beneficial effect of dexamethasone might result from anti-inflammatory effect but not from liver improvement.

  17. Response to tolvaptan and its effect on prognosis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. (United States)

    Kogiso, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Mutsuki; Ikarashi, Yuichi; Kodama, Kazuhisa; Taniai, Makiko; Torii, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Tokushige, Katsutoshi


    The vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan has been used for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with ascites; however, no predictor of efficacy and prognosis has been developed. We evaluated candidate predictors of response to tolvaptan treatment. This was a single-center retrospective study. Overall, 97 Japanese cirrhotic patients (60 men, median age 63 years), who were hospitalized for ascites treatment including oral tolvaptan coupled with conventional diuretics, were enrolled. The efficacy of tolvaptan was defined as a urination increase of ≥500 mL or a urine volume ≥2000 mL/day on the day following treatment. The prognosis of tolvaptan treatment was evaluated by the post-treatment survival time by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tolvaptan therapy was effective in 67% of cirrhotic patients. Patients showed -1.5 (-17.2 to +6.2) kg change in body weight and 40% achieved ≥2.0 kg reduction in body weight after 1 week of treatment. Platelet counts, urine sodium (Na) level, and urine Na/potassium (Na/K) ratio were higher, and the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio was lower, in cases showing a response to tolvaptan. The combination of a BUN/Cr ratio ≥17.5 and urine Na/K ratio tolvaptan, and the response rate in these patients was only 39% (P tolvaptan therapy. Urinary BUN and Na excretion were predictive of a response to tolvaptan, and tolvaptan treatment may improve the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. Expanding hollow metal rings (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA


    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  19. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-hui TANG


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  20. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.


    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  1. Expander chunked codes (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu


    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  2. The Artful Universe Expanded (United States)

    Barrow, John D.


    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  3. Protein markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor-initiating cells reveal subpopulations in freshly isolated ovarian cancer ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wintzell My


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ovarian cancer, massive intraperitoneal dissemination is due to exfoliated tumor cells in ascites. Tumor-initiating cells (TICs or cancer stem cells and cells showing epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT are particularly implicated. Spontaneous spherical cell aggregates are sometimes observed, but although similar to those formed by TICs in vitro, their significance is unclear. Methods Cells freshly isolated from malignant ascites were separated into sphere samples (S-type samples, n=9 and monolayer-forming single-cell suspensions (M-type, n=18. Using western blot, these were then compared for expression of protein markers of EMT, TIC, and of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Results S-type cells differed significantly from M-type by expressing high levels of E-cadherin and no or little vimentin, integrin-β3 or stem cell transcription factor Oct-4A. By contrast, M-type samples were enriched for CD44, Oct-4A and for CAF markers. Independently of M- and S-type, there was a strong correlation between TIC markers Nanog and EpCAM. The CAF marker α-SMA correlated with clinical stage IV. This is the first report on CAF markers in malignant ascites and on SUMOylation of Oct-4A in ovarian cancer. Conclusions In addition to demonstrating potentially high levels of TICs in ascites, the results suggest that the S-type population is the less tumorigenic one. Nanoghigh/EpCAMhigh samples represent a TIC subset which may be either M- or S-type, and which is separate from the CD44high/Oct-4Ahigh subset observed only in M-type samples. This demonstrates a heterogeneity in TIC populations in vivo which has practical implications for TIC isolation based on cell sorting. The biological heterogeneity will need to be addressed in future therapeutical strategies.

  4. Combinatory Evaluation of Transcriptome and Metabolome Profiles of Low Temperature-induced Resistant Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens


    Shourong Shi; Yiru Shen; Shan Zhang; Zhenhua Zhao; Zhuocheng Hou; Huaijun Zhou; Jianmin Zou; Yuming Guo


    To select metabolic biomarkers and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with resistant-ascites syndrome (resistant-AS), we used innovative techniques such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to comparatively examine resistant-AS chickens and AS controls. Metabolomic evaluation of chicken serum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/HSMS) showed significantly altered lysoPC(18:1), PE(18:3/16:0), PC(20:1/1...

  5. Preservation of nutritional-status in patients with refractory ascites due to hepatic cirrhosis who are undergoing repeated paracentesis. (United States)

    Sorrentino, Paolo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Luciano; Bracigliano, Alessandra; Perrella, Alessandro; Perrella, Oreste; Fiorentino, Francesco; Vecchione, Raffaela; D' Angelo, Salvatore


    Refractory ascites in liver-cirrhosis is associated with a poor prognosis. We performed a prospective study to investigate whether aggressive nutritional-support could improve outcomes in cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients undergoing serial large-volume paracentesis for refractory-ascites were enrolled and randomized into three groups. Group A received post-paracentesis intravenous nutritional-support in addition to a balanced oral diet and a late-evening protein snack, group B received the same oral nutritional-protocol as the first group but without parenteral support, and group C (the control group) received a low-sodium or sodium-free diet. Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory nutritional parameters and biochemical tests of liver and renal function were reported for 12 months of follow-up. We enrolled 120 patients, who were randomized into three groups of equal size. Patients on the nutritional-protocol showed better preservation of clinical, anthropometric and laboratory nutritional parameters that were associated with decreased deterioration of liver function compared with patients on the low-sodium or sodium-free diet (group C). Groups A and B had lower morbidity and mortality rates than the control group (C). Mortality rates were significantly better in patients who were treated with parenteral-nutritional-support than for the other two groups. In patients who were on the nutritional-protocol, there was a reduction in the requirement of taps for the treatment of refractory ascites. Post-paracentesis parenteral-nutritional-support with a balanced oral diet and an evening protein snack appears to be the best care protocol for patients with liver-cirrhosis that has been complicated by refractory-ascites. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  7. [Disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism and changes in acid-base balance in patients with ascitic liver cirrhosis]. (United States)

    Gottfriedová, Halima; Horáčková, Miroslava; Čáslavská, Milena; Špičák, Julius; Schück, Otto


    In patients with advanced cirrhosis with ascites disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism are often present and they are associated with changes in acid-base balance. These changes can be very complicated, their diagnosis and treatment difficult. Dilutional hyponatremia is the most common disorder. Hyponatremia in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Other common disorders include hyperchloremic acidosis, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis. If renal impairment occurs (for example hepatorenal syndrome), metabolic acidosis and retention of acid metabolites may develop. The pathogenesis of these conditions applies primarily hemodynamic changes. Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic stimulation of antidiuretic hormone trigger serious changes in water and natrium-chloride metabolism. This activation is clinically expressed like oedema, ascites, hydrothorax, low to zero natrium concentration in urine and increased urinary osmolality, which is higher than serum osmolality. In practice, the evaluation can be significantly modified by the ongoing diuretic therapy. Closer monitoring of water and electrolyte metabolism together with acid-base balance in patients with ascitic liver cirrhosis is important, not only in terms of diagnosis but especially in terms of therapy.

  8. Indocyanine green lymphography and lymphaticovenous anastomosis for generalized lymphatic dysplasia with pleural effusion and ascites in neonates. (United States)

    Mihara, Makoto; Hara, Hisako; Shibasaki, Jun; Seki, Yukio; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Iida, Takuya; Adachi, Shinya; Uchida, Yasushi; Kaneko, Hideo; Haragi, Makiko; Murakami, Arata


    The fatality rate of generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD) with chylous pleural effusion and ascites is particularly high when it persists over a prolonged period. The purpose of this report was to determine the utility of indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography and lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) in GLD with chylous pleural effusion and ascites in neonates. We tested the lymphatic function in the 4 extremities for 8 GLD neonate patients using ICG lymphography, and on the basis of the results, we performed LVA for 5 of them. LVA was performed at the extremities under general anesthesia using incisions drainage tube. In all cases, ICG lymphography showed varying degrees of dermal backflow in the limbs with lymphostasis. After LVA surgery, effusion stopped in 2 cases and decreased in 1 case. In the cases where effusion stopped, backflow as observed with ICG lymphography was minimal, and in the case where effusion decreased but did not stop, backflow was moderate. The application of ICG and LVA could possibly be used to diagnose and treat lymphatic pleural effusion or ascites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Better Clinical Efficiency of TILs for Malignant Pleural Effusion and Ascites than Cisplatin Through Intrapleural and Intraperitoneal Infusion. (United States)

    Chu, Hongjin; Du, Fengcai; Gong, Zhaohua; Lian, Peiwen; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Peng; Hu, Baohong; Chi, Cheng; Chen, Jian


    To evaluate the clinical efficiency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared to cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion and ascites through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion. Thirteen patients with malignant pleural effusion and ascites were divided into a TIL-treated group and a cisplatin-treated group. Patients were given TILs or cisplatin, through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion respectively, after drainage of the malignant serous effusion by thoracentesis or abdominocentesis. The overall response rate and disease control rate of the TIL-treated group (33.33% and 83.33%) were higher than that of the cisplatin-treated group (28.57% and 71.43%). The progression-free survival for the TIL-treated group was significantly longer (p=0.002) and better than that of the cisplatin-treated group (66.67% vs. 28.57%). Quality of life apparently improved in the TIL-treated group and was clearly higher than that in the cisplatin-treated group. The use of TILs has a better clinical efficiency for malignant pleural effusion and ascites than cisplatin through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion without severe adverse effects. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. The Etiology, Incidence, and Impact of Preservation Fluid Contamination during Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Lladó, Laura; Vila, Marina; Baliellas, Carme; Tubau, Fe; Sabé, Núria; Fabregat, Joan; Carratalà, Jordi


    The role of contaminated preservation fluid in the development of infection after liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. To assess the incidence and etiology of contaminated preservation fluid and determine its impact on the subsequent development of infection after liver transplantation, we prospectively studied 50 consecutive liver transplants, and cultured the following samples in each instance: preservation fluid (immediately before and at the end of the back-table procedure, and just before implantation), blood, and bile from the donor, and ascitic fluid from the recipient. When any culture was positive, blood cultures were obtained and targeted antimicrobial therapy was started. We found that the incidence of contaminated preservation fluid was 92% (46 of 50 cases of liver transplantation per year), but only 28% (14/50) were contaminated by recognized pathogens. Blood and bile cultures from the donor were positive in 28% and 6% respectively, whereas ascitic fluid was positive in 22%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. In nine cases, the microorganisms isolated from the preservation fluid concurred with those grown from the donor blood cultures, and in one case, the isolate matched with the one obtained from bile culture. No liver transplant recipient developed an infection due to the transmission of an organism isolated from the preservation fluid. Our findings indicate that contamination of the preservation fluid is frequent in liver transplantation, and it is mainly caused by saprophytic skin flora. Transmission of infection is low, particularly among those recipients given targeted antimicrobial treatment for organisms isolated in the preservation fluid.

  11. The Etiology, Incidence, and Impact of Preservation Fluid Contamination during Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Oriol

    Full Text Available The role of contaminated preservation fluid in the development of infection after liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. To assess the incidence and etiology of contaminated preservation fluid and determine its impact on the subsequent development of infection after liver transplantation, we prospectively studied 50 consecutive liver transplants, and cultured the following samples in each instance: preservation fluid (immediately before and at the end of the back-table procedure, and just before implantation, blood, and bile from the donor, and ascitic fluid from the recipient. When any culture was positive, blood cultures were obtained and targeted antimicrobial therapy was started. We found that the incidence of contaminated preservation fluid was 92% (46 of 50 cases of liver transplantation per year, but only 28% (14/50 were contaminated by recognized pathogens. Blood and bile cultures from the donor were positive in 28% and 6% respectively, whereas ascitic fluid was positive in 22%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. In nine cases, the microorganisms isolated from the preservation fluid concurred with those grown from the donor blood cultures, and in one case, the isolate matched with the one obtained from bile culture. No liver transplant recipient developed an infection due to the transmission of an organism isolated from the preservation fluid. Our findings indicate that contamination of the preservation fluid is frequent in liver transplantation, and it is mainly caused by saprophytic skin flora. Transmission of infection is low, particularly among those recipients given targeted antimicrobial treatment for organisms isolated in the preservation fluid.

  12. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab


    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  13. Characterisation of multidrug-resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells selected in vivo for resistance to etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J


    -extractable immunoreactive topoisomerase IIalpha and beta in EHR2/VP16 was reduced by 30-40% relative to that in EHR2. The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) mRNA was increased 20-fold in EHR2/VP16 as compared with EHR2, whereas the expression of P-glycoprotein was unchanged. In EHR2/VP16, the steady......M. ATPase activity was slightly stimulated by daunorubicin, whereas vinblastine, verapamil, and cyclosporin A had no effect. In conclusion, development of resistance to VP16 in EHR2 is accompanied by a significant reduction in topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) and by increased expression of MRP mRNA (20......An Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) was selected for resistance to etoposide (VP16) by in vivo exposure to this agent. The resulting cell line (EHR2/VP16) was 114.3-, 5.7-, and 4.0-fold resistant to VP16, daunorubicin, and vincristine, respectively. The amount of salt...

  14. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan


    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  15. Effect of ascitic media formed by glycerin on the prevention of peritoneal adhesions. (United States)

    Aksoy, F; Vatansev, C; Tekin, A; Pamukcu, A; Küçükkartallar, T; Yilmaz, H; Vatansev, H; Esen, H; Aksoy, N


    We aimed to investigate whether or not artificial ascites media formed using glycerin are effective in the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Thirty-six Wistar albino male rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into 3 groups as follows. Group I: control group; group II (isotonic group): 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl was injected into the peritoneal cavity, and group III (glycerin group): 0.5 ml of liquid glycerin and 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl was injected into the peritoneal cavity. There were serious adhesions in the control group. Adhesion rates were lower in the isotonic group compared with the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). When adhesion rates of the glycerin group were compared with the control and isotonic groups, significant differences were found, especially between the glycerin and control groups (p glycerin decreases postoperative adhesions. We suggest that glycerin was more effective as it has the chemical ability to draw water to its media. As such, the formation of adhesions may be decreased by increasing the amount of physiological liquid inside the abdomen. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cellular uptake of {sup 212}BiOCl by Ehrlich ascites cells: A dosimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, J.C.; Whitlock, J.L.; Harper, P.V.; Rotmensch, J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Stinchcomb, T.G. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schwartz, J.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hines, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.


    Bi-212 is an alpha-emitting radionuclide being investigated as a therapeutic agent in the intraperitoneal treatment of micrometastatic ovarian carcinoma. In evaluating a new therapeutic modality, cell-survival studies are often used as a means of quantifying the biological effects of radiation. In this analysis, Ehrlich ascites cells were irradiated under conditions similar to therapy in various concentrations of Bi-212. Immediately following irradiation, a cell survival assay was performed in which cells were plated and colonies were counted after 10--14 days. Both a macrodosimetric and a microdosimetric approach were used in analyzing these data. These models used as input the fraction of activity within the cell and in solution, the distribution of cell sizes, and the variation of LET along individual alpha-particle tracks. The results indicate that the energy deposited within the nucleus varies significantly among individual cells. There is a small fraction of cell nuclei which receive no hits, while the remaining cells receive energy depositions which can differ significantly from the mean value. These dosimetric parameters are correlated with measured cell survival and will be a useful predictor of outcome for therapeutic doses.

  17. Toxicity and antitumor efficacy of Croton polyandrus oil against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah R.P. Meireles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The essential oil from Croton polyandrus Spreng., Euphorbiaceae, leaves was tested for the toxicity and antitumor activity. The concentration producing 50% hemolysis was 141 µg/ml on mice erythrocytes. In the acute toxicological study, the estimated LD50 was 447.18 mg/kg. The essential oil did not induce increase in number of micronucleated erythrocytes, suggesting low genotoxicity. Essential oil (100 or 150 mg/kg showed significant antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma model. We observed that essential oil induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increases the sub-G1 peak, which represents a marker of cell death by apoptosis. Survival also increased for the treated animals. The toxicological analyses revealed reduction in body weight, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, hematological changes, and a thymus index reduction. These data suggest gastrointestinal and liver toxicity, anemia, leukopenia/lymphocytopenia, and immunosuppressive effects. Histopathological analysis revealed the weak hepatotoxicity of essential oil. In summary, essential oil of C. polyandrus displays in vivo antitumor activity and moderate toxicity.

  18. Magnetic resonance elastography in the detection of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Gavin [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, England (United Kingdom); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Owen, Nicola E.; Alexander, Graeme J.M. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, England (United Kingdom); Joubert, Ilse; Patterson, Andrew J.; Graves, Martin J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, England (United Kingdom); Lomas, David J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, England (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most lethal cause of renal impairment in cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a diagnostic test that characterises tissues based on their biomechanical properties. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of MRE for detecting HRS in cirrhotic patients. A prospective diagnostic investigation was performed. Renal MRE was performed on 21 hospitalised patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Six patients had HRS, one patient had non-HRS renal impairment, and 14 patients had normal renal function. The MRE-measured renal stiffness was compared against the clinical diagnosis as determined by clinical review alongside laboratory and radiologic results. The MRE-measured renal stiffness was significantly lower in patients with HRS (median stiffness of 3.30 kPa at 90 Hz and 2.62 kPa at 60 Hz) compared with patients with normal renal function (median stiffness of 5.08 kPa at 90 Hz and 3.41 kPa at 60 Hz) (P ≤ 0.014). For the detection of HRS, MRE had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.94 at 90 Hz and 0.89 at 60 Hz. MRE had excellent inter-rater agreement, as assessed by Bland-Altman and intraclass correlation coefficient (> 0.9). MRE shows potential in the detection of HRS. (orig.)

  19. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of cape aloe extract in ehrlich ascites tumor cells. (United States)

    Kametani, Saeda; Oikawa, Tomoko; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Norikura, Toshio; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao


    Cape aloe (Aloe ferox Miller) has been a herb well known for its cathartic properties and has also been used popularly as a health drink (juice, tea and tonic) in the United States and in Europe. Cape aloe extract also has been reported to possess several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and protective effect against liver injury. However, the investigations on an anti-tumor activity in cape aloe extract are very few and subsequent mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of the selective growth inhibitory activity of cape aloe extract and found that the cape aloe extract, especially the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract, caused a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), but not in mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells, which was used as a normal cell model. Furthermore, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract caused an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, other results suggest that cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in EATC by the CH(2)Cl(2 )extract are associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation.

  20. Antitumor activity and antioxidant property of Curcuma caesia against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma bearing mice. (United States)

    Karmakar, Indrajit; Dolai, Narayan; Suresh Kumar, R B; Kar, Biswakanth; Roy, Sudipendra Nath; Haldar, Pallab Kanti


    Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as "Kala Haldi" in Bengali, has been traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, bruises, inflammation and as an aphrodisiac. To evaluate the antitumor activity and antioxidant status of the methanol extract of Curcuma caesia (MECC) rhizomes on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)-treated mice. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of MECC was evaluated by using Trypan blue method. Determination of in vivo antitumor activity was performed after 24 h of EAC cells (2 × 10(6) cells/mouse) inoculation; MECC (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) was administered daily for nine consecutive days. On day 10, half of the mice were sacrificed and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in lifespan. Antitumor effect of MECC was assessed by the study of tumor volume, tumor weight, viable and non-viable cell count, hematological parameters and biochemical estimations. Furthermore, antioxidant parameters were assayed by estimating liver and kidney tissue enzymes. MECC showed direct cytotoxicity (IC50 90.70 ± 8.37 μg/mL) on EAC cell line. MECC exhibited significant (p antioxidant assay significantly (p antioxidant properties. Further research is in progress to find out the active principle(s) of MECC for its antitumor activity.

  1. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines. (United States)

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan


    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  2. External validation of a prognostic model for predicting survival of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. (United States)

    Guardiola, Jordi; Baliellas, Carme; Xiol, Xavier; Fernandez Esparrach, Glòria; Ginès, Pere; Ventura, Pere; Vazquez, Santiago


    Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) have a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. A model that could predict survival for patients with RA would be helpful in planning treatment. Moreover, in cases of potential liver transplantation, a model of these characteristics would provide the bases for establishing priorities of organ allocation and the selection of patients for a living donor graft. Recently, we developed a model to predict survival of patients with RA. The aim of this study was to establish its generalizability for predicting the survival of patients with RA. The model was validated by assessing its performance in an external cohort of patients with RA included in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial that compared large-volume paracentesis and peritoneovenous shunt. The values for actual and model-predicted survival of three risk groups of patients, established according to the model, were compared graphically and by means of the one-sample log-rank test. The model provided a very good fit to the survival data of the three risk groups in the validation cohort. We also found good agreement between the survival predicted from the model and the observed survival when patients treated with peritoneovenous shunt and with paracentesis were considered separately. Our survival model can be used to predict the survival of patients with RA and may be a useful tool in clinical decision making, especially in deciding priority for liver transplantation.

  3. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko


    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  4. Validation of Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting with 24-h plasma clearance in cirrhotic patients with ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Carl Adam [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada); Ling, Lin [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Xirouchakis, Elias; Giamalis, Ioannis G.; Burroughs, Andrew K. [Royal Free Hospital, The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, London (United Kingdom); Burniston, Maria T. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom); Puetter, Richard C. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [University of Saskatchewan, Radiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The aim was to compare late-time extrapolation of plasma clearance (CL) from Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting (Tk-GV) and from mono-exponential (E1) fitting. Ten {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid bolus IV studies in adults - 8 with ascites - assessed for liver transplantation, with 12-16 plasma samples drawn from 5-min to 24-h, were fit with Tk-GV and E1 models and CL results were compared using Passing-Bablok fitting. The 24-h CL(Tk-GV) values ranged from 11.4 to 79.7 ml/min. Linear regression of 4- versus 24-h CL(Tk-GV) yielded no significant departure from a slope of 1, whereas the 4- versus 24-h CL(E1) slope, 1.56, was significantly increased. For CL(Tk-GV-24-h) versus CL(E1-24-h), there was a biased slope and intercept (0.85, 5.97 ml/min). Moreover, the quality of fitting of 24-h data was significantly better for Tk-GV than for E1, as follows. For 10 logarithm of concentration curves, higher r values were obtained for each Tk-GV fit (median 0.998) than for its corresponding E1 fit (median 0.965), with p < 0.0001 (paired t-test of z-statistics from Fisher r-z transformations). The E1 fit quality degraded with increasing V/W [volume of distribution (l) per kg body weight, p=0.003]. However, Tk-GV fit quality versus V/W was uncorrelated (p=0.8). CL(E1) values were dependent on sample time and the quality of fit was poor and degraded with increasing ascites, consistent with current opinion that CL(E1) is contraindicated in ascitic patients. CL(Tk-GV) was relatively more accurate and the good quality of fit was unaffected by ascites. CL(Tk-GV) was the preferred method for the accurate calculation of CL and was useful despite liver failure and ascites. (orig.)

  5. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic tumors abutting the diaphragm: clinical assessment of the heat-sink effect of artificial ascites. (United States)

    Nam, Sang Yu; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Park, Yulri; Chang, Ilsoo; Lim, Hyo K


    This study was designed to assess whether artificial ascites has a heat-sink effect on the ablation zone for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic tumors abutting the diaphragm. We retrospectively assessed 28 patients who underwent percutaneous RFA for the treatment of a single nodular hepatic tumor that abutted the diaphragm from July 2000 to December 2006. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided RFA using internally cooled electrodes. A single ablation for 12 minutes was applied using 3-cm active-tip electrodes. We divided patients into two groups on the basis of whether artificial ascites was introduced before RFA: Group A consisted of patients who received artificial ascites with a mean of 760 mL of a 5% dextrose in water solution (n = 15) and group B consisted of patients who did not receive artificial ascites (n = 13). The volume of the ablation zone was measured on CT images obtained immediately after the ablation procedure, and imaging findings were compared for both groups using the Student's t test. We also compared the local tumor progression rate between both groups using the chi-square test (mean follow-up, 37.4 months). There was no significant difference between the two patient groups with regard to age, sex, Child-Pugh class, or tumor location (p > 0.05). The tumors were significantly smaller in group A patients (mean +/- SD, 1.6 +/- 0.5 cm) than in group B patients (2.1 +/- 0.7 cm) (p = 0.019). The mean volume of the RFA zone was 31.6 +/- 11.9 cm(3) in group A patients and 30.9 +/- 11.0 cm(3) in group B patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in the ablation volume (p = 0.871). Local tumor progression was noted in four patients (26.7%) in group A and in three patients (23.1%) in group B. There was no significant difference in the local tumor progression rate between the two groups (p = 0.83). Artificial ascites did not show a heat-sink effect on the volume of the ablation zone after percutaneous RFA for the

  6. [Reconstruction in plastic surgery using osmotic tissue expanders]. (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Retchkiman, Meir; Eizenman, Nirit; Lotan, Adi; Stuchiner, Barak; Tuchman, Izhak


    Tissue expander is a major reconstructive modality. Its main disadvantages include: long and inconvenient period of inflation with temporary deformity of the surrounding tissue. Osmotic expander was developed in order to eliminate some of these limitations. It is a self-filling device which absorbs fluids in order to achieve tissue expansion faster. We present our experience with 28 consecutive cases of tissue reconstruction using osmotic expanders. We wish to emphasize the main advantages and limitations of this device. The present study was launched in May 2008, until April 2014, for twenty eight patients, median age 26 years with reconstructions using an osmotic expander (total of 35 expanders). The reasons for using tissue expander included large congenital nevi (75%) and scars. In all of the cases, the operative and post-operative management was uneventful. During the expansion period, there were 2 outpatient clinical visits. The average expansion time was 9 weeks. In 11% (three patients) there was partial extrusion of the expander. In all other cases there were no complications and the final aesthetic results were satisfying. Osmotic expander is an advanced modality for tissue reconstruction. The final shape and size are precisely predictable. Its initial small size allows for a small surgical incision and short overall operating time. The expansion period is shorter and more convenient for the patient. Its main disadvantage includes the inability to control the filling rate and the need to remove the expander in case of damage to the overlying tissue. Osmotic expander is a reliable tool for tissue expansion. It allows for a satisfying aesthetic result in a shorter period of time and with less inconvenience to the patient.

  7. Fluidisation and dispersion behaviour of small high density pellicular expanded bed adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Elsner, H.D.; Thomas, Owen R. T.


    The fluidisation and dispersion properties of various agarose-based expanded bed matrices-small high density stainless steel cored prototypes and standard commercial types-were studied in I-cm diameter expanded bed contactors in which fluid entering the column base is locally stirred. In all cases...

  8. Gamma-variate plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. (United States)

    Fuglsang, Stefan; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hansen, Hanne B; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H


    In patients with fluid retention, the plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA (Clexp obtained by multiexponential fit) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was undertaken to compare a gamma-variate plasma clearance (Clgv) with the urinary plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA (Clu ) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. A total of 81 patients with cirrhosis (22 without fluid retention, 59 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of 51 Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 h. Clgv was determined from the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, obtained by a gamma-variate iterative fit. Clexp and Clu were determined by standard technique. In patients without fluid retention, Clgv , Clexp and Clu were closely similar. The difference between Clgv and Clu (Clgv - Clu  = ΔCl) was mean -0·6 ml min-1  1·73 m-2 . In patients with ascites, ΔCl was significantly higher (11·8 ml min-1  1·73 m-2 , P<0·0001), but this value was lower than Clexp - Clu (17·5 mL min-1  1·73 m-2 , P<0·01). ΔCl increased with lower values of GFR (P<0·001). In conclusion, in patients with fluid retention and ascites Clgv and Clexp overestimates GFR substantially, but the overestimation is smaller with Clgv . Although Clu may underestimate GFR slightly, patients with ascites should collect urine quantitatively to obtain a reliable measurement of GFR. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S


    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Prevent Postoperative Ascites in Patients with Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yutaro; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Murakami, Takashi; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Endo, Itaru; Taguri, Masataka; Koda, Keiji; Tanaka, Kuniya


    Massive postoperative ascites remains a major threat that can lead to liver failure and other fatal complications, especially in patients with poor liver function. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration increases biosynthesis and secretion of albumin by hepatocytes and increases oncotic pressure by elevating blood albumin concentration, thereby decreasing peripheral edema, ascites, and pleural effusion. We randomly allocated consecutive patients undergoing major liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma to either a group where oral BCAA administration was initiated 3 weeks before liver resection, or a non-BCAA group. The primary study endpoint was development of postoperative ascites. Overall, 39 patients were allocated to the BCAA group, while 38 were assigned to the non-BCAA group. No significant difference in the rate of refractory ascites, considered alone, was evident between the BCAA (5.1 %) and non-BCAA groups (13.2 %; p = 0.263). However, the occurrence of refractory ascites and/or pleural effusion was significantly less frequent in the BCAA group (5.1 %) than in the non-BCAA group (21.1 %; p = 0.047). Furthermore, the postoperative serum concentration of reduced-state albumin was greater immediately after liver resection in the BCAA group than in the non-BCAA group. Preoperative administration of BCAA did not significantly improve prevention of refractory ascites, but significant effectiveness in preventing ascites, pleural effusion, or both, as well as improving metabolism of albumin, was demonstrated [University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) reference number 000004244].

  11. Chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. (United States)

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Baba, Hiromitsu; Ondo, Kaoru


    We report a rare case of chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. An 83-year-old man with a history of Lucite ball plombage and thoracoplasty of bilateral thorax was admitted with numbness of left upper extremity. In 6 months, left supraclavicular fossa was gradually bulged like tumor. The lesion was diagnosed as chronic expanding hematoma. Surgically, Lucite balls were removed with surrounding hematoma debris and fluid, and neck hematoma, which was slightly communicated to the thorax, was extirpated. We discussed the genesis of this hematoma and its extension to the neck.

  12. Methodology for Assessing a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Blast Potential (United States)

    Keddy, Chris P.


    Composite Vessels are now used to store a variety of fluids or gases including cryogenic fluids under pressure. Sudden failure of these vessels under certain conditions can lead to a potentially catastrophic vapor expansion if thermal control is not maintained prior to failure. This can lead to a "Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion" or BLEVE.

  13. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  14. Medical ozone and radiotherapy in a peritoneal, Erlich-ascites, tumor-cell model. (United States)

    Kızıltan, Huriye Şenay; Bayir, Ayşe Güneş; Yucesan, Gul; Eris, Ali Hikmet; İdin, Kadir; Karatoprak, Cumali; Aydin, Teoman; Akcakaya, Adem; Mayadagli, Alpaslan


    Medical ozone therapy is used for treatment of inflammation in alternative and complementary medicine. It has been reported that the beneficial effects of radiotherapy increased with the addition of medical ozone therapy. This study intended to investigate the antitumor and antiedema effects of ozone therapy when applied in different concentrations in mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) and to evaluate the contribution of medical ozone therapy to the outcomes for radiotherapy in vivo. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells were inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) to develop peritoneal carcinomatosis in 60 adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were treated IP for a period of 10 d with daily medical ozone therapy. Group 3 received radiotherapy into the abdomen for 5 d. Groups 4 and 5 were treated with medical ozone therapy for 10 d and radiotherapy for 5 d. Groups 1 and 4 received a 20 mg/L concentration of ozone and groups 2 and 5 received a 40 mg/L concentration. A sixth group acted as controls, and serum physiologic was given to them IP. Changes in body weight and abdominal circumference were measured daily for each mouse. Survival rates of the groups of mice were also determined. The results were compared between groups and were statistically analyzed. Changes in body weights and abdominal circumferences in the different groups were statistically different. The longest survival rates were found for groups 3 and 5, and survival rates for the 5 experimental groups were significantly higher than for the control group. Medical ozone therapy or radiotherapy was found to be effective when administered alone or concurrently to mice with PC, suggesting that medical ozone therapy might serve as a method of obtaining antiedema and antitumor effects, providing a longer survival time.

  15. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail:; Cassali, Geovanni D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada], e-mail:


    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  16. Transcriptome Analysis and Gene Identification in the Pulmonary Artery of Broilers with Ascites Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension, also known as Ascites syndrome (AS, remains a clinically challenging disease with a large impact on both humans and broiler chickens. Pulmonary arterial remodeling presents a key step in the development of AS. The precise molecular mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling regulating AS progression remains unclear.We obtained pulmonary arteries from two positive AS and two normal broilers for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis and pathological observation. RNA-seq analysis revealed a total of 895 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs with 437 up-regulated and 458 down-regulated genes, which were significantly enriched to 12 GO (Gene Ontology terms and 4 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (Padj<0.05 regulating pulmonary artery remodeling and consequently occurrence of AS. These GO terms and pathways include ribosome, Jak-STAT and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways which regulate pulmonary artery remodeling through vascular smooth cell proliferation, inflammation and vascular smooth cell proliferation together. Some notable DEGs within these pathways included downregulation of genes like RPL 5, 7, 8, 9, 14; upregulation of genes such as IL-6, K60, STAT3, STAT5 Pim1 and SOCS3; IKKα, IkB, P38, five cytokines IL-6, IL8, IL-1β, IL-18, and MIP-1β. Six important regulators of pulmonary artery vascular remodeling and construction like CYP1B1, ALDH7A1, MYLK, CAMK4, BMP7 and INOS were upregulated in the pulmonary artery of AS broilers. The pathology results showed that the pulmonary artery had remodeled and become thicker in the disease group.Our present data suggested some specific components of the complex molecular circuitry regulating pulmonary arterial remodeling underlying AS progression in broilers. We revealed some valuable candidate genes and pathways that involved in pulmonary artery remodeling further contributing to the AS progression.

  17. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing conditioned pathogens in ascites. (United States)

    Liu, Da-Quan; Gao, Qiao-Ying; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Dong-Hua; Wu, Shang-Wei


    To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats. The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population in ascites and blood of experimental sepsis using cultivation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The severity of mucosal inflammation in colonic tissues was determined. Probiotics treatment improved survival of the rats significantly and this effect was dose dependent. The survival rate was 30% for vehicle-treated septic model group. However, 1 and 1/4 doses of probiotics treatment increased survival rate significantly compared with septic model group (80% and 55% vs 30%, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (5.20 ± 0.57 vs 9.81 ± 0.67, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (33.3% vs 100.0%, P probiotics treated group were decreased significantly compared with that of septic model group (3.93 ± 0.73 vs 8.80 ± 0.83, P probiotics treatment, there was a decrease in the scores of inflammatory cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa in septic animals (1.50 ± 0.25 vs 2.88 ± 0.14, P Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing these conditioned pathogens.

  18. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing conditioned pathogens in ascites (United States)

    Liu, Da-Quan; Gao, Qiao-Ying; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Dong-Hua; Wu, Shang-Wei


    AIM: To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats. METHODS: The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population in ascites and blood of experimental sepsis using cultivation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The severity of mucosal inflammation in colonic tissues was determined. RESULTS: Probiotics treatment improved survival of the rats significantly and this effect was dose dependent. The survival rate was 30% for vehicle-treated septic model group. However, 1 and 1/4 doses of probiotics treatment increased survival rate significantly compared with septic model group (80% and 55% vs 30%, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (5.20 ± 0.57 vs 9.81 ± 0.67, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (33.3% vs 100.0%, P probiotics treated group were decreased significantly compared with that of septic model group (3.93 ± 0.73 vs 8.80 ± 0.83, P probiotics treatment, there was a decrease in the scores of inflammatory cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa in septic animals (1.50 ± 0.25 vs 2.88 ± 0.14, P Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing these conditioned pathogens. PMID:23840152

  19. [Two cases of advanced gastric cancer with peritonitis carcinomatosa that showed disappearance of ascites and obtained a good quality of life by using DIF and paclitaxel]. (United States)

    Okumura, Kenji; Tani, Souichiro; Shiogai, Youji; Kodama, Masashi; Mekata, Eiji; Tan, Tohru


    We report two cases of advanced gastric cancer. The first was a 77-year-old man who had experienced distal gastrectomy about 35 years ago. He complained of abdominal bloating, and a gastrointestinal scope showed that he had advanced gastric cancer. CT scan revealed massive ascites. Dissemination of the peritoneum was suspected, and chemotherapy using S-1 (80mg/m², biweekly)plus paclitaxel (50mg/m², on days 1 and 8) was selected, He had no major side effects and the ascites disappeared. He was able to receive 18 courses on an outpatient basis. The second case was a 79-year-old man who had total gastrectomy performed 1 year ago. Invasion to the diaphragm and lymph node metastasis were detected. We selected S-1 (80 mg/m²)as adjuvant chemotherapy but that caused severe fatigue. Eventually he refused the drug. Six month later, he had abdominal bloating and CT scan revealed that he had massive ascites. UFT-E (1. 5 g/body) was administered and paclitaxe (l 50 mg/m²) was added. The ascites disappeared and he has had a stable life. DIF (S-1, UFT) plus paclitaxel is considered to be a useful chemotherapy combination against advanced gastric cancer that has peritoneal dissemination or ascites, even for older patients.

  20. Astrophysical fluid dynamics (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.


    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  1. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr


    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  2. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef


    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  3. Human epididymis protein 4 immunostaining of malignant ascites differentiates cancer of Müllerian origin from gastrointestinal cancer. (United States)

    Stiekema, Anna; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Boot, Henk; Broeks, Annegien; Korse, Catharina M; van Driel, Willemien J; Kenter, Gemma G; Lok, Christianne A R


    An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Dorsal acoustic windows may ameliorate liver ultrasound in patients with chronic liver disease and meteorism/obesity/ascites. (United States)

    Domenicali, Marco; Tufoni, Manuel; Bevilacqua, Vittoria; Benazzi, Barbara; Ricci, Carmen Serena; Tovoli, Alessandra; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo; Bernardi, Mauro


    To identify dorsal acoustic windows (DAWs) for the study of the liver and to investigate whether they could improve the visualization of the liver in patients with chronic liver disease and ascites, meteorism, and/or obesity. The study was based on a single ultrasound examination and divided into three successive stages. Firstly, we performed a preliminary study involving 10 cirrhotic patients to identify new DAWs. Inter-observer reproducibility of measurements obtained through the DAWs was then assessed in another 29 cirrhotic patients. Finally, in 50 patients with chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis, we employed the DAWs when ascites, meteorism or obesity hampered the conventional ultrasound examination. With patients sitting, we found three new DAWs, by the combined use of which it was possible to explore the liver, spleen, and their vascular structures, and which provided reproducible measurements. In the clinical setting, we found 11 of 50 patients in whom the addition of the new DAWs led to better results in terms of successful visualization/Doppler measurements for portal vein (ratio = 100 % vs 27 %, p = 0.001), hepatic artery (ratio = 90 % vs 27 %, p = 0.004), and hepatic veins (mean number = 2.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2, p = 0.01). Among these 11 patients, in one case the addition of DAWs led to visualization of hepatic focal lesions in the right lobe, not previously displayed through conventional ultrasound. These DAWs may be an additional tool that improves the accuracy of ultrasound examinations in patients with meteorism, ascites, or obesity.

  5. Fluid Shifts (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide


    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  6. Characterisation of non-P-glycoprotein multidrug-resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells selected for resistance to mitoxantrone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Eriksen, J; Maare, C


    An Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) was selected in vivo for resistance to mitoxantrone (MITOX). The resistant cell line (EHR2/MITOX) was 6123-, 33-, and 30-fold-resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin, and etoposide, respectively, but retained sensitivity to vincristine. The resistant cel...... to be associated with: 1) a quantitative reduction in topoisomerase IIalpha and beta protein; 2) reduced drug accumulation, probably as a result of increased expression of a novel transport protein with ATPase activity; and 3) increased expression of MRP mRNA....

  7. Characterisation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells by different two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H


    Electrophoresis of ribosomal proteins according to Kaltschmidt and Wittmann, 1970a, b (pH 8.6/pH 4.5 urea system) yielded 29 proteins for the small subunits and 35 and 37 proteins for the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes, respectively. Analysis of the proteins according...... to a modified technique by Mets and Bogorad (1974) (pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system) revealed 28 and 29 proteins in the small subunits and 37 and 38 proteins in the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes. The molecular weights of the individual proteins were determined by: 1. "three-dimensional" gel...... using the pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system. The molecular weights Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomal proteins are compared with those obtained by other authors for different mammalian species....

  8. Fluid Fascinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Zwart, Valerie; Haveman, Martha J.

    De Art & Science show “Fluid Fascinations��? omvat een presentatie over de wetenschappelijke context, inclusief een live experiment (ontworpen samen met kunstenaar/designer Wout Zweers); en, gemengde media en olieverfschilderijen, en digitale fotowerken van kunstenares Valerie Zwart. De show is

  9. Large Scale Generation and Characterization of Anti-Human CD34 Monoclonal Antibody in Ascetic Fluid of Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushan Sineh sepehr


    Full Text Available Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies or specific antibodies are now an essential tool of biomedical research and are of great commercial and medical value. The purpose of this study was to produce large scale of monoclonal antibody against CD34 in order to diagnostic application in leukemia and purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Methods: For large scale production of monoclonal antibody, hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibody against human CD34 were injected into the peritoneum of the Balb/c mice which have previously been primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. 5 ml ascitic fluid was harvested from each mouse in two times. Evaluation of mAb titration was assessed by ELISA method. The ascitic fluid was examined for class and subclasses by ELISA mouse mAb isotyping Kit. mAb was purified from ascitic fluid by affinity chromatography on Protein A-Sepharose. Purity of monoclonal antibody was monitored by SDS -PAGE and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with FITC. Results: Monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity against human CD34 by hybridoma technology were prepared. The subclass of antibody was IgG1 and its light chain was kappa. Conclusion: The conjugated monoclonal antibody could be a useful tool for isolation, purification and characterization of human hematopoietic stem cells.

  10. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver


    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  11. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)


    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  12. The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab for the treatment of malignant ascites due to epithelial cancer: Results of a prospective randomized phase II/III trial (United States)

    Heiss, Markus M; Murawa, Pawel; Koralewski, Piotr; Kutarska, Elzbieta; Kolesnik, Olena O; Ivanchenko, Vladimir V; Dudnichenko, Alexander S; Aleknaviciene, Birute; Razbadauskas, Arturas; Gore, Martin; Ganea-Motan, Elena; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Wimberger, Pauline; Schmittel, Alexander; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Burges, Alexander; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Lindhofer, Horst; Lahr, Angelika; Parsons, Simon L


    Malignant ascites is a common manifestation of advanced cancers, and treatment options are limited. The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-epithelial cell-adhesion molecule x anti-CD3) represents a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers. In this phase II/III trial (EudraCT 2004-000723-15; NCT00836654), cancer patients (n = 258) with recurrent symptomatic malignant ascites resistant to conventional chemotherapy were randomized to paracentesis plus catumaxomab (catumaxomab) or paracentesis alone (control) and stratified by cancer type (129 ovarian and 129 nonovarian). Catumaxomab was administered as an i.p. infusion on Days 0, 3, 7 and 10 at doses of 10, 20, 50 and 150 μg, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint was puncture-free survival. Secondary efficacy parameters included time to next paracentesis, ascites signs and symptoms and overall survival (OS). Puncture-free survival was significantly longer in the catumaxomab group (median 46 days) than the control group (median 11 days) (hazard ratio = 0.254: p < 0.0001) as was median time to next paracentesis (77 versus 13 days; p < 0.0001). In addition, catumaxomab patients had fewer signs and symptoms of ascites than control patients. OS showed a positive trend for the catumaxomab group and, in a prospectively planned analysis, was significantly prolonged in patients with gastric cancer (n = 66; 71 versus 44 days; p = 0.0313). Although adverse events associated with catumaxomab were frequent, they were manageable, generally reversible and mainly related to its immunologic mode of action. Catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit in patients with malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers, especially gastric cancer, with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:20473913

  13. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na


    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  14. Partial Trisomy 16p (16p12.2→pter and Partial Monosomy 22q (22q13.31 →qter Presenting With Fetal Ascites and Ventriculomegaly: Prenatal Diagnosis and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen


    Conclusion: Partial trisomy 16p can be associated with fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly in the second trimester. Prenatal sonographic detection of fetal ascites in association with ventriculomegaly should alert chromosomal abnormalities and prompt cytogenetic investigation, which may lead to the identification of an unexpected parental translocation involving chromosomal segments associated with cerebral and vascular abnormalities.

  15. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna


    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  16. Intravenous fluid use in athletes. (United States)

    Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J


    Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.

  17. Does artificial ascites induce the heat-sink phenomenon during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area?: an in vivo experimental study using a rabbit model. (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K


    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2+/-0.4 degrees C in group W and 33.4+/-4.3 degrees C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+/-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+/-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+/-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region.

  18. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with HIV/AIDS: A Late Complication of Mycobacterium avium Complex-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam H. Shaik


    Full Text Available Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life.

  19. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail. (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K


    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  20. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra


    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk. is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20 μg/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800 mg/kg b.wt. of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

  1. Flow-systems analysis and characterization of protein contents and proliferating kinetics in ascites and solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crissman, H.A.; Kissane, R.J.; Wanek, P.L.; Oka, M.S.; Steinkamp, J.A.


    Flow microfluorometric analysis of the DNA and protein content of mouse ascites and solid tumor cell populations grown in vivo has provided information on protein distribution of cells in various phases of the cell cycle, as well as age-associated changes in proliferation kinetics of these tumor systems. L1210 ascites cells and solid Lewis lung carcinomas were dispersed, fixed, and stained for both DNA and protein, respectively, using the fluorochromes propidium iodide (red) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (green). Simultaneous DNA and protein determinations were performed using a flow system in which rapid two-color analysis of stained cells was achieved at approximately 10/sup 3/ cells/second. Analysis of the DNA distributions of L1210 cells on days three, four, six, and seven following implantation of 10/sup 5/ cells revealed changes in cycle kinetic patterns concomitant with increased cell density or tumor age. DNA distribution patterns for Lewis lung tumors showed a 2C peak and a cell proliferation pattern extending between the 4C and 8C peaks. Cells sorted electronically from the 2C and 4C-8C contents of the DNA spectrum were identified morphologically as normal and tumor cells, respectively. Tumor cells exhibited elevated protein distributions compared to normal cells; however, tumor cells were quite heterogeneous in cell size and morphology.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  3. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.


    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.


    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. Fluid Mechanics (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim


    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  6. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.


    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  7. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  8. The characterization of exosomes from biological fluids of patients with different types of cancer (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Grigor'eva, A. A.; Somov, A. K.; Tugutova, E. A.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Molchanov, S. V.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Kakurina, G. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Kondakova, I. V.


    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to isolate, identify and analyze the total content of exosomes in biological fluids. The exosomes from the plasma and ascites samples of the patients with ovarian cancer, from the blood plasma of the patients with colorectal and head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as from the blood plasma of healthy donors were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The subpopulations of the exosomes in the biological fluids of the patients with different types of cancer were similar, but the protein concentrations of exosomes were different. In this paper we present the methodological approaches allowing us to obtain high quality exosome preparations from biological fluids.

  9. Fluid inclusions — What can we learn? (United States)

    Crawford, Maria Luisa


    Fluid inclusions have been reported from all types of metamorphic rocks hence a free fluid phase must be present even at deep crustal levels. Mobile and chemically reactive fluids are thus available to transport both heat and matter through crustal rocks. The most important information gained from fluid inclusion studies is a detailed knowledge of the composition of the fluid phase(s) present during metamorphism. Early studies drew attention to the presence of variable and sometimes highly saline aqueous brines in most metamorphic environments as well as CH 4 in low grade rocks and CO 2 at higher grades. Subsequently the role played by brines in expanding the unmixing solvus of the aqueous and carbonic components of common metamorphic fluids to cover a wide P-T range has been emphasized. Metamorphic petrologists have only slowly adapted their thermodynamic models for metamorphic equilibria to these data. More recently, studies have demonstrated that N 2 is a common phase especially in late or lower temperature fluids. Little is known of the role of nitrogen in the solid phases involved in metamorphism. Do the high nitrogen contents observed in some fluids reflect a significant nitrogen component in the minerals in those rocks? Or do processes related to the compositional evolution of the fluid phase act to concentrate nitrogen in later stage fluids?

  10. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.


    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  11. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.


    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  12. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver


    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  13. Current limits and future challenges in the management of renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis: report from the International Club of Ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angeli, Paolo; Sanyal, Arun; Møller, Søren


    is based either on the more recent knowledge on renal dysfunction in advanced cirrhosis or current opinions among the members of the International Club of Ascites (ICA) on the management of this complication, obtained through a survey and discussed during the EASL-ICA Joint Meeting in Berlin in March 2011...

  14. Cholesterol modulates the volume-regulated anion current in Ehrlich-Lettre ascites cells via effects on Rho and F-actin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K


    )] in this process. In Ehrlich-Lettre ascites (ELA) cells, a current with biophysical and pharmacological properties characteristic of VRAC was activated by hypotonic swelling. A 44% increase in cellular cholesterol content had no detectable effects on F-actin organization or VRAC activity. A 47% reduction...... by preventing the hypotonicity-induced decrease in Rho activity and eliciting actin polymerization....

  15. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids: A mini review


    Toghill Kathryn E.; Méndez Manuel Alejandro; Voyame Patrick


    A brief overview of the literature relating to electrochemical studies and processes undertaken in supercritical fluids is presented. This review mostly concerns carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons given the accessibility of their supercritical states and does not consider the emerging body of research in expanded phase electrochemistry. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Equipments - products: PAM, Europe, Atex; Sudco:an innovative manufacturer; A Silva Matos and the environment; Worthington Cylinders: expanding our activities; Lagoplast: indicator plates and cap seals; Sterling pumps; Rego GmbH Distribution Centre; Equipements - produits: PAM, Europe, Atex; Sudco: un fabricant innovant; A. Silva Matos et l'environnement; Worthington Cylinders: etendre notre activite; Lagoplast: plaques indicatrices et capsules; Sterling Fluid Systems; le centre de distribution de Rego GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Provencale d'Automation et de Mecanique (P.A.M) together with its partner Athelia Solutions is setting its presence on the European Market under the occasion of this event 17. World LP Gas Forum in Berlin, confirming its leading position from its competitors in the application of the latest European directives and more particularly the ATEX. Based in Molleges in the south of France since 1991, Sudco is a manufacturer of pallets and display stands for the transport, storage and distribution of LPG cylinders and industrial gases. Sudco goes forward in the field of innovation. A. Silva Matos uses to execute the painting of its constructions through the traditional equipment of liquid painting, where lines comprising shot blasting chambers, painting chambers and sweating-rooms are included. The expanding activities of Worthington Cylinders is explained here. Sterling Fluid Systems presents a new CEB vertical tank pump for autogas application. Continuing its research in the field of LPG, Lagoplast has created a line of indicator plates and labels in nylon 6 and 66, in order to meet the different requirements that domestic and international regulations submit to the LPG cylinders manufacturers. Rego GmbH Distribution Centre presents its new products, changes and features. (authors)

  17. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  18. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  19. A novel neutralizing antibody targeting pregnancy-associated plasma protein-a inhibits ovarian cancer growth and ascites accumulation in patient mouse tumorgrafts. (United States)

    Becker, Marc A; Haluska, Paul; Bale, Laurie K; Oxvig, Claus; Conover, Cheryl A


    The majority of ovarian cancer patients acquire resistance to standard platinum chemotherapy and novel therapies to reduce tumor burden and ascites accumulation are needed. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) plays a key role in promoting insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway activity, which directly correlates to ovarian cancer cell transformation, growth, and invasiveness. Herein, we evaluate PAPP-A expression in tumors and ascites of women with ovarian cancer, and determine the antitumor efficacy of a neutralizing monoclonal PAPP-A antibody (mAb-PA) in ovarian cancer using primary patient ovarian tumorgrafts ("Ovatars"). PAPP-A mRNA expression in patient ovarian tumors correlated with poor outcome and was validated as a prognostic surrogate in Ovatar tumors. Following confirmation of mAb-PA bioavailability and target efficacy in vivo, the antitumor efficacy of mAb-PA in multiple Ovatar tumor models was examined and the response was found to depend on PAPP-A expression. Strikingly, the addition of mAb-PA to standard platinum chemotherapy effectively sensitized platinum-resistant Ovatar tumors. PAPP-A protein in ascites was also assessed in a large cohort of patients and very high levels were evident across the entire sample set. Therefore, we evaluated targeted PAPP-A inhibition as a novel approach to managing ovarian ascites, and found that mAb-PA inhibited the development, attenuated the progression, and induced the regression of Ovatar ascites. Together, these data indicate PAPP-A as a potential palliative and adjunct therapeutic target for women with ovarian cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Van Doorne's CVT fluid test: A test method on Belt-pulley level to select fluids for push belt CVT applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, B.; van Drogen, Mark; Brandsma, A.; van Ginkel, E.; Lemmens, M.


    Since the market for continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) is expanding rapidly and customer demands become more and more specific, there is an increasing need for adequate CVT fluids. In order to develop and apply new fluids, it is necessary to have reliable methods for fluid testing. However,

  1. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.


    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath Barui


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cytological evaluation of effusion fluid has become integral part of management especially in suspected malignant cases. Conventional Cytosmear (CS is relatively simple, but sometimes become challenging to differentiate between reactive mesothelial cells and malignant cells. Hence, Cell Block (CB preparation is increasingly gaining popularity for management, though it is time consuming, costly and little more cumbersome. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the fluid samples received in the departmental laboratory were divided into two parts for Leishman-Giemsa and Papanicolaou (PAP stained conventional cytosmear and Haematoxylin-Eosin stained cell block preparation. Diagnoses obtained by CS and CB method were statistically analysed. RESULTS Out of total 115 fluid samples, 84 were pleural fluid, 24 ascitic fluid and 7 pericardial fluids. 9 cases in pleural fluid and 6 cases in ascitic fluid were false-negative by CS, which were proved to be malignant by CB method. So, additional 13.1% yield were obtained by CB method to diagnose malignant cases. CONCLUSION CB is superior to CS for diagnosis of malignant effusions and hence it should be used in adjunct to CS in difficult or suspected malignant cases for better yield.

  3. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle


    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle......-dependent changes in the capacity for conductive Cl- transport. It is suggested that in ELA cells, entrance into the S phase requires an increase in VRAC activity and/or an increased potential for regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and at the same time a decrease in CaCC magnitude....

  4. Expression of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells after fractionated irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J


    PURPOSE: To characterize irradiated murine tumor cells with respect to drug resistance, drug kinetics, and ATPase activity, and to evaluate the possible role of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and murine multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1) in the drug-resistant phenotype of these cells. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Sensitive Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EHR2) were in vitro exposed to fractionated irradiation (60 Gy). Western blot analysis was performed for determination of PGP and Mrp1, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determination of mdr1a + b mRNA, and semiquantitative RT......-PCR for Mrp1 mRNA. The clonogenic assay was applied to investigate sensitivity, whereas the steady-state drug accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR), 3H-vincristine (VCR), and 3H-etoposide (VP16) was measured by spectrofluorometry and scintillation counting, respectively. For determining of ATPase activity...

  5. Protective effect of pantothenic acid and related compounds against permeabilization of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by digitonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slyshenkov, Vyacheslav S.; Rakowska, Mariola; Wojtczak, Lech [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Biologii Doswiadczalnej


    Preincubation of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells with millimolar concentrations of pantothenic acid, pantothenol or panthethine, but not with homopantothenic acid, at 22 C or 32 C, but not at 0 C, makes the plasma membrane more resistant to the damaging effect of submillimolar concentrations of digitonin. It is proposed that this increased resistance is due to the increased rate of cholesterol biosynthesis. In fact, incorporation of [{sup 14}C]acetate into cholesterol is by 45% increased in the cells preincubated with pantothenic acid; this probably reflects elevation of the content of CoA in such cells [Slyshenkov, V.S., Rakowska, M., Moiseenok, A.G and Wojtczak, L. (1995) Free Radical Biol. Med. 19, 767-772]. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  6. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  7. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira


    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  8. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury


    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  9. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.


    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  10. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.


    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  11. ROS activate KCl cotransport in nonadherent Ehrlich ascites cells but K+ and Cl- channels in adherent Ehrlich Lettré and NIH3T3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Bergdahl, Andreas


    KCl cotransport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and not K(+) and Cl(-) channels. Addition of H2O2 to hypotonically exposed cells accelerates the regulatory volume decrease and the concomitant net loss of K(+), whereas no additional increase in the K(+) and Cl(-) conductance was observed. The effect...... ascites cells, a subtype of the Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts increased the K(+) and Cl(-) conductances after hypotonic cell swelling. Hence, H2O2 induces KCl cotransport or K(+) and Cl(-) channels in non-adherent and adherent cells, respectively. Key words: Reactive oxygen...

  12. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek


    papers were accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The total number of submitted and accepted papers for this year's conference represents a significant increase over previous Fluid Mechanics Conferences, and has expanded its initial national character and borders which speaks to the great vitality of fluid mechanics. We hope that these proceedings will be used not only as a document of the event but also to assess achievements and new paths to be taken in fluid mechanics research. Finally, we would like to congratulate the winners of the 2014 Professor Janusz W Elsner Competition Ruri Hidema from Japan, Fernando Tejero from Spain and Lukasz Laniewski-Wollk from Poland. Acknowledgements We would like to express grateful appreciation to our colleagues from the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics, as well as to the International Scientific Committee i.e. Members and the Advisory Board. Their advice and efforts have helped us to overcome the problems normally associated with organising international meetings. Special thanks goes to the reviewers for their work in encouraging the submission of papers and the subsequent review of all papers. Their contribution cannot be overestimated. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference was organised by AGH University of Science and Technology, the Polish Academy of Sciences the Committee of Mechanics and the AGH-UST Foundation. Proceedings was published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The demanding work involved could not have been done without the contribution of so many individuals from all institutions as well as numerous external co-workers. Without their extremely valuable help such a meeting would have been impossible. Thank you all so much! Details of the committees are available in the PDF


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çabuk


    Full Text Available In this study, chitosan (CS/expanded perlite (EP composites with different chitosan fractions (10%, 20% and 50% were prepared by absorbing chitosan into porous networks of expanded perlite, as a new hybrid smart electrorheological (ER material. Structural and morphological characterizations of the composites were carried out by FTIR and SEM-EDS techniques. Also, apparent density, particle size, and conductivity of the CS/EP composites were determined. Finally, the effects of electric field strength (E, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER behavior of the CS/EP/silicone oil system were investigated. The CS/EP/SO ER fluid system showed reversible electrorheological activity when subjected to external electric field strength by showing shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior. The yield stress value reached to 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm for CS/EP3 composite.

  14. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.


    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  16. Automatic fluid dispenser (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)


    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  17. Spironolactone in cardiovascular disease: an expanding universe? (United States)

    Funder, John W


    Spironolactone has been marketed for over half a century as a 'potassium-sparing diuretic', used primarily in patients with ascites. With the realization that primary aldosteronism is the most common (5-13%) form of secondary hypertension, it has become widely used as a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. More recently, in the wake of the RALES trial, spironolactone in addition to standard therapy has been shown to be very beneficial in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Despite the failure of the TOPCAT trial, spironolactone is being increasingly used in diastolic heart failure (i.e. with a preserved ejection fraction). The third currently accepted role for spironolactone is in hypertension resistant to three conventional antihypertensives including a diuretic, where it has been proven to be effective, in contra-distinction to renal artery denervation. Finally, brief consideration will be given to 'areas in waiting' - pulmonary hypertension/fibrosis, cancer - where spironolactone may play very useful roles.

  18. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide


    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  19. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education. (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David


    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  20. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.


    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  1. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen


    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  2. Synovial fluid analysis (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  3. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu


    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of a urine reagent strip to identify bacterial peritonitis in dogs with ascites. (United States)

    Thomovsky, E J; Johnson, P A; Moore, G E


    The leukocyte esterase test pad on a urine dipstick has been used as a preliminary test for bacterial peritonitis in humans but has not previously been evaluated in dogs. Here, free abdominal fluid from 60 dogs was tested on the leukocyte esterase test pad and results were compared with culture and microscopic analysis. Depending on the 'gold standard' comparator, the dipstick had sensitivity of ~60-75%, specificity of ~91-92%, positive predictive value of ~69%, and negative predictive value of ~87-94%. Based on these data, it appears that the leukocyte esterase test pad is most useful for tentative identification of cases in which bacterial infection is unlikely. Therefore a negative test may aid in re-directing clinician attention to alternative diagnoses in dogs with free abdominal effusion, whereas a positive result implies the necessity for further diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau


    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  6. A case report of chylous ascites after gastric bypass for morbid obesity. (United States)

    Capristo, Esmeralda; Spuntarelli, Valerio; Treglia, Giorgio; Arena, Vincenzo; Giordano, Alessandro; Mingrone, Geltrude


    We described the case of a highly aggressive antral gastric carcinoma with a scarce symptomatology, in a patient undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) for obesity. A 61 year-old white man in apparent good health, who underwent laparoscopic RYGB for obesity 18 months earlier, with a loss of 30kg, reported a sudden abdominal distension and breath shortness with a weight gain of 5kg in few days. Endoscopy of both upper gastro-intestinal tract and the colon were performed along with CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) CT- scan. A biopsy of the palpable lymph node in the left supraclavicular fossa was taken for analysis. Abdominal paracentesis produced milky fluid, while citrine pleural fluid was aspirated by thoracentesis. Immunochemistry studies of the lymph node biopsy revealed tumor cells positive for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20, CDX2 and CAM 5.2 and negative for HER2 and TTF1 suggesting colon cancer. The colon and upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were normal. A CT-scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) showed an intense FDG-uptake in the gastric antrum and in the lymph nodal chains. Given these findings, a diagnosis of poorly differentiated antral gastric carcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases was raised.The patients died 4 months after diagnosis. RYGB is a widely performed bariatric operation and no data are reported on the risk of developing gastric cancer in the excluded stomach. This case report suggests that great attention should be devoted to post-RYGB patients for an early diagnosis of malignant gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Massive Ascites as the Only Sign of Ovarian Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor in an Adolescent: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ashnagar


    Full Text Available Ovarian neoplasms are relatively rare in childhood and adolescence; only 5% to 8% of the cases are of sex cord stromal origin. Granulosa cell tumors are a group of estrogen producing sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary. They occur in 95% of the cases in adults, and only about 5% of the cases, which differ in histologic characteristics, are of juvenile type. A 13-year-old girl is reported who presented with massive abdominal distention and ascites. An abdominopelvic computed tomography scan showed a predominantly cystic mass lesion with septations arising from the left ovary. All tumor markers were normal, but serum inhibin level was increased. The patient underwent mass resection with salpingoophorectomy. Histopathology was compatible with the juvenile granulosa cell tumor. Interestingly, menarche was started in the patient soon after the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, massive ascites as the only clinical manifestation in the juvenile granulosa cell tumor has not reported as yet.

  8. Myxoma virus-mediated oncolysis of ascites-derived human ovarian cancer cells and spheroids is impacted by differential AKT activity. (United States)

    Correa, Rohann J M; Komar, Monica; Tong, Jessica G K; Sivapragasam, Milani; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant; Dimattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G


    We propose that metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a potential therapeutic target for the oncolytic agent, Myxoma virus (MYXV). Primary EOC cells were isolated from patient ascites and cultured as adherent cells or in suspension using Ultra Low-Attachment dishes. MYXV expressing green fluorescent protein was used to infect cells and spheroids. Infection was monitored by fluorescence microscopy, viral titering and immunoblotting for M-T7 and M130 virus protein expression, and cell viability by alamarBlue assay. Akti-1/2 (5 μM) and rapamycin (20 nM) were used to assay the role of PI3K-AKT signaling in mediating MYXV infection. Ascites-derived EOC cells grown in adherent culture are effectively killed by MYXV infection. EOC cells grown in suspension to form three-dimensional EOC spheroids readily permit MYXV entry into cells, yet are protected from the cytopathic effects of late MYXV infection. Upon reattachment (to model secondary metastasis), EOC spheroids are re-sensitized to MYXV-mediated oncolysis. The critical determinant that facilitates efficient MYXV infection is the presence of an activated PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Treatment with the specific AKT inhibitor Akti-1/2 reduces infection of monolayer EOC cells and spheroids. Direct infection of freshly-collected ascites demonstrated that 54.5% of patient samples were sensitive to MYXV-mediated oncolytic cell killing. We also demonstrate that factor(s) present in ascites may negatively impact MYXV infection and oncolysis of EOC cells, which may be due to a down-regulation in endogenous AKT activity. Differential activity of AKT serves as the mechanistic basis for regulating MYXV-mediated oncolysis of EOC spheroids during key steps of the metastatic program. In addition, we provide the first evidence that MYXV oncolytic therapy may be efficacious for a significant proportion of ovarian cancer patients with metastatic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the structure and functions of membranes in erythrocytes and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells under the influence of a new generation hybrid antioxidant IKhFAN-10. (United States)

    Vekshina, O M; Fatkullina, L D; Kim, Yu A; Burlakova, E B


    We studied the effect of a new generation hybrid antioxidant IKhFAN-10 on the structure and function of cell membranes (organization of the lipid bilayer and proteins and activity of ion channels). The test preparation proposed for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases modified properties of membranes in erythrocytes and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and affected functional activity of cells. We determined the doses of this antioxidant, which did not cause side effects.

  10. The construction of cDNA library and the screening of related antigen of ascitic tumor cells of ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Hou, Q; Chen, K; Shan, Z


    To construct the cDNA library of the ascites tumor cells of ovarian cancer, which can be used to screen the related antigen for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer and therapeutic targets of immune treatment. Four cases of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, two cases of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, and two cases of ovarian endometrial carcinoma in patients with ascitic tumor cells which were used to construct the cDNA library. To screen the ovarian cancer antigen gene, evaluate the enzyme, and analyze nucleotide sequence, serological analysis of recombinant tumor cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) and suppression subtractive hybridization technique (SSH) techniques were utilized. The detection method of recombinant expression-based serological mini-arrays (SMARTA) was used to detect the ovarian cancer antigen and the positive reaction of 105 cases of ovarian cancer patients and 105 normal women's autoantibodies correspondingly in serum. After two rounds of serologic screening and glycosides sequencing analysis, 59 candidates of ovarian cancer antigen gene fragments were finally identified, which corresponded to 50 genes. They were then divided into six categories: (1) the homologous genes which related to the known ovarian cancer genes, such as BARD 1 gene, etc; (2) the homologous genes which were associated with other tumors, such as TM4SFI gene, etc; (3) the genes which were expressed in a special organization, such as ILF3, FXR1 gene, etc; (4) the genes which were the same with some protein genes of special function, such as TIZ, ClD gene; (5) the homologous genes which possessed the same source with embryonic genes, such as PKHD1 gene, etc; (6) the remaining genes were the unknown genes without the homologous sequence in the gene pool, such as OV-189 genes. SEREX technology combined with SSH method is an effective research strategy which can filter tumor antigen with high specific character; the corresponding autoantibodies of TM4SFl, ClD, TIZ, BARDI

  11. Benefits of artificially induced pleural effusion and/or ascites for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma located on the liver surface and in the hepatic dome. (United States)

    Iwai, Shuji; Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Fujii, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sawako; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi


    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with artificial pleural effusion and/or artificial ascites has recently been recognized as a useful device for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the indication of this technique is unclear and its therapeutic efficacy is undetermined. We decided the precise indication for the use of artificial infusion. Artificial pleural effusion was indicated for tumors located on the dorsal side of the liver surface in the right lobe. Artificial ascites were indicated for (i) tumors located on the ventral side of the liver surface in the right lobe; (ii) tumors that could not be completely visualized but located near the liver surface in the right lobe; and (iii) tumors on the liver surface and adjacent to organs. The total local recurrence rates at 1 and 2 years were 4% and 22%, respectively. The estimated survival rates of 32 naïve patients at 1 and 3 years were 90% and 78%, respectively. The local recurrence rates of a tumor size of 3 cm at 2 years were 22% and 17%, respectively. RFA with artificial pleural effusion and/or ascites is effective for tumors located on the liver surface and in the hepatic dome.

  12. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  13. Expanding cosmic horizons of life (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton


    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  14. ADN bacteriano en pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril: Papel como marcador de translocación bacteriana y herramienta pronóstica Bacterial DNA in patients with cirrhosis ans sterile ascites: Its role as a marker of bacterial translocation and prognosis tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. González-Navajas


    Full Text Available Durante la última década hemos presenciado un aumento de la cantidad de datos relativos a la presencia de translocación bacteriana en los modelos experimentales de cirrosis. Sin embargo, los estudios clínicos se han visto limitados por la falta de métodos no invasivos para estudiar dicho fenómeno. En los últimos años, las investigaciones realizadas en nuestro laboratorio se han centrado en la detección del ADN bacteriano en el suero y el líquido ascítico de los pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril, y en las implicaciones clínicas que ello conlleva. Al principio, gracias a un método basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y el secuenciamiento automatizado de nucleótidos, pudimos detectar e identificar la presencia de fragmentos de ADN bacteriano en dichos pacientes con ascitis no neutrocítica y con cultivo negativo. Desde entonces hemos acumulado una serie de datos que indican que la presencia de ADN bacteriano podría desempeñar un papel importante no sólo como marcador de translocación bacteriana, sino también como factor pronóstico a corto plazo. Expondremos aquí el pasado, el presente y el futuro de esta línea de investigación.During the last decade, we have witnessed an increase in the amount of data related with the presence of bacterial translocation in experimental models of cirrhosis. However, clinical studies have been limited by the lack of non-invasive methods to study this phenomenon. Over the past years, the research developed in our laboratory has been focused on the detection of bacterial DNA in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with cirrhosis and sterile ascites, the clinical and immunological implications of such finding. Initially, by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method and automated nucleotide sequencing, we were able to detect and identify the presence of fragments of bacterial DNA in the mentioned patients with culture-negative, non-neutrocytic ascites. Since

  15. Gamma-variate plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Stefan; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hansen, Hanne Boskov


    In patients with fluid retention, the plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA (Clexp obtained by multiexponential fit) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was undertaken to compare a gamma-variate plasma clearance (Clgv) with the urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr......-EDTA (Clu ) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. A total of 81 patients with cirrhosis (22 without fluid retention, 59 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51) Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 h. Clgv was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, obtained by a gamma-variate iterative fit. Clexp and Clu were determined by standard technique. In patients without fluid retention, Clgv , Clexp and Clu were closely similar. The difference between Clgv and Clu (Clgv - Clu = ΔCl) was mean -0...

  16. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor. (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John


    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  17. Improving and expanding NGO programmes. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A


    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  18. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  19. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.


    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  20. Inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide on the biosynthesis of a perchloro-soluble protein fraction of ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raposo Abreu


    Full Text Available The perchloro-soluble mucroptotein fraction was determined in the cells of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma on the 10th and 12th days post-inoculation of the tumor. After 3 days of a single subcutaneous dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg the mucoprotein levels were found considerable lower. This difference was highly significant statistically.Foi determinada a fração mucoproteica percloro-solúvel nas células do carcinoma ascítico de Ehrlich, no 10º e 12º dias após a inoculação do tumor. Nos camundongos injetados com uma única dose subcutânea de ciclofosfamida (200 mg/kg os níveis desta fração foram encontrados consideravelmente mais baixos. A análise estatística demonstrou que as diferenças observadas entre os animais controles e os tratados com ciclofosfamida foram altamente significativas.

  1. Conversion therapy of gastric cancer with massive malignant ascites and ovarian metastases by systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Oyamada, Yumiko; Tsuji, Yasushi


    Intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1 is showing promising results in gastric cancer with peritoneal metastases. We herein report a successful conversion of unresectable to resectable disease using combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab. The patient was a 39-year-old woman with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive gastric cancer with peritoneal, pulmonary and bilateral ovarian metastases. After 6 cycles of S-1 plus cisplatin with trastuzumab, followed by 15 cycles of intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1 and trastuzumab, the pulmonary and peritoneal metastases exhibited complete response and no evidence of malignancy was found on diagnostic laparoscopy. We performed metastasectomy of the bilateral sizeable ovaries, followed by total gastrectomy. The patient had no recurrence for 16 months after the gastrectomy. Therefore, satisfactory response to systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy may convert unresectable to resectable disease, and primary tumor resection with ovarian metastasectomy may prolong survival. This combination chemotherapy has the potential of becoming a conversion therapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastases, even if ascites and ovarian metastases are extensive.

  2. Mechanisms of activation of NHE by cell shrinkage and by calyculin A in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Varming, Camilla; Hoffmann, E K


    The Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 were all found to be expressed in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, as evaluated by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Under unstimulated conditions, NHE1 was found predominantly in the plasma membrane, NHE3 intracellularly, and NHE2 in both...... compartments. Osmotic cell shrinkage elicited a rapid intracellular alkalinization, the sensitivity of which to EIPA (IC50 0.19 microM) and HOE 642 (IC50 0.85 microM) indicated that it predominantly reflected activation of NHE1. NHE activation by osmotic shrinkage was inhibited by the protein kinase C...... inhibitors chelerythrine (IC50 12.5 microM), Gö 6850 (5 microM), and Gö 6976 (1 microM), and by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 (10 microM). Furthermore, hypertonic cell shrinkage elicited a biphasic increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, with the first significant increase detectable 2 minutes after...

  3. Antitumor efficacy and amelioration of oxidative stress by Trichosanthes dioica root against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Prasanna, Angelene; Majumdar, Piyali; Kumar, R B Suresh; Haldar, Pallab K


    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) is a dioecious climber, traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. The present study assessed the hydroalcoholic extract of T. dioica root (TDA) for antitumor effect and antioxidant influence against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight daily for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and liver antioxidant parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life span. The antitumor effect of TDA was assessed by evaluating tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts, median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant (p TDA treated mice as compared to EAC control. TDA treatment significantly (p TDA possessed promising antitumor efficacy in mice, plausibly mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

  4. Purification of, and generation of antibodies against an actin-binding cell surface glycoprotein from ascites tumor cell microvilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, T.N. III; Carraway, C.A.C.; Carraway, K.L.


    Isolated microvilli from 13762 ascites tumor cells contain a transmembrane, cell surface glycoprotein (CAG - cytoskeleton associated glycoprotein) which binds to microfilaments. The authors have purified this protein from Triton X-100 extracts of microvilli by two consecutive sucrose density gradient centrifugation steps in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Under non-reducing conditions, CAG behaves as a 20 S species, and has a molecular weight of 1-2 x 10/sup 6/. The molecular weight of the reduced, SDS subunit is 80,000. The authors have demonstrated that the purified, non-reduced CAG molecule can bind /sup 125/I actin. Antibodies against CAG were raised in rabbits by injecting CAG which was eluted from preparative SDS gels run under reducing conditions. Interestingly, this antibody also reacts with the heavy chain of soluble rat IgM, another mulitmeric glycoprotein of similar molecular weight. This antibody will be useful for the localization of cross-reactive molecules in other cells and tissues.

  5. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest. (United States)

    Brenner, Howard


    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  6. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Wang


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI and ascites heart index (AHI on d 21, lung index (LUI on d 35 and liver index (LI on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB concentration and hematocrit (HCT on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP and globulin (GLO content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH, malic dehydrogenase (MDH and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA content on d 28, 35 and 42

  7. Methods for recovering a polar solvent from a fluid stream contaminated with at least one polar impurity (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.


    A method of removing a polar solvent from a fluid volume contaminated with at least one polar impurity, such as a free fatty acid, is provided. The method comprises providing a fluid volume that includes at least one polar impurity dissolved in at least one solvent. The fluid volume is contacted with an expanding gas to remove the at least one solvent. The expanding gas may be dissolved into the at least one solvent in the fluid volume to form a gas-expanded solvent. The immiscibility of the polar impurities in the gas-expanded solvent enables separation of the polar impurities from the gas-expanded solvent. After separation of the polar impurities, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the solvent from the expanding gas such that the clean solvent may be reused.

  8. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi


    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....... and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  9. Postoperative fluid management


    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk


    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysf...

  10. [Renal and extra-renal mechanisms of sodium and water retention in cirrhosis with ascites]. (United States)

    Peña, J C


    In this work we analyze the renal and systemic factors involved in the sodium retention in two conditions: in extracellular volume depletion and in edema forming states, particularly liver cirrhosis with ascitis. In this paper we accept that the volume loss of body fluids stimulates the "effective arterial blood volume" (VAE). This term results from a decrease in the arterial blood volume secondary to a fall in cardiac output or a peripheral arterial vasodilatation. The reduction in the VAE stimulates: the high pressure baroreceptors (carotid sinus and aortic arch); the intrarrenal mechanisms, such as the yuxtaglomerular apparatus and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system; the sympathetic adrenergic system; the non osmotic release of antidiuretic hormone; prostaglandins (PGE1, Tromboxane) and endothelin; and inhibits the atrial natriuretic peptide. We also describe the sodium transport mechanisms along the nephron during physiological conditions and after volume depletion, and in edema formation states, specially hepatic cirrhosis with ascitis. We speculate that the intrarenal mechanisms are more important and persistent than the systemic mechanisms. It is possible that the sodium retention of these states might be the result of direct stimuli of the tubular sodium transport mechanisms in the different segments of the nephron, mediated by the co and counter transports, ATPase activity or by the second messengers cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. The clonation and structural characterization of the different sodium transports may help us to establish, more precisely, the intracellular tubular mechanisms responsible for the tendency of the body to retain sodium. The amount of information generated in the future may help us to demonstrate, with more precision, the mechanisms responsible for the sodium retention and excretion in normal and pathological conditions, particularly the edema forming states such as cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome and hepatic cirrhosis with

  11. Evaluation of Cell Counting in Body Fluids: Comparison of Two Automated Hematology Analyzers with Manual Microscopy. (United States)

    Genc, Sema; Dervisoglu, Elmire; Omer, Dilara; Kucukates, Emine; Omer, Beyhan; Ademoglu, Evin


    Manual microscopic analysis (MMA) of body fluids has been widely replaced by automated systems. The aim of this study was to assess the performances of the Sysmex XN-1000 (XN-1000) and UniCel DxH800 (DxH800) for body fluid analysis and compare their results with MMA and with each other. Red blood cell (RBC), WBC and WBC-differential counts of 142 body fluid samples (7 cerebrospinal, 28 pleural, 107 ascitic fluids) were performed using DxH800, XN-1000, and MMA. The within-run and between-days CVs% were lower than 10% for both systems except MONO of DxH800. Both analyzers demonstrated good linearity and minimal carry-over. The comparison of the XN-1000 and DxH800 with manual counting and each other revealed good correlation (r > 0.90 for both). Automated systems introduce standardized and accurate performances to analyze biologic fluids. They are also beneficial for reducing turn-around time and laboratory costs.

  12. Heat transfers and related effects in supercritical fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Zappoli, Bernard; Garrabos, Yves


    This book investigates the unique hydrodynamics and heat transfer problems that are encountered in the vicinity of the critical point of fluids. Emphasis is given on weightlessness conditions, gravity effects and thermovibrational phenomena. Near their critical point, fluids indeed obey universal behavior and become very compressible and expandable. Their comportment, when gravity effects are suppressed, becomes quite unusual. The problems that are treated in this book are of interest to students and researchers interested in the original behavior of near-critical fluids as well as to engineers that have to manage supercritical fluids. A special chapter is dedicated to the present knowledge of critical point phenomena. Specific data for many fluids are provided, ranging from cryogenics (hydrogen) to high temperature (water). Basic information in statistical mechanics, mathematics and measurement techniques is also included. The basic concepts of fluid mechanics are given for the non-specialists to be able to ...

  13. Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens induced by low temperature. (United States)

    Shi, Shourong; Shen, Yiru; Zhao, Zhenhua; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Zou, Jianmin; Guo, Yuming


    Ascites syndrome (AS) still has an unacceptably high incidence rate in both humans and animals although there have been many studies on AS. To continue our previous pathological and biochemical investigation on the underlying mechanisms of AS incidence in broiler chickens, cutting-edge technologies including RNA-seq and metabolimics were used by directly comparing AS chickens and healthy controls. The RNA-seq analysis in the liver identified 390 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 212 genes were up-regulated and 178 genes were down-regulated in the AS group compared to the control. For the down-regulated DEGs, further gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway and steroid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched. For up-regulated DEGs, the cholesterol metabolic process has the lowest p value (0.000966) of fold enrichment while the cholesterol biosynthetic process has the highest fold enrichment (46.67). The metabolomic analysis of serum revealed statistically significant changes in the concentrations of LysoPC(20 : 4), LysoPC(16 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 0), LysoPC(18 : 1), LysoPC(18 : 2), PC(14 : 1/20 : 1), PC(20 : 4/18 : 0), PC(14 : 1/22 : 1), dihydroxyacetone, indoleacrylic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, l-valine, and l-tryptophan. The integrative analysis of transcriptome and metabolome indicated that two biological pathways of tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism may contribute to the induction of AS in broilers. These findings have provided novel insights into our understanding of molecular mechanisms of AS incidence in broilers.

  14. Combinatory Evaluation of Transcriptome and Metabolome Profiles of Low Temperature-induced Resistant Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens. (United States)

    Shi, Shourong; Shen, Yiru; Zhang, Shan; Zhao, Zhenhua; Hou, Zhuocheng; Zhou, Huaijun; Zou, Jianmin; Guo, Yuming


    To select metabolic biomarkers and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with resistant-ascites syndrome (resistant-AS), we used innovative techniques such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to comparatively examine resistant-AS chickens and AS controls. Metabolomic evaluation of chicken serum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/HSMS) showed significantly altered lysoPC(18:1), PE(18:3/16:0), PC(20:1/18:3), DG(24:1/22:6/0:0), PS(18:2/18:0), PI(16:0/16:0), PS(18:0/18:1), PS(14:1/14:0), dihydroxyacetone, ursodeoxycholic acid, tryptophan, L-valine, cycloserine, hypoxanthine, and 4-O-Methylmelleolide concentrations on day 21 and LysoPC(18:0), LysoPE(20:1/0:0), LysoPC(16:0), LysoPE(16:0/0:0), hypoxanthine, dihydroxyacetone, 4-O-Methylmelleolide, LysoPC(18:2), and PC(14:1/22:1) concentrations on day 35, between the susceptible and resistant groups. Compared to the susceptible group, transcriptomic analysis of liver samples using RNA-seq revealed 413 DEGs on day 21 and 214 DEGs on day 35 in the resistant group. Additional evaluations using gene ontology (GO) indicate that significant enrichment occurred in the oxygen transportation, defensive reactions, and protein modifications of the decreased DEGs as well as in the cell morphological formation, neural development, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling of the increased DEGs on day 21. Oxygen transportation was also significantly enriched for downregulated DEGs on day 35. The combinatory evaluation of the metabolome and the transcriptome suggests the possible involvement of glycerophospholipid metabolism in the development of resistant-AS in broilers.

  15. Stimulation of glucose uptake by Musa sp. (cv. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Nandini, Chilkunda D


    Glucose uptake study plays a major role in diabetes research. Impaired glucose uptake has been implicated in the development of hyperglycemia during diabetes. Banana plant is known for its anti-diabetic properties and our earlier report revealed that banana flower and pseudostem of Musa sp. cv. elakki bale is beneficial during diabetes in rat models. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effect of banana flower and pseudostem extracts on glucose uptake in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells using 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analogue of 2-deoxyglucose. Methanol and aqueous extracts of banana flower and pseudostem were more potent in promoting glucose uptake in EAT cells, in comparison to acetone and ethanol extracts. At 20 µg dosage, highest net glucose uptake was observed in aqueous extracts of banana flower (18.17 ± 0.43 nmol L⁻¹) and pseudostem (19.69 ± 0.41 nmol L⁻¹). Total polyphenol content was higher in methanol (9.031 ± 0.036 g kg⁻¹) and aqueous (6.862 ± 0.024 g kg⁻¹) extracts of banana flower compared to pseudostem, which were 0.442 ± 0.006 and 0.811 ± 0.011 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Banana flower and pseudostem extracts are able to promote glucose uptake into the cells, presumably through glucose transporters 1 and 3, which could be beneficial in diabetes. Glucose uptake is likely promoted by phenolic acids besides other bioactives. It can be hypothesized that consumption of nutraceutical-rich extract of banana flower and pseudostem could replace some amount of insulin being taken for diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang


    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla


    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  18. Electric fluid pump (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun


    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  19. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin


    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  20. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS) Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites (United States)

    Bellia, Chiara; Clemente, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Vassallo, Valerio; Di Bona, Danilo; Gulotta, Eliana; Ciaccio, Marcello; Pinto, Antonio


    Introduction Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin. Aims We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Methods 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125–250mg⁄bid) plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38), or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21). Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment. Results Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge. Discussion Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients. PMID:27941973

  1. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Tuttolomondo

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin.We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125-250mg⁄bid plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38, or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21. Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment.Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge.Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients.

  2. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant ascites: a midterm study of 36 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YB


    Full Text Available Yinbing Wu,1,2 Mingxin Pan,1 Shuzhong Cui,2 Mingchen Ba,2 Zulong Chen,2 Qiang Ruan2 1Second Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 2Treatment Center of Body Cavitary Thermo-Perfusion, Cancer Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (CHIPC for the treatment of malignant ascites (MA. Methods: Between July 2011 and June 2013, 36 MA patients were prospectively and consecutively hospitalized for three cycles of elective CHIPC under ultrasound guidance, maintained at a constant flow rate of 400–600 mL/min normal saline containing 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin or carboplatin and at a constant temperature of 43°C±0.2°C, for 90 minutes. Main outcome measures were ascites resolution, Karnofsky performance status (KPS, and serum tumor biomarkers at 2 weeks after the last cycle of CHIPC. All the patients underwent uneventful CHIPC as scheduled, and vital signs remained stable over CHIPC. Results: At 2 weeks after the last cycle of CHIPC, MA completely and partially resolved in 26 (72.2% patients and eight (22.2% patients, respectively; mean KPS score increased from pretreatment 61±9 to posttreatment 76±9 (P<0.001, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigens 12-5 and 19-9 significantly decreased (all P<0.01. Conclusion: The current study indicated that ultrasound-guided CHIPC is an effective and safe palliative treatment modality for MA with respect to MA resolution, patient’s general well-being, and systemic disease control. The long-term benefit of CHIPC on overall survival remains to be investigated in MA patients. Keywords: continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy, malignant ascites, peritoneal carcinomatosis, ultrasound guidance, safety

  3. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of serum, a promising non-invasive method to assess prognosis in patients with ascites and cirrhosis (United States)

    Le Corvec, Maëna; Jezequel, Caroline; Monbet, Valérie; Fatih, Nadia; Charpentier, Frédéric; Tariel, Hugues; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Loréal, Olivier; Sire, Olivier


    Background & aims Prognostic tests are critical in the management of patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Biological tests or scores perform poorly in that situation. Mid-infrared fibre evanescent wave spectroscopy (MIR-FEWS) which allows for global serum metabolic profiling may provide more relevant information by measuring a wider range of metabolic parameters in serum. Here we present the accuracy of a MIR-FEWS based predictive model for the prognosis of 6 months survival in patients with ascites and cirrhosis. Methods Patients with ascites were prospectively included and followed up for 6 months. MIR-FEWS spectra were measured in serum samples. The most informative spectral variables obtained by MIR-FEWS were selected by FADA algorithm and then used to build the MIR model. Accuracy of this model was assessed by ROC curves and 90%/10% Monte Carlo cross-validation. MIR model accuracy for 6 months survival was compared to that of the Child-Pugh and MELD scores. Results 119 patients were included. The mean age was 57.36±13.70, the MELD score was 16.32±6.26, and the Child-Pugh score was 9.5±1.83. During follow-up, 23 patients died (20%). The MIR model had an AUROC for 6 months mortality of 0.90 (CI95: 0.88–0.91), the MELD 0.77 (CI95: 0.66–0.89) and Child-Pugh 0.76 (CI95: 0.66–0.88). MELD and Child-Pugh AUROCs were significantly lower than that of the MIR model (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MELD (pinfrared spectroscopy could be helpful in the management of these patients. PMID:29020046

  4. Amniotic fluid water dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.


    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  5. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we derive equations for variation of pressure in a static fluid or in one that is moving as a rigid body. Also, we show that surfaces of constant pressure and constant density should coincide. Various types of instabilities related to submerged bodies and multi layerd fluids are briefly discussed. Pressure in Fluids.

  6. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger (United States)

    Clark, W. E.


    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  7. Phosphorylation in vivo of non-ribosomal proteins from native 40 S ribosomal particles of Krebs II mouse ascites-tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuck, J; Reichert, G; Issinger, O G


    Four non-ribosomal proteins from native 40 S ribosomal subunits with mol.wts. of 110 000, 84 000, 68 000 and 26 000 were phosphorylated in vivo when ascites cells were incubated in the presence of [32P]Pi. The 110 000-, 84 000- and 26 000-dalton proteins are identical with phosphorylated products...... from native 40 S subunits after phosphorylation in vitro by a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. Phosphoserine was the major phosphorylated amino acid of the proteins phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro....

  8. Influence of genetic variations in the SOD1 gene on the development of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Sebastian; Lehmann, Jennifer; Lutz, Philipp


    from pathogens. As both processes are involved in the development of liver cirrhosis and its complications, genetic variation of the SOD1 gene was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two SOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1041740 and rs3844942) were analyzed in 49 cirrhotic patients undergoing...... liver transplantation. In addition, 344 cirrhotic patients with ascites were analyzed in a cohort of 521 individuals in terms of the relationship of these polymorphisms with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). RESULTS: Although rs3844942 showed no associations with complications of cirrhosis, we...

  9. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells


    Periyapatna Vishwaprakash Mahadimane; Venkateshaiah Vasudev


    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challe...

  10. Characterization of native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells: resolution, nomenclature and molecular weights of the nonribosomal proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, G; Issinger, O G


    Native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells were isolated on a large scale. A nonribosomal protein moiety of about 30 proteins could be removed from the ribosomal particles by treatment with 250 mM KCl. These proteins were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel...... spots were excised from two-dimensional gels and transferred directly or after electrodialysis onto the third dimension gel. The proteins fell into a molecular weight range from about 20,000 to 300,000....

  11. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault


    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  12. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul


    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  13. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J


    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  14. Multiscale topology optimization of solid and fluid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    This thesis considers the application of the topology optimization method to multiscale problems, specifically the fluid-structure interaction problem. By multiple-scale methods the governing equations, the Navier-Cauchy and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are expanded and separated...... functions are obtained for use in material distribution problems of a saturated poroelastic structure. Topology optimization is applied for the optimization of an impact absorbing structure and the fluid-structure-interaction of a pressurized lid. A third application considers the pure fluid flow...

  15. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  16. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi


    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation for later development. Flows of ideal and Newtonian fluids are followed by a detailed presentation of basic continuum equations for applications of fluid engineering, which cover the design and operations of various turbomachines, heat exchangers and flow elements. The study of the deformation and flow of matter, namely rheology, is discussed primarily with regard to the stresses generated during the flow of complex materi...

  17. An attempt to use the peritoneal cavity fluid in the diagnostics of acid-base balance disorders in dogs. (United States)

    Sławuta, P; Glińska-Suchocka, K


    The acid-base balance parameters (ABB) of blood are used in the diagnostics and therapy of acidosis or alkalosis type disorders. Nowadays, some reports on the attempts to use the body cavity fluid for the diagnostics of the ABB disorders have appeared in the human medicine. The study has aimed at comparing the acid-base balance parameters (ABB): pH, pCO2, and HCO3(-) determined in the arterial blood and the fluid from the peritoneal cavity in dogs. The study was carried out on 20 dogs suffering from ascites developed as a result of the chronic renal failure. 1 ml of full blood was drawn from each dog from its femoral artery to a heparinized syringe equipped with a needle with an internal diameter of 0.7 mm and the puncture of the abdominal cavity was carried out in the white line. In the sample of arterial blood and the sample of the abdominal cavity fluid drawn the ABB parameters were determined. In the group examined, the ABB parameters determined for the arterial blood and the fluid had comparable numeric values and the same nature of the ABB disorder diagnosed on the basis of them. The conclusions are as follows: the results of the effusion fluid gasometry depend on the mechanism of the fluid formation and, in the case when it comes from the developed capillary network, a pressure of gases and remaining ABB parameters are similar to those determined for the arterial blood.

  18. Application of DTM for 2D viscous flow through expanding or contracting gaps with permeable walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohammadian


    Full Text Available In this study, Differential Transformation Method is used to solve the problem of laminar, isothermal, incompressible and viscous flow in a rectangular domain bounded by two moving porous walls, which enable the fluid to enter or exit during successive expansions or contractions. The concept of this method is briefly introduced, and it’s application for this problem is studied. Then, the results are compared with numerical results and the validity of these methods is shown. After this verification, we analyze the effects of some physical applicable parameters to show the efficiency of DTM for this type of problems. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of the non-dimensional wall dilation rate ( and permeation Reynolds number ( on the velocity, normal pressure distribution and wall shear stress. The present problem for slowly expanding or contracting walls with weak permeability is a simple model for the transport of biological fluids through contracting or expanding vessels.

  19. Inhibition of ascitic ehrlich tumor cell growth by intraperitoneal injection of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng butanolic residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Vieira


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of the administration of butanolic residue (BR of Pfaffia paniculata by intraperitoneal route to Ehrlich ascitis tumor bearing mice. Initially, a toxicity study of P. paniculata BR was performed in which doses of 12.5; 25 and 50mg/Kg were administered by intraperitoneal injection for seven days to Swiss mice. The treatment did not show toxicity. Then, Swiss male mice received, by intraperitoneal injection, once a day, 12.5; 25 or 50mg/Kg of P. paniculata BR for seven days. This protocol started in the same day of tumor inoculation with 5X10(6 cells i.p. The treatment with butanolic residue of P.paniculata i.p caused a significant increase in the ascitic volume; however, a significant decrease in tumor cells number per ml (pNeste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento intraperitoneal com Resíduo Butanólico de Pfaffia paniculata, sobre o crescimento do Tumor de Ehrlich, forma ascítica. Foram utilizados dois grupos de 15 camundongos cada, sendo um grupo controle e o outro grupo tratado com RB 50mg/Kg. Todos os animais foram inoculados intraperitonealmente, com 5X10(6 células tumorais O tratamento iniciou-se no mesmo dia da inoculação do tumor. Assim, os animais receberam diariamente, por via intraperitoneal, 0,1 ml de RB na concentrações 50 mg/Kg, ou PBS como controle. Após 7 dias da inoculação do tumor, os animais foram eutanasiados e foi colhido o fluído ascítico total, para a contagem do número de células tumorais presentes neste fluído e estudo da morfologia destas células . Neste experimento observou-se aumento significante da quantidade de fluido ascítico nos animais tratados com RB, e diminuição significativa em relação ao número de células tumorais/ml e células tumorais totais, presentes no fluído ascítico, comparativamente com os animais controle. Estes resultados sugerem efeito inibitório tópico do RB levando à morte as células neoplásicas.

  20. Some genetic profiles in liver of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice under the stress of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal I. Hassan


    Full Text Available Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells with a minimum of normal tissue exposure. In an attempt to define the molecular and biochemical changes associated with exposure to radiotherapy, the objective of the present study is to explore the effect of gamma (γ irradiation on nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (NFE2, P53, stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3, BCL-2 and BAX genes expression in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC bearing mice. Various biochemical parameters such as liver function, H2O2, B% and T% lymphocytes, total antioxidants and MDA were investigated to evaluate their usefulness as possible during cancer treatment with radiotherapy. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 0.5 Gy. Sixty-four female mice, weighing 20–25 g were used in this study and divided into three main groups. The first group served as control group, while the second were injected intraperitoneally with EAC then was subdivided into two groups, II A and II B. The latter one (group II B, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. The third main group, were irradiated with a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected at 4, 24 and 96 h post-irradiation. The gene expression levels in the livers of animals from each exposure group were compared individually with that of pooled sham-irradiated animals. MMP3 and NFE2 were overexpressed in liver samples of EAC group post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. On the other hand, P53 and BCL-2 genes were downregulated by using RT-PCR analysis post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. As well as, liver function and MDA were increased significantly in the γ - irradiation group (3rd group when compared to control mice (1st group. Gamma irradiation 3rd group revealed increase in the level of T% and B% lymphocytes. According to the obtained results, both γ rays and time period alter

  1. Topological Fluid Dynamics For Free and Viscous Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan

    In an incompressible fluid flow, streamline patterns and their bifurcations are investigated close to wall for two-dimensional system and close to free and viscous surfaces in three-dimensional system. Expanding the velocity field in a Taylor series, we conduct a local analysis at the given expan...

  2. Molecular and phenotypic adaptation in social insect reproductive fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Joanito

    The fluids produced by animal reproductive tracts are composed of a great variety of molecules whose effects expand well beyond the mere assistance of sperm in their voyage to fertilize eggs. In this PhD thesis I present four studies to analyse such effects in evolutionarily derived lineages of a...

  3. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment. (United States)

    Mohammadalipour, R; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, R; Riasi, A; Mohammadalipour, M; Nili, N


    Intensive selection of broilers for faster growth and better feed efficiency resulted in greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome, which is one of the major causes of mortality and economic loss in broiler industry. Whereas cool temperature is one of the primary triggers for ascites, early feed restriction (FDR) significantly alleviates its incidence and mortality. However, little is known about effects of FDR, cold environmental temperature and their interaction on physiological responses in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old male broilers were divided into two treatment groups of Ad libitum (Ad) and feed restricted (FR) with eight pen replicates each. Chickens in FR group underwent feed access limitation from days 7 to 14 of age. On day 21 half of the birds (four pens) in each group exposed to the cold temperature (CT) and the other half (four pens) continued at normal temperature (NT). Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. At 39 and 46 days of age two chicks with a BW around the pen average were selected from each pen and slaughtered after collecting blood samples. Then, relative weight of internal organs and right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV : TV) ratio were calculated. Compared with NT group, CT birds had higher daily feed intake and FCR (Pcold stress conditions, FDR reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdamage.

  4. Quantitation of branched-chain amino acids in ascites by capillary electrophoresis with light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ling; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Wang, Tsang-En; Hu, Kuang-Chun; Tsai, Yu-Hsien; Hu, Cho-Chun; Bair, Ming-Jong; Chang, Huan-Tsung


    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are one of the important biomarkers for monitoring liver disease such as hepatitis or hepatoma. In this communication, we present the determination of the concentrations of BCAA in ascites by CE light-emitted diode-induced fluorescence (LEDIF) using 1.5% m/v poly(ethylene oxide) (average M(v) : ~8 000 000 g/mol) that was prepared in 10 mM sodium tetraborate solution (pH 9.3). Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde was used to derivatize 15 amino acids (AAs) to form naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA)-AA derivatives prior to CE analysis. The separation of 15 NDA-AA derivatives was accomplished within 15 min, with RSD values of gold standard method using an AA analyzer. We have found that the concentrations of the three BCAAs in ascites obtained from patients suffering from liver diseases were lower than those from healthy individuals. Our approach is highly efficient, sensitive, and cost-effective, which holds great potential for the diagnosis of liver diseases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fluid design studies of integrated modular engine system (United States)

    Frankenfield, Bruce; Carek, Jerry


    A study was performed to develop a fluid system design and show the feasibility of constructing an integrated modular engine (IME) configuration, using an expander cycle engine. The primary design goal of the IME configuration was to improve the propulsion system reliability. The IME fluid system was designed as a single fault tolerant system, while minimizing the required fluid components. This study addresses the design of the high pressure manifolds, turbopumps and thrust chambers for the IME configuration. A physical layout drawing was made, which located each of the fluid system components, manifolds and thrust chambers. Finally, a comparison was made between the fluid system designs of an IME system and a non-network (clustered) engine system.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark


    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian


    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  8. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner


    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  9. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail A.; Duška, Michal; Caupin, Frédéric; Amrhein, Lauren E.; Rosenbaum, Amanda; Sadus, Richard J.


    Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  10. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W


    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  11. Sphere based fluid systems (United States)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)


    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  12. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith


    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  13. Fluid retention associated with imatinib treatment in patients with gastroenterol stromal: Quantitative radiologic assessment and implications for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikihil H. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Pyo, Jun Hee [The Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston (United States)


    We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management.

  14. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  15. Comparison of phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II ascites-tumour cells by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H; Speichermann, N


    identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Almost identical results were obtained when ribosomal subunits from HeLa or ascites-tumour cells were used. About 50-60% of the total radioactive phosphate incorporated into small-subunit ribosomal proteins by either kinase was associated with protein S6...

  16. Distribution of 3H within purine nucleotides of Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells after intraabdominal injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Klenow, H.; Overgaard-Hansen, Kay


    In Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells, exposed intra-abdominally to [2-3H]inositol, ATP and GTP presented enough aberrant 3H-label to cause potential interference in the chromatographic analysis of inositol phosphates involved in signal transduction. After acid extraction and charcoal adsorption...

  17. The effect of 3'-deoxyadenosine N(1)-oxide on growth in vitro and in vivo on Ehrlich ascites tumor and on a human squamous lung cell carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, K R; Overgaard-Hansen, K; Frederiksen, S


    The effect of 3'-deoxyadenosine N(1)-oxide (3'-dANO) on Ehrlich ascites tumor and a human squamous lung cell carcinoma was investigated. The 3'-dANO concentration that inhibited the cell growth 50% (IC(50)) in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vitro was 0.15 mM, and the killing efficiency concentrat......The effect of 3'-deoxyadenosine N(1)-oxide (3'-dANO) on Ehrlich ascites tumor and a human squamous lung cell carcinoma was investigated. The 3'-dANO concentration that inhibited the cell growth 50% (IC(50)) in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vitro was 0.15 mM, and the killing efficiency...... concentration (concentration of the drug that kills all cells) was 1 mM. By simultaneous administration of 3'-dANO and the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), the IC(50) of 3'-dANO was unchanged, but the killing efficiency concentration of 3'dANO was reduced to 0.3 m...

  18. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F


    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  19. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    engineers to efficiently simulate turbulent flows, was in fact first devised by Joseph Smagorinsky, a researcher in atmo- spheric science. ... Over the last few decades, mainly due to the rapid improvement in computational efficiency, cameras, optics and instrumentation, both ... towards design of fluid power systems. Asim and ...

  20. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.


    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess

  1. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells. (United States)

    Chaput, John C


    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment. (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert


    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  3. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth


    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  4. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation. (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D


    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  6. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris


    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  7. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  8. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  9. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  10. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia


    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  11. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.


    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  12. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander


    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  13. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine


    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  14. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil


    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  16. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  17. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman


    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  18. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  19. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluid Statics and Archimedes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 28- ... Keywords. Fluid statics; buoyancy; stratification; instability. Author Affiliations. Jaywant H Arakeri1 C Dharuman1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 ...

  20. Peritoneal fluid culture (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...