WorldWideScience

Sample records for exothermal heating technologies

  1. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the

  2. Design of an isopropanol–acetone–hydrogen chemical heat pump with exothermic reactors in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Min; Duan, Yanjun; Xin, Fang; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Xunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The isopropanol–acetone–hydrogen chemical heat pump system with a series of exothermic reactors in which the reaction temperatures decrease successively is proposed. This system shows the better energy performances as compared with the traditional system with a single exothermic reactor, especially when the higher upgraded temperature is need. At the same amounts of the heat released, the work input of the compressor and the heater are both reduced notably. The results indicate that the advantages of the IAH-CHP system with exothermic reactors in series are obvious. - Highlights: • We propose the IAH-CHP system with exothermic reactors in series. • The COP and exergy efficiency of the system increase by 7.6% and 10.3% respectively. • The work input of the system is reduced notably at the same quantity of heat released

  3. Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2013-03-01

    Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

  4. Evaluation of alternatives of exothermic methanization cycle for combined electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities are discussed of using the ADAM-EVA system for remote heat supply from nuclear heat sources to district heating systems. Attention is devoted to the use of the exothermal methanization process (ADAM station) for the combined power and heat production, this making use of the existing hot water power distribution network. The basic parameter for the evaluation of the over-all efficiency of the combined power and heat production is the maximum methanization cycle temperature which depends on the life of the methanization catalyst. Upon temperature drop below 550 degC, the conversion process can only be secured by means of two-stage methanization, which leads to a simplification of the cycle and a reduction in investment cost. At a temperature lower than 500 degC, combined power and heat production cannot be implemented. On the contrary, a considerable amount of electric power supplied from outside the system would be needed for compression work. (Z.M.)

  5. Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRi is proposing, with its partner, Exotherm Corp (Camden, NJ) to demonstrate the feasibility of using exothermic brazing to join RCC (or C:SiC) composites to itself...

  6. Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will advance innovative, cost effective and reliable nano-phase exothermic RCC joining processes (ExoBrazeTM) in order to be able to reinforce...

  7. Ventilation equations for improved exothermic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, John L; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Exothermic or heated processes create potentially unsafe work environments for an estimated 5-10 million American workers each year. Excessive heat and process contaminants have the potential to cause acute health effects such as heat stroke, and chronic effects such as manganism in welders. Although millions of workers are exposed to exothermic processes, insufficient attention has been given to continuously improving engineering technologies for these processes to provide effective and efficient control. Currently there is no specific occupational standard established by OSHA regarding exposure to heat from exothermic processes, therefore it is important to investigate techniques that can mitigate known and potential adverse occupational health effects. The current understanding of engineering controls for exothermic processes is primarily based on a book chapter written by W. C. L. Hemeon in 1955. Improvements in heat transfer and meteorological theory necessary to design improved process controls have occurred since this time. The research presented involved a review of the physical properties, heat transfer and meteorological theories governing buoyant air flow created by exothermic processes. These properties and theories were used to identify parameters and develop equations required for the determination of buoyant volumetric flow to assist in improving ventilation controls. Goals of this research were to develop and describe a new (i.e. proposed) flow equation, and compare it to currently accepted ones by Hemeon and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Numerical assessments were conducted to compare solutions from the proposed equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow to those from the ACGIH and Hemeon. Parameters were varied for the dependent variables and solutions from the proposed, ACGIH, and Hemeon equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow were analyzed using a randomized complete block statistical

  8. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  9. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  10. Exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass ∼few GeV and splittings ∼5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  11. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-01-05

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Apparatus for measuring photopolymerization exotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pargellis, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The resultant exotherms obtained from the photopolymerization of thin-film chemical samples have been investigated. The radiant source used is a standard 200-W in. -1 mercury discharge lamp. About 55% of this power is in the infrared (IR) part of the spectrum, which is removed by a water-cooled quartz tube. Different regions of the remaining spectrum were selected in the range 270--450 nm with cuton filters. A grating spectrometer is used to measure the transmitted spectra. A thin foil heat flow sensor is used as a calorimeter to measure the heat given off by a chemical sample when exposed to 0.5-s pulses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pulse is formed by means of a bistable electronic shutter. Data were taken for samples ranging from 0.0125 to 0.05 mm [0.5 to 2.0 milli-inch (mils)] thicknesses. The heat output per gram is largest for the thinner samples and the absorption characteristics were observed to depend on the thickness of the sample

  13. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  14. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  15. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on heat pump heat storage technology; 1993 nendo heat pump chikunetsu gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is for an investigation into the heat pump (HP) use heat storage technology, with the aim of clarifying the present status of HP heat storage technology, the utilization status, and the developmental trend of technology and of contributing to the spread of heat energy effective use using HP heat storage technology and to the promotion of the technical development. Accordingly, the evaluation of the following was made: sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), chemical heat storage technology (CH), and heat storage technology (HS). Investigations were made on the sensible heat use heat storage technology of water, brine, stone, soil, etc. in terms of SH; the phase change sensible heat use heat storage technology of ice, hydrate salt, paraffins, etc. in terms of LH; hydration, hydroxide, 2-propanol pyrolysis, adsorption of silica gel, zeolite and water, and heat storage technology using metal hydride, etc. in terms of CH. In terms of HS, the following were studied and evaluated from the study results of the heat storage system in which HP is applied to the sensible heat and latent heat type heat storage technology: contribution to the power load levelling and the reduction of heat source capacity, heat recovery and the use of unused energy, improvement of the system efficiency by combining HP and heat storage technology. 24 refs., 242 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2014-01-07

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.

  17. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially.

  18. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  19. Technologies for production of electrticity or heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.

    1990-03-01

    In connection with the production of ''Energi 2000 - Handlingsplan for en baeredygtig udvikling'' (Energy 2000 - Plan of Management for a Sustaniable Development) a summary and evaluation of various electric power and heat production technolgies was produced. Technologies in relation to fusion, wind energy, solar energy, wave energy, heat storage, electric power storage and hydrogen are dealt with. In each case a description of the technological development in the relevant field, also in relation to long (2030), middle (2015) and short term (2000) commercial aspects, is given. The technology is also explained in relation to energy and socio-economical aspects. The consequences of the utilization of the mentioned technologies with regard to the total energy and electric power systems and aspects of Danish industrial policy are considered. Suggestions are presented as to future subjects for research and development in relation to each technology. A number of these technologies are not yet used commercially. The descriptions are thus given on the basis of development on a global basis. (author) 32 tabs., 31 ills., 19 refs

  20. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  3. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  4. Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. This advanced materials technology is being developed in parallel and close coordination with the ongoing DOE and industry proof of concept engine development programs. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. Abstracts prepared for appropriate papers.

  5. In-situ determination of amine/epoxy and carboxylic/epoxy exothermic heat of reaction on surface of modified carbon nanotubes and structural verification of covalent bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Juliana C.; de Castro, Vinícius G.; Assis, Ana L. S.; Veiga, Amanda G.; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Silva, Glaura G.

    2018-04-01

    An effective nanofiller-matrix interaction is considered crucial to produce enhanced nanocomposites. Nevertheless, there is lack of experiments focused in the direct measurement of possible filler-matrix covalent linkage, which was the main goal of this work for a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy system. CNT were functionalized with oxygenated (ox) functions and further with triethylenetetramine (TETA). An in-situ determination methodology of epoxy-CNTs heat of reaction was developed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Values of -(8.7 ± 0.4) and -(6.0 ± 0.6) J/g were observed for epoxy with CNT-ox and CNT-TETA, respectively. These results confirm the occurrence of covalent bonds for both functionalized CNTs, a very important information due to the literature generally disregard this possibility for oxygenated functions. The higher value obtained for CNT-ox can be attributed to a not complete amidation and to steric impediments in the CNT-TETA structure. The modified CNTs produced by DSC experiments were then characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetry, which confirmed the covalent linkage. This characterization methodology can be used to verify the occurrence of covalent bonds in various nanocomposites with a quantitative evaluation, providing data for better understanding of the role of CNT functional groups and for tailoring its interface with polymers.

  6. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  7. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  8. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2013-12-01

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally

  9. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  10. Conditioning of radioactive ash residue in a wave of solid-phase exothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlakova, G.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Tivanskij, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The abilities for utilization of exothermic reaction heat in solid phase for conditioning the ash residue produced as a result of solid radioactive waste burning are analyzed. It is shown that the process of ash residue making monolithic with obtaining the glass-like finish product containing 50-60 mass % of ash residue which meets the requirements for solidified radioactive wastes may be realized without energy supplying from external heat sources. The conditioning is realized in a special crucible furnace-container designed not only for the process conducting but also for subsequent storage or disposal of the finish product [ru

  11. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  12. Experimental investigation of an active magnetic regenerative heat circulator applied to self-heat recuperation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Yui; Kansha, Yasuki; Ishizuka, Masanori; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation into an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) heat circulator based on self-heat recuperation technology, was conducted to evaluate its energy saving potential in heat circulation. In an AMR heat circulator, magnetocaloric effect is applied to recuperate the heat exergy of the process fluid. The recuperated heat can be reused to heat the feed process fluid and realize self-heat recuperation. In this paper, AMR heat circulator has newly been constructed to determine the amount of heat circulated when applied to self-heat recuperation and the energy consumption of the heat circulator. Gadolinium and water was used as the magnetocaloric working material and the process fluid, respectively. The heat circulated amount was determined by measuring the temperature of the process fluid and gadolinium. The net work input for heat circulation was obtained from the magnetizing and demagnetizing forces and the distance travelled by the magnetocaloric bed. The results were compared with the minimum work input needed for heat circulation derived from exergy loss during heat exchange. It was seen that the experimentally obtained value was close to the minimum work input needed for heat circulation. - Highlights: • AMR heat circulator has newly been constructed for experimental evaluation. • Heat circulation in the vicinity of Curie temperature was observed. • Energy consumption of an AMR heat circulator has been measured. • Energy saving for processes near Curie temperature of working material was seen

  13. Thermal oxidation of cesium loaded Prussian blue as a precaution for exothermic phase change in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Akira; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Cesium adsorbed Prussian blue is studied for the thermal oxidation. The TG-DTA shows exothermic phase change of micro aggregates of nano-PB at above 270°C. For this reason, Cs loaded PB was heated between 180 to 260°C. Heating at 180 removed only the water. Neither the oxidation of Iron nor the removal of cyanide is observed at this temperature. Oxidation of cyanide is observed upon heating above 200°C while loaded Cs is released after heating at >250°C followed by washing with water. Thermal oxidation between 200 to 220°C for more than 2 h showed control on exothermic phase change and loaded Cs is also not solubilized. (author)

  14. Transport processes in exothermic gas-solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, P.L.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1997-01-01

    The variation of the concentration of gaseous reactant, temperature distribution for an exothermic reaction, the diffusivity factor and the reaction ratio profiles with various radial positions of a solid reactant have been computed and illustrated for a specific case of reduction reaction of UO 3 by hydrogen

  15. Direct detection of exothermic dark matter with light mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [Chongqing University of Posts & Telecommunications,Chongqing, 400065 (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences,Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Da; Lee, Chun-Hao [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Qing [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University,Beijing, 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-08-05

    We study the dark matter (DM) direct detection for the models with the effects of the isospin-violating couplings, exothermic scatterings, and/or the lightness of the mediator, proposed to relax the tension between the CDMS-Si signals and null experiments. In the light of the new updates of the LUX and CDMSlite data, we find that many of the previous proposals are now ruled out, including the Ge-phobic exothermic DM model and the Xe-phobic DM one with a light mediator. We also examine the exothermic DM models with a light mediator but without the isospin violation, and we are unable to identify any available parameter space that could simultaneously satisfy all the experiments. The only models that can partially relax the inconsistencies are the Xe-phobic exothermic DM models with or without a light mediator. But even in this case, a large portion of the CDMS-Si regions of interest has been constrained by the LUX and SuperCDMS data.

  16. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due to a combination of low costs of primary fuel and low environmental performance of woodstoves today, included health costs lead to decreased use of secondary heating. Overall the interdependence of heat generation technology- and heat saving-choice is significant. The total optimal level of heat savings for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. - Highlights: • Heat saving investment and heat technology choice are interdependent. • Health damage costs should be included in private heating choice optimisation. • Flexibility in heating technology choice reduce the optimal level of saving investments. • Models of private and socioeconomic optimal heating produce different technology mix. • Rebound effects are moderate but varies greatly among consumer categories

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  19. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of highly exothermic reactions for the fabrication of ceramic metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.A.; Pandolfelli, V.C.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Tomasi, R.; Stevens, R.; Brook, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Highly exothermic reactions allow the synthesis or production of materials. Which present advantages regarding to energy saving, simplicity of process and higher purity of the products. Considering adiabatic conditions these reactions give off a large amount of heat which will raise the temperature of the system, allowing the production of highly refractory materials. This paper presents a thermodynamic forecast of reactants are Nb2O5, Al e Zr. The objective is to produce high toughness alumina matrix composites containing ZrO2 particles and Nb metal. (author)

  1. Sustainability assessment of renewable power and heat generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombi, Mihály; Kuti, István; Balogh, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Rationalisation of consumption, more efficient energy usage and a new energy structure are needed to be achieved in order to shift the structure of energy system towards sustainability. The required energy system is among others characterised by intensive utilisation of renewable energy sources (RES). RES technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, for the strategic planning there is a great demand for the comparison of RES technologies. Furthermore, there are additional functions of RES utilisation expected beyond climate change mitigation, e.g. increment of employment, economic growth and rural development. The aim of the study was to reveal the most beneficial RES technologies with special respect to sustainability. Ten technologies of power generation and seven technologies of heat supply were examined in a multi-criteria sustainability assessment frame of seven attributes which were evaluated based on a choice experiment (CE) survey. According to experts the most important characteristics of RES utilisation technologies are land demand and social impacts i.e. increase in employment and local income generation. Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are favourable technologies for power generation, while geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating can offer significant advantages in case of heat supply. - highlights: • We used choice experiment to estimate the weights of criteria for the sustainability assessment of RES technologies. • The most important attributes of RES technologies according to experts are land demand and social impacts. • Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are advantageous technologies for power generation. • Geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating are favourable in case of heat supply

  2. Fundamentals of electroheat electrical technologies for process heating

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the main electrical technologies for process heating, which tend to be treated separately in specialized books. Individual chapters focus on heat transfer, electromagnetic fields in electro-technologies, arc furnaces, resistance furnaces, direct resistance heating, induction heating, and high-frequency and microwave heating. The authors highlight those topics of greatest relevance to a wide-ranging teaching program, and at the same time offer a detailed review of the main applications of the various technologies. The content represents a synthesis of the extensive knowledge and experience that the authors have accumulated while researching and teaching at the University of Padua’s Engineering Faculty. This text on industrial electroheating technologies is a valuable resource not only for students of industrial, electrical, chemical, and material science engineering, but also for engineers, technicians and others involved in the application of electroheating and...

  3. Analysis of the Technological Parameters of the Heat Exchanger in the Heating Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the selecting of technological parameters for the heat exchanger to improve the heat transfer and reduce the noise during operation in the heating pipe, which is used in the different systems of the planes and helicopters. In result of this study, the best technical parameters are found, considering different variations of deformation cutting heat exchanger pipes.

  4. New and future heat pump technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswick, F. A.

    It is not possible to say for sure what future heat pumps will look like, but there are some interesting possibilities. In the next five years, we are likely to see US heat pumps with two kinds of innovations: capacity modulation and charge control. Capacity modulation will be accomplished by variable-speed compressor motors. The objective of charge control is to keep the refrigerant charge in the system where it belongs for best performance; there are probably many ways to accomplish this. Charge control will improve efficiency and durability; capacity modulation will further improve efficiency and comfort. The Stirling cycle heat pump has several interesting advantages, but it is farther out in time. At present, we don't know how to make it as efficient as the conventional vapor-compression heat pump. Electric utility people should be aware that major advances are being made in gas-fired heat pumps which could provide strong competition in the future. However, even a gas-fired heat pump has a substantial auxiliary electric power requirement. The resources needed to develop advanced heat pumps are substantial and foreign competition will be intense. It will be important for utilities, manufacturers, and the federal government to work in close cooperation.

  5. Assessment of Japanese variable speed heat pump technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of critical component technologies and design methodologies for Japanese variable speed heat pumps are presented. The market for variable speed heat pumps in Japan is predominantly residential split-type, between the fractional to 2.5 ton capacity range. Approximately 1.1 million residential inverter-driven heat pumps were sold in 1987. Based on the market trends, component technology and several advanced features are described. Similarities and differences between Japanese and US system design methodologies are discussed. Finally, the outlook for future technology trends is briefly described. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Synthesis of (U,Zr)C solid solutions under exothermic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.; Moore, H.G.; Gladson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The reactions of forming (U,Zr)C solid solutions from their elemental components or similarly less stable reactants such as UC 2 are strongly exothermic due to the high stability of these solid solutions. A simple approach of utilizing this heat of formation energy to assist the solid solution reaction process is to intimately mix the less stable reactant powders and then pressed them into a compact. The compact is then heated to the ignition temperature of the reaction. The feasibility of this reaction method to synthesize (U,Zr)C solid solutions has been demonstrated in this study. The preliminary results also show that both the initial composition and the heating rate have a significant effect on the nature of the reaction process. As expected the degree of powder mixing was also found to affect the completeness of the reaction

  7. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  8. Advances in technologies for decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Berkovich, V.; Bianchi, A.; Chen B.; Meseth, J.; Vecchiarelli, J.; Vidard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The various decay heat removal concepts that have been used for the evolutionary water reactor plant designs developed worldwide are examined and common features identified. Although interesting new features of the 'classical' plants are mentioned, the emphasis is on passive core and containment decay heat removal systems. The various systems are classified according to the function they have to accomplish; they often share common characteristics and similar equipment. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  10. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  11. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  12. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1999 OIL HEAT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    1999-04-01

    The 1999 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, April 15-16 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (DOEBTS). The meeting is also co-sponsored by the: Petroleum Marketers Association of America, New England Fuel Institute, Oilheat Manufacturers Association, National Association of Oil Heat Service Managers, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Empire State Petroleum Association, New York Oil Heating Association, Oil Heat Institute of Long Island, and the Pennsylvania Petroleum Association. BNL is proud to acknowledge all of our 1999 co-sponsors, without their help and support the conference would have been canceled due to budget restrictions. It is quite gratifying to see an industry come together to help support an activity like the technology conference, for the benefit of the industry as a whole. The 1999 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, will be the thirteenth since 1984, is a very valuable technology transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oilheat R and D) program at BNL. The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. They will provide a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector.

  13. Development of glass fibre reinforced composites using microwave heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Vonberg, K.; Gries, T.; Seide, G.

    2017-10-01

    Fibre reinforced composites are differentiated by the used matrix material (thermoplastic versus duroplastic matrix) and the level of impregnation. Thermoplastic matrix systems get more important due to their suitability for mass production, their good shapeability and their high impact resistance. A challenge in the processing of these materials is the reduction of the melt flow paths of the thermoplastic matrix. The viscosity of molten thermoplastic material is distinctly higher than the viscosity of duroplastic material. An approach to reduce the flow paths of the thermoplastic melt is given by a commingling process. Composites made from commingling hybrid yarns consist of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres. Fabrics made from these hybrid yarns are heated and consolidated by the use of heat pressing to form so called organic sheets. An innovative heating system is given by microwaves. The advantage of microwave heating is the volumetric heating of the material, where the energy of the electromagnetic radiation is converted into thermal energy inside the material. In this research project microwave active hybrid yarns are produced and examined at the Institute for Textile Technology of RWTH Aachen University (ITA). The industrial research partner Fricke und Mallah Microwave Technology GmbH, Peine, Germany develops an innovative pressing systems based on a microwave heating system. By implementing the designed microwave heating technology into an existing heat pressing process, FRTCs are being manufactured from glass and nanomodified polypropylene fibre woven fabrics. In this paper the composites are investigated for their mechanical and optical properties.

  14. Effect of the exothermal polymerization reaction on polymer gel dosimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Bujold, Rachel; Lepage, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies in polymer gel dosimetric measurements have been observed between containers of different sizes receiving the same radiation dose. We hypothesized that these deviations are caused by a change in the rate of polymerization due to internal heat increase in the gel containers resulting from the exothermic polymerization of monomers. Here, we test this hypothesis in a polyacrylamide gel dosimeter by recording the temperature in glass phantoms of different sizes during and after irradiation. The dose response of the samples was determined with magnetic resonance imaging. The difference of R 2 values along the depth of the containers was below ±1%. We discuss that this small difference can be attributed to variations in the rate of gelatin cooling during manufacture rather than to the measured heat increase during irradiation.

  15. Six phase soil heating. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Six Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was developed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. SPSH is designed to enhance the removal of contaminates from the subsurface during soil vapor extraction. The innovation combines an emerging technology, six-phase electric heating, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation systems for difficult soil and/or contaminate applications. This document describes the technology and reports on field demonstrations conducted at Savannah River and the Hanford Reservation

  16. Study on Exothermic Oxidation of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS Resin Powder with Application to ABS Processing Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Renn Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative degradation of commercial grade ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin powders was studied by thermal analysis. The instabilities of ABS containing different polybutadiene (PB contents with respect to temperature were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. Thermograms of isothermal test and dynamic scanning were performed. Three exothermic peaks were observed and related to auto-oxidation, degradation and oxidative decomposition, respectively. Onset temperature of the auto-oxidation was determined to be around 193 °C. However, threshold temperature of oxidation was found to be as low as 140 °C by DSC isothermal testing. Another scan of the powder after degeneration in air showed an onset temperature of 127 °C. Reactive hazards of ABS powders were verified to be the exothermic oxidation of unsaturated PB domains, not the SAN (poly(styrene-acrylonitrile matrix. Heat of oxidation was first determined to be 2,800 ± 40 J per gram of ABS or 4,720 ± 20 J per gram of PB. Thermal hazards of processing ABS powder are assessed by adiabatic temperature rise at process conditions. IR spectroscopy associated with heat of oxidation verified the oxidative mechanism, and these evidences excluded the heat source from the degradation of SAN. A specially prepared powder of ABS without adding anti-oxidant was analyzed by DSC for comparing the exothermic behaviors. Exothermic onset temperatures were determined to be 120 °C and 80 °C by dynamic scanning and isothermal test, respectively. The assessment successfully explained fires and explosions in an ABS powder dryer and an ABS extruder.

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 OIL HEAT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference will be held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting will be held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference, will be the twelfth since 1984, is an important technology transfer activity and is supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oilheat R and D) program at BNL. The reason for the conference is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. They will provide a channel by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the Conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; and (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  18. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Kusai; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pulpal temperature rise induced during the polymerization of flowable and non-flowable composites using light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen (quartz-tungsten-halogen) light-curing units (LCUs). Five flowable and three non-flowable composites were examined. Pulpal temperature changes were recorded over 10 min in a sample primary tooth by a thermocouple. A conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen source and two LEDs, one of which was programmable, were used for light curing the resin composites. Three repetitions per material were made for each LCU. There was a wide range of temperature rises among the materials (P < 0.05). Temperature rises ranged between 1.3 degrees C for Filtek Supreme irradiated by low-power LED and 4.5 degrees C for Grandio Flow irradiated by high-power LED. The highest temperature rises were observed with both the LED high-power and soft-start LCUs. The time to reach the exothermic peak varied significantly between the materials (P < 0.05). Pulpal temperature rise is related to both the radiant energy output from LCUs and the polymerization exotherm of resin composites. A greater potential risk for heat-induced pulp damage might be associated with high-power LED sources. Flowable composites exhibited higher temperature rises than non-flowable materials, because of higher resin contents.

  19. Production of carbon nanotubes using mechanical milling in the presence of an exothermic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, E.Z.; Zebarjad, S.M.; Khaki, J. Vahdati; Izadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising potential for many applications in field of engineering due to their unusual significant properties. A major challenge for the industrial applications of CNTs is the large-quantity production. In this field, one new method for CNT production is annealing the ball milled graphite powder. The annealing process should be done in high temperature (1200-1400 o C) and needs time more than 6 h. The novel process introduced in this paper is elimination the annealing stage thorough a thermite reaction. The necessity heat for the conversion of milling products to CNTs was generated in the milling chamber by an exothermic reaction. In addition, the reaction products acted as catalysts to the CNT formation process. The adiabatic temperatures of 1809, 2000 and 2325 K were selected according to balancing graphite and thermite mixture (Aluminum + Iron oxide powders) for exothermic reaction. The results of thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) test proved that CNT formation strongly depends on adiabatic temperature. The results of microscopic evaluation done by transition electron microscope (TEM) showed that at higher adiabatic temperature CNTs could be produced.

  20. Proceedings of the 1993 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the proceedings of the 1993 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on March 25--26 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy - Office of Building Technologies (DOE-OBT), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America. This Conference, which was the seventh held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R&D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space- conditioning equipment. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  2. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  3. Proceedings of the 1997 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Proceedings of the 1997 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on April 3--4 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy--Office of Building Technologies, State and Community programs (DOE-BTS), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). This Conference is a key technology transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R and D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely: and foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of sustained national economic growth and energy security via energy conservation. The 1997 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) five plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector industry representatives from the US, and Canada, and (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. This book contains 14 technical papers and four summaries from the workshops. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  5. Compact heat exchanger technologies for the HTRs recuperator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonon, B.; Breuil, E.

    2001-01-01

    Modern HTR nuclear power plants which are now under development (projects GT-MHR, PBMR) are based on the direct cycle concept. This concept leads to a more important efficiency compared to the steam cycle but requires the use of high performance components such as an helium/helium heat exchanger called recuperator to guarantee the cycle efficiency. Using this concept, a net plant efficiency of around 50% can be achieved in the case of an electricity generating plant. As geometric constraints are particularly important for such a gas reactor to limit the size of the primary vessels, compact heat exchangers operating at high pressure and high temperature are attractive potential solutions for the recuperator application. In this frame, Framatome and CEA have reviewed the various technologies of compact heat exchangers used in industry. The first part of the paper will give a short description of the heat exchangers technologies and their ranges of application. In a second part, a selection of potential compact heat exchangers technologies are proposed for the recuperator application. This selection will be based upon their capabilities to cope with the operating conditions parameters (pressure, temperature, flow rate) and with other parameters such as fouling, corrosion, compactness, weight, maintenance and reliability. (author)

  6. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  7. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.

  8. Safety technology for air-cooled heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The air-cooled heat exchanger is a device that enables a large amount of heat exchange (cooling) by utilizing the atmosphere as a stable and infinite heat sink. It is widely used in general industrial plants, and nowadays it is also utilized in nuclear facilities. This type of exchanger is advantageous in that it can be constructed in any location without having to be near the sea or rivers. It can be operated safely if a natural disaster, such as a tsunami or flood, occurs, thus contributing to the safety of the mother facility. IHI's air-cooled heat exchangers are designed to ensure safe operation and withstand a large earthquake or severe atmospheric conditions. This report describes the technologies used to establish these safety features and their performance. (author)

  9. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  10. Inverted dipole feature in directional detection of exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Directional dark matter detection attempts to measure the direction of motion of nuclei recoiling after having interacted with dark matter particles in the halo of our Galaxy. Due to Earth's motion with respect to the Galaxy, the dark matter flux is concentrated around a preferential direction. An anisotropy in the recoil direction rate is expected as an unmistakable signature of dark matter. The average nuclear recoil direction is expected to coincide with the average direction of dark matter particles arriving to Earth. Here we point out that for a particular type of dark matter, inelastic exothermic dark matter, the mean recoil direction as well as a secondary feature, a ring of maximum recoil rate around the mean recoil direction, could instead be opposite to the average dark matter arrival direction. Thus, the detection of an average nuclear recoil direction opposite to the usually expected direction would constitute a spectacular experimental confirmation of this type of dark matter.

  11. Proceedings of the 1996 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This Conference is a key technology transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R and D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; and foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of sustained national economic growth and energy security via energy conservation. The 1996 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) fourteen technical papers, and (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology, namely: oilheat research agenda forum; fan atomized burner commercialization, applications, and product development; fuel quality, storage and maintenance--industry discussion; and application of oil heat venting tables, NFPA 31 standard. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  13. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Overview of bladder heating technology: matching capabilities with clinical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; van Rhoon, Gerard C.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate temperature hyperthermia (40–450°C for one hour) is emerging as an effective treatment to enhance best available chemotherapy strategies for bladder cancer. A rapidly increasing number of clinical trials have investigated the feasibility and efficacy of treating bladder cancer with combined intravesical chemotherapy and moderate temperature hyperthermia. To date, most studies have concerned treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) limited to the interior wall of the bladder. Following the promising results of initial clinical trials, investigators are now considering protocols for treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). This paper provides a brief overview of the devices and techniques used for heating bladder cancer. Systems are described for thermal conduction heating of bladder wall via circulation of hot fluid, intravesical microwave antenna heating, capacitively coupled RF current heating, and radiofrequency phased array deep regional heating of the pelvis. Relative heating characteristics of the available technologies are compared based on published feasibility studies, and the systems correlated with clinical requirements for effective treatment of MIBC and NMIBC. PMID:26939993

  15. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing hea...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved......The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing...

  16. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System's heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker's reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  17. Status of high-temperature heat-pipe technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of heat pipes to nuclear reactor space power systems. Characteristics of the device that favor such an application are described and recent results of current technology development programs are presented. Research areas that will need to be addressed in demonstrating that adequate lifetimes can be achieved with evaporation/condensation cycles operating at high temperatures in a reactor environment are also discussed

  18. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  19. Technological issues of ion cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent promising results of plasma heating using electromagnetic waves (EM waves) in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the feasibility of employing ICRF heating to a reactor-like magnetic confinement device is increasing. The high power ICRF experiments funded on JET (Joint European Torus in England) and JT-60 (in Japan) will have rf source power in the range of 10-30 MW. The time scale for the duration of the RF pulse will range from seconds up to steady-state. The development of new RF components that can transmit and launch such high power, long pulse length, EM waves in a plasma environment is a major technological task. In general, the technology issues may be divided into two categories. The first category concerns the region where the plasma comes in contact with the wave launchers. The problems here are dominated by plasmamaterial interaction, heat deposition by the plasma onto the wave launcher, and erosion of the launcher material. It is necessary to minimize the heat deposition from the plasma, the losses of the RF wave energy in the structure, and to prevent sputtering of the antenna components. A solution involves a combined design using special materials and optimal shaping of the Faraday shield (the electrostatic shields which can be used both for an EM wave polarization adjustment and as a particle shield for the launcher). Recent studies by PPPL and McDonnell Douglas Corp. on the Faraday shield designs will be discussed. The second important area where technology development will be necessary is the transmission of high power RF waves through a gas/vacuum interface region. In the past, the vacuum feedthrough has been the bottle neck which prevented high power operation of the PLT antenna

  20. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  1. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    different technologies are presented, considering the Draugen platform in the North Sea as a base case. The Turboden 65-HRS unit is considered as representative of the organic Rankine cycle technology. Air bottoming cycles are analyzed and optimal design pressure ratios are selected. We also study a one...... pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...... of the unit is expected to be around 250 ton. The air bottoming cycle without intercooling is also a possible alternative due to its low weight (76 ton) and low investment cost (8.8 M$). However, cycle performance and profitability index are poorer, 12.1% and 0.75. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  2. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  3. A review of chemical heat pumps, thermodynamic cycles and thermal energy storage technologies for low grade heat utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.W.; Ling-Chin, J.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A major cause of energy inefficiency is a result of the generation of waste heat and the lack of suitable technologies for cost-effective utilisation of low grade heat in particular. The market potential for surplus/waste heat from industrial processes in the UK is between 10 TWh and 40 TWh, representing a significant potential resource which has remained unexploited to date. This paper reviews selected technologies suitable for utilisation of waste heat energy, with specific focus on low grade heat, including: (i) chemical heat pumps, such as adsorption and absorption cycles for cooling and heating; (ii) thermodynamic cycles, such as the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the supercritical Rankine cycle (SRC) and the trilateral cycle (TLC), to produce electricity, with further focus on expander and zeotropic mixtures, and (iii) thermal energy storage, including sensible and latent thermal energy storages and their corresponding media to improve the performance of low grade heat energy systems. - Highlights: ► The review of various thermal technologies for the utilisation of under exploited low grade heat. ► The analyses of the absorption and adsorption heat pumps possibly with performance enhancement additives. ► The analyses of thermal energy storage technologies (latent and sensible) for heat storage. ► The analyses of low temperature thermodynamic cycles to maximise power production.

  4. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were {minus}180 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to {minus}1,150 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate.

  5. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were -180 x 10 -3 J/Kg supernate (-181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to -1,150 x 10 -3 J/Kg supernate (-1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate

  6. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  7. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  8. State of technology of direct contact heat exchanging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, R.W.; DeBellis, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specific objectives of this study were to assess the state of technology development and to identify and evaluate the constraints to wider use of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) technology in the U.S. The scope of this study is relatively broad; it includes many types of generic systems and end-use applications, both current and future. Domestic and foreign experience with DCHE technology are compared, although the primary focus is on domestic experience. Twenty-two distinct applications of DCHE technology were identified in this study and are examined in this report. The general format is to describe each system, explore its potential applications, discuss current and past research activities and identify major implementation barriers. Finally, as a result of discussions with principal users of DCHE systems and with other knowledgeable sources, generic and specific R and D needs to overcome specific implementation barriers have been identified. The following list of DCHE systems/concepts has been classified into four major end-uses; there is also a category for specialized (other) applications.

  9. Progress in ICRF heating technology and designs for future large tokamak heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.; Swain, D.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Mayberry, M.J.; Owens, T.L.; Yugo, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of advancing the technology of heating with the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) for successful application to ignited plasmas is being addressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the collaboration of several laboratories in the United States and Europe. The needs of experiments such as the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) have been evaluated and conceptual approaches identified. These concepts and their components are examined in the laboratory and applied to present-day machines. The status of this program is presented

  10. APPLICATION OF EXOTHERMIC PLUGS AT PRODUCTION OF STEEL CASTING IS THE WAY TO ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gatsuro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that application of exothermic plugs allows to decrease steel intensity of casting mold, labor intensiveness for trim, expenses for melting of 1 ton of good casting, material expenses for burden materials.

  11. Technological and chemical properties of heat-treated Anatolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... heat treatment temperature and time justifies these re- sults. Cellulose ..... properties of light-irradiated wood with heat treatment: Part 1. Effect ... Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens) subjected to heat ...

  12. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  13. Application of fluorides as reagents in exothermal reducing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.I.; Maksimov, Yu.M.; Dedov, N.V.; Malyutina, V.M.; Avramchik, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations were made and the process of calcium-thermic reduction of titanium and zirconium tetrafluorides and their mixtures was experimentally studied. Compound TiF 4 and its mixture with ZrF 4 in amount no more than 34.3 % are reduced producing a well-formed ingot. When ZrF 4 content is exceeded in the mixture to be reduced as well as during reduction of pure ZrF 4 and the mixture of unseparated rare earth metal fluorides, metal and alloys are produced as embedded particles in solidified slag. Additional heat should be brought to produce qualitative ingot during the reducing process. Qualitative ingots of metal in weight up to 10 kg were produced during calcium-thermic reduction of zirconium and rare earth fluorides with application of high-frequency induction heating [ru

  14. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  15. Boundary-layer development and transition due to free-stream exothermic reactions in shock-induced flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the effect of free-stream thermal-energy release from shock-induced exothermic reactions on boundary-layer development and transition is presented. The flow model is that of a boundary layer developing behind a moving shock wave in two-dimensional unsteady flow over a shock-tube wall. Matched sets of combustible hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures and inert hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures were used to obtain transition data over a range of transition Reynolds numbers from 1,100,000 to 21,300,000. The heat-energy is shown to significantly stabilize the boundary layer without changing its development character. A method for application of this data to flat-plate steady flows is included.

  16. Competition in the market for space heating. District heating as the infrastructure for competition among fuels and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Gram Mortensen, Bent Ole

    2003-01-01

    None of the EU directives on liberalisation of the electricity and gas markets are considering the district heating systems, although the district heating networks offer the possibility of competition between natural gas and a range of other fuels on the market for space heating. Cogeneration of electricity and heat for industrial processes or district heating is a technology option for increased energy efficiency and thus reduction of CO 2 emissions. In the mid-1990s less than 10% of the electricity generation in the European Union was combined production with significant variations among Member States. These variations are explained by different national legislation and relative power of institutions, rather than difference in industrial structure, climate or urban physical structure. The 'single energy carrier' directives have provisions that support the development of combined heat and power (CHP), but they do not support the development and expansion of the district heating infrastructure. The article is partly based on a contribution to the Shared Analysis Project for the European Commission DG Energy, concerning the penetration of CHP, energy saving, and renewables as instruments to meet the targets of the Kyoto Protocol within the liberalised European energy market. The quantitative and legal differences of the heat markets in selected Member States are described, and the consequences of the directives are discussed. Finally, we summarise the tasks for a European policy concerning the future regulation of district heating networks for CHP, emphasising the need for rules for a fair competition between natural gas and district heating networks

  17. INDUCTION HEATING IN HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT. APPLICATION IN MODERN TRANSPORT REPAIRING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Batyhin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The technologies used in repair of vehicles were analyzed in the given paper. The shortcomings of the mechanical repair methods in question can be solved by using induction heating. Analysis of the stages of development and implementation of induction heating in industries showed effective performance of this technology and its opportunities for further improvement. An alternative repair technique, which consists in using induction heating, was proposed.

  18. TWO-STAGE HEAT PUMPS FOR ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Denysova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources have essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two stages heat pump installation operating as heat source at ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of groundwater energy. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a low-potential source of heat from ground waters allowing to estimate high efficiency of two stages heat pump installations.

  19. In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the interfacial reaction between Ni and Al during rapid heating in a nanocalorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapes, Michael D., E-mail: mgrapes1@jhu.edu, E-mail: david.lavan@nist.gov, E-mail: weihs@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Material Measurement Laboratory, Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Campbell, Geoffrey H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Woll, Karsten [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Institute of Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); LaVan, David A., E-mail: mgrapes1@jhu.edu, E-mail: david.lavan@nist.gov, E-mail: weihs@jhu.edu [Material Measurement Laboratory, Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P., E-mail: mgrapes1@jhu.edu, E-mail: david.lavan@nist.gov, E-mail: weihs@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Al/Ni formation reaction is highly exothermic and of both scientific and technological significance. In this report, we study the evolution of intermetallic phases in this reaction at a heating rate of 830 K/s. 100-nm-thick Al/Ni bilayers were deposited onto nanocalorimeter sensors that enable the measurement of temperature and heat flow during rapid heating. Time-resolved transmission electron diffraction patterns captured simultaneously with thermal measurements allow us to identify the intermetallic phases present and reconstruct the phase transformation sequence as a function of time and temperature. The results show a mostly unaltered phase transformation sequence compared to lower heating rates.

  20. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  1. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  2. Conceptual design of an active magnetic regenerative heat circulator based on self-heat recuperation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Yui; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) heat circulator for self-heat recuperation to realize energy savings in thermal processes is proposed. The process fluid heat is recuperated by the magnetocaloric effect of ferromagnetic material through the AMR heat circulation cycle. In an AMR heat circulator, all the process fluid heat is circulated and no make-up heat is added to raise the process fluid to its set temperature. A one-dimensional mathematical model of the AMR heat circulator was constructed to understand its behavior and verify its energy-saving potential. From the constructed one-dimensional mathematical model, it is seen that AMR heat circulator has potential to drastically reduce the total energy consumption in a thermal process. The temperature–entropy diagram shows that in order to gain the maximum energy saving, optimization of the parameters such as the flow rate and geometry of the ferromagnetic working material beds is needed. - Highlights: • Self-heat recuperative active magnetic regenerative heat circulator is introduced. • One-dimensional model is constructed to verify its energy-saving potential. • Total energy consumption in thermal process is drastically reduced. • Further energy can be saved by reducing the overlapping of thermodynamic cycles

  3. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  4. Advances in Integrated Heat Pipe Technology for Printed Circuit Boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2010-01-01

    Designing thermal control systems for electronic products has become very challenging due to the continuous miniaturization and increasing performance demands. Two-phase cooling solutions, such as heat pipes or vapor chambers, are increasingly used as they offer higher thermal coefficients for heat

  5. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc. North Potomac, MD (United States); Rogers, Benjamin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kafka, Orion L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  6. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  7. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unsaturated polyester resin; resin curing; gel time; exotherm behaviour; peroxide initiator. 1. Introduction ... process cycle to manufacture a composite part. The magni- ... work, which makes sudden irreversible transformation from a liquid resin to a ... anistic models attempt to quantify the balance of chemical species taking ...

  8. Influence of power-law index on an unsteady exothermic reaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the solution of an unsteady Arrhenius exothermic reaction where we reduced the exponential term to a power-law approximation. A numerical solution of the problem is obtained using shooting technique with second order Runge-Kuta scheme. It is shown that the temperature of the reactant depends on ...

  9. Implementation of heat production and storage technology and devices in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, G.; Mutale, J.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of heat storage devices and technologies at power generation plants is a promising way to provide more efficient use of natural energy resources. Heat storage devices can partly replace conventional heating technologies (such as direct use of fossil fuels) during peak energy demand or in the situations where heat and electricity supply and demand do not coincide and to obtain low cost heat energy which can be further transmitted to industrial, commercial and domestic consumers. This paper presents the innovative Heat Production and Storage Device and its application at conventional, nuclear and renewable power generation plants for optimization and balancing of electricity grids. The Heat Production and Storage Device is a vessel type induction-immersion heat production and storage device which produces pre-heated water under pressure for heat energy conservation. Operation of this device is based on simultaneous and/or sequential action of an inductor and an immersion heater and can be easily connected to the electricity network as a single or a three phase unit. Heat energy accumulated by the Heat Production and Storage Device can be utilized in different industrial technological processes during periods of high energy prices. - Highlights: ► Heat Production and Storage Device for energy conservation within low load hours. ► Simultaneous and/or sequential operation of the inductor and immersion heater. ► Transform the energy of low frequency electrical current (50 Hz) into heat energy. ► Connection to the electricity network either in single or three phase unit. ► Heat Production and Storage Device will enhance the economic value of the system.

  10. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities-Second Edition; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Donald L

    2001-01-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided

  11. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  12. Laser application of heat pipe technology in energy related programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The design and operating parameters for a heat pipe laser utilizing metal vapors are proposed. The laser would be applied to laser induced fusion, laser induced chemistry, laser isotope separation, and power transport using optical beams. (U.S.)

  13. High-efficiency heat pump technology using metal hydrides (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Harada, T.; Niikura, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, J. [Human Environmental Systems Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Gamo, T. [Corporate Environmental Affairs Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Metal hybrides are effective materials for utilizing hydrogen as a clean energy medium. That is, when the metal hydrides absorb or desorb the hydrogen, a large heat output of reaction occurs. So, the metal hydrides can be applied to a heat pump. We have researched on a high efficiency heat pump technology using their metal hydrides. In this report, a double effect type metal hydride heat pump configuration is described in which the waste heat of 160 C is recovered in a factory cite and transported to areas far distant from the industrial district. In the heat recovery unit, a low pressure hydrogen is converted into highly effective high pressure hydrogen by applying the metal hydrides. Other metal hydrides perform the parts of heating by absorbing the hydrogen and cooling by desorbing the hydrogen in the heat supply unit. One unit scale of the system is 3 kW class as the sum of heating and cooling. This system using the hydrogen absorbing alloy also has good energy storage characteristics and ambient hydrogen pressure self-safety control ability. Furthermore, this heating and cooling heat supply system is not harmful to the natural environment because it is a chlorofluorocarbon-free, and low noise type system. We have developed in the following element technologies to attain the above purposes, that is development of hydrogen absorbing alloys with high heat outputs and technologies to construct the heat pump system. This study is proceeded at present as one of the programs in New Sunshine Project, which aims for development of ingenious energy utilization technology to achieve reduction of primary energy consumption with keeping cultural and wealthy life and preventing deterioration of global environment. (orig.)

  14. Residential home heating: The potential for air source heat pump technologies as an alternative to solid and liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J. Andrew; Fu, Miao; Clinch, J. Peter

    2016-01-01

    International commitments on greenhouse gases, renewables and air quality warrant consideration of alternative residential heating technologies. The residential sector in Ireland accounts for approximately 25% of primary energy demand with roughly half of primary home heating fuelled by oil and 11% by solid fuels. Displacing oil and solid fuel usage with air source heat pump (ASHP) technology could offer household cost savings, reductions in emissions, and reduced health impacts. An economic analysis estimates that 60% of homes using oil, have the potential to deliver savings in the region of €600 per annum when considering both running and annualised capital costs. Scenario analysis estimates that a grant of €2400 could increase the potential market uptake of oil users by up to 17% points, whilst a higher oil price, similar to 2013, could further increase uptake from heating oil users by 24% points. Under a combined oil-price and grant scenario, CO_2 emissions reduce by over 4 million tonnes per annum and residential PM_2_._5 and NO_X emissions from oil and peat reduce close to zero. Corresponding health and environmental benefits are estimated in the region of €100m per annum. Sensitivity analyses are presented assessing the impact of alternate discount rates and technology performance. This research confirms the potential for ASHP technology and identifies and informs policy design considerations with regard to oil price trends, access to capital, targeting of grants, and addressing transactions costs. - Highlights: • Air Source Heat Pumps can offer substantial savings over oil fired central heating. • Significant residential air and climate emission reductions are possible. • Associated health and environmental benefits are estimated up to €100m per annum. • Results can inform policy interventions in the residential market to support change.

  15. District heating as the infrastructure for competition among fuels and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram

    2016-01-01

    for increased energy efficiency. Additional technologies suitable for small-scale networks are heat pumps, solar panels and local biomass in the form of straw or biogas. For large-scale urban networks, incineration of urban waste and geothermal heat are key technologies. With heat storages district heating...... infrastructure can contribute significantly to balancing the intermittency of wind power. This paper is an update of the authors' article published in Energy Policy in 2003 focusing on the European directives focusing on competition in the electricity and gas network industries and promotion of renewables...... and cogeneration but limited support for the development and expansion of the district heating infrastructure. It was partly based on a contribution to the Shared Analysis Project for the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy, concerning the penetration of combined heat and power (CHP), energy saving...

  16. Break-through technologies. Power and/or heat generation; Genombrottstekniker. Kraft- vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report gives a compilation of technologies for the future in producing electric power and heat. The focus is on the areas Cogeneration, Fuel cells, Wind power, Solar cells, Artificial photosynthesis, and Hydrogen. Refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Heat pipes. Dictionary of terms, design, technology and application. Fiz. -energ. in-t. Obminsk. (Prepr. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strozhkov, A I; Zayets, V V

    1980-01-01

    Types of capillary-porous structures, their advantages and shortcomings, and technology of fabrication are examined. Methods are described for regulating the heat pipes, their configuration and area of application.

  18. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  19. Heat pipe technology. a bibliography with abstracts. Quarterly update, 31 March 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology is a continuing bibliographic summary of research on the subject of the heat pipe. The first volume was published in 1971. The 1972, 1973, and 1974 Annual Supplements have been published and distributed. This update cites additional references for 1975

  20. Forum environmental and energy technology 2013. Power-heat cogeneration and air pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlowitz, Otto; Meyer, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The volume covers the following topics: The teaching reward 2013 - concept and implementation of the ''Forum environmental and energy technology''; energy efficient air pollution control and material recovery; air pollution control by oxidation; electrical energy production from low-temperature waste heat (ORC processes), electrical power production and process heat utilization.

  1. Slowpoke: a role for nuclear technology in district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1987-08-01

    The successful application of the SLOWPOKE concept to satisfy the heating needs of institutions and building complexes is described. Although the load factor for heating in Japan may not be as high as those experienced in other countries of the northern hemipshere, this particular application clearly demonstrates that small, special purpose, ultra-safe nuclear energy sources are technically and economically viable. They can be designed for easy operation and maintenance, to be located in urban areas and remote communities, thereby satsifying a broad spectrum of energy needs that cannot be served by central nuclear electrical generators

  2. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  3. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  4. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... ween 450 and 660 m altitudes in Cide-Sehdagi (Gercek et al., 1998; Dogu ... changes continue as the temperature is increased in ... Heat treatment slows water uptake and wood cell wall absorbs ...... The Effect of Boiling Time.

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of ... Some of the products developed by thermal treat- .... boards were stored uncontrolled condition in an unheated room for .... These results can be explained with material loses in ...... Finland-state of the art.

  7. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  8. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  9. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  10. Exothermic reactions among components of lithium-sulfur dioxide and lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallek, S.; James, S. D.; Kilroy, W. P.

    1981-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were made on various components of Li-SOCl2 cells to identify those combinations that react exothermically and might cause batteries to explode. The passivation of Li by SO2 in acetonitrile (AN) was characterized over a wide range of SO2 concentration (0.1-14M). In the absence of SO2, trace additions of water greatly lower the exothermicity of the Li-AN reaction. The Li-SOCl2-LiAlCl4 mixture is inert over a wide range of temperature well above the melting point of Li. However, adding carbon black converts this inert mixture into one which is highly and consistently reactive. The addition of copper powder enhances carbon's catalytic effect on the reactivity of the Li-SOCl2-LiAlCl4 mixture while trace additions of water have the opposite effect.

  11. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  12. Examination of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in low and medium temperatures waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at low and medium temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The low and medium temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  13. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  14. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  15. New Technology and Experimental Study on Snow-Melting Heated Pavement System in Tunnel Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid growth of economy and sharp rise of motor vehicles in China, the pavement skid resistance in tunnel portals has become increasingly important in cold region. However, the deicing salt, snow removal with machine, and other antiskid measures adopted by highway maintenance division have many limitations. To improve the treatment effect, we proposed a new snow-melting approach employing electric heat tracing, in which heating cables are installed in the structural layer of road. Through the field experiment, laboratory experiment, and numerical investigation, structure type, heating power, and preheating time of the flexible pavement heating system in tunnel portal were systematically analyzed, and advantages of electric heat tracing technology in improving the pavement skid resistance in tunnel portal were also presented. Therefore, such new technology, which offers new snow-melting methods for tunnel portal, bridge, mountainous area, and large longitudinal slope in cold region, has promising prospect for extensive application.

  16. Diffusion of renewable heating technologies in households. Experiences from the Norwegian Household Subsidy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjørnstad, Even

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 896 Norwegian households participating in a subsidy programme was surveyed in order to evaluate the success of the programme. The programme subsidised investments in new heating technologies, including heat pumps and pellet stoves. The success of the programme was measured by the degree of overall satisfaction with the investment by the sampled households. Theories on diffusion of innovations and planned behaviour motivate the empirical modelling of the investment satisfaction. The economic return on the investment varied substantially both within and between the two heating technologies, with heat pumps outperforming pellet stoves in this respect. Still, the economic return showed no explanatory power toward the investment satisfaction of the household. Among the economic variables, only the electricity price had any influence on investment satisfaction. Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort, and the availability of the supplier of the heating equipment were the most important explanatory variables. - Highlights: ► Investments in heat pumps and pellet stoves were subsidized over a public programme. ► Heat pumps showed a strong economic return, pellet stoves performed much more poorly. ► This difference in economic return does not influence the investment satisfaction. ► Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort are important benefits. ► Service availability and electricity price also influence satisfaction.

  17. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  18. Design of Remote Heat-Meter System Based on Trusted Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changgeng; Lai, Liping

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a proposal of a heat meter and remote meter reading system for the disadvantages of the hackers very easily using eavesdropping, tampering, replay attack of traditional remote meter reading system. The system selects trusted technology such as, the identity authentication, integrity verifying, and data protection. By the experiments, it is proved that the remote meter reading system of the heat meter can be used to verify the feasibility of the technology, and verify the practicability and operability of data protection technology.

  19. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  20. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  1. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  2. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  3. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzlinger, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Ohlhaeuser, K.

    1986-01-01

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  4. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  5. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCHT 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kyoto protocol has initiated a pledge from almost all developing and developed countries to be committed to reducing CO2 emissions. Development of new renewable energy technologies are also of interest in this conference. Greenhouse gases have contributed to global warming and other man-made disasters. Cooling and Heating communities also have responsibilities towards the commitment of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, depleting natural resources also act as a threat to the Cooling and Heating industries, causing them to develop highly efficient equipment and innovative technologies. The 1st International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies was held in Hanoi Vietnam (Jan. 2005). Whereas the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th ICCHT conferences were held in Dalian, China (Jul. 2006), Tokyo, Japan (Jul. 2007), Jinhae, Korea (Oct. 2008) and Bandung, Indonesia (Dec. 2010) respectively. The 6th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCTH2012) was held in Xi'an in China on November 9-12, 2012. It is our pleasure to welcome you to the 7th International Conference on Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCTH2014) on 4th - 6th November 2014 at the Grand Dorsett Subang Hotel, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia The Theme of the Conference is ''Sustainability and Innovation in Heating & Cooling Technologies''. The sub-themes are:- • CO2 Reduction and Low Carbon Technologies • HVAC System and Natural Ventilation • Energy & Alternative Energy • Computational Fluid Dynamics • Low Temperature & Refrigeration Engineering In conjunction with the Conference, an Exhibition will be organized as an integral part of the Conference. Project experiences, product solutions, new applications and state-of-the art information will be highlighted.

  6. Technology data for electricity and heat generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The Danish Energy Authority and the two Danish electricity transmission and system operators, Elkraft System and Eltra, initiated updating of current technology catalogues in 2003. The first updated catalogue was published in March 2004. This report presents the results of the second phase of updating. The primary objective has been to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses. The catalogue may furthermore be used as reference for evaluations of the development perspectives for the numerous technologies available for energy generation in relation to the programming of funding schemes for research, development and demonstration of emerging technologies. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiates aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to primarily rely on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesses. (au)

  7. Geothermal heat pumps, a booming technology in North America; Geothermal Heat Pumps - der Boom der oberflaechennahen Geothermie in Nordamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Over the last years, the interest in and the use of ground-source heat pumps has substantially increased in North America. In a market dominated by space cooling heat pumps can show clearly their advantages. This paper describes the development in Canada and USA, gives examples of the technologies used and presents some large plants. The differences to the Central European situation are discussed. Also mentioned are the various activities in market penetration, which peaked in the foundation of the `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium` in Washington in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren hat das Interesse an und der Einsatz von erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen in Nordamerika stark zugenommen. In einem von der Raumkuehlung dominierten Markt koennen Waermepumpen ihre Vorteile voll ausspielen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung in Kanada und den USA, stellt Beispiele der eingesetzten Technik vor und geht auf einige Grossanlagen ein. Ausserdem werden die Unterschiede zu der Situation in Mitteleuropa herausgearbeitet und die verschiedenen Aktivitaeten zu `Markt Penetration` behandelt, die 1994 in die Gruendung des `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortiums` in Washington muendeten. (orig.)

  8. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  9. The NASA-Lewis/ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, J. P.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center plans to carry out a major role in the ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. This role would be to create and test the enabling technology for future solar heating, cooling, and combined heating/cooling systems. The major objectives of the project are to achieve reduction in solar energy system costs, while maintaining adequate performance, reliability, life, and maintenance characteristics. The project approach is to move progressively through component, subsystem, and then system technology advancement phases in parallel with continuing manufacturing cost assessment studies. This approach will be accomplished principally by contract with industry to develop advanced components and subsystems. This advanced hardware will be tested to establish 'technology readiness' both under controlled laboratory conditions and under real sun conditions.

  10. Combustion-Assisted Photonic Annealing of Printable Graphene Inks via Exothermic Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Gao, Theodore Z; Dos Santos, Manuel H; Wallace, Shay G; Putz, Karl W; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-09-06

    High-throughput and low-temperature processing of high-performance nanomaterial inks is an important technical challenge for large-area, flexible printed electronics. In this report, we demonstrate nitrocellulose as an exothermic binder for photonic annealing of conductive graphene inks, leveraging the rapid decomposition kinetics and built-in energy of nitrocellulose to enable versatile process integration. This strategy results in superlative electrical properties that are comparable to extended thermal annealing at 350 °C, using a pulsed light process that is compatible with thermally sensitive substrates. The resulting porous microstructure and broad liquid-phase patterning compatibility are exploited for printed graphene microsupercapacitors on paper-based substrates.

  11. Spray cooling heat transfer: Technology overview and assessment of future challenges for micro-gravity application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Eric A.; Golliher, Eric L.; Paneer Selvam, R.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced on-board flight systems for future NASA space exploration programs consist of components such as laser-diode arrays (LDA's) and multi-chip modules (MCM's). Thermal management of these systems require high heat flux cooling capability (≥100 W/cm 2 ), tight temperature control (approx. ±2 deg. C), reliable start-up (on demand) and long term stability. Traditional multiphase thermal control technologies for space flight (e.g., loop heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, etc.) satisfy the temperature control, start-up and stability requirements, but their heat flux removal capabilities are limited. Spray cooling can provide high heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm 2 using fluorinerts and over 1000 W/cm 2 with water while allowing tight temperature control at low coolant fluid flow rates. Spray cooling has been flight proven in an open loop configuration through the Space shuttle's flash evaporator system (FES). However, several closed system issues require investigation to further advance the technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) appropriate for closed system space flight application. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of spray cooling technology as well as NASA's goals, current direction, and challenges associated with the implementation and practice of this technology in the micro-gravity environment

  12. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  13. Investigations of heat-hydraulic noises in the equipment for creation of power-saving technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies on the parameters of vibroacoustic signals, originating in the TPP and NPP thermal energy equipment, are presented. The methods for calculation and identification of the heat-hydraulic perturbation sources, intended for improving the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, forecasting their development, increasing the maintenance work efficiency and operational safety, as well as for creating power-saving technologies in the power engineering, are developed [ru

  14. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  16. Activities of the All-Union Institute for Heat Technology in suppression of nitrogen oxide emission by technological methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyakin, Yu.P.; Kotler, V.R.; Babii, V.I.; Shtal' man, S.G.; Shcherbachenko, S.I. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-06-01

    Evaluates research programs of the All-Union Institute for Heat Technology in the USSR from 1970 to 1991. Research and development programs, developed technologies or equipment types, their tests and use on a commercial scale are discussed. Power plants in the USSR which use the technologies are listed. The following technologies are comparatively evaluated: recirculation of flue gases to a combustion system (reduces emission of nitrogen oxides by about 2 times), two-stage coal combustion (reduces emission by 40-50%), three-stage combustion (reduces emission by 40-50%), use of special types of burners (reduces emission by 25-30%), adapting temperature of air supplied to the combustion zone (reduces emission by 20-30%). 10 refs.

  17. Development of a micro-heat exchanger with stacked plates using LTCC technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vásquez-Alvarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A green ceramic tape micro-heat exchanger was developed using Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics technology (LTCC. The device was designed by using Computational Aided Design software and simulations were made using a Computational Fluid Dynamics package (COMSOL Multiphysics to evaluate the homogeneity of fluid distribution in the microchannels. Four geometries were proposed and simulated in two and three dimensions to show that geometric details directly affect the distribution of velocity in the micro-heat exchanger channels. The simulation results were quite useful for the design of the microfluidic device. The micro-heat exchanger was then constructed using the LTCC technology and is composed of five thermal exchange plates in cross-flow arrangement and two connecting plates, with all plates stacked to form a device with external dimensions of 26 x 26 x 6 mm³.

  18. Overview of ground coupled heat pump research and technology transfer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, V. D.; Mei, V. C.

    Highlights of DOE-sponsored ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are presented. ORNL, in cooperation with Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Climate Master, Inc., and Brookhaven National Laboratory developed and demonstrated an advanced GCHP design concept with shorter ground coils that can reduce installed costs for northern climates. In these areas it can also enhance the competitiveness of GCHP systems versus air-source heat pumps by lowering their payback from 6 to 7 years to 3 to 5 years. Ground coil heat exchanger models (based primarily on first principles) have been developed and used by others to generate less conservative ground coil sizing methods. An aggressive technology transfer initiative was undertaken to publicize results of this research and make it available to the industry. Included in this effort were an international workshop, trade press releases and articles, and participation in a live teleconference on GCHP technology.

  19. New developments in illumination, heating and cooling technologies for energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.J.; Jeon, Y.I.; Lim, S.H.; Kim, W.W.; Chen, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a concise review of new designs and developments of illumination, heating and air-conditioning systems and technologies for energy-efficient buildings. Important breakthroughs in these areas include high-efficiency and/or reduced cost solar system components, LED lamps, smart windows, computer-controlled illumination systems, compact combined heat-power generation systems, and so on. To take advantage of these new technologies, hybrid or cascade energy systems have been proposed and/or investigated. A survey of innovative architectural and building envelope designs that have the potential to considerably reduce the illumination and heating and cooling costs for office buildings and residential houses is also included in the review. In addition, new designs and ideas that can be easily implemented to improve the energy efficiency and/or reduce greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts of new or existing buildings are proposed and discussed.

  20. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  1. A Joule-Heated Melter Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  2. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  3. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  4. Application of heat pipe technology in permanent mold casting of nonferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalem, Kaled

    The issue of mold cooling is one, which presents a foundry with a dilemma. On the one hand; the use of air for cooling is safe and practical, however, it is not very effective and high cost. On the other hand, water-cooling can be very effective but it raises serious concerns about safety, especially with a metal such as magnesium. An alternative option that is being developed at McGill University uses heat pipe technology to carry out the cooling. The experimental program consisted of designing a permanent mold to produce AZ91E magnesium alloy and A356 aluminum alloy castings with shrinkage defects. Heat pipes were then used to reduce these defects. The heat pipes used in this work are novel and are patent pending. They are referred to as McGill Heat Pipes. Computer modeling was used extensively in designing the mold and the heat pipes. Final designs for the mold and the heat pipes were chosen based on the modeling results. Laboratory tests of the heat pipe were performed before conducting the actual experimental plan. The laboratory testing results verified the excellent performance of the heat pipes as anticipated by the model. An industrial mold made of H13 tool steel was constructed to cast nonferrous alloys. The heat pipes were installed and initial testing and actual industrial trials were conducted. This is the first time where a McGill heat pipe was used in an industrial permanent mold casting process for nonferrous alloys. The effects of cooling using heat pipes on AZ91E and A356 were evaluated using computer modeling and experimental trials. Microstructural analyses were conducted to measure the secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS, and the grain size to evaluate the cooling effects on the castings. The modeling and the experimental results agreed quite well. The metallurgical differences between AZ91E and A356 were investigated using modeling and experimental results. Selected results from modeling, laboratory and industrial trials are presented. The

  5. High temperature heat exchanger application in power engineering and energy-technological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpilrain, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibilities for intensification of various processes in metallurgy and chemical technology, the prospects for enhancing power plant efficiency are often linked with temperature increase of reagents, heat carriers and working fluids. In some cases elevated temperatures give the opportunity to use new and principally different technologies, enhance capacities of power production units and technological apparatuses, improve their economical performance. The variety of problems where high temperature heat exchangers are or can be used are extremely wide. It is therefore impossible to overview all of them in one lecture. Therefore the author tries to consider only some examples which are typical and gives an impression of what kind of problems arise in these cases

  6. Leveraging gigawatt potentials by smart heat-pump technologies using ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserscheid, Peter; Seiler, Matthias

    2011-04-18

    One of the greatest challenges to science in the 21 st century is the development of efficient energy production, storage, and transformation systems with minimal ecological footprints. Due to the lack of efficient heat-transformation technologies, industries around the world currently waste energy in the gigawatt range at low temperatures (40-80 °C). These energy potentials can be unlocked or used more efficiently through a new generation of smart heat pumps operating with novel ionic liquid (IL)-based working pairs. The new technology is expected to allow revolutionary technical progress in heat-transformation devices, for example, significantly higher potential efficiencies, lower specific investments, and broader possibilities to incorporate waste energy from renewable sources. Furthermore, due to drastically reduced corrosion rates and excellent thermal stabilities of the new, IL-based working pairs, the high driving temperatures necessary for multi-effect cycles such as double- or triple-effect absorption chillers, can also be realized. The details of this novel and innovative heat-transformation technology are described. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengchen; Su, Xin; Ye, Qing; Fu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  8. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  10. The influence of exothermic reactions on the nonequilibrium level of discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Prysiazhnevych, I.V.; Martysh, Eu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plasma parameters of transverse arc and discharge in the gas channel with liquid wall was made for different working gas and liquids (for air, distilled water and for its mixtures with ethanol). Electronic excitation temperatures Te of atoms, vibrational Tv and rotational Tr temperatures of molecules in the generated plasma were determined by optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that both discharges generate nonequilibrium plasma in the case of working gas air and working liquid-distilled water. Adding a fuel (ethanol) into the plasma system with O 2 leads to the increasing of rotational and vibrational temperatures of molecules, which became equal to each other within the errors. This may indicate that the exothermic reactions reduce the level of nonthermality of the generated plasma as a result of additional energy supply for heavy components in the process of complete combustion of hydrocarbons.

  11. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)]. E-mail: dufourj@cnam.fr; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  12. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  13. Exothermic or Endothermic Decomposition of Disubstituted Tetrazoles Tuned by Substitution Fashion and Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Hui; Yang, Kai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lu; Huang, Mu-Hua

    2018-01-11

    Nitrogen-rich compounds such as tetrazoles are widely used as candidates in gas-generating agents. However, the details of the differentiation of the two isomers of disubstituted tetrazoles are rarely studied, which is very important information for designing advanced materials based on tetrazoles. In this article, pairs of 2,5- and 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles were carefully designed and prepared for study on their thermal decomposition behavior. Also, the substitution fashion of 2,5- and 1,5- and the substituents at C-5 position were found to affect the endothermic or exothermic properties. This is for the first time to the best of our knowledge that the thermal decomposition properties of different tetrazoles could be tuned by substitution ways and substitute groups, which could be used as a useful platform to design advanced materials for temperature-dependent rockets. The aza-Claisen rearrangement was proposed to understand the endothermic decomposition behavior.

  14. 3D Defect Localization on Exothermic Faults within Multi-Layered Structures Using Lock-In Thermography: An Experimental and Numerical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji Yong; Lee, Kye-Sung; Hur, Hwan; Nam, Ki-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ju; Lee, Ah-Yeong; Chang, Ki Soo; Kim, Geon-Hee; Kim, Ghiseok

    2017-10-13

    Micro-electronic devices are increasingly incorporating miniature multi-layered integrated architectures. However, the localization of faults in three-dimensional structure remains challenging. This study involved the experimental and numerical estimation of the depth of a thermally active heating source buried in multi-layered silicon wafer architecture by using both phase information from an infrared microscopy and finite element simulation. Infrared images were acquired and real-time processed by a lock-in method. It is well known that the lock-in method can increasingly improve detection performance by enhancing the spatial and thermal resolution of measurements. Operational principle of the lock-in method is discussed, and it is represented that phase shift of the thermal emission from a silicon wafer stacked heat source chip (SSHSC) specimen can provide good metrics for the depth of the heat source buried in SSHSCs. Depth was also estimated by analyzing the transient thermal responses using the coupled electro-thermal simulations. Furthermore, the effects of the volumetric heat source configuration mimicking the 3D through silicon via integration package were investigated. Both the infrared microscopic imaging with the lock-in method and FE simulation were potentially useful for 3D isolation of exothermic faults and their depth estimation for multi-layered structures, especially in packaged semiconductors.

  15. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2013-01-01

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  16. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: Huan.Zhou@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  17. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  18. Technologies for small scale wood-fueled combined heat and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.; Houmoeller, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and compare different technologies for small cogeneration systems (up to 2-3 MW{sub e}), based on wood as fuel. For decentralized cogeneration, i.e. for recovering energy from saw mill wood wastes or heat supply for small villages, it is vital to know the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies. Also, for the decision-makers it is of importance to know the price levels of the different technologies. A typical obstacle for small wood cogeneration systems is the installation costs. The specific price (per kW) is usually higher than for larger plants or plants using fossil fuels. For a saw mill choosing between cogeneration and simple heat production, however, the larger installation costs are counter weighed by the sale of electricity, while the fuel consumption is the same. Whether it is profitable or not to invest in cogeneration is often hard to decide. For many years small wood cogeneration systems have been too expensive, leading to the construction of only heat producing systems due to too high price levels of small steam turbines. In recent years a great deal of effort has been put into research and developing of new technologies to replace this traditional steam turbine. Among these are: Steam engines; Stirling engines; Indirectly fired gas turbines; Pressurized down draft combustion. Along with the small scale traditional steam turbines, these technologies will be evaluated in this study. When some or all these technologies are fully developed and commercial, a strong means of reducing the strain on the environment and the greenhouse effect will be available, as the total efficiency is high (up to 90%) and wood is an energy source in balance with nature. (au) EFP-95. 19 refs.

  19. Effect of technological procedures on the crack resistance of nickel alloy welded joints under heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasarov, Yu.S.; Sorokin, L.I.; Yakushin, B.F.; Moryashchev, S.F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the efficiency of some technological procedures directed to the increase of crack resistance of KhN50MBKTYUR (EhP99) alloy welded joints under heat treatment was conducted. Welded joints were manufactured by the methods of electron beam welding, laser welding, automatic argon-arc welding. The latter was conducted by conventional technology as well as with electromagnetic mixing of liquid metal of welding bath, with compulsory cooling of weld matal, with pulse arc. It is shown that the high fracture resistance of welded joints, manufactured by electron beam and laser welding is achieved by combination of high mechanical properties of heat affected zone metal and reduced elastic potential energy margin of residual welding stresses (as compared to argon-arc welding)

  20. Heat adaptation of bioabsorbable craniofacial plates: a critical review of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, William S

    2009-11-01

    Bioabsorbable fixation plates often require adaptation to the bone. This is typically accomplished by heating the plates to above the glass transition temperature and placing the softened plates against the bone or a prebent template until cool. Upon cooling, the plates regain stiffness and can be attached to bone to obtain anatomic fixation. This procedure is both efficient and effective and has been used throughout the craniofacial skeleton. There are many types of equipment available to heat the plates, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although a conceptually simple process, there are several nuances that have been reported in the literature, including transient effects on plate mechanical properties, memory effects, differences between wet and dry heating, and others. Upon the backdrop of the overwhelming clinical success of heat adaptation, this review critically evaluates the method and provides a comprehensive examination and explanation of the basic science and technology involved. This should help give surgeons a better understanding of the process that can help improve their use and further advance the technology.

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer Remote Control in Bioreactors of Technological Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija M. Mel’nick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main problems that arise when using equipment for cultivation are to ensure the heat and mass transfer processes in devices, presence of turbulent and stagnant zones, high-energy consumption, low heat transfer coefficients when working with viscous fluids. Objective. The aim of the paper is the experimental determination of the remote control heat transfer advantages in production line bioreactors using ultrasonic beam compared to contact methods. Methods. An experimental study of the heat and mass transfer process in a bioreactor on the stand with UZP-6-1 immersion unit of the ultrasonic radiator with radiation frequency 42 kHz is carried out. Results. Sound waves emitted into a liquid form a concentration zone of passable sound energy in the confocal vessel form of a cylindrical surface and force the liquid to move along the inner surface of the glass along the ascending cylindrical spiral, forming a motive flow throughout the volume, causing peripheral layers of liquid and bottom layers to move in a horizontal and vertical planes, without leaving stagnant zones. The closer to the coincidence angle is the directed ultrasonic beam the greater is the effectiveness of the driving flow. Conclusions. The use of sound waves allows obtaining a high-quality product in technological lines based on bioreactors with minimal risk for the technological process. Radiation parameters and working volume physic-mechanical properties change allow fully using the properties of resonant manifestations of the sound wave influence on the working liquid with minimal costs.

  2. Technology data for energy plants. Individual heating plants and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The present technology catalogue is published in co-operation between the Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk and includes technology descriptions for a number of technologies for individual heat production and energy transport. The primary objective of the technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for the work with energy planning and the development of the energy sector, including future outlooks, scenario analyses and technical/economic analyses. The technology catalogue is thus a valuable tool in connection with energy planning and assessment of climate projects and for evaluating the development opportunities for the energy sector's many technologies, which can be used for the preparation of different support programmes for energy research and development. The publication of the technology catalogue should also be viewed in the light of renewed focus on strategic energy planning in municipalities etc. In that respect, the technology catalogue is considered to be an important tool for the municipalities in their planning efforts. (LN)

  3. Marketing strategy - sales system for energy saving technology in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommann, D

    1984-06-04

    Modern industrial society is undergoing a period of upheaval which is sparing no company. Today's greatest challenge to management is to get this transition under control. The process of change inevitably effects marketing policies and company employees. There are doubtlessly many viable marketing strategies available, but they are of little use if they cannot be applied in the market by qualified personnel. In this article the author gives suggestions for selling energy conserving technology in today's heat market using a systematic sales method.

  4. National Deployment of Domestic Geothermal Heat Pump Technology: Observations on the UK Experience 1995–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rees

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of geothermal heat pump technology in the UK and corresponding development of a domestic installation industry has progressed significantly in the last decade. This paper summarizes the growth process and reviews the research that has been specifically concerned with conditions in the UK. We discuss the driving forces behind these developments and some of the supporting policy initiatives that have been implemented. Publically funded national trials were completed to assess the performance and acceptance of the technology and validate design and installation standards. We comment on both the technical and non-technical findings of the trials and the related academic research and their relevance to standards development. A number of technical issues can be identified—some of which may be particular to the UK—and we suggest a number of research and development questions that need to be addressed further. Current national support for the technology relies solely on a tariff mechanism and it is uncertain that this will be effective enough to ensure sufficient growth to meet the national renewable heat target in 2020. A broader package of support that includes mandatory measures applied to future housing development and retrofit may be necessary to ensure long-term plans for national deployment and decarbonization of heat are achieved. Industry needs to demonstrate that efficiency standards can be assured, capital costs reduced in the medium-term and that national training schemes are effective.

  5. Light at the end of the tunnel: Thermal technology uses heat to slice through rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2003-11-01

    Potential applications of thermal light technology, a technique that breaks through rocks and concrete in a fashion similar to the effect visible when a glass jug shatters when boiling water is poured into it, is discussed. The intense heat is achieved by putting 500 kilowatts of electricity through a short tube filled with argon gas. Half that energy is converted into light which creates the heat source. The heat generated by the white light can reach over 12,000 degrees C, one of the brightest lights on the planet today. Mounted on a moving support, the argon arc water-cooled lamp is silent and vibration-free, and has obvious applications in mining, tunnelling and construction, due to its ability to cut through rock, or break concrete loose from reinforcing rods. However, the technology only works in hard rock; it is ineffective in soft formations, hence in its current form, not suitable in drilling for oil or gas. Some other applications considered include use as a light source in areas such as the High Arctic, where one unit may light up as much as 50 acres; as a tool in repairing concrete, and for hardening metals that are used in drill bits. First sale of the technology went to the Korean Institute of Energy Research, where the unit will be used for solar stimulation in the further development of solar panels. Its use in subway tunnelling will also be investigated.

  6. Microwave heating for thermoplastic composites - Could the technology be used for welding applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasinski, Anaïs; Tertrais, Hermine; Bechtel, Stéphane; Chinesta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Welding primary structure thermoplastic composites parts is still an issue today, many technologies have been extensively studied: induction, ultrasonic, resistive welding, none is today entirely viable for this application due to various implementation reasons. On the other hand, microwave solutions are not very common in composites forming process, although being widespread in homes. Microwave (MW) technology relies on volumetric heating. Thermal energy is transferred from an electromagnetic field to materials that can absorb it at specific frequencies. Volumetric heating enables better process temperature control and less overall energy losses, which can results in shorter processing cycles and higher process efficiency. Nowadays, the main drawback of this technology is that the complex physics involved in the conversion of electromagnetic energy in thermal energy (heating) is not entirely understood and controlled for complex materials. In that work, the authors propose to look deeper in that way, first proposing a simulation tool, based on a coupling between a commercial code and a home made one, allowing the following of the electromagnetic field very precisely in the thickness of a laminate composite part, the last consisting of a stack of layers with different orientations, each layer made of a resin matrix and carbon fibers. Thermal fields are then computed and validated by experimental measurements. In a second part, the authors propose to look at a common welding case of a stringer, on a skin.

  7. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  8. Using Different Conceptual Change Methods Embedded within 5E Model: A Sample Teaching of Endothermic-Exothermic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Fatma; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Since Widodo, Duit and Muller (2002) addressed that there is a gap between teacher's theoretical knowledge and their practical classroom constructivist behavior, we presented a sample teaching activity about Endothermic-Exothermic Reactions for teacher usage. Therein, the aim of this study is to design a 5E model to include students' alternative…

  9. 1995 national heat transfer conference: Proceedings. Volume 12: Falling films; Fundamentals of subcooled flow boiling; Compact heat exchanger technology for the process industry; HTD-Volume 314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernas, V.; Boyd, R.D.; Jensen, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in the first section cover falling films and heat transfer. Papers in the second section address issues associated with heat exchangers, such as: plate-and-frame heat exchanger technology; thermal design issues; condensation; and single-phase flows. The papers in the third section deal with studies related to: the turbulent velocity field in a vertical annulus; the effects of curvature and a dissolved noncondensable gas on nucleate boiling heat transfer; the effects of flow obstruction on the onset of a Ledinegg-type flow instability; pool boiling from a large-diameter tube; and two-dimensional wall temperature distributions and convection in a single-sided heated vertical tube. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  10. HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY – POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROBLEM AND CLIMATE ACTION GOALS WITHIN UKRAINIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy sources for urban, household and industrial facilities requires strategies development for seeking new energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill the environment friendly expectations. A lot of attention is devoted to renewable energy sources. One of the most attracting among them is energy production form geothermal sources. At a few meters below the earth’s surface the underground maintains a constant temperature in an approximation through the year allowing to withdraw heat in winter for heating needs and to surrender heat during summer for air-conditioning purposes. Heat pump is a rapidly developing technology for heating and domestic hot water production. Using ground as a heat source, heat exchange is carried out with heat pumps compound to vertical ground heat exchanger tubes that allows the heating and cooling of the buildings utilizing a single unit installation. Heat pump unit provides a high degree of productivity with moderate electric power consumption. In this paper a theoretical performance study of a vapor compression heat pump system with various natural and synthetic refrigerants (HFCs is presented. Operation mode of the heat pump unit was chosen according to European Standard EN14511-2:2007 and EN255-2. An influence of discharge temperature on system performance was evaluated at different boiling temperatures. The comparison of mass flow rate and coefficient of performance for considered refrigerants at constant cooling capacity and condensation temperature was performed.

  11. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  12. Strategic GHG reduction through the use of ground source heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanova, J; Dowlatabadi, H

    2007-01-01

    Higher energy prices and concern about climate change is drawing increasing attention to ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Their clear advantage lies in being able to provide heating using 25 to 30% of the energy consumed by even the most efficient conventional alternatives. Their drawback has been high capital costs and uncertainty about whether the emissions associated with the electric power used to energise the system has higher system-wide emissions than the highest-efficiency furnaces. This study delineates circumstances under which GSHP systems achieve net emission reductions, for different electricity generation methods, heat pump efficiencies, and heating loads. We illustrate the effect of relative fuel prices on annual operating savings using fuel prices in multiple countries. Annual operating savings determine how rapidly the technology achieves payback and then generates return on the initial capital investment. Finally, we highlight the least cost supply curve for using GSHP to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Using the United States as a base reference case, this study explores the potential of GSHP in cold-climate countries worldwide

  13. Tensile strength of AK7 alloy after treatment by exothermic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of treatment by chemical compounds giving exothermic effect on the tensile strength of AK7 alloy. The research was carried out on 1100 g of the alloy in classical mould. The chemical mixture was composed of Na 2 B 4 O 7 , NaNO 3 and Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi. The studies were conducted following a mathematical experiment plan. The action of Borax was free from interference whereas the two residual constituents were mass-dependence. Excess NaNO 3 was caused by the reduction of the value of the tensile strength. Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi strengthened the influence of NaNO 3 . It was found that the blending of Na 2 B 4 O 7 and NaNO 3 on weight ratio 1,5 to 1 and of NaNO 3 and Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi on weight ratio 1 to 3 improved the tensile strength of the AK7 alloy after treatment. (author)

  14. Simultaneous fingering, double-diffusive convection, and thermal plumes derived from autocatalytic exothermic reaction fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskew, Matthew W.; Harrison, Jason; Simoyi, Reuben H.

    2016-11-01

    Oxidation reactions of thiourea by chlorite in a Hele-Shaw cell are excitable, autocatalytic, exothermic, and generate a lateral instability upon being triggered by the autocatalyst. Reagent concentrations used to develop convective instabilities delivered a temperature jump at the wave front of 2.1 K. The reaction zone was 2 mm and due to normal cooling after the wave front, this generated a spike rather than the standard well-studied front propagation. The reaction front has solutal and thermal contributions to density changes that act in opposite directions due to the existence of a positive isothermal density change in the reaction. The competition between these effects generates thermal plumes. The fascinating feature of this system is the coexistence of plumes and fingering in the same solution which alternate in frequency as the front propagates, generating hot and cold spots within the Hele-Shaw cell, and subsequently spatiotemporal inhomogeneities. The small ΔT at the wave front generated thermocapillary convection which competed effectively with thermogravitational forces at low Eötvös Numbers. A simplified reaction-diffusion-convection model was derived for the system. Plume formation is heavily dependent on boundary effects from the cell dimensions. This work was supported by Grant No. CHE-1056366 from the NSF and a Research Professor Grant from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

  15. Comparative economic performance of selected passive solar heating and cooling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, W.

    1981-05-01

    The economic performance of selected passive solar heating and cooling technologies which incorporate energy storage is assessed by using a set of uniform assumptions and methodologies. Where data are available, a given system is assessed at more than one geographical location. Results are obtained in the form of both payback period and net present value for residential applications, and in terms of net present value only for industrial/commercial uses. Results indicate that ventilated trombe walls, solar roof ponds, and certain night effect/floor storage strategies are cost effective, but night effect/rock bed cooling is not. Results also show that, although direct gain out-performs trombe walls in most parts of the country, both direct gain and trombe walls usually produce a net savings in the residential sector. Generally, however, tax regulations result in net economic loss for direct gain and trombe walls used to heat industrial and commercial buildings.

  16. Combined heat and power in Dutch greenhouses: A case study of technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Reinier A.C. van der; Kasmire, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the rapid diffusion of combined heat and power (CHP) units through the Dutch greenhouse horticulture sector between 2003 and 2009 in order to gain new insights regarding technology transitions. We present a sectoral diffusion analysis framework, which we apply to identify and examine developments in technical, economic, institutional, cultural and ecological domains that all contributed to an emergent and thorough CHP diffusion in the Dutch greenhouse sector. Five identified key drivers behind the CHP diffusion are the opening of the energy market in 2002, the high spark spread during the transition period, the compatibility of output of a CHP unit with greenhouse demand, the flexibility provided by heat buffers, and the cooperative and competitive greenhouse sector culture. We conclude that policies to stimulate or steer technology diffusion will benefit from an in-depth analysis of domain interactions and company decision-making processes. Such an in-depth analysis makes for well informed and targeted policies that are better able to steer an industrial sector effectively and in a socially desired direction. - Highlights: • We present a sectoral diffusion analysis framework. • We describe the case of the diffusion of cogeneration (CHP) in Dutch greenhouses. • We extract five key drivers of CHP diffusion in the Dutch greenhouse sector. • The case shows how technology diffusion emerges from co-evolutionary mechanisms. • We conclude that a co-evolutionary sectoral analysis will inform innovation policy.

  17. Effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration in mobile technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. N.; Liu, Yingxia; Li, Menglu

    2017-03-01

    In the present era of big data and internet of things, the use of microelectronic products in all aspects of our life is manifested by the ubiquitous presence of mobile devices as i-phones and wearable i-products. These devices are facing the need for higher power and greater functionality applications such as in i-health, yet they are limited by physical size. At the moment, software (Apps) is much ahead of hardware in mobile technology. To advance hardware, the end of Moore's law in two-dimensional integrated circuits can be extended by three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs). The concept of 3D ICs has been with us for more than ten years. The challenge in 3D IC technology is dense packing by using both vertical and horizontal interconnections. Mass production of 3D IC devices is behind schedule due to cost because of low yield and uncertain reliability. Joule heating is serious in a dense structure because of heat generation and dissipation. A change of reliability paradigm has advanced from failure at a specific circuit component to failure at a system level weak-link. Currently, the electronic industry is introducing 3D IC devices in mainframe computers, where cost is not an issue, for the purpose of collecting field data of failure, especially the effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration. This review will concentrate on the positive feedback between Joule heating and electromigration, resulting in an accelerated system level weak-link failure. A new driving force of electromigration, the electric potential gradient force due to current crowding, will be reviewed critically. The induced failure tends to occur in the low current density region.

  18. Some Problems of the Integration of Heat Pump Technology into a System of Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.

  19. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  20. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  1. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T P; Tchizhik, A A; Chavchanidze, N N [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  2. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project: Semiannual progress report for April through September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  3. Marketing strategy - sales system for energy saving technology in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommann, D.

    1984-06-04

    Modern industrial society is undergoing a period of upheaval which is sparing no company. Today's greatest challenge to management is to get this transition under control. The process of change inevitably effects marketing policies and company employees. There are doubtlessly many viable marketing strategies available, but they are of little use if they cannot be applied in the market by qualified personnel. In this article the author gives suggestions for selling energy conserving technology in today's heat market using a systematic sales method.

  4. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  6. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. Focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. The work described in this report is organized according to the following WBS project elements: management and coordination; materials and processing (monolithics, ceramic composites, thermal and wear coatings, joining); materials design methodology (contact interfaces, new concepts); data base and life prediction (time-dependent behavior, environmental effects, fracture mechanics, NDE development); and technology transfer. This report includes contributions from all currently active project participants.

  7. Non-thermal desorption from interstellar dust grains via exothermic surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, R. T.; Wakelam, V.; Herbst, E.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The gas-phase abundance of methanol in dark quiescent cores in the interstellar medium cannot be explained by gas-phase chemistry. In fact, the only possible synthesis of this species appears to be production on the surfaces of dust grains followed by desorption into the gas. Yet, evaporation is inefficient for heavy molecules such as methanol at the typical temperature of 10 K. It is necessary then to consider non-thermal mechanisms for desorption. But, if such mechanisms are considered for the production of methanol, they must be considered for all surface species. Methods: Our gas-grain network of reactions has been altered by the inclusion of a non-thermal desorption mechanism in which the exothermicity of surface addition reactions is utilized to break the bond between the product species and the surface. Our estimated rate for this process derives from a simple version of classical unimolecular rate theory with a variable parameter only loosely constrained by theoretical work. Results: Our results show that the chemistry of dark clouds is altered slightly at times up to 106 yr, mainly by the enhancement in the gas-phase abundances of hydrogen-rich species such as methanol that are formed on grain surfaces. At later times, however, there is a rather strong change. Instead of the continuing accretion of most gas-phase species onto dust particles, a steady-state is reached for both gas-phase and grain-surface species, with significant abundances for the former. Nevertheless, most of the carbon is contained in an undetermined assortment of heavy surface hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The desorption mechanism discussed here will be better constrained by observational data on pre-stellar cores, where a significant accretion of species such as CO has already occurred.

  8. Development of low temperature solid state joining technology of dissimilar for nuclear heat exchanger tube components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    By conventional fusion welding process (TIG), a realization of reliable and sound joints for the nuclear heat exchanger components is very difficult, especially for the parts comprising of the dissimilar metal couples (Ti-STS, Ti-Cu alloy etc.). This is mainly attributed to the formation of brittle intermetallics (Ti{sub x}Cu{sub y}, Ti{sub x}Fe{sub y}, Ti{sub x}Ni{sub y} etc.) and wide difference in physical properties. Moreover, it usually employs very high thermal input, so making it difficult to obtain sound joints due to generations of high residual stresses and degradation of the adjacent base metals, even for similar metal combinations. In this project, the low temperature solid-state joining technology was established by developing new alloy fillers, e.g. the multi-component eutectic based alloys or amorphous alloys, and thereby lowering the joining temperature down to {approx}800 .deg. C without affecting the structural properties of base metals. Based on a low temperature joining, the interlayer engineering technology was then developed to be able to eliminate the brittleness of the joints for strong Ti-STS dissimilar joints, and the diffusion brazing technology of Ti-Ti with a superior joining strength and corrosion-resistance comparable to those of base metal were developed. By using those developed technologies, the joining procedures feasible for the heat exchanger components were finally established for the dissimilar metal joints including Ti tube sheet to super STS tube, Ti tube sheet to super STS tube sheet, and the joints of the Ti tube to Ti tube sheet

  9. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  10. Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, Don; Gage, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Heat shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Project is a NASA STMD and SMD co-funded effort. The goal is to develop and mission infuse a new ablative Thermal Protection System that can withstand extreme entry. It is targeted to support NASA's high priority missions, as defined in the latest decadal survey, to destinations such as Venus and Saturn in-situ robotic science missions. Entry into these planetary atmospheres results in extreme heating. The entry peak heat-flux and associated pressure are estimated to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher than those experienced by Mars Science Laboratory or Lunar return missions. In the recent New Frontiers community announcement NASA has indicated that it is considering providing an increase to the PI managed mission cost (PIMMC) for investigations utilizing the Heat Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) and in addition, NASA is considering limiting the risk assessment to only their accommodation on the spacecraft and the mission environment. The HEEET ablative TPS utilizes 3D weaving technology to manufacture a dual layer material architecture. The 3-D weaving allows for flat panels to be woven. The dual layer consists of a top layer designed to withstand the extreme external environment while the inner or insulating layer by design, is designed to achieve low thermal conductivity, and it keeps the heat from conducting towards the structure underneath. Both arc jet testing combined with material properties have been used to develop thermal response models that allows for comparison of performance with heritage carbon phenolic. A 50% mass efficiency is achieved by the dual layer construct compared to carbon phenolic for a broad range of missions both to Saturn and Venus. The 3-D woven flat preforms are molded to achieve the shape as they are compliant and then resin infusion with curing forms a rigid panels. These panels are then bonded on to the aeroshell structure. Gaps

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SWINE WASTE ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT PRODUCTION--MARTIN MACHINERY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system designed by Martin Machinery was evaluated. This paper provides test result...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SWINE WASTE ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT PRODUCTION--CAPSTONE 30KW MICROTURBINE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system was evaluated based on the Capstone 30kW Microturbine developed by Cain Ind...

  13. Building heating technology in Smart Home using PI System management tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vanus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For comfortable remote monitoring of some operational and technical functions inside own Smart Home building, it is possible to use a lot of useful programmes and tools. However, not each programme or tool is suited to this purpose, or it does not offer required functionality. The aim of this paper is to describe using an appropriate software tool of PI System for a real-time monitoring of acquired data from real technology parts located at a training centre of the Moravian-Silesian Wood Cluster. Then a superior system including applications of PI Coresight and PI ProcessBook is used for analysis and processing of these acquired data (e.g. by using the Dynamic Time Warping method for specific technological quantities. Each application has own advantages and disadvantages, which are evaluated in conjunction with possibilities of manipulating the data. In an experimental part, there are also applied a technological communication standard of BACnet to controlling heating, cooling and forced ventilation, and a software tool of DESIGO Insight for visualising the data in forms of tables, multi-layer graphs, and screens for a certain technology.

  14. Self-propagating exothermic reaction analysis in Ti/Al reactive films using experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Seema, E-mail: seema.sen@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Lake, Markus; Kroppen, Norman; Farber, Peter; Wilden, Johannes [Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Schaaf, Peter [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Development of nanoscale Ti/Al multilayer films with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios. • Characterization of exothermic reaction propagation by experiments and simulation. • The reaction velocity depends on the ignition potentials and molar ratios of the films. • Only 1Ti/3Al films exhibit the unsteady reaction propagation with ripple formation. • CFD simulation shows the time dependent atom mixing and temperature flow during exothermic reaction. - Abstract: This study describes the self-propagating exothermic reaction in Ti/Al reactive multilayer foils by using experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulation. The Ti/Al foils with different molar ratios of 1Ti/1Al, 1Ti/2Al and 1Ti/3Al were fabricated by magnetron sputtering method. Microstructural characteristics of the unreacted and reacted foils were analyzed by using electronic and atomic force microscopes. After an electrical ignition, the influence of ignition potentials on reaction propagation has been experimentally investigated. The reaction front propagates with a velocity of minimum 0.68 ± 0.4 m/s and maximum 2.57 ± 0.6 m/s depending on the input ignition potentials and the chemical compositions. Here, the 1Ti/3Al reactive foil exhibits both steady state and unsteady wavelike reaction propagation. Moreover, the numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation shows the time dependent temperature flow and atomic mixing in a nanoscale reaction zone. The CFD simulation also indicates the potentiality for simulating exothermic reaction in the nanoscale Ti/Al foil.

  15. Comparison of Heat Transfer Fluid and Direct Steam Generation technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Montes, María José; Varela, Fernando; Gil, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    At present time and in the medium term, Solar Thermal Power Plants are going to share scenario with conventional energy generation technologies, like fossil and nuclear. In such a context, Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs) may be an interesting choice since integrated designs may lead to a very efficient use of the solar and fossil resources. In this work, different ISCC configurations including a solar field based on parabolic trough collectors and working with the so-called Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and Direct Steam Generation (DSG) technologies are compared. For each technology, four layouts have been studied: one in which solar heat is used to evaporate part of the high pressure steam of a bottoming Rankine cycle with two pressure levels, another that incorporates a preheating section to the previous layout, the third one that includes superheating instead of preheating and the last one including both preheating and superheating in addition to the evaporation. The analysis is made with the aim of finding out which of the different layouts reaches the best performance. For that purpose, three types of comparisons have been performed. The first one assesses the benefits of including a solar steam production fixed at 50 MW th . The second one compares the configurations with a standardised solar field size instead of a fixed solar steam production. Finally, the last one consists on an even more homogeneous comparison considering the same steam generator size for all the configurations as well as standardised solar fields. The configurations are studied by mean of exergy analyses. Several figures of merit are used to correctly assess the configurations. Results reveal that the only-evaporative DSG configuration becomes the best choice, since it benefits of both low irreversibility at the heat recovery steam generator and high thermal efficiency in the solar field. Highlights: ► ISCC configurations with DSG and HTF technologies are compared. ► Four

  16. Combined Natural Gas and Solar Technologies for Heating and Cooling in the City of NIS in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Velimir P.; Bojić, Milorad Lj.

    2010-06-01

    The use of conventional systems for heat and electricity production in Niš and Serbia means a constant waste of energy, and money. This problem is present in both industrial and public sector. Using conventional systems, means not only low-energy efficient systems, and technologies, but also using very "dirty" technologies, which cause heavy environment pollution. The lack of electricity in our country, and region is also present. The gas pipeline in Niš was finished not long ago, and second gas pipeline is about to be made in the next couple of years. This opens a door for implementing new technologies and the use of new methods for production of heat and electricity, while preserving our environment. This paper reports discussion of this technology with management of public institutions, which use both heat and electricity.

  17. Basic lay-out, arrangement and design criteria of heat components of the ''nuclear coal gasification prototype plant (PNP)''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschek, R.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1975, the companies Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, GHT Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH und Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG are working jointly on the Project ''Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat (PNP)'', with promotion of the ''Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie'' and of the ''Minister fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen''. The objectives of the project are the development of a high-temperature reactor, with a core outlet temperature of 950 0 C, suitable for various process heat applications, and the development and testing of the appropriate coal gasification technology. The applied gasifications methods comprise endothermal and exothermal reactions. Therefore, various heat transfer components are to be developed. In the context of this Specialists Meeting, only those components will be discussed by which heat is transferred from primary helium to secondary helium or from helium to the working or process fluid

  18. Development of heat pump technology in eco-energy city project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Tomio [New Energy Development Organization (Japan); Ogisu, Yoshihiro [Office of Eco-Energy City Project, Energy Conservation Center (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the New Sunshine Project conducted by MITI Japan, Eco-Energy City-Project covers the research area of utilization of industrial and municipal waste heat. For the further utilization of waste heat, several research programs are carried out for recovery and conversion of waste heat, transportation and storage of waste heat and final use of rather low temperature heat transported. Various types of heat driven heat pumps are developed in the Eco-Energy City Project. Concept of the Project is to utilize industrial and municipal waste heat for the city where energy demand is increasing. These heat pumps will contribute for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  19. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  20. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  1. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  2. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination

  3. Cleaner heat from wood. TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There are 1.3 million wood-burning fireplaces in Finnish homes. The interest in using fireplaces for heating of dwellings has recently been growing strongly. Some 5.6 million cubic meters of firewood is burned in domestic stoves and fireplaces annually. This corresponds to a total of 7.5 terawatthours of energy and amounts to 13 % of all energy used for heating in Finland. The aim of the TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology (1997-1999) is to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. Detailed objectives of the TULISIJA programme are: (1) To produce modelling capabilities for the evaluation of different fireplace designs. Capabilities are produced for utilising computer simulation for investigation of the emissions of small-size fireplaces. (2) To establish a measuring place for fireplaces, where manufacturers' equipment designs can be reliably tested according to different standards is to be built, through which the Finnish manufacturers may obtain approvals for their products for different market areas. (3) To enhance co-operation between manufacturers and research institutions. Within the programme, the expertise of researchers in universities and other research institutes is made available to manufacturers - and vice versa. Equally important is the utilisation of international co-operation and making new connections

  4. Design and technology parameters influence on durability for heat exchangers tube to tubesheet joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripeanu, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    The main failures of heat exchangers are: corrosion of tubes and jacket, tubes blockage and failures of tube to tubesheet joints also by corrosion. The most critical zone is tube to tubesheet joints. Depending on types of tube to tubesheet joints, in order to better respect conditions of tension and compression, this paper analyses the tubesheet holes shapes, smooth and with a grove, on corrosion behavior. In the case of welding tubes with tubesheet, welding parameters modify corrosion behavior. Were realized welded joints by three welding regimes and tested at corrosion in two media, tap water and industrial water. Were tested also samples made of smooth tubes, finned tubes and tubes coated with a passive product as applied by a heat exchanger manufacturer. For all samples, the roughness parameters were measured, before and after the corrosion tests. The obtained corrosion rates show that stress values and their distribution along the joint modify the corrosion behavior. The optimum welding parameters were established in order to increase the joint durability. The paper has shown that passive product used is not proper chosen and the technology of obtaining rolled thread pipes diminishes tubes’ durability by increasing the corrosion rate.

  5. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong

    2002-03-01

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology

  6. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  7. Increasing utilisation of district heating through absorption cooling technology; Oekat fjaerrvaermeutnyttjande med hjaelp av absorptionstekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Ingvarsson, Paul; Zinko, Heimo

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of the research project presented in this report was to find ways to return a lower temperature from the generator of the chillers in a supply/return connection. The initial target is 40 deg C. Ideally, the absorption chiller and possible ulterior uses of the remaining heat in the heat carrier (the water flowing through the generator) should be as close as possible to a pure heat load. The hot-water driven absorption chillers used today to produce cooling in DH networks are exclusively so-called single-effect (Sweden) chillers with water and lithium bromide as working pair. This study aims at raising as much as possible the upper bounds on the absorption chiller capacity that may be connected to a DH network, by lowering the temperature at the outlet. To this end, several approaches have been used: - A search for alternative designs of the absorption chiller, focusing on commercially available and tested technology, both those yielding a large temperature decrease over the generator and those that may be operated at lower temperatures than the conventional solutions; - An examination of the impact of further uses of the remaining heat on temperature in the return line. larger. Smaller units are considered only if they can be used to illustrate a principle. As a complement to this investigation, a few other issues have been treated: - What temperature levels should a system actually be designed for? - The LAVA method to calculate the impact of supply and return temperatures in the DH network on the economics of power production is presented; - Interesting technical solutions using desiccant-aided evaporative cooling are shortly described; - The modern developments in the field of working pairs (refrigerant and absorbent) are reviewed. Assumptions made here are that there is a significant demand for cooling, and that the demand is large enough to justify operating the cogeneration plant at a load level exceeding its lowest acceptable part load rather than

  8. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip

    2008-12-01

    This report treats different ways to produce various upgraded biofuels from lignocellulosic materials in so called polygeneration processes. Furthermore the different upgrading technologies are also investigated with respect to co-production of heat and power. The processes investigated are linked to production of - bio pellets (or lignin pellets), dried, grinded and compressed biomass (or lignin); - torrified bio pellets, dried, grinded, heat treated and compressed biomass; - bio-oils or pyrolytic oils, liquefied biomass with crude oil quality; - ethanol via hydrolysis (process where the biomass is divided into sugars and lignin) followed by fermentation; - methane via hydrolysis and fermentation; - methane via indirect gasification and methane via indirect or suspension gasification, - DME (dimethyl ether) via indirect or suspension gasification; - methanol via indirect or suspension gasification; - DME and methanol via methane produced via indirect gasification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are, for example, forest residues or biomass that can be cultivated on degraded lands. The result from this report shows that it is only the production of bio pellets that is fully commercially available today. For all the other polygeneration processes investigated the production of bio-oil and torrified bio pellets stands out from the other processes investigated, as it is the market for the product that holds back the introduction of the technology. For the other technologies one or several components are still not commercialized and the challenges for these technologies are described in the report. Summarizing the efficiencies for the different processes, the processes that produces biofuels for stationary applications, bio pellets, torrified bio pellets and bio-oil, show the highest efficiencies. Accounted for the co-generated power, efficiencies up to 90 % based on ingoing lower heating values of the dry substance fed to the process could be achieved. For the processes

  9. Combined heat and power system with advanced gasification technology for biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, S.; Abe, T.; Yasuda, T. [Nippon Furnace Kogyo Kaisha Ltd, Yokohama (Japan); Gupta, A.K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechnical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained from an advanced gasification system utilizing high temperature steam are presented here. The results showed successful demonstration of clean syngas production having high calorific value fuel ({proportional_to}10 MJ/m{sup 3}N) using woody biomass wastes in a downdraft type gasifier. The gasification capacity of the plant on dry basis was 60 kg/h. The syngas produced can be utilized in an absorption type chiller for air conditioning. This advanced gasification technology allows one to transform wastes to clean energy at local production sites without any environmental impact and expensive waste transportation costs. The experience gained from the demonstration plant allows one to implement to other industrial applications for use as a decentralized unit and obtain clean syngas for local use. The demonstration conducted here shows that the system is favorable for onsite use of compatible combined heat and power (CHP) system including light oil supported diesel engine power generator. The biomass waste fuel from a lumber mill factory was used in this study. The factory handles a wide forests area of about 50 ha and produces about 2,500 m{sup 3}/year of wood chips from thin out trees and waste lumbers. This translates to a maximum 110 kg/h of wood chips that can be fed to a gasifier. The syngas produced was used for the combined heat and power system. Local use of biomass for fuel reforming reduces the cost of collection and transportation costs so that a sustainable business is demonstrated with profit from the generated electricity and thermal energy. The cost structure incorporates both the depreciation cost and operation cost of the system. Thermal energy from hot water can be used for drying lumbers and wood chips in a cascade manner. The drying process can be adopted for enhancing its productivity with increased variability on the quality of lumber. The results show that the combined heat and power system (CHP) offers good profitable

  10. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  11. The effective use of gas turbines and combined cycle technology in heat and electrical energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, B.; Stark, E.

    1999-01-01

    The modernization of the energy industry in many countries is a real challenge for both, the policy makers as well as for the power industry. Especially, the efficient satisfaction of the heat and electrical demand of big cities will remain an interesting task for supply companies and hence for today engineers and economists, because the availability of natural gas from Russia and from other deposits owning countries for the decades to come, cogeneration by using modern gas turbines and combined cycle technologies is a key and corner stone of supply, not the least for its very low emission and small environmental loading. It is the intention of this paper, to demonstrate under resource to: 1) the high potential of natural gas-based cogeneration; 2) the high efficiency of gas turbines and combined cycle plants; 3) their flexibility to cover different demands; 4) the operational experience with gas turbines and combined cycle cogeneration plants; 5) the very good environmental behavior of gas turbines. Actually, the highest utilization of primary energy resources is afforded with natural gas and described technology. Future gradual rise of gas prices can bring about a shift from the present main application in high efficiency load plants to mid range load operation of cogeneration plants. (Author)

  12. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA subassembly was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort is operations and testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon s EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of this testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. The lunar testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This had not been achieved in any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  13. Electrically Heated Testing of the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) Experiment Using a Depleted Uranium Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sanzi, James

    2017-01-01

    The Kilopower project aims to develop and demonstrate scalable fission-based power technology for systems capable of delivering 110 kW of electric power with a specific power ranging from 2.5 - 6.5 Wkg. This technology could enable high power science missions or could be used to provide surface power for manned missions to the Moon or Mars. NASA has partnered with the Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration, Los Alamos National Labs, and Y-12 National Security Complex to develop and test a prototypic reactor and power system using existing facilities and infrastructure. This technology demonstration, referred to as the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY), will undergo nuclear ground testing in the summer of 2017 at the Nevada Test Site. The 1 kWe variation of the Kilopower system was chosen for the KRUSTY demonstration. The concept for the 1 kWe flight system consist of a 4 kWt highly enriched Uranium-Molybdenum reactor operating at 800 degrees Celsius coupled to sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes deliver heat to the hot ends of eight 125 W Stirling convertors producing a net electrical output of 1 kW. Waste heat is rejected using titanium-water heat pipes coupled to carbon composite radiator panels. The KRUSTY test, based on this design, uses a prototypic highly enriched uranium-molybdenum core coupled to prototypic sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes transfer heat to two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E2s) and six thermal simulators, which simulate the thermal draw of full scale power conversion units. Thermal simulators and Stirling engines are gas cooled. The most recent project milestone was the completion of non-nuclear system level testing using an electrically heated depleted uranium (non-fissioning) reactor core simulator. System level testing at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) has validated performance predictions and has demonstrated system level operation and control in a test configuration that replicates the one

  14. Heat pumps: Technology and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and assessment of heat pumps. Absorption, chemical, ground-source, and gas-source heat pumps and systems are reviewed. Cost-benefit analyses, comparative evaluations, and maintenance costs of heat pump systems are presented. Applications in space heating and waste heat recovery are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Evaluation of the exothermicity of the chemi-ionization reaction Sm + O → SmO+ + e−

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Richard M; Kim, JungSoo; Armentrout, P. B.; Bartlett, Joshua; VanGundy, Robert A.; Heaven, Michael C.; Ard, Shaun G.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Melko, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    The exothermicity of the chemi-ionization reaction Sm + O → SmO + + e − has been re-evaluated through the combination of several experimental methods. The thermal reactivity (300–650 K) of Sm + and SmO + with a range of species measured using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer apparatus is reported and provides limits for the bond strength of SmO + , 5.661 eV ≤ D 0 (Sm + -O) ≤ 6.500 eV. A more precise value is measured to be 5.72 5 ± 0.07 eV, bracketed by the observed reactivity of Sm + and SmO + with several species using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer (GIBMS). Combined with the established Sm ionization energy (IE), this value indicates an exothermicity of the title reaction of 0.08 ± 0.07 eV, ∼0.2 eV smaller than previous determinations. In addition, the ionization energy of SmO has been measured by resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization and pulsed-field ionization zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy to be 5.7427 ± 0.0006 eV, significantly higher than the literature value. Combined with literature bond energies of SmO, this value indicates an exothermicity of the title reaction of 0.14 ± 0.17 eV, independent from and in agreement with the GIBMS result presented here. The evaluated thermochemistry also suggests that D 0 (SmO) = 5.83 ± 0.07 eV, consistent with but more precise than the literature values. Implications of these results for interpretation of chemical release experiments in the thermosphere are discussed

  16. Effect of Al-B2O3-TiO2 Exothermic System on Performances of Fly Ash Glass/Ceramic Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass/ceramic composite coatings were prepared on 40Cr steel matrix by thermo-chemical reaction with fly ash and a small amount of SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and albite as main raw materials. On this basis, adding 10% Al-TiO2-B2O3 exothermic system, the morphology, phase, thermal shock resistance, and corrosion resistance of the coating were tested, and the influence of exothermic system on the structure and properties of the composite coating was studied. The experimental results show that the addition of exothermic system can promote the formation of NaB15, TiB2, Na2B4O7, Ca2Al2SiO7, and other new phases by thermo-chemical reaction; when compared to the composite coating without addition of exothermic system, combined with a good interface, higher compactness, and lower porosity. The highest micro hardness can be reached 725HV0.1. The number of thermal shock from 700 °C to room temperature can reach more than 50 times; acid, salt, oil immersion corrosion test, composite coating with exothermic system relative to the matrix increased by 27.40 times, 3.97 times, and 1.88 times, respectively. The overall performance is better than that of the composite coating without exothermic system.

  17. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  18. Surface Modification Technology of ODS Alloying Treatment by using Laser Heat Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. G.; Kim, I. H.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Koo, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthed) alloys can be applied as structural materials for components in the core of a nuclear power plants since these components must have a high mechanical strength at high temperature up to 700 .deg. C. This type of alloy was generally manufactured by mechanical alloying from its source metal and Y 2 O 3 powders. The mechanical alloyed powder is subjected to the HIP (Hot Isotatic Pressing) or hot extrusion: and this product is heat treated at target temperature and time. Thus, the Y 2 O 3 particles are dispersed in the metal matrix. These manufacturing process of ODS alloy is very complex and expensive. Also, it is necessary the special techniques to obtain the uniform dispersion and volume control of Y 2 O 3 particles. Another problem is the final product forming such as tube and sheet because the intermediated-product has a high mechanical strength due to the dispersion of Y 2 O 3 particles. The laser cladding techniques was applied on the surface cladding of ceramics and inter-metallic compounds on metal base and ceramic base components to increase corrosion and wear resistance. The laser heat source can be used to the alloying the metal and ceramic materials, because thermally melting of metal and ceramic is possible. So, we are applied on ODS alloy manufacturing by using the laser heat source. The main advantages and disadvantage of this technology can be resumed as follows: · It is possible to apply to the sheet and tube shape component, directly. · Metallurgical damage such as HAZ and severe grain growth is considerably reduced. · Good control of the alloying element of the treated zone · Highly reproducible homogeneous zone · The pores and cracks are suppressed in the treated zone · Oxidation can be prevented during the process. · Good control is possible for the irregular shaped components. · The bulk material alloying is limited by the power of laser source. So, this work is studied on the ODS alloy manufacturing

  19. Influencing the central heating technologies installed in homes: The role of social capital in supply chain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Faye; Shipworth, Michelle; Hitchings, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The likely installation of, and potential energy savings from, low carbon technologies in domestic buildings is not only dependent on those who fit them, but also the broader supply chains of which they are part. Despite this, the role of supply chain actors has been largely overlooked in strategies seeking to encourage the installation of more sustainable domestic heating technologies. With reference to central heating, this paper responds through an ethnographic analysis of how plumbers' merchants and sales representatives can influence the work of heating installers in the United Kingdom. It applies two dimensions of the concept of ‘social capital’: relational and structural. Relational social capital focuses on the trust, loyalty and reciprocity at play in relations, whilst structural social capital considers how the strength of tie can influence those to whom people turn for advice and support. Together, these ideas demonstrate how relationships amongst these groups can serve to influence product choice and facilitate information exchange. The paper concludes by discussing how these supply chains might be engaged with as a means of encouraging the installation of low carbon domestic technologies. - Highlights: •Ethnography is used to investigate the relationships in heating supply chains. •Social capital is seen to be an important part of these relationships. •These relationships could help in the promotion of low carbon technologies.

  20. Milestone Report:3.2.2.26 Appliances, HVAC & Water Heating R&D-Select Sorption Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to select a sorption technology based on recent work completed on characterizing working pairs for both absorption and adsorption technologies based on Global Warming Potential (GWP) of less than 100 (relative to carbon dioxide, 100-year atmospheric life span) and zero Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). From a total of eighty-three potential working pairs (absorption technology), there were only two candidate working pairs for the absorption technology, and 8 potential working pairs for adsorption technology. After screening these ten potential candidates on the basis of sizes of the desorber, absorber/adsorber, evaporator, condenser, and rectifier (where applicable), the ORNL-Georgia Tech study concluded that best working pairs are NH3-H2O for the most compact system in terms of heat transfer equipment surface area, and NH3-LiNO3 and MeOH-[mmin][DMP] where efficiency is most important. Based on a single-stage absorption and adsorption modeling using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES), the performance of both sorption systems was evaluated from known heat transfer correlations, and thermos-physical properties. Based on these results, the technology chosen is absorption technology. The selected technology is absorption for the reasons cited in Section 4.

  1. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  2. The role of heat pump technologies in the design of future sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the operational analysis shows that when a large-scale heat pump is integrated with an existing CHP unit, the projected spot market situation in Nord Pool, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-bound power generation electricity......In this paper, it is shown that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps with existing CHP units, is critically sensitive to the operational mode...... of the heat pump vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance (COP), which is set by the temperature level of the heat source. When using only ambient air as the heat source, the total heat production costs increases by about 10%, while the partial use of condensed flue gas from the CHP unit as a heat...

  3. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  4. Influence of different technologies on dynamic pricing in district heating systems: Comparative case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Wahlroos, Mikko; Syri, Sanna

    2018-01-01

    District heating markets are often dominated by monopolies in both Denmark and Finland. The same companies, often owned by local municipalities, are usually operating both supplying plants and district heating networks, while the pricing mechanisms are rigid, often agreed upon for one year...... in advance. The mentioned ownership scheme may cause problems, when one tries to gain a third party access in order to deliver excess heat or heat from cheaper heating plants. In this paper, two case studies were carried out to simulate the district heating systems based on dynamic pricing. Case studies were...... carried out for Sønderborg, Denmark and Espoo, Finland. The results showed that dynamic pricing fosters feeding the waste heat into the grid, as dynamic pricing reduced the total primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions in both case studies. In the best scenarios, the weighted average heat price...

  5. Results on heat transfer to He II for use in superconducting magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfert, P.

    1982-05-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of heat transfer to He II which are of practical interest for the cooling problem of superconductors. The heat transfer characteristics in the Kapitza boundary conductance regime are discussed and typical values for technical copper are given. It is shown how the peak heat flux depends on the boundary conditions of the bulk fluid and particularly on the time behaviour of heat sources. Results on transient recovery from film boiling applicable to superconductors are also presented

  6. A new textile-drying technology with heat pump for multifamily apartment houses; Waermepumpentumbler fuer Mehrfamilienhaeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzwald, E.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this project is the introduction on the market of a new textile drying technology for multifamily apartment houses, the so called HED-technique. Although very well tested, this new product is more or less unknown to potential clients. The main object of this project is the manufacturing of a set of 10 demonstration units because usually in case of need, dryers have to be supplied very quickly. In this way we can demonstrate the advantage of our units and hopefully may be able to find companies interested in selling our units by already existing channels. We would be able to manufacture small series of units, but it would be difficult for us to make a profit after costs of sales promotion have been deducted. The interest of the company Miele in our product before the first prototype was fabricated, means that we have reached the target earlier as we could expect. Now we are in a much better position for getting our special HED heat pump on the market, because we can better integrate the market needs and the users' point of view in our final design for future mass production, in co-operating with Miele. (author)

  7. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  8. Analysis of the impact of heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000. Energy case study series: No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J.

    1977-09-15

    An analysis of the impact of existing and new heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000 was undertaken. The methodology used involved the measurement of the potential impact against a base Reference Energy System for various heat pump strategies. A short analysis of the implementation rates and their effect on technology impact was also carried out.

  9. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  10. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recuperator with microjet technology as a proposal for heat recovery from low-temperature sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajs Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendency to increase the importance of so-called dispersed generation, based on the local energy sources and the working systems utilizing both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources is observed nowadays. Generation of electricity on industrial or domestic scale together with production of heat can be obtained for example through employment of the ORC systems. It is mentioned in the EU directive 2012/27/EU for cogenerative production of heat and electricity. For such systems the crucial points are connected with the heat exchangers, which should be small in size but be able to transfer high heat fluxes. In presented paper the prototype microjet heat exchanger dedicated for heat recovery systems is introduced. Its novel construction is described together with the systematical experimental analysis of heat transfer and flow characteristics. Reported results showed high values of the overall heat transfer coefficient and slight increase in the pressure drop. The results of microjet heat exchanger were compared with the results of commercially available compact plate heat exchanger.

  12. Recuperator with microjet technology as a proposal for heat recovery from low-temperature sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jan; Mikielewicz, Dariusz; Fornalik-Wajs, Elżbieta; Bajor, Michał

    2015-12-01

    A tendency to increase the importance of so-called dispersed generation, based on the local energy sources and the working systems utilizing both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources is observed nowadays. Generation of electricity on industrial or domestic scale together with production of heat can be obtained for example through employment of the ORC systems. It is mentioned in the EU directive 2012/27/EU for cogenerative production of heat and electricity. For such systems the crucial points are connected with the heat exchangers, which should be small in size but be able to transfer high heat fluxes. In presented paper the prototype microjet heat exchanger dedicated for heat recovery systems is introduced. Its novel construction is described together with the systematical experimental analysis of heat transfer and flow characteristics. Reported results showed high values of the overall heat transfer coefficient and slight increase in the pressure drop. The results of microjet heat exchanger were compared with the results of commercially available compact plate heat exchanger.

  13. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefarth, Caroline; Tran, Thi Bich Thao; Mittermaier, Peter; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt. PMID:28234322

  14. Comparison of Technological Options for Distributed Generation-Combined Heat and Power in Rajasthan State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper reviews the different technological options available for DG. DG offers a number of potential benefits. The ability to use the waste heat from fuel-operated DG, known as combined heat and power (CHP, offers both reduced costs and significant reductions of CO2 emissions. The overall efficiency of DG-CHP system can approach 90 percent, a significant improvement over the 30 to 35 percent electric grid efficiency and 50 to 90 percent industrial boiler efficiency when separate production is used. The costs of generation of electricity from six key DG-CHP technologies; gas engines, diesel engines, biodiesel CI engines, microturbines, gas turbines, and fuel cells, are calculated. The cost of generation is dependent on the load factor and the discount rate. It is found that annualized life cycle cost (ALCC of the DG-CHP technologies is approximately half that of the DG technologies without CHP. Considering the ALCC of different DG-CHP technologies, the gas I.C. engine CHP is the most effective for most of the cases but biodiesel CI engine CHP seems to be a promising DG-CHP technology in near future for Rajasthan state due to renewable nature of the fuel.

  15. Ohmic Heating Technology and Its Application in Meaty Food: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Richa; N. C. Shahi; Anupama Singh; U. C. Lohani; P. K. Omre; Anil Kumar; T. K. Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current review paper is to investigate and analyze about the effects of ohmic heating (OH) different application in the field of fish, meat and its product and compare it with other conventional thermal methods of food processing such as thawing, heating, cooking etc. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Ohmic heating is a substitute ...

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  17. Status of non-electric nuclear heat applications: Technology and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity at the beginning of 1999. It has proven to be safe, reliable, economical and has only a minimal impact on the environment. Most of the world's energy consumption, however, is in the form of heat. The market potential for nuclear heat was recognized early. Some of the first reactors were used for heat supply, e.g. Calder Hall (United Kingdom), Obninsk (Russian Federation), and Agesta (Sweden). Now, over 60 reactors are supplying heat for district heating, industrial processes and seawater desalination. But the nuclear option could be better deployed if it would provide a larger share of the heat market. In particular, seawater desalination using nuclear heat is of increasing interest to some IAEA Member States. In consideration of the growing experience being accumulated, the IAEA periodically reviews the progress and new developments in the field of nuclear heat applications. This publication summarizes the recent activities among Member States presented at a Technical Committee meeting in April 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of up to date information on the prospect, design, safety and licensing aspects, and development of non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. This mainly included seawater desalination and hydrogen production

  18. Low-energy office buildings using existing technology. Simulations with low internal heat gains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodberg, Kajsa; Blomsterberg, Aake; Dubois, Marie-Claude [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Building Design

    2012-11-01

    Although low-energy and nearly zero-energy residential houses have been built in Sweden in the past decade, there are very few examples of low-energy office buildings. This paper investigates the design features affecting energy use in office buildings and suggests the optimal low-energy design from a Swedish perspective. Dynamic simulations have been carried out with IDA ICE 4 on a typical narrow office building with perimeter cell rooms. The results from the parametric study reveal that the most important design features for energy saving are demand-controlled ventilation as well as limited glazing on the facade. Further energy-saving features are efficient lighting and office equipment which strongly reduce user-related electricity and cooling energy. Together, the simulation results suggest that about 48% energy can be saved compared to a new office building built according to the Swedish building code. Thus, it is possible, using a combination of simple and well-known building technologies and configurations, to have very low energy use in new office buildings. If renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and wind power, are added, there is a potential for the annual energy production to exceed the annual energy consumption and a net zero-energy building can be reached. One aspect of the results concerns user-related electricity, which becomes a major energy post in very low-energy offices and which is rarely regulated in building codes today. This results not only in high electricity use, but also in large internal heat gains and unnecessary high cooling loads given the high latitude and cold climate. (orig.)

  19. Towards long pulse high performance discharges in Tore Supra: experimental knowledge and technological developments for heat exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document deals with fusion heat exhaust experiments in Tore Supra tokamak. The purpose of the Tore Supra tokamak is to achieve and control long pulse powerful discharges. High input power is required to generate the non inductive current, approximately 25 MW . The conception and realisation of a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) scheme able to deal with this large amount of power is the main issue. A description of the water loop used for power removal and of the calorimetric system to determine the overall heat exhaust balance is provided. The infra-red measurements used during plasma operation are also described, together with several heat exhaust devices. The behaviour of ion cyclotron and lower hybrid wave launchers is addressed. Eventually, some information is provided on technological developments of PFC in Tore Supra. (TEC). 61 refs., 34 figs

  20. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICATORS IN PROJECT OF HEAT INSULATION FACADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABIJ I. N. Cand. Sc. (Tech., Associate Professor,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. The article dedicated to the solution important problems of choosing rational technical and economic indicators of the duration and cost the process heat insulation facades of buildings by means of experimental and statistical modeling organizational and technological solutions. For this we used the results of numerical experiment, theory a shorthand experiment planning and contemporary computer programs. Purpose. We used experimentally-statistical modeling to establish the impact of organizational and technological solutions for heat insulation of facades by hinged ventilated systems on technical and economic parameters of the project, such as duration and cost. Conclusion. We investigated depending duration assembly jobs and manufacturing cost on the value and combination of variable factors experimental and statistical modeling of construction processes and results patterns of change in studied parameters.

  1. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  2. Report of research and investigation committee for infrared radiation heating technology. Sekigai hosha kanetsu gijutsu kenkyu chosa iinkai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M. (Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The committee was established in July 1990 for research and investigation of infrared (IR) heating technology and finished its activity in March 1993. This report describes the committee members and the results of research and investigation. (1) Application of IR radiation (sensing): the research and investigation results were reported on the following items; the recognition of letters and patterns on cultural properties by IR radiation, the passive sensor (detecting the IR radiated from the object without emitting from the sensor), the IR image system, and the diagnosis of outer wail of buildings. (2) The following were researched on the IR radiation source and IR emitting material; multi-functional heating element having far infrared radiation function and deodorant function, the emissivity of far IR radiation, and the evaluation of the functions by the difference in emissivity. (3) The IR heating technology was described on the following: drying the persimmon using far IR radiation, the present situation of research on IR heating done by foreign power supply companies, and the feature and the application of far IR heater. In addition to these, the following were also reported; (4) measurement of IR radiation and (5) effect of living body and organism.

  3. Effect of T6 Heat Treatment Parameters on Technological Quality of the AlSi7Mg Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very well-known advantages of aluminum alloys, such as low mass, good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, machining-ability, high recycling potential and low cost are considered as a driving force for their development, i.e. implementation in new applications as early as in stage of structural design, as well as in development of new technological solutions. Mechanical and technological properties of the castings made from the 3xx.x group of alloys depend mainly on correctly performed processes of melting and casting, design of a mould and cast element, and a possible heat treatment.

  4. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 1; New Technologies and Validation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, four experiments Thermal Loop, Dependable Microprocessor, SAILMAST, and UltraFlex - were conducted to advance the maturity of individual technologies from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. This paper presents the new technologies and validation approach of the Thermal Loop experiment. The Thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. Details of the thermal loop concept, technical advances, benefits, objectives, level 1 requirements, and performance characteristics are described. Also included in the paper are descriptions of the test articles and mathematical modeling used for the technology validation. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. Capabilities and limitations of the analytical model are also addressed.

  5. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Energy Saving Technology in Reform of UHP-EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, W.; Yu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The furnace waste heat of a company’s existing 4 × 100t ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces is not used and discharged directly of the situation has been unable to meet the national energy-saving emission reduction requirements, and also affected their own competitiveness and sustainable development. In order to make full use of the waste heat of the electric arc furnace, this paper presents an the energy-saving transformation program of using the new heat pipe boiler on the existing ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces for recovering the waste heat of flue gas. The results show that after the implementation of the project can save energy equivalent to 42,349 tons of standard coal. The flue gas waste heat is fully utilized and dust emission concentration is accorded with the standard of Chinese invironmental protection, which have achieved good results.

  6. Study of the technology of heat pipe on prevention wildfire of coal gangue hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Li, Bei; Ding, Ximei; Ma, Li

    2017-04-01

    Self-ignitable coal gangue hill (CGH) is one kind of special combustion system, which has the characteristics of low self-ignite point, large heat storage, and easy reignition. The currently industrial fire extinguishing methods, such as inhibiting tendency of coal self-ignition, loessial overburden, and cement grouting, had unsatisfied effects for dispersing the heat out in time. Correspondingly, the CGH will lead reignition more frequently with the passage of time. The high underground temperature of CGH threatens the process of ecological and vegetation construction. Therefore, the elimination of high temperature is a vital issue to be solved urgently for habitat restoration. To achieve the ultimately ecological management goal of self-ignitable CGH - extinguishing the fire completely and never reignited, it is crucial to break the heat accumulation. Heat-pipe (HP) has a character of high efficient heat transfer capacity for eliminating the continuously high temperature in CGH. An experimental system was designed to test the heat transfer performance of HP for preventing and extinguishing the spontaneous combustion of coal gangue. Based on the heat transfer theory, the resistance network of the coal-HP heat removal system was analyzed for studying the cooling effect of HP. The experimental results show that the HP can accelerate the heat release in coal gangue pile. The coal temperature could be controlled at 59.6 ˚ C with HP in 7 h and the highest cooling value is 39.4 % with HP in 150 h, which can effectively cool the temperatures of high temperature zones. As a powerful heat transfer components, as soon as HPs were inserted into the CGH with a reasonable distance, it can completely play a vital role in inhibiting the coal self-ignition process.

  7. Equipment sizing in a coal-fired municipal heating plant modernisation project with support for renewable energy and cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sizing of biomass fired cogeneration block is performed for existing heating plant. • Mathematical model for cogeneration block optimisation is presented. • Impact of financial support mechanisms on optimal solution is discussed. • Influence of short term variations of prices and support intensity is presented. • Different design parameters are suggested by economic and technical quality indices. - Abstract: The paper presents results of design parameters optimisation of a wood chips fired steam boiler based heat and power block in a sample project of coal fired municipal heating plant modernisation. The project assumes the conversion of the heating plant into a dual fuel heat and power plant. The problem that is presented is selection of cogeneration block structure and thermodynamic parameters taking into account financial support mechanisms for cogeneration and renewable energy technologies. There are examined energy conversion and financial performances of the project. The results show that without the financial support the project is not profitable although it generates savings of primary energy of fossil fuels. If an administrative incentives are applied the optimal technical solution is different than suggested by energy conversion efficiency or fossil fuel savings. Financial calculations were performed for Polish marked conditions in the years 2011 and 2014 showing the impact of relatively short term variations of prices and support intensity on optimal plant design parameters

  8. Psychological factors in the diffusion of sustainable technology: a study of Norwegian households' adoption of wood pellet heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper aims to understand the determinants of the adoption of wood pellet technology for home heating to identify possible strategies towards the slow diffusion of wood pellet in Norway. A mail survey of 737 Norwegian households was conducted in 2008, involving wood pellet adopters and non wood pellet adopters as respondents. An integrated model combining psychological factors (such as intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, habits and norms), perceived wood pellet heating characteristics, and ecological and basic values is applied to predict the installation of a wood pellet stove retrospectively. Results from a path analysis gain empirical support for the proposed integrated model. Wood pellet heating adoption is mainly predicted by a deliberate decision process starting with the evaluation of heating system characteristics, mediated by attitudes and intentions. Perceived behavioural control and habits pose relevant barriers to the adoption process. The influence of norms and values are indirect and only minor in the given market conditions. The most important heating system characteristics in the analysis were perceived functional reliability and perceived installation and maintenance costs. Possible intervention strategies to speed up wood pellet adoption in Norway are discussed in the last part of the paper. (Author)

  9. Numerical analysis of heat propagation in a battery pack using a novel technology for triggering thermal runaway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Darcy, Eric C.; Veje, Christian T.; White, Ralph E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Heat propagation during thermal runaway (TR) in a battery pack with aluminum heat sink was analyzed. •TR in the battery pack, triggered by a novel internal short circuit device (ISCD) was modeled. •A 2D geometry and model couplings reduce computation time significantly. •Small air gaps and mica paper in combination with a thermally conductive matrix increase safety in battery packs. -- Abstract: This paper presents a numerical model used for analyzing heat propagation as a safety feature in a custom-made battery pack. The pack uses a novel technology consisting of an internal short circuit device implanted in a cell to trigger thermal runaway. The goal of the study is to investigate the importance of wrapping cylindrical battery cells (18650 type) in a thermally and electrically insulating mica sleeve, to fix the cells in a thermally conductive aluminum heat sink. By modeling the full-scale pack using a 2D model and coupling the thermal model with an electrochemical model, good agreement with a 3D model and experimental data was found (less than 6%). The 2D modeling approach also reduces the computation time considerably (from 11 h to 25 min) compared to using a 3D model. The results showed that the air trapped between the cell and the boreholes of the heat sink provides a good insulation which reduces the temperature of the adjacent cells during thermal runaway. At the same time, a highly conductive matrix dissipates the heat throughout its thermal mass, reducing the temperature even further. It was found that for designing a safe battery pack which mitigates thermal runaway propagation, a combination of small insulating layers wrapped around the cells, and a conductive heat sink is beneficial.

  10. Integrated chemical process for exothermic wave synthesis of high luminance YAG:Ce phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, C.W.; Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, H.I.; Youn, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, high-luminance yellow-emitting Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ phosphor (YAG:Ce) microparticles were prepared in a solid flame using a 1.425Y 2 O 3 +2.5Al 2 O 3 +0.15CeO 2 +k(KClO 3 +urea)+mNH 4 F precursor mixture (here k is the number of moles of the KClO 3 +urea red-ox mixture, and m is the number of moles of NH 4 F). The self-sustaining combustion process for the entire reaction sample was provided by the heat generated from the KClO 3 +urea mixture. Parametric studies demonstrated that the maximum temperature in the combustion wave varied from 885 to 1200 deg. C for k=2.0-3.0 mole and m=0-1.5 mole. X-ray analysis results showed that the product obtained in the solid flame consisted of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ and KCl phases. Therefore, after dissolving potassium chloride in distillated water, pure-phase YAG:Ce phosphor powder was obtained. The as-prepared YAG:Ce phosphor particles had diameters of 10-25 μm and good dispersity and exhibited luminescence properties comparable to those of YAG:Ce phosphor powders prepared by conventional high-temperature processing. - Highlights: → A new solid-flame strategy was developed for synthesizing high-luminance YAG:Ce phosphor. → Adding KClO 3 +CO(NH 2 ) 2 +NH 4 F mixture to oxide powders provides a low-temperature combustion process. → YAG:Ce phosphor particles 10-25 μm in diameter were obtained at 1000-1100 deg. C within tens of seconds. → As-prepared YAG:Ce emission intensity was 90.1-103.2% compared to that of the reference sample.

  11. Gas-Assisted Heating Technology for High Aspect Ratio Microstructure Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shia-Chung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hot gas is used for heating the cavity surface of a mold. Different mold gap sizes were designed. The mold surface temperature was heated to above the glass transition temperature of the plastic material, and the mold then closed for melt filling. The cavity surface can be heated to 130°C to assist the melt filling of the microfeatures. Results show that hot gas heating can improve the filling process and achieve 91% of the high aspect ratio microgrooves (about 640.38 μm of the maximum of 700 μm. The mold gap size strongly affects the heating speed and heating uniformity. Without surface preheating, the center rib is the highest. When the heating target temperature is 90°C or 100°C, the three microribs have a good uniformity of height. However, when the target temperature exceeds 100°C, the left side rib is higher than the other ribs.

  12. Investigation of monitoring technologies for heat transfer corrosion in reprocessing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukatani, I.; Kiuchi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Two types of in-situ monitoring techniques using electrical resistance methods were developed for estimating the wall thinning of heat transfer tubes used in evaporators for Purex process on commercial reprocessing plants. The corrosion rate is accelerated with oxidizer ions formed by the thermal decomposition of nitric acid under heat flux. An in-situ corrosion sensor was developed for estimating the corrosion rate of heat transfer tubes using miniature heat transfer tube specimens under heat flux control. It is possible to simulate the heating condition as same as heat transfer tubes. The applicability was evaluated by setting it in gas-liquid separator in a mock-up evaporator for acid recovery. The sensitivity of electric resistance methods is increased with decreasing the residual thickness of probe tube. The other is the electrical potential drop method using direct current so-called the field signature method. It is applicable to estimate the corrosiveness of reprocessing nitric acid by setting it on the drain tube in evaporator. The sensitivity to the thinning rate of tubes wall machined artificially was obtained within ±10% to the wall thickness. It has the non-sensitive region nearly 0.1mm up to begin working. The practical applicability has been also evaluated by setting it in a mock-up evaporator. (author)

  13. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  14. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  15. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  16. New Technology and Experimental Study on Snow-Melting Heated Pavement System in Tunnel Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Fan, Haobo; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of economy and sharp rise of motor vehicles in China, the pavement skid resistance in tunnel portals has become increasingly important in cold region. However, the deicing salt, snow removal with machine, and other antiskid measures adopted by highway maintenance division have many limitations. To improve the treatment effect, we proposed a new snow-melting approach employing electric heat tracing, in which heating cables are installed in the structural ...

  17. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop and cold plate technology for space systems thermal management. The proposed...

  18. Development of heat pipe technology for permanent mold casting of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elalem, K.; Mucciardi, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.; Carbonneau, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One of the key techniques for producing sound permanent mold castings is to use controlled mold cooling such as air cooling, water cooling and heat pipe cooling. Air-cooling has limited applications in permanent mold casting due to its low cooling capability and high cost. Water-cooling is widely used in permanent mold casting, but has some disadvantages such as safety issues and the facilities required. The early applications of heat pipes in permanent mold casting have shown tremendous results due to their high cooling rates, low cost and safety. In this work, a permanent mold for magnesium casting has been designed with the intention of producing shrinkage defects in the castings. Novel heat pipes that can generate high cooling rates have been constructed and used to direct the solidification in order to reduce the shrinkage. In this paper, the design of the mold and that of the heat pipes are presented. The results of some of the computer simulations that were conducted to determine casting conditions along with the potential of using heat pipes to direct the solidification are also presented. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the performance of heat pipes in the permanent mold casting of magnesium will also be discussed. (author)

  19. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  20. Too Much of a Good Thing ? Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology and `Waste' Heat in the Titan Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    Unlike most solar system surface environments, Titan has an atmosphere that is both cold and dense. This means heat transfer to and from a vehicle is determined by convection, rather than by radiation which dominates on Earth and Mars. With surface temperatures near 94K, batteries and systems require heating to operate. Solar power is impractical, so a spacecraft intended to operate for longer than a few hours on Titan must have a radioisotope power source (RPS). Such sources convert heat from Plutonium decay into electricity, with an efficiency that varies from about 5% for thermoelectric systems to 20% for engine cycles such as Stirling. For vehicles with 100-200W electrical power, the 500-4000 W ‘waste’ heat in the Titan environment can be valuable in that it can be exploited to maintain thermal conditions inside the vehicle. The generally benign Titan environment, and the outstanding scientific and popular interest in its exploration, has attracted a number of mission concepts including a lander for Titan’s equatorial dunefields, light gas and hot air (‘Montgolfière’) balloons, airplanes, and capsules that float on its polar seas (e.g. the proposed Titan Mare Explorer.) However, the choice of conversion technology is key to the success of these different platforms. Waste heat can perturb meteorological measurements in several ways. First by creating a warm air plume (an effect observed on Viking and Curiosity.) Second, rain or seaspray falling onto hot radiator surfaces can evaporate causing a local enhancement of methane humidity. Third, sufficiently strong heating could perturb local winds. Similar effects, and the potential generation of effervescence or even fog, may result for capsules floating in liquid hydrocarbons. For landers and drifting buoys, these perturbations may significantly degrade environmental measurements, or at least demand tall meteorology masts, for the higher waste heat output of thermoelectric systems, and a Stirling system

  1. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  2. Optimal technology choice and investment timing: A stochastic model of industrial cogeneration vs. heat-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickart, Marcel; Madlener, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO 2 tax on the investment decision

  3. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  4. Long term aging of selenide glasses: evidence of sub-Tg endotherms and pre-Tg exotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Boolchand, P.; Georgiev, D. G.

    2010-02-01

    Long term aging, extending from months to several years, is studied on several families of chalcogenide glasses including the Ge-Se, As-Se, and Ge-As-Se systems. Special attention is given to the As-Se binary, a system that displays a rich variety of aging behavior intimately tied to sample synthesis conditions and the ambient environment in which samples are aged. Calorimetric (modulated DSC) and Raman scattering experiments are undertaken. Our results show all samples display a sub-Tg endotherm typically 10-70 °C below Tg in glassy networks possessing a mean coordination number r in the 2.25 < r < 2.45 range. Two sets of AsxSe100-x samples aged for eight years were compared, set A consisted of slow cooled samples aged in the dark, and set B consisted of melt-quenched samples aged at laboratory environment. Samples of set B in the As concentration range, 35% < x < 60%, display a pre-Tg exotherm, but the feature is not observed in samples of set A. The aging behavior of set A presumably represents intrinsic aging in these glasses, while that of set B is extrinsic due to the presence of light. The reversibility window persists in both sets of samples, but is less well defined in set B. These findings contrast with a recent study by Golovchak et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014202), which finds the onset of the reversibility window moved up to the stoichiometric composition (x = 40%). Here we show that the up-shifted window is better understood as resulting due to demixing of As4Se4 and As4Se3 molecules from the backbone, i.e., nanoscale phase separation (NSPS). We attribute sub-Tg endotherms to compaction of the flexible part of the networks upon long term aging, while the pre-Tg exotherm is to NSPS. The narrowing and sharpening of the reversibility window upon aging is interpreted as the slow 'self-organizing' stress relaxation of the phases just outside the intermediate phase, which itself is stress free and displays little aging.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  6. Development of Moving Bed Technology for Heat Treatment and Grinding of Dismantled Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yong

    2009-04-01

    The factors such as gas or fluid velocity, length, width and depth of each stage, number of Zig-Zag stage, angle of each stage, position of feed stage, size and amount of feed material, amount of treated concrete waste, method of fluid distribution, surface area of heat transfer, position of heater, method of heating, temperature difference between the heater and the material, amount of heat have been found to be important factors in the system. The capability of the system has been analyzed and evaluated by means of total efficiency and grade separation efficiency the experiments by using the simulated Zig-Zag type moving bed flow process with bench scale(3.2m high, Ifi-stage) have shown that the total efficiency has been in the range of 92% - 95% and the grade efficiency of 93% - 95%, respectively, elucidating that the system is quite good

  7. Integration of solar installations in heating technology; Integration der Solaranlage in die Heizungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [Solvis Energiesysteme GmbH und Co KG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Future heating systems must be geared to the task of providing the comfort of warm rooms and warm water while giving due consideration to the consequences this has for the environment. The present paper discusses the development of heating energy demand, the integration and adjustment of the heating circuit for solar energy, and the dimensioning and layout of a solar installation for water warming. It also deals with the testing of solar buffer storages. [Deutsch] Wie kann der Komfort warmer Raeume und warmem Wassers erreicht werden und welche Konsquenzen hat das fuer die Umwelt, dies sind die Kriterien an denen sich die Waermeversorgung der Zukunft orientieren muss. Die Entwicklung des Heizenergiebedarfs, die Einbindung und Abstimmung des Heizkrieses fuer Solarenergie sowie die Dimensionierung und Auslegung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwassererw armung werden erlaeutert. Ein weiterer Punkt betrifft den Test von Solarpufferspeichern.

  8. Some technological aspects of combined processing of meat by heat and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Nomenotskaya, N.F.; Mozul', M.Ya.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of ionizing radiation to prolong the storage life of meat and meat products. Irradiating raw meat with doses of 0.4-0.6 Mrad increased storage life up to two months at low above-zero C temperatures. The difficulty of inhibiting autolytic processes during storage of irradiated raw meat led to searches for combined methods of meat treatment. A series of experiments was staged with pre-irradiation heating of meat up to 75, 77, and 80 0 C in order to see how cathepsin activity is affected by the duration and temperature of heating in the case of combined treatment. To increase the resistance of meat products to microbial damage, tests were carried out in which meat was exposed to short-term but intensive heat by immersing it in hot (130-160 0 C) vegetable oil (frying grease). The results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams. (E.T.)

  9. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  10. Forum environmental and energy technology 2013. Power-heat cogeneration and air pollution prevention; Forum Umwelt- und Energietechnik 2013. Kraftwaermekopplung und Luftreinhaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlowitz, Otto; Meyer, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The volume covers the following topics: The teaching reward 2013 - concept and implementation of the ''Forum environmental and energy technology''; energy efficient air pollution control and material recovery; air pollution control by oxidation; electrical energy production from low-temperature waste heat (ORC processes), electrical power production and process heat utilization.

  11. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  12. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akers, Ronald R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  13. Heating technology: Listen to where the music is playing; Heiztechnik: Hier spielt die Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-12-31

    The choice between an oil-fired and a gas-fired heating system is often not a matter of task but simply of which energy carrier happens to be available. The present article therefore provides information in equal depth on both types of heating system and explains their respective strong and weak points. In this context it also discusses possible future developments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ueber die Anschaffung einer oel- oder gasbefeuerten Heizung entscheidet haeufig nicht die persoenliche Sympathie, sondern schlicht und ergreifend die Verfuegbarkeit des Energietraegers. Wir wollen Sie deshalb gleichermassen ausfuehrlich ueber beide Heizsysteme informieren und dabei die jeweiligen Staerken und Schwaechen herausarbeiten und einen Blick in die Zukunft werfen. (orig.)

  14. Integration of a turbine expander with an exothermic reactor loop--Flow sheet development and application to ammonia production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeff, I.L.; Visser, J.A.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct integration of a gas turbine power cycle with an ammonia synthesis loop. Such a loop represents a typical reactor-separator system with a recycle stream and cold separation of the product from the recycle loop. The hot reaction products are expanded directly instead of raising steam in a waste heat boiler to drive a steam turbine. Two new combined power and chemicals production flow sheets are developed for the process. The flow sheets are simulated using the flow sheet simulator AspenPlus (licensed by Aspen Technology, Inc.) and compared to a simulated conventional ammonia synthesis loop. The comparison is based on energy as well as exergy analysis. It was found that the pressure ratio over the turbine expander plays an important role in optimisation of an integrated system, specifically due to the process comprising an equilibrium reaction. The inlet temperature to the reactor changes with changing pressure ratio, which in turn determines the conversion and consequently the heat of reaction that is available to produce power. In terms of the minimum work requirement per kg of product a 75% improvement over the conventional process could be obtained. The work penalty due to refrigeration needed for separation was also accounted for. Furthermore this integrated flow sheet also resulted in a decrease in exergy loss and the loss was more evenly distributed between the various unit operations. A detailed exergy analysis over the various unit operations proved to be useful in explaining the overall differences in exergy loss between the flow sheets

  15. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  16. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  17. Comparison of Available Technologies for Fire Spots Detection via Linear Heat Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miksa František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very demanding to detect fire spots under difficult conditions with high occurrence of interfering external factors such as large distances, airflow difficultly, high dustiness, high humidity, etc. Spot fire sensors do not meet the requirements due to the aforementioned conditions as well as large distances. Therefore, the detection of a fire spot via linear heat sensing cables is utilized.

  18. An overview of heat exchanger technology in the Canadian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.; Dalrymple, D.G.; Ko, P.L.; Pathania, R.; Pettigrew, M.I.; Scott, D.A.

    1981-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Canadian approach to the reliability and serviceability of heat exchange equipment used in nuclear power stations and heavy water plants. Current work in vibration and fretting predictions, thermal-hydraulic analyses, and corrosion research is described. Procedures developed for in-service inspection, in situ tube replacment and chemical cleaning of corrosion products are also outlined

  19. Wall heat transfer coefficient in a molten salt bubble column: testing the experimental setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available reactors that are highly exothermic or endothermic. This paper presents the design and operation of experimental setup used for measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in molten salt media. The experimental setup was operated with tap water, heat...

  20. Recycling technologies for sewarage systems. Reuse of water, heat, and sludge in Tokyo; Gesuido wo meguru risaikuru gijutsu. Tokyoto ni okeru mizu/netsu/odei no sairiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    The recycling technology employed in Tokyo were reported. It will be useful for developing and introducing the recycling technology for water, heat, and sludge in the sewage treatment. Among various kinds of recycling technology, one of the most peculiar technology is the district heating and cooling system using the heat of sewage. The Japan`s first practical plant which uses the untreated sewage as the heat source was installed and is now operating in Korakuen pump station. In the station, the energy contained in the sewage is recovered by a heat exchanger. The heat pump produces warm water of 45{degree}C and cold water of 7{degree}C as well. Both are supplied to the area near by through the heat source supply pipeline. The Nanbu sludge plant has a sludge-resourcing plant, in which the sludge is converted into fuel, metro-bricks, and light-weight granules, as well as a conventional sludge treatment plant carrying out the concentration, dehydration, and incineration of sludge. The Ochiai sewage treatment plant reuses water after cleaning. The clean water is used as for the service water in addition to being discharged into the river stream. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  2. High temperature technological heat exchangers and steam generators with helical coil assembly tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, O.J.; Mizonov, N.V.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Nazarov, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of thermal hydraulics characteristics of nuclear steam generators with different tube bundle arrangements and waste heat boilers for ammonia production units was performed on the basis of operating experience results and research and development data. The present report involves the obtained information. The estimations of steam generator performances and repair-ability are given. The significant temperature profile of the primary and secondary coolant flows are attributed to all steam generator designs. The intermediate mixing is found to be an effective means of temperature profile overcoming. At present the only means to provide an effective mixing in heat exchangers of the following types: straight tubes, field tubes, platen tubes and multibank helical coil tubes (with complicated bend distribution along their length) are section arrangements in series in conjunction with forced and natural mixing in connecting lines. Development of the unificated system from mini helical coil assemblies allows to design and manufacture heat exchangers and steam generators within the wide range of operating conditions without additional expenses on the research and development work

  3. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  4. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  5. Analysis of todays best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mats-Lennart; Gustavsson, Lennart; Maartensson, D.; Leckner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present project has been to study today's best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW from an emission point of view. Emission measurements have been conducted at 21 plants of different types and sizes, i.e. one stationary fluidized bed, fourteen boilers with moving grates, four boilers with fixed grates, one pellet burner and one boiler with a gasification oven. The plants were fired with different fuels: native fuels like wood chips, bark/sawdust, grass and refined fuels like briquettes and pellets. The plants were chosen to represent the best available and/or the most common technology. The flue gases were analyzed for CO, NO x , Total Hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethylene, acetylene, ammonia, nitrous oxide, CO 2 and O 2 . The measurements were usually made at the heat loads and operating conditions given at the time of testing. However, in a few cases measurements were made at different loads and air settings

  6. Heating and cooling processes in disks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed.

  7. Present status of laser technology for maintenance and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    A laser has superior spatial and timely controllability and has no repulsive force at its use, it is a tool suitable for remote operation. And, as a partial processing with low exotherm and deformation by its use becomes possible, it can have an advantage omissible for post processes such as heat treatment and so on. Therefore, on in-situ repair of present constructions, laser is thought to be an optimum tool. And, in nuclear energy plants, maintenance and management of their instruments are important, and then a number of technical developments activating its advantages have been carried out. Above all, repair engineering around a reactor has a number of places difficult to access them for its operators, so remote engineering using laser is desired for in special. Here was described on the present status of development and realization containing protect conservation and inspection repair technology using laser. (G.K.)

  8. Non-destructive Assessment of Relief Marking Parameters of Heat Shrinkable Installation Parts for Aviation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov Aleksandr P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains a new method of relief marking of heat-shrinkable tubing and sleeves made of polymer materials with “shape memory effect.” Method of instrument evaluation of relief marking stereometry of installation parts for aviation equipment, made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene was developed and the results were explained. Parameters of pin-point relief marking and compliance of point forms to the Braille font standard were determined with the use of the non-destructive method based on the color of interference pattern with precision of 0.02 mm.

  9. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  10. Heat Treatment Used to Strengthen Enabling Coating Technology for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian J.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    The PS304 high-temperature solid lubricant coating is a key enabling technology for Oil- Free turbomachinery propulsion and power systems. Breakthroughs in the performance of advanced foil air bearings and improvements in computer-based finite element modeling techniques are the key technologies enabling the development of Oil-Free aircraft engines being pursued by the Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS304 is a plasma spray coating applied to the surface of shafts operating against foil air bearings or in any other component requiring solid lubrication at high temperatures, where conventional materials such as graphite cannot function.

  11. The implementation of microstructural and heat treatment models to development of forming technology of critical aluminum-alloy parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Nikolay; Alimov, Artem; Shitikov, Andrey; Stebunov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high performance and energy efficient transportation systems have boosted interest in lightweight design solutions. To achieve maximum weight reductions, it is not enough just to replace steel parts by their aluminium analogues, but it is necessary to change the entire concept of vehicle design. In this case we must develop methods for manufacturing a variety of critical parts with unusual and difficult to produce shapes. The mechanical properties of the material in these parts must also be optimised and tightly controlled to provide the best distribution within the part volume. The only way to achieve these goals is to implement technology development methods based on simulation of the entire manufacturing chain from preparing a billet through the forming operations and heat treatment of the product. The paper presents an approach to such technology development. The simulation of the technological chain starts with extruding a round billet. Depending on the extrusion process parameters, the billet can have different levels of material workout and variation of grain size throughout the volume. After extrusion, the billet gets formed into the required shape in a forging process. The main requirements at this stage are to get the near net shape of the product without defects and to provide proper configuration of grain flow that strengthens the product in the most critical direction. Then the product undergoes solution treatment, quenching and ageing. The simulation of all these stages are performed by QForm FEM code that provides thermo-mechanical coupled deformation of the material during extrusion and forging. To provide microstructure and heat treatment simulation, special subroutines has been developed by the authors. The proposed approach is illustrated by an industrial case study.

  12. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  13. Evaluation of refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in heat cascading systems under the carbon dioxide emissions constraint: the proposal of the energy cascade balance table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both heat cascading systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. It is necessary to introduce heat cascading systems in the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of heat cascading is the multi-stage use of thermal energy by temperature level. This paper introduces three energy policies for introducing the heat cascading systems. The author develops an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Carbon dioxide emission constraints result in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature heat is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustion waste heat could reduce electric power for the turbo compression refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator. In addition, this study proposes an energy cascade balance table with respect to the temperature level

  14. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  15. Heat exchanger technologies for the global environment. PWR-Vol. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This is the Committee's largest compilation of papers in the fourteen years that ASME has sponsored one or more sessions at the Joint Power Generation Conference. In addition to the twenty-two papers offered at the conference, one session contained a panel discussion during which five industry specialists related their experiences and interpretations. Many of the presentations of the past few years have been made by authors from foreign lands as the conference has expanded to an international forum. This years' theme of global impact is included in the heat exchanger presentations from the USA and abroad. In addition, ASME has encouraged authors to make the subjects of their presentations more apropos to current concerns. New concepts and designs, particularly with PC programs in mind, is one specific area that is addressed. Other topics such as materials selection, coatings to extend performance life, minimizing the effects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, zebra mussel control and new approaches to heat transfer design are some of the subjects covered at the conference and in this volume. Nineteen papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The overall vision of the project has been to produce likely development scenarios for various electricity and heat generation techniques, to indicate the possibilities provided by their implementation, and to give an indication of when implementation could be effected. The aim has been to identify possible technical advances in electricity and district heating generation techniques from a 2020 and 2030 time perspective. As a basic scenario, the project chose SwedEnergy's analysis of how the European Commission's aims for reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing renewable energy and energy efficiencies could be implemented in Sweden. Based on results, the project's findings regarding potentially competitive techniques are as follows: Capacity increases in Swedish nuclear power plants and a further two Finnish nuclear reactors mean that there will be no need for new large-scale electricity generation for base load in the Nordic region until it becomes necessary to replace existing nuclear power plants. The most attractive alternatives are as follows: Nuclear power could prove to be the most competitive alternative, especially if fuel prices rise and/or technically neutral climate-related control measures continue to be in place. If new nuclear power is not accepted in Sweden, the most attractive alternative would appear to be large fossil fuel fired plants equipped with CCS. According to the analyses in Elforsk's 'Roadmap' project, the EU's aims for carbon dioxide reduction and renewable energy, signify that almost all new power capacity erected in the Nordic area in the next two decades will be renewable. The most attractive alternatives for Sweden are as follows: Environmentally-adapted hydropower appears to be the most competitive alternative. Its potential is however restricted by demands that there should be minimal - if any - encroachments on landscape and nature, and by ecological concerns arising from the EU

  17. BodyHeat Encounter: Performing Technology in Pedagogical Spaces of Surveillance/Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Lynn; Ricketts, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    What occurs when videographer and performer encounter each other through the lens of a camera? This collaborative performative inquiry focuses on embodiment and emergent narrative as realized through an encounter between technology and the visceral body--a relational body that smells, touches, sees, hears and feels the emergent world through…

  18. Application of electro-technology in heating industrial processes; Aplicacion de electrotecnologia en procesos industriales de calentamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-technologies are systems and equipment that use electricity to produce and to process consumer goods. Also they can be used in industrial processes such as drying, heating, heat treatment and smelting. These technologies have demonstrated that electricity can not only be used for lighting system, motor operation or electrolysis, but that can also be applied in many industrial processes and allow the reduction of production costs to increase the productivity as well as to improve the safety and conditions at work. Combined to the former, the electro technologies offer other additional advantages such as facilitating the automation, robotization and computerized supervision of industrial production. The great variety of these technologies and their ample application fields makes difficult a presentation of them showing their advantages in the energy efficiency field and with respect to the added value of the product to be finished, as well as its impact to the environment when diminishing the polluting agents to the atmosphere. The present article mentions diverse types of electro technologies, doing emphasis in those dedicated to provide heat impulse due to the impact that, by their application, can produce in the electrical system and to the deduction of polluting agents to the environment. Table 1 shows the diverse rank of industries that can use electro technologies. The table of the type of industries that can use electro technologies is shown, as well as the evaluation of these. [Spanish] Las electrotecnologias son sistemas y equipos que utilizan electricidad para producir y procesar bienes de consumo. Tambien pueden ser usados en procesos industriales tales como secado, calentamiento, tratamiento con calor y fundicion. Estas tecnologias han demostrado que la electricidad no solo se puede usar para alumbrado, alimentacion de motores o electrolisis, sino que puede aplicarse en muchos procesos industriales y permitir la reduccion de costos de

  19. Paint this pipeline green : new pipeline technologies set to trim fugitive emissions, reuse waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2007-01-15

    A significant amount of methane is released when natural gas is moved through North American pipelines, and gas producers continue to search for a method to recapture energy wasted as a result of the pressure reductions needed to deliver natural gas to residential areas. This article provided details of a new direct fuel cell energy recovery generation unit (DFC-ERG) consisting of a 1.2 MW fuel cell and a 1 MW unfired gas expansion turbine. As the natural gas exits the high pressure mainline, it passes through the unfired turbine, which rotates a generator and produces electricity. The fuel cell then uses an electrochemical process to internally convert natural gas to hydrogen, which is then converted into electricity and heat. The combined system can achieve electrical efficiencies of more than 60 per cent, and has almost no emissions. Heat produced by the fuel cell can be captured and used to warm up the gas in the distribution network in order to offset boiler emissions. Designed by Enbridge, the system is expected to be in operation by 2008, and will provide up to 15,000 MW hours per year. TransCanada Corporation has designed a supersonic gas-gas ejector that fits around the turbine shafts that release small amounts of gas to prevent heat build-up at compressor stations. The device encapsulates the gas, which is then re-injected back into the mainline, and may save the company up to 0.5 bcf per year. In Alberta, many portable compressor engines waste as much as 30 per cent of their efficiency through exhaust gases. A 3 year research project has resulted in the design of a slug flow generator. Water from a large tub is pumped into the top of a transparent acrylic cylinder which creates a vortex. Compressed air is then injected into the top of the vortex, where it breaks down into discrete slugs of water. While still in the initial design phases, the device may be used for field compressor exhaust pipes, as well as for commercial and residential applications. 2

  20. Analysis of an integrated packed bed thermal energy storage system for heat recovery in compressed air energy storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Zavattoni, Simone A.; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Barbato, Maurizio C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A packed bed TES system is proposed for heat recovery in CAES technology. •A CFD-based approach has been developed to evaluate the behaviour of the TES unit. •TES system enhancement and improvement alternatives are also demonstrated. •TES performance evaluated according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) represents a very attracting option to grid electric energy storage. Although this technology is mature and well established, its overall electricity-to-electricity cycle efficiency is lower with respect to other alternatives such as pumped hydroelectric energy storage. A meager heat management strategy in the CAES technology is among the main reasons of this gap of efficiency. In current CAES plants, during the compression stage, a large amount of thermal energy is produced and wasted. On the other hand, during the electricity generation stage, an extensive heat supply is required, currently provided by burning natural gas. In this work, the coupling of both CAES stages through a thermal energy storage (TES) unit is introduced as an effective solution to achieve a noticeable increase of the overall CAES cycle efficiency. In this frame, the thermal energy produced in the compression stage is stored in a TES unit for its subsequent deployment during the expansion stage, realizing an Adiabatic-CAES plant. The present study addresses the conceptual design of a TES system based on a packed bed of gravel to be integrated in an Adiabatic-CAES plant. With this objective, a complete thermo-fluid dynamics model has been developed, including the implications derived from the TES operating under variable-pressure conditions. The formulation and treatment of the high pressure conditions were found being particularly relevant issues. Finally, the model provided a detailed performance and efficiency analysis of the TES system under charge/discharge cyclic conditions including a realistic operative

  1. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) w/Variable Speed Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messmer, Craig S. [Unico, Inc., Arnold, MO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of a three year program awarded to Unico, Inc. to commercialize a residential cold climate heat pump. Several designs were investigated. Compressors were selected using analysis from Oakridge National Laboratories followed by prototype construction and lab testing in a specially built environmental chamber capable of reaching -30°F. The initial design utilized two variable speed compressors in series with very good capacity results and acceptable efficiency at very cold temperatures. The design was then modified to reduce cost and complexity by redesigning the system using three dual-stage compressors: two in parallel followed by one in series. Extensive testing found significant challenge with oil management, reliability, weight and cost which prevented the system from being fully commercialized. Further analysis of other conceptual designs indicated that these challenges could be overcome in the future.

  2. Combat Ration Network for Technology Implementation (CORANET II) Knurled Seal Heat Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Canavan Mr. Henderikus B. Bruins Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and...Analysis Literature Search Results • No published findings on knurled or patterned seal bars effect on seal strength in engineering , trade, or...Ade Engineers to review knurl pattern geometries and machining processes • 5 Final design revisions were approved for manufacturing on May 7th. » Flat

  3. Energy Efficiency of Technological Equipment at the Economic Agent by Identifying the Points with Recoverable Heat Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoiţescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For an energy-efficient future, the EU needs to step up its efforts to maximize energy savings. In this context, the paper addresses the steps needed to establish energy efficiency measures and proposes effective measures to reduce consumption by recovering large amounts of energy lost to industrial consumers. The points with the highest recoverable energy potential have been identified and it is proposed to install the heat recovery systems on the flue gas exhaust circuits and polluted air from Industrial Technological Equipment (ITE such as dyeing/drying cabins (DDC. Therefore, whenever possible and as small as energy saving, energy recovery solutions at any level, but especially at local level, need to be applied. In conclusion, by concentrating all the energy-saving efforts that are still being wasted, Europe can contribute, by saving energy, to ensuring a sustainable energy future

  4. Building heating technology in Smart Home using PI System management tools

    OpenAIRE

    Vanus, Jan; Vojcinak, Petr; Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Machacek, Zdenek; Bilik, Petr; Koziorek, Jiri; Zidek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    For comfortable remote monitoring of some operational and technical functions inside own Smart Home building, it is possible to use a lot of useful programmes and tools. However, not each programme or tool is suited to this purpose, or it does not offer required functionality. The aim of this paper is to describe using an appropriate software tool of PI System for a real-time monitoring of acquired data from real technology parts located at a training centre of the Moravian-Silesian Wood Clus...

  5. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  6. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project: Semiannual progress report, October 1986-March 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains four subelements: (1) Monolithics, (2) Ceramic Composites, (3) Thermal and Wear Coatings, and (4) Joining. Ceramic research conducted within the Monolithics subelement currently includes work activities on green state ceramic fabrication, characterization, and densification and on structural, mechanical, and physical properties of these ceramics. Research conducted within the Ceramic Composites subelement currently includes silicon carbide and oxide-based composites, which, in addition to the work activities cited for Monolithics, include fiber synthesis and characterization. Research conducted in the Thermal and Wear Coatings subelement is currently limited to oxide-base coatings and involves coating synthesis, characterization, and determination of the mechanical and physical properties of the coatings. Research conducted in the Joining subelement currently includes studies of processes to produce strong stable joints between zirconia ceramics and iron-base alloys. A major objective of the research in the Materials and Processing project element is to systematically advance the understanding of the relationships between ceramic raw materials such as powders and reactant gases, the processing variables involved in producing the ceramic materials, and the resultant microstructures and physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic materials. Success in meeting this objective will provide US companies with new or improved ways for producing economical highly reliable ceramic components for advanced heat engines.

  7. Recent advances in severe accident technology - direct containment heating in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The issues affecting high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) and the consequential containment pressurization from direct containment heating (DCH), as they affect advanced light water reactors (ALWRs), specifically advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs), were reviewed by the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP). Recommendations from ARSAP regarding the design of APWRs to minimize DCH are embodied within the Electric Power Research Institute ALWR Utility Requirements Document, which specifies (a) a large, strong containment; (b) an in-containment refueling water storage tank; (c) a reactor cavity configuration that minimizes energy transport to the containment atmosphere; and (d) a reactor coolant system depressurization system. Experimental and analytical efforts, which have focused on current-generation plants, and analyses for APWRs were reviewed. Although DCH is a subject of continuous research and considerable uncertainties remain, it is the judgment of the ARSAP that reactors complying with the recommended design requirements would have a low probability of early containment failure due to HPME and DCH

  8. Natural gas usage as a heat source for integrated SMR and thermochemical hydrogen production technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, O.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates various usages of natural gas (NG) as an energy source for different hydrogen production technologies. A comparison is made between the different methods of hydrogen production, based on the total amount of natural gas needed to produce a specific quantity of hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions per mole of hydrogen produced, water requirements per mole of hydrogen produced, and a cost sensitivity analysis that takes into account the fuel cost, carbon dioxide capture cost and a carbon tax. The methods examined are the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle, steam methane reforming (SMR) and a modified sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. Also, an integrated Cu-Cl/SMR plant is examined to show the unique advantages of modifying existing SMR plants with new hydrogen production technology. The analysis shows that the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle out-performs the other conventional methods with respect to fuel requirements, carbon dioxide emissions and total cost of production. (author)

  9. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well

  10. Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups: Report on the joint meeting, July 9, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This paper contains a collection of viewgraphs from a joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups. A list of contributing topics is: PPPL update, ATF update, Los Alamos RFP program update, status of DIII-D, PMI graphite studies at ORNL, PMI studies for low atomic number materials, high heat flux materials issues, high heat flux testing program, particle confinement in tokamaks, helium self pumping, self-regenerating coatings technical planning activity and international collaboration update

  11. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report treats different ways to produce various upgraded biofuels from lignocellulosic materials in so called polygeneration processes. Furthermore the different upgrading technologies are also investigated with respect to co-production of heat and power. The processes investigated are linked to production of - bio pellets (or lignin pellets), dried, grinded and compressed biomass (or lignin); - torrified bio pellets, dried, grinded, heat treated and compressed biomass; - bio-oils or pyrolytic oils, liquefied biomass with crude oil quality; - ethanol via hydrolysis (process where the biomass is divided into sugars and lignin) followed by fermentation; - methane via hydrolysis and fermentation; - methane via indirect gasification and methane via indirect or suspension gasification, - DME (dimethyl ether) via indirect or suspension gasification; - methanol via indirect or suspension gasification; - DME and methanol via methane produced via indirect gasification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are, for example, forest residues or biomass that can be cultivated on degraded lands. The result from this report shows that it is only the production of bio pellets that is fully commercially available today. For all the other polygeneration processes investigated the production of bio-oil and torrified bio pellets stands out from the other processes investigated, as it is the market for the product that holds back the introduction of the technology. For the other technologies one or several components are still not commercialized and the challenges for these technologies are described in the report. Summarizing the efficiencies for the different processes, the processes that produces biofuels for stationary applications, bio pellets, torrified bio pellets and bio-oil, show the highest efficiencies. Accounted for the co-generated power, efficiencies up to 90 % based on ingoing lower heating values of the dry substance fed to the process could be achieved. For the processes

  12. Technological advances in (U,Pu)O2 CRO recycling using microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.K.; Singh, G.; Khot, P.M; Kumar, S.; Mishra, A.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    A batch type wet recycling process viz. microwave direct de-nitration and calcination technique (MWDDC) has been developed at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF), BARC, Tarapur, India. The process was developed for complete and multiple recycling of PFBR clean rejected (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuel pellets (CRO) up to 30(wt%) of PuO 2 . The complete recycling of CRO containing higher Pu content with conventional dry recycling was difficult to achieve and certain amount of virgin powder is always needed to obtain the required product characteristics. The conditioned co-de-nitrated powder via MWDDC process have more or less similar characteristics to that of virgin powder with respect to particle size, apparent and tap density, surface area. This paper presents an insight into MWDDC process details and recent advancements made for improvement of powder and product characteristics. Low temperature microwave calcination (LTMC) was incorporated to improve the quality of co-de-nitrated powder with regard to volatile impurities and nitrate content. MWDDC powder and pellets were subjected to extensive chemical and physical characterization as per PFBR specification document. MOX pellets were fabricated from virgin and MWDDC powder via powder oxide pelletizing route and characterized. The homogeneity in the MOX pellets fabricated from MWDDC powder was found as good as that of virgin. Industrial microwave heating systems are indigenously developed and have advanced applicator and wave transmission designs to achieve high throughput, precise control of microwave power hence the temperature during the course of the process. It was demonstrated that MWDDC is a novel technique for (U,Pu)O 2 MOX rejects recycling in view of complete and multiple recycling. Key words: (U,Pu)O 2 MOX, CRO, Recycling, MWDDC. (authors)

  13. Northern exposure : as the ice recedes, Arctic exploration, and technology development, heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article discussed the affect that climate change and global warming has had on the Arctic and what it foretells for the oil industry. For a few brief weeks during the summers of 2007 and 2008 ice caps receded to the point that ships could navigate the historically impassable Northwest Passage of the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Institute of North America estimates that the North Pole will be ice-free in 10 to 15 years, much earlier than originally thought. In response to the possibilities that may open up over the next couple of decades, some oil companies are investing hundreds of millions in a new search, with new technologies at old prospect areas. Service provides are increasing research spending into new exploration, production and transportation solutions suited to harsh Arctic conditions. This article described some of the projects planned at locations off Norway and Russia in which advanced subsea production techniques will be applied, such as remotely operated vehicles and liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation solutions. An unprecedented level of survey activity will resolve border disputes in prospective areas, resulting in seabed mapping that will provide a better understanding of the region. Petro-Canada's efforts to develop the Hecla and Drake Point gas fields was also discussed. The Canadian Energy Research Institute determined that ship-borne transportation from Melville Island in the Arctic is economically feasible. Vancouver-based Teekay Corporation is developing a floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) technology capable of producing 1 to 2 million tonnes of LNG annually from fields containing 0.5 to 5 tcf. The unique concept was recently granted concept approval by the American Bureau of Shipping, confirming the design is robust and safe. The company is in discussions with potential producers and could be ready for production within 4 years. 6 figs

  14. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  15. Optimization of the technology of fodder briquettes-licks with the use of a steam compression heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of industrial maintenance of animals, their health is noticeably weakening, in the majority of the body, profound metabolic disorders are noted, and productivity is reduced. In such conditions it is necessary to use feed additives in the form of briquettes-licks, able to compensate for the lack of micro and macro elements, vitamins and many other substances. Intensification of feed production through the use of new advanced technologies allows to improve the quality of products and reduce losses in its production. The technologies used for briquettes-licks and equipment for their production do not always allow to provide high quality products and achieve the necessary effect when fed. In addition, they are energy-intensive, do not imply the use of secondary energy carriers. Therefore, the creation of a functional product, combining a complex of substances necessary for animal feeding, and the development of an energy-efficient method for its production is topical. The proposed technology makes it possible to obtain feed briquettes with high homogeneity and a specified content of biologically active substances, to ensure a longer-term preservation of the products. The developed line provides for the maximum rapid cooling of the finished product and a reduction in the specific energy consumption for its production as a result of the heat of spent coolants. The high-quality licks produced were homogeneous in their composition, resistant to unfavorable conditions. They are characterized by a higher stability of structural and mechanical properties and stability of storage quality for a long time: after twelve months, the technological properties of the products have not changed, signs of damage associated with increased humidity of the environment have not been noted. On the surface of briquettes, signs of development of microflora were not observed. The values of microbiological quality indicators were within acceptable limits. The

  16. Technologies for production of electricity and heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 cEuro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 cEuro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7cEuro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the

  17. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  18. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    efficiency by reducing energy consumption associated with electrical generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by increasing electrical generating...integrated system fuel economy test conditions This computation requires prediction of fuel consumption over baseline and integrated system load...EW-201251) Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

  19. Chemical Kinetics, Heat Transfer, and Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Maria E.; Sad, Mario R.; Castro, Alberto A.; Garetto, Teresita F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experiment about thermal effects in chemical reactors is described, which can be used to illustrate chemical reactor models, the determination and validation of their parameters, and some simple principles of heat transfer and sensor dynamics. It is based in the exothermic reaction between aqueous solutions of sodium thiosulfate and…

  20. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  1. A New Road to Reaction, Part 3. Teaching the Heat Effect of Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the need to present beginning chemistry students with a variety of experiences dealing with chemical reactions to develop the individual student's concept of these processes. Presents information and experiments dealing with the heat effect of chemical reactions. Includes a discussion on exothermic and endothermic processes in laboratory…

  2. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  3. Heat recovery from sorbent-based CO.sub.2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Aqil; Gupta, Raghubir P

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method of increasing the efficiency of exothermic CO.sub.2 capture processes. The method relates to withdrawing heat generated during the exothermic capture of CO.sub.2 with various sorbents via heat exchange with a working fluid. The working fluid is provided at a temperature and pressure such that it is in the liquid state, and has a vaporization temperature in a range such that the heat arising from the reaction of the CO.sub.2 and the sorbent causes a phase change from liquid to vapor state in whole or in part and transfers heat from to the working fluid. The resulting heated working fluid may subsequently be used to generate power.

  4. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payne, W. Vance [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  5. Research on the Improvement of a Natural Gas Fired Burner for the CHP Application in a Central Heating Boiler using Radiant Burner Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieleveld, T.

    2010-08-15

    minimized and more heat is transferred via radiation. Because the current engine-burner is of the surface burner type, a model for this burner type is established, showing typical burner characteristics. It is investigated how the radiant efficiency can be improved of this porous surface burner type. Using this burner technology, the maximum possible radiant heat flux would lead to an impractically large burner surface area. It is believed that the radiation efficiency of the burner can be greatly enhanced when combustion takes place inside a porous medium. By doing so, high material temperatures can be achieved due to internal radiation and the heat exchanger effect of the burner material downstream of the flame. The theoretical maximum burner performance is therefore investigated for a certain value of optimum temperature, for which the gas temperature and solid temperature are equal. It is found that a submerged flame inside a porous medium greatly enhances radiant efficiency. From previous, mainly experimental work on dual layer submerged combustion, preferable material parameters per layer are found and a suggestion is made for future practical analysis. Because of the high potential of the dual porous layer submerged radiant burner, a model for this type of burner is initiated. For ease of future changes and implementation, as well as to obtain knowledge on this type of burner, model development was performed by its future user, the author of this thesis.

  6. Gelation on heating of supercooled gelatin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigo, Nathanaël; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2012-04-23

    Diluted (1.0-1.5 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions have been cooled to -10 °C at a cooling rate 20 °C min(-1) without freezing and detectable gelation. When heated at a constant heating rate (0.5 -2 °C min(-1)), the obtained supercooled solutions demonstrate an atypical process of gelation that has been characterized by regular and stochastically modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as by isoconversional kinetic analysis. The process is detectable as an exothermic peak in the total heat flow of regular DSC and in the nonreversing heat flow of stochastically modulated DSC. Isoconversional kinetic analysis applied to DSC data reveals that the effective activation energy of the process increases from approximately 75 to 200 kJ mol(-1) as a supercooled solution transforms to gel on continuous heating. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  8. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  9. Use of EPICS and Python technology for the development of a computational toolkit for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh, E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Swamy, Rajamannar, E-mail: rajamannar@ipr.res.in; Khirwadkar, Samir, E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach to software development for computational processing and experimental control. • Use of open source, cross platform, robust and advanced tools for computational code development. • Prediction of optimized process parameters for critical heat flux model. • Virtual experimentation for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components. - Abstract: The high heat flux testing and characterization of the divertor and first wall components are a challenging engineering problem of a tokamak. These components are subject to steady state and transient heat load of high magnitude. Therefore, the accurate prediction and control of the cooling parameters is crucial to prevent burnout. The prediction of the cooling parameters is based on the numerical solution of the critical heat flux (CHF) model. In a test facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components (PFC), the integration of computations and experimental control is an essential requirement. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) provides powerful tools for steering controls, data simulation, hardware interfacing and wider usability. Python provides an open source alternative for numerical computations and scripting. We have integrated these two open source technologies to develop a graphical software for a typical high heat flux experiment. The implementation uses EPICS based tools namely IOC (I/O controller) server, control system studio (CSS) and Python based tools namely Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib and NOSE. EPICS and Python are integrated using PyEpics library. This toolkit is currently under operation at high heat flux test facility at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) and is also useful for the experimental labs working in the similar research areas. The paper reports the software architectural design, implementation tools and rationale for their selection, test and validation.

  10. Use of EPICS and Python technology for the development of a computational toolkit for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh; Swamy, Rajamannar; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated approach to software development for computational processing and experimental control. • Use of open source, cross platform, robust and advanced tools for computational code development. • Prediction of optimized process parameters for critical heat flux model. • Virtual experimentation for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components. - Abstract: The high heat flux testing and characterization of the divertor and first wall components are a challenging engineering problem of a tokamak. These components are subject to steady state and transient heat load of high magnitude. Therefore, the accurate prediction and control of the cooling parameters is crucial to prevent burnout. The prediction of the cooling parameters is based on the numerical solution of the critical heat flux (CHF) model. In a test facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components (PFC), the integration of computations and experimental control is an essential requirement. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) provides powerful tools for steering controls, data simulation, hardware interfacing and wider usability. Python provides an open source alternative for numerical computations and scripting. We have integrated these two open source technologies to develop a graphical software for a typical high heat flux experiment. The implementation uses EPICS based tools namely IOC (I/O controller) server, control system studio (CSS) and Python based tools namely Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib and NOSE. EPICS and Python are integrated using PyEpics library. This toolkit is currently under operation at high heat flux test facility at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) and is also useful for the experimental labs working in the similar research areas. The paper reports the software architectural design, implementation tools and rationale for their selection, test and validation.

  11. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1989. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1989 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the research on the practical application of new-type solar cells; research on the practical application of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; research and development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of photothermal hybrid photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat application technologies are the research and development of solar thermal energy systems; development of practical application technologies for solar systems for industrial use etc.; and cooperative projects between Japan and Australia etc. on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  12. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  13. Transition from Endothermic to Exothermic Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO43OH–Johnbaumite Ca5(AsO43OH Solid Solution Series at Temperatures Ranging from 5 to 65 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Puzio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Five crystalline members of the hydroxyapatite (HAP; Ca5(PO43OH–johnbaumite (JBM; Ca5(AsO43OH series were crystallized at alkaline pH from aqueous solutions and used in dissolution experiments at 5, 25, 45, and 65 °C. Equilibrium was established within three months. Dissolution was slightly incongruent, particularly at the high-P end of the series. For the first time, the Gibbs free energy of formation ΔGf0, enthalpy of formation ΔHf0, entropy of formation Sf0, and specific heat of formation Copf were determined for HAP–JBM solid solution series. Based on the dissolution reaction, Ca5(AsO4m(PO43−mOH = 5Ca2+(aq + mAsO43−(aq + (3 − mPO43−(aq + OH−(aq, their solubility product Ksp,298.15 was determined. Substitution of arsenic (As for phosphorus (P in the structure of apatite resulted in a linear increase in the value of Ksp: from HAP logKsp,298.15 = −57.90 ± 1.57 to JBM logKsp,298.15 = −39.22 ± 0.56. The temperature dependence of dissolution in this solid solution series is very specific; in the temperature range of 5 °C to 65 °C, the enthalpy of dissolution ΔHr varied around 0. For HAP, the dissolution reaction at 5 °C and 25 °C was endothermic, which transitioned at around 40 °C and became exothermic at 45 °C and 65 °C.

  14. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Development of system of advanced heat process type (chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Advanced heat process gata system no kaihatsu (taiyonetsu reito reizo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for chemical refrigeration and cold storage system using solar heat. The study on refrigeration materials are aimed at development of new hydrogen-occluding alloys which show good hydrogenation equilibrium characteristics and reactivity at temperature required for stand-alone refrigeration systems aided by solar heat, and still new hydrogen-occluding alloys operable at refrigeration temperature for lower-temperature systems. For the refrigeration materials capable of producing low-temperature heat of -10{degree}C at a regeneration temperature of 140{degree}C produced by solar heat, a La-Ni-Mn-Al alloy is selected for high-temperature use and a La-Y-Ni-Mn alloy for low-temperature use. The study on technology for refrigeration modules develops high-efficiency heat exchangers for refrigeration and regeneration, compatible with the hydrogen-occluding alloys. It also develops air-and water-cooling techniques for hydrogen-occluding alloys, where air is used as the heat source. The test apparatus is designed, installed and operated, to attain a low temperature of -10{degree}C or lower with a heat source of 140{degree}C and air heat source of 28{degree}C. 7 figs.

  15. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  16. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation.

  17. Dictionary of heat exchanger technology. English-German, German-English. Woerterbuch der Waermeaustauschertechnik. Englisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H P [comp.

    1989-01-01

    This dictionary contains more than 6,000 terms and numerous explanations and comprises all types of shell-and-tube and tubular heat exchangers including condensers, feedwater heaters, air heaters, evaporators, vaporizers, steam generators, steam boilers as well as plate-and-frame heat exchangers, cooling towers, and special designs, and the related technical fields such as thermal and mass transfer, thermodynamics, fluids engineering, and strength calculation. Part 1 contains the English-German version, Part 2 the German-English version and Annex 1 the figures for explaining the most important heat exchanger designs. (orig.).

  18. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1984-01-01

    The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions

  19. Pulsating Heat Pipes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced heat transport technology is presented that can enable space nuclear power systems to transfer reactor heat, convert heat into electricity, reject waste...

  20. A New Adsorbent Composite Material Based on Metal Fiber Technology and Its Application in Adsorption Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Wittstadt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve process intensification for adsorption chillers and heat pumps, a new composite material was developed based on sintered aluminum fibers from a melt-extraction process and a dense layer of silico-aluminophosphate (SAPO-34 on the fiber surfaces. The SAPO-34 layer was obtained through a partial support transformation (PST process. Preparation of a composite sample is described and its characteristic pore size distribution and heat conductivity are presented. Water adsorption data obtained under conditions of a large pressure jump are given. In the next step, preparation of the composite was scaled up to larger samples which were fixed on a small adsorption heat exchanger. Adsorption measurements on this heat exchanger element that confirm the achieved process intensification are presented. The specific cooling power for the adsorption step per volume of composite is found to exceed 500 kW/m3 under specified conditions.

  1. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  2. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  3. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  4. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat...... savings become more expensive than the cost of sustainable heat supply, so society does not overinvest in heat saving measures. This study first investigates the heat saving potentials for different countries in Europe, along with their associated costs, followed by a comparison with alternative ways...... of supplying sustainable heating. Different heat production options are included in terms of individual and community heating systems. Furthermore, the levelised cost of supplying sustainable heat is estimated for both a single technology and from an energy system perspective. The results are analysed...

  6. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Boilers/Combustion/Steam cycle for district heating and cogeneration; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Pannor/Foerbraenning/Aangcykel foer fjaerrvaerme och kraftvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert (AaF Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The energy market of today is turbulent and it is quite clear that big changes in the consumption pattern are going to occur, due to the expansion in Asia and the expected Climate Change. The EU has, as a first step, stated in a directive that the consumption of renewable energy in the heat and power sector should be increased to 20 % and in the transportation sector to 10 % by the year 2020, a target which is high above current levels in most of the EU countries. It is reasonable to believe the European demand of renewable energy will create a shortage of biomass and that the development and use of technology for energy production will therefore not only depend on what is technically possible. One scenario is that biomass is mainly used for the markets that have very few alternatives, such as the transportation sector and small scale CHP units. We have today a relatively high electrical consumption through a stable grid and district heating nets in almost all densely populated areas. Large high efficiency power plants combined with heat pump technology will probably prevent any significant expansion of the district heating nets. A third major net for gas distribution seems not to be a feasible solution. Local nets for production of biogas from wet waste for different purposes, including EvGT units with 55% efficiency may however be good solution for some areas. There are a number of cycles and technical solutions to increase the electrical efficiency which could be applied also on smaller plants. The total efficiency will however not increase, only the el/heat ratio and it is not obvious that the higher investment cost for indirect cycles, bottom cycles or extreme steam data in combination with the risk of lower availability is a feasible solution. Especially waste to energy plants, with their need of high utilisation time, are sensitive to long production interruptions. The existing heat sinks in Sweden will however be efficiently used for electrical production

  7. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder

  8. European ErP Directive. Total condensing technology: the solution for heating and DHW units in the hotel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, G.

    2016-01-01

    Since 26 September 2015, the Ecodesign ErP Directive has been of compulsory application for EU Member States as regards the design of Energy-related Products (ErP) and as from its entry into force only those products manufactured according to the ErP requirements can be sold with the EC label. Although this directive affects over 1,000 product categories, for those relating to HVAC and DHW production, it covers boilers, heat pumps, accumulators, cogeneration systems, combined products systems, establishing their minimum efficiency levels, the maximum levels of NOX emissions, the minimum insulation for accumulators and the maximum level of acoustic emissions for heat pumps. (Author)

  9. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  10. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Small-scale technology; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Smaaskalig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt (Grontmij AB (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The following techniques for small-scale production have been selected to be studied more carefully, Fuel cells, Photovoltaics, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and Wave power. Of the four selected technologies, fuel cells, solar cells, ORC are appropriate for use in so-called distributed generation, to be used close to a consumer, and possibly also for the production of electricity. Wave power is more like the wind in nature and is probably better suited to be used by power companies for direct input to the transmission grid. None of these technologies are now competitive against buying electricity from the Swedish grid. However, there are opportunities for all to reduce production costs so that they can become competitive alternatives in the future, depending largely on the general development of electricity prices, taxes, delivery reliability, etc. The four different technologies have different development stages and requirements that affect their possibility for a commercial breakthrough. These technologies will probably not all get a breakthrough in Sweden. Small-scale technologies will in the time period up to 2030 not be able to compete with the large-scale technologies that exist in today's power grid. In the longer term the situation may be different. The power system might be reduced in importance if the small scale technologies become cheap, reliable and easy to use. Electricity can then be produced locally, directly related to user needs

  11. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  12. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  13. Performance of the second generation solar heating system in the solar house of the Eindhoven University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, R.W.G.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Veltkamp, W.B.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    Summer 1981 a new solar heating system has been installed in the Solar House at the E.U.T. The principal features of the system are Philips VTR 261 evacuated tube collectors, integration of the auxiliary heater with the (stratified water) storage and application of the new, balanced flow control

  14. The economic performance of combined heat and power from biogas produced from manure in Sweden – A comparison of different CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interest in biogas from manure is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. ► Farm-scale production of CHP from manure-based biogas is not profitable in Sweden. ► Minor changes in energy prices or suggested production subsidies will make it profitable. ► Profitability is also affected by efficiency of scale and introduction of thermophilic conditions. -- Abstract: Interest in the generation of biogas from agricultural residues is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. In this study, an evaluation of the economic feasibility of various technologies, also on different scales, for the production of combined heat and power from manure-based biogas in Sweden is presented. The overall conclusion is that such production is not profitable under current conditions. Thus, the gap between the calculated biogas production cost and the acceptable cost for break-even must be bridged by, for example, different policy instruments. In general, efficiency of scale favors large-scale plants compared to individual farm-scale ones. However, a large, centralized biogas plant, using manure from numerous farms, is not always more cost efficient than a large, farm-scale plant treating manure from a few neighboring farms. The utilization of the produced heat, electricity prices, and political incentives, all have a significant impact on the economic outcome, whereas the value of the digestate as fertilizer is currently having a minor impact. Utilization of heat is, however, often limited by the lack of local heat sinks, in which case the implementation of a biogas process operating under thermophilic conditions could increase the profitability due to a more efficient utilization of reactor volume by using more process heat. The results from this study could be utilized by policy makers when implementing policy instruments considering biogas production from manure as well as companies involved in production and utilization of biogas.

  15. The concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety, developed on the basis of ship-building technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashin, V.M.; Petrov, Eh.L.; Shalik, G.P.; Khazov, B.S.; Malyshev, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety on the basis of ship-building technologies is considered, in which the priority is set to population security and environmental protection. Ways of realization of ziro radiation risk for the population residing in a close vicinity of UNHPP are substantiated. basic principles of the concept are formulated which envisage the use of ship propulsion reactor facilities that have been multiply tested in operation. The sources of economic competitiveness of UNHPPs, as compared with the existing NPPs, are shown

  16. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  17. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  18. Special compressor technology for a new generation of heat pumps for domestic applications. Free piston technology with zero-oil torsion drive; Speciale compressortechnologie voor een nieuwe generatie warmtepompen voor huishoudelijke toepassingen. Vrijezuigertechnologie met olieloze torsie-aandrijving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissink, E.B. [TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    To meet the increasing demand for small high efficient domestic heat pumps with a good total cost of ownership performance, a next generation of heat pumps is required. This article is dealing with the development of a new compressor technology for domestic heat pumps. After identification of the main losses in mechanical driven low capacity heat pump cycles, it became clear that a concept with a (semi-)free piston compressor has the potency to improve the efficiency significantly. An evaluation showed that none of the existing free-piston designs meets essential requirements like low internal friction, small size integrated electromotor and hermetic design suitable for all refrigerants, including ammonia. Therefore TNO designed a complete new free piston compressor making use of the following two design philosophies: balancing mechanical forces by using symmetry and reducing motor size by use of transmission ratio based on elastic deformation and the peak shaving effect of the energy contents (kinetic and elastic) of the compressor running in a natural frequency mode. This paper describes the background, the design steps and the final design of the new torsion compressor technology [Dutch] Om aan de toenemende vraag naar kleine hoog-efficiente warmtepompen voor woningverwarming met een lage exploitatiekostprijs te voldoen, is een nieuwe generatie warmtepompen vereist. Dit artikel beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe compressortechnologie voor huishoudelijke warmtepompen. Na het onderzoeken van de belangrijkste verliezen in mechanisch aangedreven warmtepompsystemen met een klein verwarmingsvermogen werd duidelijk dat een concept met een (semi-)vrijezuigercompressor de potentie heeft om de efficientie aanzienlijk te verbeteren.

  19. Removal of Persistent Organic Pollutants from a Solid Matrix by Thermal Desorption Technology Using Conventional and Microwave Heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, P.; Hendrych, J.; Kroužek, J.; Kubal, M.; Kochánková, L.; Sobek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7A (2013), s. 2017-2021 ISSN 1018-4619. [International Conference on Environmental Management , Engineering, Planning and Economics (CEMEPE 2011) & SECOTOX Conference /3./. Skiathos Island, 19.06.2011-24.06.2011] Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2f3/133/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermal desorption * microwave heating * remediation * persistent pollutants * pilot scale Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.527, year: 2013

  20. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  1. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical and chemical parameter correlations with technical and technological characteristics of heating systems and the presence of Legionella spp. in the hot water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Anita; Štambuk-Giljanović, Nives

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp. The temperature is an important factor for the development of biofilms, and it is in negative correlation with the appearance of Legionella spp. Positive correlations between the Fe and Zn concentrations and Legionella spp. were established, while the inhibitory effect of a higher Cu concentration on the Legionella spp. concentration was proven. Legionella spp. were identified in 38/126 (30.2%) of the water samples from the heating system with zinc-coated pipes, as well as in 78/299 (26.1%) of the samples from systems with plastic pipes. A similar number of Legionella spp. positive samples were established regardless of the type of the water heating system (central or independent). The study confirms the necessity of regular microbial contamination monitoring of the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs).

  3. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components task groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups typically hold a joint meeting each year to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues of current interest as well as an opportunity for program reviews by the Department of Energy (DOE). At the meeting in September 1990, reported here, research programs in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were highlighted. The first part of the meeting was devoted to research and development (R ampersand D) for ITER on plasma facing components plus introductory presentations on some current projects and design studies. The balance of the meeting was devoted to program reviews, which included presentations by most of the participants in the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Programs with activities related to plasma wall interactions. The Task Groups on Plasma/Wall Interaction and on High Heat Flux Materials and Components were chartered as continuing working groups by the Division of Development and Technology in DOE's Magnetic Fusion Program. This report is an addition to the series of ''blue cover'' reports on the Joint Meetings of the Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups. Among several preceding meetings were those in October 1989 and January 1988

  4. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  5. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  6. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1988. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1988 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the experiment, refining, and verification of low-cost silicon; experiment, fabrication, and verification of solar panels; research on the practical application of high-efficiency crystal-based solar cells; research and development of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and development of photothermal hybrid type photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat-utilizing technologies are the research and development of solar thermal electric power generation systems; research and development of solar air-conditioners and hot water supply systems; and development of practical application technologies for industrial solar systems. Collected also are international cooperative projects on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  7. Detailed Modelling of the Deep Decarbonisation Scenarios with Demand Response Technologies in the Heating and Cooling Sector: A Case Study for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies accompanying the transition towards a sustainable development process must be supported by technical analyses in which future energy scenarios are modeled and evaluated. This paper analyzes possible decarbonization scenarios in Italy for the year 2050. They envisage high electrification of transports and residential buildings, high use of renewable energies, and a modal shift towards public transport. The energy scenarios are evaluated using a software program, EnergyPLAN, starting from a reference model developed for the year 2014. Special attention has been given to the modeling of data that are unavailable in the literature, such as the time profile of heating and cooling demands, obtained with the degree-days method and validated by elaborating the results of the modeling of the residential building stock, this latter was dynamically simulated in TRNSYS. The results show that to obtain a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, it is necessary not only to promote a deeper penetration of renewable sources, but also their integration with other technologies (cogeneration, trigeneration, power-to-heat systems, thermal storage, vehicle-to-grid operations. In fact, renewables technologies alone can raise some critical issues, such as excess and/or shortage of electricity production and non-sustainable exploitation of biomass.

  8. Power and cogeneration technology environomic performance typification in the context of CO2 abatement part II: Combined heat and power cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongtao; Marechal, Francois; Favrat, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of a series of two articles, dealing with a new approach of environomic (thermodynamic, economic and environmental) performance 'Typification' and optimization of power generation technologies. This part treats specifically of combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration technologies in the context of CO 2 abatement and provides a methodology for a flexible and fast project based CHP system design evaluation. One of the aspect of the approach is the post-optimization integration of the operating and capital costs, in order to effectively deal with the uncertainty of the project specific design and operation conditions (fuel, electricity and heat selling prices, project financial conditions such as investment amortization periods, annual operating hours, etc). In addition the approach also allows to efficiently evaluate the influence of the external cost such as the CO 2 tax level under a tax scheme or the CO 2 permit price in the emission trading market. Application examples, including gas turbine and combined cycles are treated with the proposed methodology, by using superstructure based generic environomic models and a multi-objective optimizer.

  9. Technology for bonding silicon nitride ceramics. Heat treatment technology to improve diffusion bonding strength; Chikka keiso ceramics no setsugo gijutsu. Kakusan setsugo kyodo kaizen no tame no metsushori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Shigematsu, K. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya,Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-01-25

    Silicon nitride ceramics is a structural ceramics with excellent high temperature strength and tenacity, being expected of expansion of application as a high temperature material. However, its processibility is poor, and special sintering technique is required to manufacture members of complex shapes. Therefore, development has been made on a technology to manufacture bonded materials with high mechanical strength, by which diffusion bonding in high temperature nitrogen gas and heat treatment are combined, and crystalline structure in the vicinity of bonding interface is controlled. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  11. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  12. Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, W

    1982-10-01

    Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.

  13. Process Analytical Technology in Freeze-Drying: Detection of the Secondary Solute + Water Crystallization with Heat Flux Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2018-04-01

    In situ and non-invasive detection of solute crystallization during freeze-drying would facilitate cycle optimization and scale-up from the laboratory to commercial manufacturing scale. The objective of the study is to evaluate heat flux sensor (HFS) as a tool for monitoring solute crystallization and other first-order phase transitions (e.g., onset of freezing). HFS is a thin-film differential thermopile, which acts as a transducer to generate an electrical signal proportional to the total heat applied to its surface. In this study, HFS is used to detect both primary (ice formation) and secondary (also known as eutectic) solute + water crystallization during cooling and heating of solutions in a freeze-dryer. Binary water-solute mixtures with typical excipients concentrations (e.g., 0.9% of NaCl and 5% mannitol) and fill volumes (1 to 3 ml/vial) are studied. Secondary crystallization is detected by the HFS during cooling in all experiments with NaCl solutions, whereas timing of mannitol crystallization depends on the cooling conditions. In particular, mannitol crystallization takes place during cooling, if the cooling rate is lower than the critical value. On the other hand, if the cooling rate exceeds the critical cooling rate, mannitol crystallization during cooling is prevented, and crystallization occurs during subsequent warming or annealing. It is also observed that, while controlled ice nucleation allows initiation of the primary freezing event in different vials simultaneously, there is a noticeable vial-to-vial difference in the timing of secondary crystallization. The HFS could be a valuable process monitoring tool for non-invasive detection of various crystallization events during freeze-drying manufacturing.

  14. Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hazardous properties and environmental effects of materials used in solar heating and cooling (SHAC) technologies: interim handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, J.Q.

    1978-12-01

    General background informaion related to SHAC systems, how a particular material was chosen for this handbook, and codes and standards are given. Materials are categorized according to their functional use in SHAC systems as follows: (1) heat transfer fluids and fluid treatment chemicals, (2) insulation materials, (3) seals and sealant materials, (4) glazing materials, (5) collector materials, and (6) storage media. The informaion is presented under: general properties, chemical composition, thermal degradation products, and thermoxidative products of some commercial materials; toxic properties and other potential health effects; fire hazard properties; and environmental effects of and disposal methods for SHAC materials. (MHR)

  16. Technology for a Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Harpole, George; Zamel, James; Sen, Bashwar; Lee, Greg; Ross, Floyd; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  17. Technology data for energy plants. Generation of electricity and district heating, energy storage and energy carrier generation and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in June 2010. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The current update has been developed with an unbalanced focus, i.e. most attention to technologies which are most essential for current and short

  18. Heat recovery in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F; Paul, J [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-05-01

    The waste heat of industrial furnaces and other heat-consuming installations can be utilized by recuperative processes in the furnace and by energy cascades. Economy and the need for an external supply of energy are closely connected. Straight cascades can hardly be realized and if the required temperature gradient is too great such heat should be utilized repeatedly if possible by recycling through heat pumps. The possibilities depend on the relevant temperature since the technology available for this differs in its state of development. The low-temperature waste heat from the final stage can be used for space-heating and water heating by heat exchangers and heat pumps and thus be put to a useful purpose.

  19. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of ANS binding to partially unfolded α-lactalbumin: correlation of endothermic to exothermic changeover with formation of authentic molten globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Yun, Soi; Mok, K H; Lee, E K

    2016-09-01

    A fluorescent reporter, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS), can serve as a reference molecule for conformational transition of a protein because its aromatic carbons have strong affinity with hydrophobic cores of partially unfolded molten globules. Using a typical calcium-binding protein, bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA), as a model protein, we compared the ANS binding thermodynamics to the decalcified (10 mM EDTA treated) apo-BLA at two representative temperatures: 20 and 40 °C. This is because the authentic molten globule is known to form more heavily at an elevated temperature such as 40 °C. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed that the BLA-ANS interactions at both temperatures were entropy-driven, and the dissociation constants were similar on the order of 10(-4)  M, but there was a dramatic changeover in the binding thermodynamics from endothermic at 20 °C to exothermic at 40 °C. We believe that the higher subpopulation of authentic molten globules at 40 °C than 20 °C would be responsible for the results, which also indicate that weak binding is sufficient to alter the ANS binding mechanisms. We expect that the thermodynamic properties obtained from this study would serve as a useful reference for investigating the binding of other hydrophobic ligands such as oleic acid to apo-BLA, because oleic acid is known to have tumor-selective cytotoxicity when complexed with partially unfolded α-lactalbumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Happo, Mikko S.; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hukkanen, Annika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-04-01

    Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic

  2. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. Large Pilot CAER Heat Integrated Post-combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Reducing the Cost of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States); Nikolic, Heather [Univ. of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States); Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States); Richburg, Lisa [Univ. of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States); Thompson, Jesse [Univ. of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this final project report is to comprehensively summarize the work conducted on project DE-FE0026497. In accordance with the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UKy-CAER) (Recipient) has developed an advanced, versatile, 10 MWe post-combustion CO2 capture system (CCS) for a coal-fired power plant, Louisville Gas and Electric Company’s Trimble County Generating Station, using a heat integrated process combined with two-stage stripping and any advanced solvent to enhance the CO2 absorber performance. The proposed project (Phase 1 and 2) will involve the design, fabrication, installation and testing of a large pilot scale facility that will demonstrate the UKy-CAER innovative carbon capture system integrated with an operating supercritical power plant. Specifically during Phase 1, the Recipient has provided all necessary documentation to support its Phase 2 down-selection including: the Project Narrative, the updated Project Management Plan (PMP), the preliminary engineering design, the Technical and Economic Analysis report (TEA) (including the Case 12 – Major Equipment List and submitted as a Topical Report), a Phase 1 Technology Gap Analysis (TGA), an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment on the 10 MWe unit, and updated Phase 2 cost estimates (including the detailed design, procurement, construction, operation, and decommissioning costs) with a budget justification. Furthermore, the Recipient has proposed a combined modular and freestanding column configuration with an advanced absorber gas/liquid distribution system, an advanced solvent, with the integration of discrete packing, a smart cross-over heat exchanger, and a load and ambient condition following control strategy, all to address ten of 12 technology gaps identified during the Phase I work. If successful, the proposed heat integrated post-combustion CCS will pave the way to achieve the

  4. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  5. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  6. Leak Detection in Heat Exchangers and Underground Pipelines Using Radiotracers. Material for Education and On-The-Job Training for Practitioners of Radiotracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency plays a major role in facilitating the transfer of radiotracer technology to developing Member States. The use of radiotracer techniques is well established in many Member States; some hundred radiotracer and end user specialists have been trained in radiotracer techniques and their applications; nearly 50 radiotracer laboratories have been working in this field. The training of radiotracer practitioners is vital for the provision of quality services to industry. Leak detection using radiotracer techniques is probably one of the most widespread applications of radiotracers in industrial troubleshooting. Radiotracer techniques are the most competitive for online leak inspection of heat exchangers and buried pipelines. Radiotracers help in early detection of leaks in heat exchangers and underground transporting pipelines, thus saving money, reducing shutdown time, ensuring safe operation and protecting the environment from pollution. The training course series on leak detection in heat exchangers and underground pipelines using radiotracers addresses the needs of the radiotracer groups and their end users. Besides training purposes, this material will assist radiotracer groups in establishing their quality control and accreditation systems. This training course material is based on lecture notes and practical work delivered by many experts in IAEA-supported activities. In particular, the Technical Cooperation Projects implemented under the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) of the IAEA Member States in the Asia and the Pacific Region have been successful in transferring and implementing radiotracer techniques for leak detection to many end users from oil and gas production, oil refineries and the petrochemical industry. The experience obtained in the RCA Region is presented in the training material illustrated with many case studies carried out in several RCA Member States. Lectures and case studies were reviewed by a number

  7. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  8. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  9. The heat is on: Australia's greenhouse future. Report to the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    On 11 August 1999, the Senate referred matters pertaining to global warming to the Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee for inquiring. The Committee is reporting on the progress and adequacy of Australian policies to reduce global warming, in light of Australia's commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also critically evaluates the effectiveness Australian Government programs and policies, both state and Federal, in particular those aiming to provide for the development of emerging renewable energies, energy efficiency industries and the more efficient use of energy sources and the extent to which the Government's relations with industry under the Greenhouse Challenge Program are accountable and transparent. Projected effect of climate change on Australia's ecosystems and the potential introduction of national system of emissions trading within Australia are also examined

  10. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  11. Small power and heat generation systems on the basis of propulsion and innovative reactor technologies. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    In the future for developing regions and remote areas one or two power reactors in the 50 MWe to 100 MWe range could be appropriately applied for electricity and heat generation. Introducing and managing such a small program with conventional reactor systems would require a mature supporting technological infrastructure and many skilled highly-trained staff at the site, which might be a problem in some countries. An increased number of small conventional reactors would increase the burden and expenditure for assuring security and non-proliferation. To this end, the time has come to develop an innovative small reactor concept which meets the following requirements: reliable, safe operation with a minimum maintenance and supporting infrastructure, economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites, and significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. Successful resolution of such a problem requires a comprehensive system approach that considers all aspects of manufacturing, transportation, operation and ultimate disposal. Some elements of this approach have been used previously in the development of propulsion nuclear power systems, with consideration given to many diverse requirements such as highly autonomous operation for a long period of time, no planned maintenance, no on-site refueling and ultimate disposition. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Advisory Group on Propulsion Reactor technologies for Civilian Applications

  12. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  13. Small power and heat generation systems on the basis of propulsion and innovative reactor technologies. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    In the future for developing regions and remote areas one or two power reactors in the 50 MWe to 100 MWe range could be appropriately applied for electricity and heat generation. Introducing and managing such a small program with conventional reactor systems would require a mature supporting technological infrastructure and many skilled highly-trained staff at the site, which might be a problem in some countries. An increased number of small conventional reactors would increase the burden and expenditure for assuring security and non-proliferation. To this end, the time has come to develop an innovative small reactor concept which meets the following requirements: reliable, safe operation with a minimum maintenance and supporting infrastructure, economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites, and significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. Successful resolution of such a problem requires a comprehensive system approach that considers all aspects of manufacturing, transportation, operation and ultimate disposal. Some elements of this approach have been used previously in the development of propulsion nuclear power systems, with consideration given to many diverse requirements such as highly autonomous operation for a long period of time, no planned maintenance, no on-site refueling and ultimate disposition. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Advisory Group on Propulsion Reactor technologies for Civilian Applications.

  14. 太阳能/热泵技术在木材干燥领域的应用%Application of solar energy and heat pump technology in wood drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琪; 赵文欣

    2017-01-01

    提出在家具行业领域,采用太阳能/热泵技术替代传统能源.介绍太阳能及热泵技术的基本原理及应用范围.通过太阳能/热泵技术在江西家具行业的应用,分析该技术的主要特点及注意事项.太阳能/热泵综合能源技术应用在家具行业可实现节能环保,具有推广价值.%The paper puts forward the use of integrated energy technology with solar energy and heat pump to replace traditional en?ergyin the field of furniture industry. This paper introduces the basic principle and application of solar energy and heat pump technology. Through the application of solar energy and heat pump technology in Jiangxi, this paper analyzes the main features of the technology and the matters needing attention. Solar+heat pump technology in the furniture industry has the advantages of energy saving and environ?mental protection and has the promotion value.

  15. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol production potential from woodstoves for residential heating: Influence of the stove technology and combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Amelie; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bruns, Emily A.; Pieber, Simone M.; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay G.; Prévôt, André S. H.; Wortham, Henri; El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To reduce the influence of biomass burning on air quality, consumers are encouraged to replace their old woodstove with new and cleaner appliances. While their primary emissions have been extensively investigated, the impact of atmospheric aging on these emissions, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, remains unknown. Here, using an atmospheric smog chamber, we aim at understanding the chemical nature and quantify the emission factors of the primary organic aerosols (POA) from three types of appliances for residential heating, and to assess the influence of aging thereon. Two, old and modern, logwood stoves and one pellet burner were operated under typical conditions. Emissions from an entire burning cycle (past the start-up operation) were injected, including the smoldering and flaming phases, resulting in highly variable emission factors. The stoves emitted a significant fraction of POA (up to 80%) and black carbon. After ageing, the total mass concentration of organic aerosol (OA) increased on average by a factor of 5. For the pellet stove, flaming conditions were maintained throughout the combustion. The aerosol was dominated by black carbon (over 90% of the primary emission) and amounted to the same quantity of primary aerosol emitted by the old logwood stove. However, after ageing, the OA mass was increased by a factor of 1.7 only, thus rendering OA emissions by the pellet stove almost negligible compared to the other two stoves tested. Therefore, the pellet stove was the most reliable and least polluting appliance out of the three stoves tested. The spectral signatures of the POA and aged emissions by a High Resolution - Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Electron Ionization (EI) at 70 eV) were also investigated. The m/z 44 (CO2+) and high molecular weight fragments (m/z 115 (C9H7+), 137 (C8H9O2+), 167 (C9H11O3+) and 181 (C9H9O4+, C14H13+)) correlate with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) allowing us to discriminate further

  16. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Wind Power; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 0.07-0.10 Euro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 0.05-0.065 Euro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 0.07 Euro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance

  17. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  18. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  19. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  1. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  2. The quest to be "modern": The adoption of electric light, heat, and power technology in small-town America, 1883-1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrigel, Mary Ann

    This dissertation is a social, business, and technological history of electrification in the United States. It examines the origins of the electric utility industry, the development of light, heat and power technology, the marketing of electric service, and the adoption of electricity and domestic appliances in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in two communities: Harrisburg and West Chester, Pennsylvania. Beginning in the 1880s, manufactured gas and electric utilities waged an intense and lengthy battle for the urban energy marketplace. Many villages, small towns and big cities had multiple gas and electric companies, driving technological change as they worked to increase reliability, lower costs, and improve lamps, lighting fixtures, and appliances. Producers as well as consumers grappled with these new sources of energy, looking for profitable and practical ways to incorporate them into everyday life. Gas and utility executives, locked in head-to-head competition, realized that marketing their invisible product was an uncertain process. Utilities redefined the concepts of "tradition" and "modernity" to attract investors and offer appliances and installation in addition to selling energy. Upper and middle class households seeking a modern comfortable home could use gas or electricity (and often both), while working classes made do with kerosene, coal and wood. Mixed technologies, based on consumer preference, access, product availability, price, and service greatly influenced the creation of "modern" America. Initially, Pennsylvania law mandated local energy systems-electricity and gas had to be consumed within the same town. Only in the early twentieth century were these laws amended to permit inter-connections, allowing merger and consolidation of utilities to serve a wider geographic area. By the 1910s, law, technology, and capital made it possible to abandon local central stations. In only a few decades, the industry shifted from locally

  3. The Ecological and Economic Assessment of Efficiency of Environmental Technologies for CHPP (Combined Heat And Power Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostuntsova, I. A.; Novichkov, S. V.; Zakharov, O. V.; Kochetkov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of the trial-industrial research of the effectiveness of burning water fuel mixtures in steam boilers of medium and high pressure at the combustion of natural gas and fuel oil is carried out. As a result of a research decrease in nitrogen oxide concentration is depending on the amount of moisture pumped to the boilers and type of the incinerated fuel. The theoretical model of the formation of nitrogen oxides in the furnace of the boiler in order to optimize the combustion process with the introduction of moisture, whereby to determine the concentrations of nitrogen oxides formed in the combustion process of the method of expansion of the exponential is received. The dependences of the maximal temperature of a torch, reaction rate of formation of nitrogen oxides, the conditional time of reaction, theoretical concentration of nitrogen oxides taking into account input of moisture in a fire chamber of a copper and coefficient of an exit of nitrogen oxides are defined at combustion of fuel taking into account moisture input. The divergence between the experimental and the theoretical value of the NOx concentration does not exceed 3.8%. The methodical provisions of the economic assessment of concentrations of pollutants reduction when entering the water are drafted. The rate the net present value (NPV) is applied. The optimal water-fuel ratio is selected based on the maximum value of the net present value (NPV). The evaluation of the application of environmental protection measures carried out taking into account the fact that by reducing the emission values in the implementation of this activity will decrease the amount of payment for emissions of polluting substances, which are collected from the profits of the enterprise. The cost estimate for the implementation of environmental activities carried out on the basis of lump-sum costs and current costs in environmental technology (increased fuel and water consumption).

  4. Isothermal calorimeter for measurements of time-dependent heat generation rate in individual supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteshari, Obaidallah; Lau, Jonathan; Krishnan, Atindra; Dunn, Bruce; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Heat generation in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) may lead to temperature rise and reduce their lifetime and performance. This study aims to measure the time-dependent heat generation rate in individual carbon electrode of EDLCs under various charging conditions. First, the design, fabrication, and validation of an isothermal calorimeter are presented. The calorimeter consisted of two thermoelectric heat flux sensors connected to a data acquisition system, two identical and cold plates fed with a circulating coolant, and an electrochemical test section connected to a potentiostat/galvanostat system. The EDLC cells consisted of two identical activated carbon electrodes and a separator immersed in an electrolyte. Measurements were performed on three cells with different electrolytes under galvanostatic cycling for different current density and polarity. The measured time-averaged irreversible heat generation rate was in excellent agreement with predictions for Joule heating. The reversible heat generation rate in the positive electrode was exothermic during charging and endothermic during discharging. By contrast, the negative electrode featured both exothermic and endothermic heat generation during both charging and discharging. The results of this study can be used to validate existing thermal models, to develop thermal management strategies, and to gain insight into physicochemical phenomena taking place during operation.

  5. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  6. Heat and power from combustibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zogg, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article compares four ways of generating heat and power from liquid and gaseous fuels. Various combinations of conventional boilers, heat pumps, combined heat and power units and combined-cycle power plants are considered and the ratio of heat to electrical power produced is discussed. Fuel requirements for the four combinations are looked at and net emissions of carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide presented in graphical form. The author makes recommendations on the choice of the technology to be used to generate heat and electricity for different heat/power ratios and criticises the all too slack emission limits for small combined heat and power units

  7. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  8. Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development

  9. Designing heat exchangers for process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief account is given of the IAEA specialist meeting on process heat applications technology held in Julich, November 1979. The main emphasis was on high temperature heat exchange. Papers were presented covering design requirements, design construction and prefabrication testing, and selected problems. Primary discussion centered around mechanical design, materials requirements, and structural analysis methods and limits. It appears that high temperature heat exchanges design to nuclear standards, is under extensive development but will require a lengthy concerted effort before becoming a commercial reality. (author)

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the leading research and development of the carburetion technology using sensible heat of coke oven gas; 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Kokusuro gas kennetsu riyo zonetsu gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of recovering sensible heat of coke oven gas (COG), the paper conducted a potential study of 'the carburetion technology using COG sensible heat,' of which the basic design is to give the endothermic catalyst reforming hydrogen production reaction directly to the components mainly including methane, and the R and D for establishing it as an industrial technology. In the R and D, the optimum process was studied in terms mainly of the dry pretreatment technology and the catalyst reformation reaction of hydrocarbons such as methane. As a result, the inhibition of the progress of the reforming reaction, which was a difficult problem at first because of the catalyst poison of associated components, could be avoided by making conditions for development/reaction of solid solution appropriate. Further, as to the associated coal tar which was regarded as carbon deposition source, a possibility of the process for converting it into the light chemical energy was recognized. Further, in FY 2000, survey was made on the solid electrolyte oxygen separation technology to which attention was paid as a chemical energy conversion technology for heat energy and which is closely related also to the energy structure of iron making plant. (NEDO)

  11. Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Julia; Milkereit, Benjamin; Schick, Christoph; Kessler, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.

  12. Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Osten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181 in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.

  13. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  14. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  15. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  16. Environmental and energy efficiency evaluation of residential gas and heat pump heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Energy efficiency and source air pollutant emission factors of gas heaters, gas engine heat pumps, and electric heat pumps for domestic heating have been evaluated and compared. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, gas engine heat pumps have the highest energy efficiency followed by electric heat pumps and then gas heaters. Electric heat pumps produce more than twice as much NO x , and comparable CO 2 and CO per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. CO production per unit of useful heating energy from gas engine heat pumps without any emission control is substantially higher than electric heat pumps and natural gas heaters. NO x production per unit of useful heating energy from natural gas engine heat pumps (using lean burn technology) without any emission control is about the same as effective NO x production from electric heat pumps. Gas engine heat pumps produce about one-half CO 2 compared to electric heat pumps

  17. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  18. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  19. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  20. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  1. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  2. Heat recovery from UPS units - Analysis of a first unit and technology assessment; Waermerueckgewinnung in USV-Anlagen. Analyse einer Erstanlage und Potentialabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, S.; Schlegel, A.

    2009-11-15

    UPS units (uninterruptible power supply) generate large heat losses, which have to be dissipated with cooling units. awtec has developed a unique UPS system with integrated heat recovery which was installed in 2001 (Building Gretag/SAP in Regensdorf) and which is still running error-free. With this system the waste heat can be recovered and electrical energy for the refrigeration system can be saved likewise. The measured data shows that during the heating season, the unit transfers virtually all heat loss (about 20 MWh/year) to the space heating system. The building's refrigeration system, however, has its own heat recovery system, so the actual annual energy savings can be estimated to be only about 4 MWh of electricity. The prototype shows that awtec built a robust unit which - given an appropriate cooling and heating system - has the potential for high energy savings (without central heat recovery system: 4 MWh electric + 20 MWh thermal) without increased investment. Based on the UPS heat recovery development, previous projects of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and a market survey, scenarios for the cooling and heat recovery from UPS units were developed. Since the same concepts also apply to the cooling of servers and other IT components, they were also included in the analysis. The scenario analysis shows that a high potential for savings of electric energy and heat exists in this area. In particular, the direct cooling of the IT components with cooling water offers big benefits for heat recovery and free cooling (cooling without the use of the refrigeration system) compared to conventional air cooling. These direct cooling systems are currently mainly used for special applications or as a fallback in case of overheating problems. Passive cooling through geothermal probes, which are now mainly used for buildings with small heat pump systems, provides an interesting approach to the cooling of IT equipment in accordance with the temperature level. It

  3. Plasma heating r and d assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Berkner, K.H.; Colestock, P.L.; Freeman, R.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hosea, J.C.; Rome, J.A.; Scharer, J.E.; Sheffield, J.; Stewart, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the heating requirements of INTOR with the present state-of-the-art of tokamak plasma heating technology and demonstrated heating performance, and also with the technology expected by 1983-84 according to development and testing programs in place. This comparison results in a set of recommendations for a heating technology development program for the 1980s

  4. Deep Heat Mining - Development of the hot dry rock and hot wet rock technologies for power and heat production in Switzerland; Deep Heat Mining. Entwicklung der Hot-Dry-Rock / Hot-Wet-Rock Technologie zur Strom- und Waermeproduktion in der Schweiz, insbesondere Deep Heat Mining, Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M. O.; Hopkirk, R. J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the progress and achievements made for two heat mining projects in Basle and Geneva. Work initialised at further sites in southern Switzerland and in the Bernese 'Oberland' alpine area is also mentioned. Project organisation and planning topics are examined. Seismic monitoring aspects are discussed and first practical studies on using the geothermal heat in Basle using hybrid energy conversion systems are discussed. For the Geneva project, details on site selection are given and ideas on combined geothermal and gas turbine plant are discussed.

  5. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  6. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  7. Direct Measurements of Half-Cycle Reaction Heats during Atomic Layer Deposition by Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lownsbury, James M. [Department; Gladden, James A. [Department; Campbell, Charles T. [Department; Department; Kim, In Soo [Materials; Martinson, Alex B. F. [Materials

    2017-10-05

    We introduce a new high-temperature adsorption calorimeter that approaches the ideal limit of a heat detector whereby the signal at any time is proportional to the heat power being delivered to the sample and prove its sensitivity for measuring pulse-to-pulse heats of half-reactions during atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 400 K. The heat dynamics of amorphous Al2O3 growth via sequential self-limiting surface reaction of trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O is clearly resolved. Calibration enables quantitation of the exothermic TMA and H2O half-reactions with high precision, -343 kJ/mol TMA and -251 kJ/mol H2O, respectively. A time resolution better than 1 ms is demonstrated, allowing for the deconvolution of at least two distinct surface reactions during TMA microdosing. It is further demonstrated that this method can provide the heat of reaction versus extent of reaction during each precursors half-reaction, thus providing even richer mechanistic information on the surface processes involved. The broad applicability of this novel calorimeter is demonstrated through excellent signal-to-noise ratios of less exothermic ALD half-reactions to produce TiO2 and MnO.

  8. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  10. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  11. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  12. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  13. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  14. FY 1986 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 2. Development of elementary techniques; 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-04-01

    Summarized in detail herein are R and D results of the chemical heat storage techniques and plant simulation, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For R and D of the chemical heat storage techniques, the R and D efforts are directed to the researches on the fundamental reactions and continuous exothermic reactions involved for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing the metathesis reactions); researches on the physical properties, heat storage systems, solid-phase reactions, liquid-phase reactors, corrosion of the materials, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing ammonia complex); collection of the data related to media and structural materials, tests of the elementary equipment for the absorption and hydration reactions, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (chemical heat storage utilizing hydration); researches on the media properties and system performance, tests of equipment, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (heat storage/heating utilizing solvation); researches on the heat storage media, heat storage techniques, corrosion of the materials, systems, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing the hydration reactions by mixing solutes); and researches on the media, corrosion and elementary equipment, optimization of the system, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (clathrate low temperature heat storage systems). (NEDO)

  15. Chemothermal Therapy for Localized Heating and Ablation of Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shan Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemothermal therapy is a new hyperthermia treatment on tumor using heat released from exothermic chemical reaction between the injected reactants and the diseased tissues. With the highly minimally invasive feature and localized heating performance, this method is expected to overcome the ubiquitous shortcomings encountered by many existing hyperthermia approaches in ablating irregular tumor. This review provides a relatively comprehensive review on the latest advancements and state of the art in chemothermal therapy. The basic principles and features of two typical chemothermal ablation strategies (acid-base neutralization-reaction-enabled thermal ablation and alkali-metal-enabled thermal/chemical ablation are illustrated. The prospects and possible challenges facing chemothermal ablation are analyzed. The chemothermal therapy is expected to open many clinical possibilities for precise tumor treatment in a minimally invasive way.

  16. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 2, technologies 1: Reactors, heat transport, integration issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) study are summarized and candidate systems and subsystems are described. Particular emphasis is given to the heat rejection system and the space reactor subsystem.

  17. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  18. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    block (expander) that allows gas expansion and converts the energy into rotational work, • an electric induction generator driven from the power block...is in the form of waste heat – thermal energy emitted via hot exhaust and heat removal systems associated with engine and other electric generator ...than 250 ºC), improves energy efficiency by reducing energy consumption associated with electrical generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  19. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2003-06-09

    This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  20. Electricity from waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

  1. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  2. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  3. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  4. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  5. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey of the freon recovery/treatment technology for construction use heat insulating materials; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kenchiku yo dannetsuzai furon kaishu shori gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    An investigational study was made of the quantity of the specified freon remaining in the construction use heat insulating material, the rational method for the recovery/treatment, etc. As to the standardization of the method to analyze the remaining freon quantity, the tube furnace - GC method and the MS method were proposed, and the basic items that can be developed to JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) were standardized. In the estimation of the remaining freon quantity, the actual state of the use of heat insulating materials was surveyed from the statistics on the start of construction work, survey of the heat insulating area in actual buildings and listening to heat insulation workers/cold store construction companies, etc. Further, the remaining quantity was analyzed of samples collected from various buildings nationwide and by years of completion. As a result, it was found out that, even in samples before 1995, HCFC is used in about 10% and that, in case of limiting to the specified freon (CFC), the freon remaining quantity was more than 1-4 wt% even after a lapse of 30 years. The paper arranged subjects on the freon recovery/treatment in each stage of the life cycle and the required conditions for technology/equipment. (NEDO)

  7. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  8. Suppression of self-heating effect in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by substrate-transfer technology using h-BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Masanobu; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Akasaka, Tetsuya; Makimoto, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on h-BN/sapphire substrates and transferred them from the host substrates to copper plates using h-BN as a release layer. In current–voltage characteristics, the saturation drain current decreased by about 30% under a high-bias condition before release by self-heating effect. In contrast, after transfer, the current decrement was as small as 8% owing to improved heat dissipation: the device temperature increased to 50 °C in the as-prepared HEMT, but only by several degrees in the transferred HEMT. An effective way to improve AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance by a suppression of self-heating effect has been demonstrated

  9. Suppression of self-heating effect in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by substrate-transfer technology using h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroki, Masanobu, E-mail: hiroki.masanobu@lab.ntt.co.jp; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Akasaka, Tetsuya; Makimoto, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Hideki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-11-10

    We fabricated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on h-BN/sapphire substrates and transferred them from the host substrates to copper plates using h-BN as a release layer. In current–voltage characteristics, the saturation drain current decreased by about 30% under a high-bias condition before release by self-heating effect. In contrast, after transfer, the current decrement was as small as 8% owing to improved heat dissipation: the device temperature increased to 50 °C in the as-prepared HEMT, but only by several degrees in the transferred HEMT. An effective way to improve AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance by a suppression of self-heating effect has been demonstrated.

  10. Reduction of the heat demand of cabins of electric-powered vehicles by means of an alternative glass technology; Reduzierung des Heizbedarfs von Elektrofahrzeugkabinen durch alternative Scheibentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    Cruising range is a key factor in market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) for the near future. Today, EVs achieve acceptable cruising range only through heavy and expensive batteries. Air-conditioning - and in temperate zones especially heating - of the passenger cabin are significant auxiliary loads that can reduce range substantially. At low ambient temperatures the necessary heating power can exceed the average drive power, thus reducing range by over 50%. This study, carried out in cooperation with AUDI AG under the BMBF research project ''e performance'' addresses measures that can potentially lead to a reduced heating demand. In addition to the rather poor insulation of today's vehicles, ventilation losses have been identified as a source of heating and defrosting load of up to 12kW in wintry conditions. At low ambient temperatures a high rate of air exchange is required to keep the humidity level low enough to avoid window fogging. Due to poor window insulation and high exterior heat transfer for a moving vehicle, temperatures at the inside surface of glass windows lie only slightly above the ambient temperature. Improving window insulation leads not only to reduced heat losses but also to higher allowable air humidity before condensation occurs, since the interior window surface is warmer. The air exchange rate can then be minimized as long as air quality standards remain satisfied. In this study steady-state air and window surface temperatures as well as humidity distributions in the cabin are determined by CFD-simulation of the interior flow-field. Window materials such as polycarbonate and double-pane glass are compared to glass at partly recirculated and fresh-air flow. (orig.)

  11. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  12. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  13. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  14. Thermal Analysis On The Kinetics Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides In Different Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods in argon environment. The influence of heating rates (including 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20K/min on the thermal behavior of LDHs was revealed. By the methods of Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, the thermal kinetic parameters of activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the exothermic processes under non-isothermal conditions were calculated using the analysis of corresponding DSC curves.

  15. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space-Scientific Research Program. Delivery Order 0017: Study of Microchip Power Module Materials Using Mini-Channel Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    at the mid-point of the channels. In fabricating the heat exchanger, a method of attaching the inlet and exit flow tubes (stainless- steel 625 ) to...and the inlet/exit tubing. The mixing chambers ( Inconel 600) were machined as two pieces which were later welded together to make one chamber. The

  16. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  17. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  18. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  19. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto; Chikako Iwaki; Tadashi Narabayashi; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m 2 without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  20. Living with an autonomous spatiotemporal home heating system: Exploration of the user experiences (UX) through a longitudinal technology intervention-based mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusimagi, Martin; Sharples, Sarah; Robinson, Darren

    2017-11-01

    Rising energy demands place pressure on domestic energy consumption, but savings can be delivered through home automation and engaging users with their heating and energy behaviours. The aim of this paper is to explore user experiences (UX) of living with an automated heating system regarding experiences of control, understanding of the system, emerging thermal behaviours, and interactions with the system as this area is not sufficiently researched in the existing homes setting through extended deployment. We present a longitudinal deployment of a quasi-autonomous spatiotemporal home heating system in three homes. Users were provided with a smartphone control application linked to a self-learning heating algorithm. Rich qualitative and quantitative data presented here enabled a holistic exploration of UX. The paper's contribution focuses on highlighting key aspects of UX living with an automated heating systems including (i) adoption of the control interface into the social context, (ii) how users' vigilance in maintaining preferred conditions prevailed as a better indicator of system over-ride than gross deviation from thermal comfort, (iii) limited but motivated proactivity in system-initiated communications as best strategy for soliciting user feedback when inference fails, and (iv) two main motivations for interacting with the interface - managing irregularities when absent from the house and maintaining immediate comfort, latter compromising of a checking behaviour that can transit to a system state alteration behaviour depending on mismatches. We conclude by highlighting the complex socio-technical context in which thermal decisions are made in a situated action manner, and by calling for a more holistic, UX-focused approach in the design of automated home systems involving user experiences. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  2. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  3. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  4. Viscose liquid heat treatment using plate scraper heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Rashkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work analyzes the use of different types of heat exchangers, depending on the technology of production. It is taken the detail analysis of the ways of applicability of various types of heat exchangers, depending on the viscosity of the processed product. It is posed the problem of the analytical determination of the required area of heat exchange with the use of differential equations of heat transfer in a moving liquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution, without taking in account the energy dissipation.

  5. Preparation of SmBCO layer for the surface optimization of GdYBCO film by MOCVD process based on a simple self-heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2018-07-01

    The MOCVD process was adopted to grow the REBa2Cu3O7-δ ((REBCO), RE = rare earth elements) films on the LaMnO3 (LMO) templates. Meanwhile, the LMO-template tapes are heated by the joule effect after applying a heating current through the Hastelloy metal substrates. The surface of GdYBCO films prepared by MOCVD method is prone to form outgrowths. So the surface morphology of GdYBCO film is optimized by depositing the SmBCO layer, which is an important process method for the preparation of high-quality multilayer REBCO films. At last, the GdYBCO/SmBCO/GdYBCO multilayer films were successfully prepared on the LMO templates based on the simple self-heating method. It is demonstrated that the GdYBCO surface was well improved by the characterization analysis of scanning electron microscope. And the Δω of REBCO (005) and Δφ of REBCO (103), which were performed by an X-ray diffraction system, are respectively 1.3° and 3.3° What's more, the critical current density (Jc) has been more than 3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) and the critical current (Ic) basically shows a trend of good linear increase with the increase of the number of REBCO layers.

  6. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (2) analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Ohmori, S.; Mori, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)(1)-(6). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from the condensers and extracted steam from the turbines. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative- Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative- Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  7. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (2) Analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Mitchitsugu

    2004-01-01

    It is possible to established simplified systems and reduced space and equipments using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feed water heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condenser and extracted steam from turbine. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe class original BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (author)

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  9. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  10. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  12. Danish SDHW Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....

  13. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  14. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  15. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  16. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  17. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  19. Users of electric heating rewarded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    When the building industry plunged into the deep recession of the early 1990s this did not paralyse research and development work on electric heating. In fact, IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically Heated Homes in the New Millennium` project in 1992. Its purpose was to verify the efficiency, energy economy and residential comfort of model systems using state-of-the-art electric heating technology. The research project launched six years ago is now nearing completion. Its findings indicate that electricity brings ever more unparalleled benefits when it is used for heating. These benefits involve residential comfort, ease of use and economy

  20. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)