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Sample records for exon-primed intron-crossing epic

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of cereal β-amylase genes using exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratula Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins encoded by cereal β-amylase genes Bamy1 and Bamy2 genes play an important role in seedling germination and in the brewing process. Here, we use exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC to analyse Bamy1 and Bamy2 genetic diversity among 38 accessions belonging to six Poaceae tribes. DNA sequence alignment of multiple Poaceae species β-amylase sequences allowed design of EPIC primers that simultaneously amplify Bamy1 and Bamy2 in all the cereal species investigated. The genetic variation observed in the samples investigated is analysed and discussed, and illustrates the effectiveness of this approach for intra- and interspecific analysis in plant species.

  2. Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC Markers for Evolutionary Studies of Ficus and Other Taxa in the Fig Family (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The genus Ficus (fig trees comprises ca. 750 species of trees, vines, and stranglers found in tropical forests throughout the world. Fig trees are keystone species in many tropical forests, and their relationship with host-specific wasp pollinators has received much attention, although many questions remain unresolved regarding the levels of host specificity, cospeciation, and the role of hybridization in fig and wasp speciation. We developed exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers to obtain phylogenetic resolution needed to address these questions. Methods and Results: Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from F. elastica were compared to Arabidopsis and Populus genomes to locate introns and to design primers in flanking exons. Primer pairs for 80 EPIC markers were tested in samples from divergent clades within Ficus and the outgroup Poulsenia (Moraceae. Conclusions: Thirty-one EPIC markers were successfully sequenced across Ficus, and 29 of the markers also amplified in Poulsenia, indicating broad transferability within Moraceae. All of the EPIC markers were polymorphic and showed levels of polymorphism similar to that of the widely used internal transcribed spacer (ITS.

  3. Development of novel, exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers from EST databases and evaluation of their phylogenetic utility in Commiphora (Burseraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Novel nuclear exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers were developed to increase phylogenetic resolution among recently diverged lineages in the frankincense and myrrh family, Burseraceae, using Citrus, Arabidopsis, and Oryza genome resources. • Methods and Results: Primer pairs for 48 nuclear introns were developed using the genome resource IntrEST and were screened using species of Commiphora and other Burseraceae taxa. Four putative intron regions (RPT6A, BXL2, mtATP Synthase D, and Rab6) sequenced successfully for multiple taxa and recovered phylogenies consistent with those of existing studies. In some cases, these regions yielded informative sequence variation on par with that of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer. • Conclusions: The combination of freely available genome resources and our design criteria have uncovered four single-copy nuclear intron regions that are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction of Burseraceae taxa. Because our EPIC primers also amplify Arabidopsis, we recommend their trial in other rosid and eudicot lineages. PMID:25202619

  4. Development of Novel, Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC Markers from EST Databases and Evaluation of their Phylogenetic Utility in Commiphora (Burseraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan R. Gostel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Novel nuclear exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers were developed to increase phylogenetic resolution among recently diverged lineages in the frankincense and myrrh family, Burseraceae, using Citrus, Arabidopsis, and Oryza genome resources. Methods and Results: Primer pairs for 48 nuclear introns were developed using the genome resource IntrEST and were screened using species of Commiphora and other Burseraceae taxa. Four putative intron regions (RPT6A, BXL2, mtATP Synthase D, and Rab6 sequenced successfully for multiple taxa and recovered phylogenies consistent with those of existing studies. In some cases, these regions yielded informative sequence variation on par with that of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer. Conclusions: The combination of freely available genome resources and our design criteria have uncovered four single-copy nuclear intron regions that are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction of Burseraceae taxa. Because our EPIC primers also amplify Arabidopsis, we recommend their trial in other rosid and eudicot lineages.

  5. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen species, including another phylum, Urochordata (Chenuil et al., 2010). Results were contrasted among species. The best results were achieved with the oyster (Mollusca) where 28 loci provided amplicons susceptible to contain an intron according to their size. This was however not the case with the other mollusk Crepidula fornicata, which seems to have undergone a reduction in intron number or intron size. In the Porifera, 13 loci appeared susceptible to contain an intron, a surprisingly high number for this phylum considering its phylogenetic distance with genomic data used to design the primers. For two cnidarian species, numerous loci (24) were obtained. Ecdysozoan phyla (arthropods and nematodes) proved less successful than others as expected considering reports of their rapid rate of genome evolution and the worst results were obtained for several arthropods. Some general patterns among phyla arose, and we discuss how the results of this EPIC survey may give new insights into genome evolution of the study species. This work confirms that this set of EPIC loci provides an easy-to-use toolbox to identify genetic markers potentially useful for population genetics, phylogeography or phylogenetic studies for a large panel of metazoan species. We then argue that obtaining diploid sequence genotypes for these loci became simple and affordable owing to Next-Generation Sequencing development. Species surveyed in this study belong to several genera (Acanthaster, Alvinocaris, Aplysina

  6. Epic Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Tasso's epic poem about the first crusade is related to contemporary Turkish threats; it was influential all over Europe, in Dukrovnik Gundulic wrote an imitation ono the Polish-Turkish war and the death of Osman II, in Hungary Zrinyi wrote about the fall of Sziget with a view of national unty...

  7. History and Epic Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of epic poetry in a combined English/history humanities class. Concludes that epic poetry, the combination of history and verse, helps students understand the continuity and meaning of the Western tradition. (CFR)

  8. The Cursory Epic

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, S

    2014-01-01

    The Cursory Epic - in which YOU are the Hero! Drawing on language, imagery and the distinctive "multiple-choice" format employed in eighties' fantasy fiction and RPG, Stephen Mooney's Cursory Epic takes the reader on an socio-political nightmare adventure - from the Shumanti Hills (where the reader will be faced with tricks and fantasy as venture capitalism) to Khare, Cityport of Traps (where every doorway and alley may conceal the Coalition Agreement). Will you secure the Cursory Spellbook r...

  9. EPICS-DDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malitsky,N.; Shah, J.; Hasabnis, N.

    2009-05-04

    This paper presents a new extension to EPICS, approaching the Data Distributed Service (DDS) interface based on the Channel Access protocol. DDS is the next generation of middleware industrial standards, bringing a data-centric publish-subscribe paradigm to distributed control systems. In comparison with existing middleware technologies, the data-centric approach is able to provide a consistent consolidated model supporting difference data dissemination scenarios and integrating many important issues, such as quality of service, user-specific data structures, and others. The paper considers different features of the EPICS-DDS layer in the context of the high-level accelerator environment.

  10. Challenges in Comparative Oral Epic

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    John Miles Foley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Originally written in 2001 and subsequently published in China, this collaborative essay explores five questions central to comparative oral epic with regard to Mongolian, South Slavic, ancient Greek, and Old English traditions: “What is a poem in oral epic tradition?” “What is a typical scene or theme in oral epic tradition?” “What is a poetic line in oral epic tradition?” “What is a formula in an oral epic tradition?” “What is the register in oral epic poetry?” Now available for the first time in English, this essay reflects a foundational stage of what has become a productive and long-term collaboration between the Center for Studies in Oral Tradition and the Institute of Ethnic Literature of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  11. Epic and ARM : user's guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe give a brief introduction to Epic and to ARM (they are discussed in more detail elsewhere). We show how to use the Epic compiler and how to execute ARM code. Then we describe ARM's API (application programmer's interface) which allows ARM to be used as a plug-in library. We describe

  12. Overview of EPIC2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, D. J.

    2002-12-01

    The tropical eastern Pacific is a region in which coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models do a particularly poor job. In particular, the seasonal cycle is inadequately simulated in most cases. This is probably because certain physical processes are not properly represented in such models. The purpose of EPIC2001 is to develop a better understanding of key physical processes in this region with an eye to improving the associated model parameterizations. In this overview the aspects of the east Pacific which potentially can give climate models problems are outlined in the context of idealized theories of the behavior of the ocean-atmosphere system in the region. These aspects have been identified to be \\begin{itemize} the factors controlling the location and variability of east Pacific deep atmospheric convection; airmass transformations in the low-level cross-equatorial flow driven by the latitudinal sea surface temperature gradient; the effect of air-sea coupling on ocean mixed layer dynamics and SST in the east Pacific warm pool; the processes in the upper ocean that affect the structure and evolution of the shallow thermocline in this region; and dynamical, radiative, and microphysical factors affecting the energy balance in the widespread region of stratus-covered ocean south of the equator. This talk will give an overview of how the various aspects of the EPIC2001 field program are designed to address these problems and will serve as background for subsequent more specialized talks.

  13. New Epic in Shamloo's Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    سوسن جبری

    2013-01-01

    New epic poetry is a modern version of the mainstream epic tradition whose features have changed to meet the requirements of modern taste. The most outstanding poet in employing this form is Ahmad Shamloo, one of the most renowned contemporary Iranian poets. To highlight the changes in the content and formal linguistic features of the traditional and new forms of epic, the present study compares the stylistic aspects of the Shāh-nāme with Shamloo’s poetry to reveal how the “passage of time” c...

  14. J-TEXT-EPICS: An EPICS toolkit attempted to improve productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Jing; Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Tokamak control applications can be developed in very short period with J-TEXT-EPICS. • J-TEXT-EPICS enables users to build control applications with device-oriented functions. • J-TEXT-EPICS is fully compatible with EPICS Channel Access protocol. • J-TEXT-EPICS can be easily extended by plug-ins and drivers. -- Abstract: The Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) team has developed a new software toolkit for building Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) control applications called J-TEXT-EPICS. It aims to improve the development efficiency of control applications. With device-oriented features, it can be used to set or obtain the configuration or status of a device as well as invoke methods on a device. With its modularized design, its functions can be easily extended. J-TEXT-EPICS is completely compatible with the original EPICS Channel Access protocol and can be integrated into existing EPICS control systems smoothly. It is fully implemented in C number sign, thus it will benefit from abundant resources in.NET Framework. The J-TEXT control system is build with this toolkit. This paper presents the design and implementation of J-TEXT EPICS as well as its application in the J-TEXT control system.

  15. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  16. Primers for low-copy nuclear genes in Metrosideros and cross-amplification in Myrtaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Yohan; Johansen, Jennifer; Sakishima, Tomoko; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Stacy, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Primers were developed to amplify low-copy nuclear genes in Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). • Methods and Results: Data from a pooled 454 Titanium run of the partial transcriptomes of four Metrosideros taxa were used to identify the loci of interest. Ten exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers were amplified and sequenced directly with success in Metrosideros, as well as in a representative selection of Myrtaceae, including Syzygium, Psidium, and Melaleuca for most of the markers. The loci amplified ranged between 500 and 1100 bp, and up to 117 polymorphic sites were observed within an individual gene alignment. Two introns contained microsatellites in some of the species. • Conclusions: These novel primer pairs should be useful for phylogenetic analysis and population genetics of a broad range of Myrtaceae, particularly the diverse fleshy-fruited tribes Syzygieae and Myrteae. PMID:25309837

  17. Primers for low-copy nuclear genes in Metrosideros and cross-amplification in Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Yohan; Johansen, Jennifer; Sakishima, Tomoko; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Stacy, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Primers were developed to amplify low-copy nuclear genes in Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). • Data from a pooled 454 Titanium run of the partial transcriptomes of four Metrosideros taxa were used to identify the loci of interest. Ten exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers were amplified and sequenced directly with success in Metrosideros, as well as in a representative selection of Myrtaceae, including Syzygium, Psidium, and Melaleuca for most of the markers. The loci amplified ranged between 500 and 1100 bp, and up to 117 polymorphic sites were observed within an individual gene alignment. Two introns contained microsatellites in some of the species. • These novel primer pairs should be useful for phylogenetic analysis and population genetics of a broad range of Myrtaceae, particularly the diverse fleshy-fruited tribes Syzygieae and Myrteae.

  18. Epithets and phrases of epic appearance in Aristophanes’ comedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Macía Aparicio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When reading Aristophanes’ comedies, we find many epithets that, because of their formation and meaning, bear resemblance to those that are characteristic of the epic language. In our opinion, this fact proves the relevance of epic in the time of Aristophanes and the ease of the public being able to grasp the allusions made to that genre, which allows the playwright to bring about their laughter at its expense. When analyzing these apparent epicisms, we find that some of them are indeed traditional and are used in the epic poetry and, occasionally, in the lyric and dramatic poetry previous to or contemporaneous with Aristophanes; others can be labelled as Aristophanic epicisms because they are only found in late epic or are totally or partially absent in other writers; finally, some of them are only apparent epicisms, since they are not used in epic but in lyric, especially in hymnic poetry.

  19. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding.South Georgia March and April 2009 FloodsThe March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  20. Poetic grounds of epic formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of oral formulae in the twentieth century had several phases. After the initial - very stimulating and influential - research by M. Parry and A. B. Lord, who focused on the technique of composing the poem and the mnemotechnic function of formulae, the focus at first shifted to the concept of performance (J. M. Foley, and then to the mental text (L. Honko, which introduced into research horizons social, ideological, psychological and mental conditions of improvisation, interaction between the singer and the audience, collective and individual factors of memorising, cultural representation, and the like. Although all the abovementioned aspects undoubtedly determine the structure of a specific variant, it should be kept in mind that formulae transcend concrete improvisations and connect different epic zones, different local traditions and different times. The formula precedes verbal improvisation both chronologically and logically. Therefore - before explaining the repeating of formulae by the needs and nature of improvisation (composition-in-performance or the generating of formulae in specific variants by textualisation of mental text - we must explain the existence of the formula in the first place. This paper seeks to point out the complex system of factors that determine the genesis of formulae. Formulae are regarded as cultural codes, which combine elements from different spheres (the conceptualization of space, time, colour and so on, elements of rituals, customary norms, historical experience, life realities, ethics, etc.. Therefore, their structure is described in terms of hidden knowledge, hidden complexity, frame semantics, the tip of the iceberg, compressed meanings. Meanings “compressed” in the formulae are upgraded with new “income” in every new/concrete realisation (i.e. poem and this is the area where aesthetics rivals poetics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178011: Serbian Oral Tradition in an

  1. Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC visible and NIR channels using MODIS Terra and Aqua data and EPIC lunar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Marshak, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The unique position of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) at the Lagrange 1 point makes an important addition to the data from currently operating low Earth orbit observing instruments. EPIC instrument does not have an onboard calibration facility. One approach to its calibration is to compare EPIC observations to the measurements from polar-orbiting radiometers. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a natural choice for such comparison due to its well-established calibration record and wide use in remote sensing. We use MODIS Aqua and Terra L1B 1 km reflectances to infer calibration coefficients for four EPIC visible and NIR channels: 443, 551, 680 and 780 nm. MODIS and EPIC measurements made between June 2015 and 2016 are employed for comparison. We first identify favorable MODIS pixels with scattering angle matching temporarily collocated EPIC observations. Each EPIC pixel is then spatially collocated to a subset of the favorable MODIS pixels within 25 km radius. Standard deviation of the selected MODIS pixels as well as of the adjacent EPIC pixels is used to find the most homogeneous scenes. These scenes are then used to determine calibration coefficients using a linear regression between EPIC counts s-1 and reflectances in the close MODIS spectral channels. We present thus inferred EPIC calibration coefficients and discuss sources of uncertainties. The lunar EPIC observations are used to calibrate EPIC O2 absorbing channels (688 and 764 nm), assuming that there is a small difference between moon reflectances separated by ˜ 10 nm in wavelength and provided the calibration factors of the red (680 nm) and NIR (780 nm) are known from comparison between EPIC and MODIS.

  2. Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC visible and NIR channels using MODIS Terra and Aqua data and EPIC lunar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Geogdzhayev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique position of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC at the Lagrange 1 point makes an important addition to the data from currently operating low Earth orbit observing instruments. EPIC instrument does not have an onboard calibration facility. One approach to its calibration is to compare EPIC observations to the measurements from polar-orbiting radiometers. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is a natural choice for such comparison due to its well-established calibration record and wide use in remote sensing. We use MODIS Aqua and Terra L1B 1 km reflectances to infer calibration coefficients for four EPIC visible and NIR channels: 443, 551, 680 and 780 nm. MODIS and EPIC measurements made between June 2015 and 2016 are employed for comparison. We first identify favorable MODIS pixels with scattering angle matching temporarily collocated EPIC observations. Each EPIC pixel is then spatially collocated to a subset of the favorable MODIS pixels within 25 km radius. Standard deviation of the selected MODIS pixels as well as of the adjacent EPIC pixels is used to find the most homogeneous scenes. These scenes are then used to determine calibration coefficients using a linear regression between EPIC counts s−1 and reflectances in the close MODIS spectral channels. We present thus inferred EPIC calibration coefficients and discuss sources of uncertainties. The lunar EPIC observations are used to calibrate EPIC O2 absorbing channels (688 and 764 nm, assuming that there is a small difference between moon reflectances separated by  ∼  10 nm in wavelength and provided the calibration factors of the red (680 nm and NIR (780 nm are known from comparison between EPIC and MODIS.

  3. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  4. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  5. The temporal dimension of epic songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since research into south-Slav epic songs began, finding its place within philological sciences, the musical component has been marginalized. In extreme cases the correlation between poetry and music was even denied. In the relatively few (ethnomusicological works dealing with the epic songs that correlation was observed mainly on the macro-formal level. The author maintains that any systematic research of the functional melopoetic structure of Serbian epic songs should include the temporal features of music. The article is an essay on the methodology in which the poetry–music relationship is investigated from the point of view of their temporal dimension. The flow of music–poetry content is observed from the perspectives of tempo and rhythm, primarily as relations between durations on different structural levels. The chosen examples consist of two variants of an epic song, typical of their kind, which have the same subject and structural bases. The performers were two gusle-players, so that the performing bodies were the same. In the course of analysis, focus was directed on the musical equivalents of elements of poetic structure considered to be constant, or at least showing strong tendencies towards expression in verse forms. The analysis demonstrated that the musical component was the critical value needed to differentiate the systems of relations between the poetic and musical components, i.e. styles of interpretation. The chosen individual styles represent contrasting approaches to the organization of the poetic content in time. Although the temporal dimension in both examples is semanticised, its values in those styles are diametrically different. At one extreme a construction is found in which the relation of morphological unit values on poetical and musical levels demonstrates a specific interaction on the structural level. The symmetry on the macro plan depends on the constancy of the verse length, but it cannot be maintained that

  6. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  7. Design for Change : EPIC pillars for Persuasive Design for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    What makes technology now truly empathic? How to develop designs that matter? We apply the EPIC for change model for persuasive and empathic designs. EPIC stands for: • Engagement: Creating experience, flow using persuasive strategies and triggers in development, using positive psychology concepts;

  8. EPICS Channel Access Server for LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    It can be challenging to interface National Instruments LabVIEW (http://www.ni.com/labview/) with EPICS (http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics/). Such interface is required when an instrument control program was developed in LabVIEW but it also has to be part of global control system. This is frequently useful in big accelerator facilities. The Channel Access Server is written in LabVIEW, so it works on any hardware/software platform where LabVIEW is available. It provides full server functionality, so any EPICS client can communicate with it.

  9. Pelagic life and depth: coastal physical features in West Africa shape the genetic structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Dominique Durand

    Full Text Available The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure. Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad's distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf, such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc. acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA.

  10. Pelagic life and depth: coastal physical features in West Africa shape the genetic structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Guinand, Bruno; Dodson, Julian J; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure). Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing) indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad's distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf), such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc.) acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA.

  11. Mapping Romanzo Criminale. An Epic Narrative Ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Boni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanzo Criminale is one of the few recent Italian media products that has emerged as a societal phenomenon and as a vehicle for the exportation of a national culture. It is a complex narrative which extends in time and space due to its various adaptations and intermedial crossovers. Following the path of complexity, drawing on Edgar Morin’s work, Romanzo Criminale will be thought of as a complex system. As precedent studies on the intertwining of official and grassroots discourses show, Romanzo Criminale becomes a complex world, with its boundaries and internal organization. This paper will show that Romanzo Criminale can be studied as a semiosphere (Lotman 2005, or a semiotic space defined by and which encourages the intertwining of texts and audience appropriations, creating an epic process. Some methodological perspectives used for mapping this phenomenon will be discussed, namely Franco Moretti’s distant reading.

  12. Butterflies and Dragon-Eagles: Processing Epics from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mountains of southwest China, epic narratives are part of the traditional performance-scapes of many ethnic minority cultures. In some cases locals participate in the preservation of oral or oral-connected epics from their respective areas. This article discusses the dynamics of acquiring and translating texts from two major ethnic minority groups in cooperation with local tradition-bearers, poets, and scholars.

  13. Chronicle and the epic: Machado de Assis in homeric verses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Satin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the presence of classical epic, Homer's Iliad, in the chronicle of Machado de Assis, analyzing the intertextual dialogue between Machado de Assis and the epic poem by Homer, considering the concept of intertextuality developed by Julia Kristeva from philosophical conceptions of Bakhtin. In the chronicle of March 18, 1894 for the newspaper Gazeta de Notícias on sunday column "A Semana", Machado de Assis crosses Homer's epic to his chronicle, rewrites the epic text for the daily issues of his weekly column. To Tiphaine Samoyault, writing is rewriting, "stand on the existing foundations and contribute to a continued creation" (2008, p. 77 one of the principles of intertextuality. It was observed that from the reading and assimilation of the classic poem, Machado de Assis can approach so far genres, bringing the verses to his prose, leaving it closer to poetry. In this sense, we can see the richness of Machado de Assis chronicles, often left on the sidelines in favor of his short stories and romances. In addition, the dialogue, to rewrite the epic in his chronicle, Machado seems to contribute to this "continuous creation", reviving the memory of literature and emphasizing the permanence of classical work.

  14. The Cosmopolitan Epics of 2004: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Saverio Giovacchini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Hollywood produced three purportedly blockbuster epic films:Troy, King Arthur and Alexander. Many critics suggested a direct linkbetween the 1950s “sword and sandal” epic and this new crop of movies.Similarities between the two cycles certainly exist but in this essay I want to emphasize a crucial difference between the contemporary,cosmopolitan, epic and the previous, more nation-bound, 1950s cycle.Rather than being in tune with key elements of American foreign policy, the new cycle of “sword and sandal” films offers a somber assessment of American imperial adventures. I shall contend, in fact, that the new crop of epic films had to choose between two generic conventions that are, at present, not compatible. On the one hand, epic films had traditionally been the bearers of the foreign policy vision of the country that produced them. On the other, their inflated budgets made them dependent on an international market. Deeply aware of a globalized and rising opposition to US foreign policy and of the fact that foreign box office now exceeds the domestic take of a blockbuster, it may be no wonder that the makers of these films chose to craft them into citizens of the world.

  15. The varieties of formulaic diction in Turkic oral epics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichl Karl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that the formulaic diction on the level of verse line and formulaic patterning in the composition of scenes are closely related and must be studied together. The analysis is done on the example of Turkic epics. Of the formulaic patterns the most prominent one is the variety of use of the attribute ak (white, which appears to be one of the most common epithets in Turkic epic poetry. It is usually connected with cloth (e.g. caftan, yurt, different parts of body (face, bosom, antelope, the lumps of gold given as bride-price and various kinds of arms (sword, spear etc. It is usually denoted evaluatively as purity and beauty. In this matter Turkic epics share its position with many national epics of the middle ages including Serbian, Old English, Old German etc. The same role is analyzed for the opposite pattern “dust of earth”, and for the two themes: preparation of the hero for his journey and council scenes which are also mutual to many medieval epic traditions such as aforementioned Serbian and others.

  16. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during a fireworks display in support of the Epic... Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks launch site will be located in position 37...

  17. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenuil Anne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.

  18. Pirate Alterity and Mimesis in Colonial Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Navascués

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pirate representation is studied in a series of Epic poems in the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The ambiguous image of the English enemy is read in texts by Juan de Miramontes, Pedro de Oña, Martín del Barco Centenera and Juan de Castellanos, among others. On the one hand, Colonial Epic ignores some important differences between privateers and pirates since the privateering had been legally accepted by all European nations, including Spain. Besides, Pirate is always called «Lutheran» and revealing its absolute otherness with respect to the Catholic model. On the other hand, it proposes a laudatory epics enemy painting from the imitation of the values accepted by the colonial society. The relationship between the Spanish hero and the privateer is represented not in a vertical direction, as could happen between colonizer and colonized subject, but on a level of rivalry.

  19. EPIC-CoGe: Managing and Analyzing Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew D L; Haug-Baltzell, Asher K; Davey, Sean; Gregory, Brian D; Lyons, Eric

    2018-02-20

    The EPIC-CoGe browser is a web-based genome visualization utility that integrates the GMOD JBrowse genome browser with the extensive CoGe genome database (currently containing over 30,000 genomes). In addition, the EPIC-CoGe browser boasts many additional features over basic JBrowse, including enhanced search capability and on-the-fly analyses for comparisons and analyses between all types of functional and diversity genomics data. There is no installation required and data (genome, annotation, functional genomic, and diversity data) can be loaded by following a simple point and click wizard, or using a REST API, making the browser widely accessible and easy to use by researchers of all computational skill levels. In addition, EPIC-CoGe and data tracks are easily embedded in other websites and JBrowse instances. EPIC-CoGe Browser is freely available for use online through CoGe (https://genomevolution.org). Source code (MIT open source) is available: https://github.com/LyonsLab/coge. ericlyons@email.arizona.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. The ABSA Cape Epic Mountain Bike Challenge: impacts and legacies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Absa Cape Epic mountain bike race is held in and around the mountainous areas outside Cape Town, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, since 2004. The 700km-plus race, along farm roads and mountain tracks, extends over an eight day period. The race is limited to 600 two-person male and female teams, ...

  1. PvaPy: Python API for EPICS PV Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veseli, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of sites deploying and adopting EPICS Version 4 grows, so does the need to support PV Access from multiple languages. Especially important are the widely used scripting languages that tend to reduce both software development time and the learning curve for new users. In this paper we describe PvaPy, a Python API for the EPICS PV Access protocol and its accompanying structured data API. Rather than implementing the protocol itself in Python, PvaPy wraps the existing EPICS Version 4 C++ libraries using the Boost.Python framework. This approach allows us to benefit from the existing code base and functionality, and to significantly reduce the Python API development effort. PvaPy objects are based on Python dictionaries and provide users with the ability to access even the most complex of PV Data structures in a relatively straightforward way. Its interfaces are easy to use, and include support for advanced EPICS Version 4 features such as implementation of client and server Remote Procedure Calls (RPC).

  2. Charity, good deeds and the poor in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of relation between the poor and the concept of charity in Serbian epic poetry is initiated as part of the research project "Ethnic and social stratification of the Balkans", which includes study of social margins and subcultures in oral literature. Charitable activities directed toward the poor are discussed as social models, but also as a complex way of social interaction between the elites and the poor, which left its mark on oral tradition and epic poetry. Care for the poor, almsgiving and charitable deeds were a religious obligation, and in the course of time, the repetitiveness and habitual character of poor relief became an important issue in structuring cultural patterns. Ethical, educative and humanistic potential of charity, and its being founded on cases witnessed in real life directly connect charity to the shaping of poetic narrative models. Epic models reflect and poeticize socio-cultural patterns and characters, which is represented both in medieval documents and in epic tradition, in similarity of their themes and formulas on the level of contents and structure. This resemblance has led to the conclusion that charitable giving, care for the poor and salvation of soul existed as specific patterns and intergeneric symbols, which were handed down in various oral and written forms.

  3. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  4. 77 FR 73655 - Epic Marketplace, Inc., and Epic Media Group, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... include any sensitive personal information, like anyone's Social Security number, date of birth, driver's... heightened security screening. As a result, we encourage you to submit your comments online. To make sure... a user's browser styles the display of a hyperlink. This practice allegedly allowed Epic to...

  5. Psychometric Assessment of the Chinese Version of the Abbreviated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) and the Clinical Practice Version (EPIC-CP) in Chinese Men With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Tse, Michael A; Ng, Chris N L; Chung, Edward K M; Fielding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument was designed to assess a range of health-related quality-of-life issues specifically relevant to patients with prostate cancer. This study examined the validity and reliability of Chinese versions of the 26-item EPIC and of the 16-item EPIC for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) in Chinese patients with prostate cancer. A Chinese version of the 26-item EPIC and the 16-item EPIC-CP were self-completed by 252 Chinese patients with prostate cancer who were recruited from three community-based cancer service centers. Confirmatory factors analysis assessed the factor structures of the EPIC and the EPIC-CP. Internal consistency and construct and clinical validities of the factor structures were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original factor structure of both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP showed good fit to this sample. A correlated model was superior to a hierarchical model in both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP supporting the utility of the domain scores over the total scores. Cronbach α ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for EPIC-26 and 0.44 to 0.67 for EPIC-CP. Construct validity was supported by correlations between EPIC-26/EPIC-CP and psychological distress measures. Clinical validity was supported by differentiation between patients with and without prostatectomy. These Chinese versions of the five-factor EPIC-26 and the EPIC-CP are valid and practical measures for assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, highlighting their utility in assessing health-related quality of life for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Universal PCR primers for ribosomal protein gene introns of fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human ribosomal protein (RP gene sequences with respect to intron/exon structures and corresponding cDNA or genomic data of fish species were obtained from the GenBank database. Based on conserved exon sequences, 128 primer pairs for 41 genes were designed for exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In reference to the draft genome sequences of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, 12 primer pairs expected to amplify introns of the bluefin tuna with lengths of 500–1000 bp were selected and applied to six distantly related fish species belonging to the Orders Clupeiformes, Tetraodontiformes, Pleuronectiformes, Perciformes, Scorpaeniformes, and Anguilliformes. PCR amplification was observed for at least four species in each primer pair, and all fragments were larger than those expected for intronless amplification. Single fragment amplification was observed for at least seven primer pairs per species. Fragment sizes of the bluefin tuna for nine primer pairs corresponded to those expected from the genomic data. Thus, our primer pairs are potentially applicable to a wide variety of fish species and serve as an initial step for isolating single-copy nuclear DNA sequences.

  7. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M. R.

    2002-01-30

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI--Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC--Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN--Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support.

  8. Mediterranean Diet and pancreatic cancer risk in EPIC

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Montes, E; S?nchez, M; Buckland, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B; Weiderpass, E; Amiano, P.; WARK, PA; Kuhn, T.; Katzke, V; Huerta, Jm; Ardanaz, E; Ram?n Quir?s, J; Affret, A; His, M; Boutron- Ruault, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods : Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed- up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnos...

  9. The Qur’anic epic in Iranian cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Nacim

    2016-01-01

    The representation of religious figures in Islam has become particularly controversial in recent years. The creation of religious films has, therefore, turned into a highly sensitive undertaking. Iranian cinema is one of the very few in the Muslim world to have employed this new medium in imagining and narrating stories of revered religious figures. In this article I examine the complex socio-political context of Iran to study the relatively late emergence of the epic genre in Iranian cinema....

  10. Epic and Romance in The Lord Of The Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Simonson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of comparative literature The Lord of the Rings has been most frequently studied within the contexts of romance and epic. This approach, however, leaves out important generic aspects of the global picture, such as the narrative’s strong adherence to the novel genre and to mythic traditions beyond romance and epic narratives. If we choose one particular genre as the yardstick against which to measure the work’s success in narrative terms, we tend to end up with the conclusion that The Lord of the Rings does not quite make sense within the given limits of the genre in question. In Tolkien’s work there is a narrative and stylistic exploration of the different genres’ constraints in which the Western narrative traditions – myth, epic, romance, the novel, and their respective subgenres – interact in a previously unknown but still very much coherent world that, because of the particular cohesion required by such a chronotope, exhibits a clear contextualization of references to the previous traditions. As opposed to many contemporary literary expressions, the ensuing absence of irony and parody creates a generic dialogue, in which the various narrative traditions explore and interrogate each other’s limits without rendering the others absurdly incompatible, ridiculous or superfluous.

  11. Doing accelerator physics using SDDS, UNIX, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Emery, L.; Sereno, N.

    1995-12-31

    The use of the SDDS (Self-Describing Data Sets) file protocol, together with the UNIX operating system and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls System), has proved powerful during the commissioning of the APS (Advanced Photon Source) accelerator complex. The SDDS file protocol has permitted a tool-oriented approach to developing applications, wherein generic programs axe written that function as part of multiple applications. While EPICS-specific tools were written for data collection, automated experiment execution, closed-loop control, and so forth, data processing and display axe done with the SDDS Toolkit. Experiments and data reduction axe implemented as UNIX shell scripts that coordinate the execution of EPICS specific tools and SDDS tools. Because of the power and generic nature of the individual tools and of the UNIX shell environment, automated experiments can be prepared and executed rapidly in response to unanticipated needs or new ideas. Examples are given of application of this methodology to beam motion characterization, beam-position-monitor offset measurements, and klystron characterization.

  12. New EPICS Channel Archiver Based on MDSplus Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C.; Soppelsa, A.; Barbalace, A.

    2011-12-01

    The EPICS Channel Archiver is used to store data ex ported by EPICS I/O Controllers. The Channel Archiver acts as a Channel Access Client and stores recorded data, acquired via periodic scan or monitored, into indexed binary files. MDSplus is a data management system used in several Nuclear Fusion experiments to handle experimental and configuration data. A data access Application Programming Interface for local and remote data access is available for several languages, namely C, C++, Fortran, Java, Python, MATLAB and IDL, and a set of visualization tools is available for data browsing and display. The paper presents a new implementation of the EPICS Channel Archiver which uses MDSplus for data storage. In this way, it is possible to take advantage of the availability of the local and remote data access layers of MDSplus, widely used in the fusion community to handle large sets of data. A performance comparison between the original implementation and the new one is provided. In particular, the storage space requirements and the data access speed are considered.

  13. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  14. Using EPIC to search the OCLC Online Union Catalog in a health sciences library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, P W

    1991-01-01

    EPIC is a service that provides keyword or subject access to the OCLC Online Union Catalog (OLUC). This capability increases the success rate for title location as well as the potential uses of the OLUC. The features of the EPIC system, application of these features to the OLUC, and specific uses in health sciences libraries are described in this article.

  15. The EPIC Architecture for Modeling Human Information-Processing and Performance: A Brief Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.; Meyer, David E.

    EPIC (Executive Process-Interactive Control) is a human information-processing architecture that is especially suited for modeling multiple-task performance. The EPIC architecture includes peripheral sensory-motor processors surrounding a production-rule cognitive processor, and is being used to construct precise computational models for basic…

  16. EPICS-based control and data acquisition for the APS slope profiler (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph; Assoufid, Lahsen; Qian, Jun; Jemian, Peter R.; Mooney, Tim; Rivers, Mark L.; Goetze, Kurt; Sluiter, Ronald L.; Lang, Keenan

    2016-09-01

    The motion control, data acquisition and analysis system for APS Slope Measuring Profiler was implemented using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). EPICS was designed as a framework with software tools and applications that provide a software infrastructure used in building distributed control systems to operate devices such as particle accelerators, large experiments and major telescopes. EPICS was chosen to implement the APS Slope Measuring Profiler because it is also applicable to single purpose systems. The control and data handling capability available in the EPICS framework provides the basic functionality needed for high precision X-ray mirror measurement. Those built in capabilities include hardware integration of high-performance motion control systems (3-axis gantry and tip-tilt stages), mirror measurement devices (autocollimator, laser spot camera) and temperature sensors. Scanning the mirror and taking measurements was accomplished with an EPICS feature (the sscan record) which synchronizes motor positioning with measurement triggers and data storage. Various mirror scanning modes were automatically configured using EPICS built-in scripting. EPICS tools also provide low-level image processing (areaDetector). Operation screens were created using EPICS-aware GUI screen development tools.

  17. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  18. Inventory of experiences from national/regional dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Geelen, A.; Crispim, S.P.; Keyzer, de W.; Freisling, H.; Henauw, de S.; Maeyer, de M.; Krems, C.; Amiano, P.; Boer, de E.J.; Ocke, M.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Slimani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft 24-h recall (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) has been used in several regional/national dietary monitoring surveys. The main objective of the study

  19. Juvencus and the biblical epic: specificity and literary criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena María Calderón de Cuervo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin Christian poetry has emerged in  Constantine Era and flourished between 400 and 800. It has a fundamental role in the development of literary theory and critical discourse, because, except for Prudencio, the rest of the poets of this first period has chosen by the adaptation of the classical canon to Christian themes. The Christian epic is therefore one of the first genres and begins as biblical epic. The first major work of this type is the Gospel Harmony from the Spanish poet Juvencus, until 330. This work begins a long series of biblical poetry, Latin at first, but after this there is its continuation in the vernaculars, like Caedmon, Cynewulf, The Heliand, The Passion by Clermont till Ojeda, Milton and Klopstock.The dedication to the established authority , the subordination of the art´s purpose for the salvation of the soul as well as the desire to legitimize poetry with Christian arguments remain as fundamental premises in the construction of gender. When the modern epic apear, its compromise with new theological Aporia will not lose those extraliterary requirements from provenance.Keywords: Latin Christian poetry; Constantine Era; Virgil.

  20. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  1. A new exploration on the antique origins of Gilgamesh epic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavousi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many evidences, which indicate Gilgamesh could never be explored genealogically without considering the interactions of Mesopotamia civilization with the historical and cultural backgrounds of Persian residents of the eastern territories. The archeological, lingual and mythological suppositions signify the probability of some branches from another master-origin more historically longer than Mesopotamian culture and civilization. The documents indicating the existence of greater habitats in the eastern territories of Mesopotamia, pre-Elamite inscriptions were recently discovered near Tapp-e-Yahya, as well as the structural evidences of chlorite vessels remained in Konar-sandal all indicate that there might be a live myth like Gilgamesh - as an animal domesticator in the neighborhood of the Halil Rroud. It could be claimed that the supposed Mesopotamian origin of Gilgamesh epic is, in fact, intertwined with the mythological roots of Arata civilization. The oldest origin of a myth called “Animal domesticator” and “One who is in search of excellence and eternity” could be approximately dated back a thousand year, at least, in the recent findings of Jiroft. This study attempts to present a new turning point into a fundamental approach to Jiroft civilization as an ancient and antique inevitable society originating Gilgamesh epic.

  2. EPICS Controlled Collimator for Controlling Beam Sizes in HIPPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitano, Arthur Soriano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Controlling the beam spot size and shape in a diffraction experiment determines the probed sample volume. The HIPPO - High-Pressure-Preferred Orientation– neutron time-offlight diffractometer is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center in Los Alamos National Laboratories. HIPPO characterizes microstructural parameters, such as phase composition, strains, grain size, or texture, of bulk (cm-sized) samples. In the current setup, the beam spot has a 10 mm diameter. Using a collimator, consisting of two pairs of neutron absorbing boron-nitride slabs, horizontal and vertical dimensions of a rectangular beam spot can be defined. Using the HIPPO robotic sample changer for sample motion, the collimator would enable scanning of e.g. cylindrical samples along the cylinder axis by probing slices of such samples. The project presented here describes implementation of such a collimator, in particular the motion control software. We utilized the EPICS (Experimental Physics Interface and Control System) software interface to integrate the collimator control into the HIPPO instrument control system. Using EPICS, commands are sent to commercial stepper motors that move the beam windows.

  3. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  4. Development and Validation of WebQuests in Teaching Epics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Candy Santos Lasaten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the Research Development (R&D methodology, the study aimed to develop and validate WebQuests which can be used in literature subjects, particularly in the tertiary level to address the need of literature teachers for pedagogy in the teaching of epic s. The development of the Web Quests was anchored on the Theory of Constructivism. Two groups of experts validated the Web Quests – the literature experts and the ICT experts. The Content Validation Checklist, used by the literature experts, was utilized t o evaluate the content of the Web Quests. Meanwhile, the Rubric for Evaluating Web Quests, used by the ICT experts, was utilized to evaluate the design characteristics of the Web Quests. Computed weighted means using range interval of point scores were emp loyed to treat the data gathered from the evaluation conducted by both group of experts. The Web Quests developed contain five major parts which include: 1 introduction; 2 task; 3 process; 4 evaluation; and 5 conclusion. Based on the findings, the con tent of the Web Quests developed are valid in terms of objectives, activities and instructional characteristics. Likewise, the design characteristics of the Web Quests are excellent in terms of introductions, tasks, processes, resources, evaluations, concl usions and overall designs. Thus, the Web Quests developed are acceptable and can be utilized as instructional materials by literature teachers in the teaching of epics.

  5. Addition of a Hydrological Cycle to the EPIC Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, T. E.; Palotai, C. J.

    2002-09-01

    We present a progress report on the development of the EPIC atmospheric model to include clouds, moist convection, and precipitation. Two major goals are: i) to study the influence that convective water clouds have on Jupiter's jets and vortices, such as those to the northwest of the Great Red Spot, and ii) to predict ammonia-cloud evolution for direct comparison to visual images (instead of relying on surrogates for clouds like potential vorticity). Data structures in the model are now set up to handle the vapor, liquid, and solid phases of the most common chemical species in planetary atmospheres. We have adapted the Prather conservation of second-order moments advection scheme to the model, which yields high accuracy for dealing with cloud edges. In collaboration with computer scientists H. Dietz and T. Mattox at the U. Kentucky, we have built a dedicated 40-node parallel computer that achieves 34 Gflops (double precision) at 74 cents per Mflop, and have updated the EPIC-model code to use cache-aware memory layouts and other modern optimizations. The latest test-case results of cloud evolution in the model will be presented. This research is funded by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and EPSCoR programs.

  6. Indigenous women in Spanish American Historic Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Segas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epic poetry has always been considered a masculine genre. The eruption of a group identity, masculine, white, aristocratic and christian, is the result of the representation and the exclusion of the Other, fictitious and singular, but in fact composed of a variety of ethnic groups, origins, sex, genders, religions and different degrees between fiction and historicity. Indeed, in the historical epic poetry which narrated the Conquest, except for the conquistadors listed at length and the indigenous kings and caciques, only few characters are distinguished by a historical individualisation. The Other, Amerindian and female, makes a shy entrance into history, into singularity, into the (historical and christian truth. It is the case of interpreters: Malinche and India Catalina, only historical native women that appear as part of the narrative plot as well as in the conquest enterprise in the poems of Lasso de la Vega (Cortés valeroso y Mexicana, Mexicana, of Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias and of Saavedra Guzmán (El peregrino indiano.

  7. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  8. Inventory of experiences from national/regional dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Geelen, A; Crispim, S P; De Keyzer, W; Freisling, H; De Henauw, S; De Maeyer, M; Krems, C; Amiano, P; de Boer, E J; Ocké, M C; de Vries, J H; Slimani, N

    2011-07-01

    The EPIC-Soft 24-h recall (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) has been used in several regional/national dietary monitoring surveys. The main objective of the study was to present and discuss design, settings, logistics, data management and quality controls of dietary monitoring surveys that used EPIC-Soft for the collection of food consumption data. Within European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire including questions on current/past EPIC-Soft experiences and requirements for the future was developed and sent to all institutes that used EPIC-Soft in their food consumption survey(s) (five surveys in four different countries). EPIC-Soft was used in the national food consumption survey in Belgium (≥ 15-97 years), Germany (14-80 years), the Netherlands (19-30 years and 2-6 years) and Spain (regional only; 4-18 years). Participation rates in these surveys were 46% (Belgium), 42% (Germany), 42% (Dutch survey in adults), 79% (Dutch survey in children) and 77% (Basque survey). Two 24-HDRs were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews in Belgium and Spain, and through telephone interviews in Germany and the Netherlands. Except the Netherlands (19-30 years), where the study was conducted only in autumn, in all other countries the study was conducted throughout the four seasons, including all days of the week. Interviews were conducted by dietitians, except in Germany and Spain. Mean EPIC-Soft interview time was 20-34 min. The dropout rate between the first and second interviews was low (surveys. EPIC-Soft has been used in different study settings and populations for nutritional exposure assessments. To guarantee the comparability of data across countries, recommendations for the design of future pan-European dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft should be drawn.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) (Huber+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; et al.

    2017-09-01

    The construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog are described in Huber+, 2016, J/ApJS/224/2 Changes for Campaigns 0-3, 7-10 and 16 are described in: http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/manuals/epic.pdf Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). (1 data file).

  10. Prospect-EPIC Utrecht: Study design and characteristics of the cohort population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boker, L.K.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Koot, V.C.M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Riboli, E.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which hasbe en established in order to investigate the relations between nutrition and cancer, wasinitiated in 1990 and involves10 European countrieswith heterogeneous dietary patternsand differing cancer incidence rates. This

  11. Exploring Lyric, Epic, and Dramatic Voices: Stages of Incandescence in the Poetry of the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. Ann

    1992-01-01

    Identifies true relationships between the psyche and the lyric, epic, and dramatic voices of poetry. Shows how the acts of identifying, responding to, and composing in these three voices engage healing, inspiration, and active imagination among the aging. (SR)

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  13. A Woman Voice in an Epic: Tracing Gendered Motifs in Anne Vabarna's Peko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kalkun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the gendered motifs found in Anne Vabarna’s Seto epic Peko are analysed. Besides the narrative telling of the life of the male hero, the motives regarding eating, refusing to eat or offering food, and the aspect of the female body or its control deserve to be noticed. These scenes do not communicate the main plot, they are often related to minor characters of the epic and slow down the narrative, but at the same time they clearly carry artistic purpose and meaning. I consider these motifs, present in the liminal parts of the epic, to be the dominant symbols of the epic where the author’s feminine world is being exposed. Observing these motifs of Peko in the context of Seto religious worldview, the life of Anne Vabarna and the social position of Seto women, the symbols become eloquent and informative.

  14. Experience with the EPICS PV Gateway at the APS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS PV Gateway has become a stable, high-performance application that provides access to process variables while minimizing the impact on critical IOCs and implementing additional access security. The additional access security typically prevents write access but is highly configurable. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently uses 40 Gateways running on 11 machines to provide access to the machine network from the offices and for the individual experimental teams. These include reverse Gateways that allow administration of all 40 APS Gateways from a single MEDM screen, even though the Gateways are running on separate networks. This administration includes starting, stopping, making and viewing reports, and viewing and editing access security files. There is one Gateway that provides process variable renaming. This paper provides an overview of the Gateways at the APS and describes the procedures that have been set up to use and administer them.

  15. The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases ( NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC). This was required...... because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000...... standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System...

  16. EPICS IOC module development and implementation for the ISTTOK machine subsystem operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo, E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, Andre; Pereira, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo; Sousa, Jorge; Fernandes, Horacio [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos [Grupo de Electronica e Instrumentacao-Centro de Instrumentacao, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Bruno; Varandas, Carlos [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a developed, tested and integrated EPICS IOC (I/O controller) module solution for the ISTTOK tokamak machine operation and control for the vacuum and gas injection systems. The work is organized in two software layers which communicate through a serial RS-232 communication protocol. The first software layer is an EPICS IOC module running as a computer server application capable of receiving requests from remote or local clients providing driver interface to the system by forwarding requested commands and receiving system and control operation status. The second software layer is the firmware running in Microchip dsPIC microcontroller modules which performs the interface from RS-232 optical fiber serial protocol to EPICS IOC module. The dsPIC module communicates to the ISTTOK tokamak sensors and actuators via RS-485 and is programmed with a new protocol developed for this purpose that allows EPICS IOC module command sending/receiving, machine operation control and monitoring and system status information. Communication between EPICS IOC module and clients is achieved via a TCP/IP and UDP protocol referred as Channel Access. In addition, the EPICS IOC module provides user client applications access allowing operators to perform remote or local monitoring, operation and control.

  17. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    A field exercise involving several different kinds of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and supporting instrumentation systems provided by DOE/ARM and NOAA/NSSL was conducted at the ARM SGP site in Lamont, Oklahoma on 29-30 October 2016. This campaign was part of a larger National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UAS Program Office program awarded to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). named Environmental Profiling and Initiation of Convection (EPIC). The EPIC Field Campaign (Test and Calibration/Validation) proposed to ARM was a test or “dry-run” for a follow-up campaign to be requested for spring/summer 2017. The EPIC project addresses NOAA’s objective to “evaluate options for UAS profiling of the lower atmosphere with applications for severe weather.” The project goal is to demonstrate that fixed-wing and rotary-wing small UAS have the combined potential to provide a unique observing system capable of providing detailed profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to help determine the potential for severe weather development. Specific project objectives are: 1) to develop small UAS capable of acquiring needed wind and thermodynamic profiles and transects of the ABL using one fixed-wing UAS operating in tandem with two different fixed rotary-wing UAS pairs; 2) adapt and test miniaturized, high-precision, and fast-response atmospheric sensors with high accuracy in strong winds characteristic of the pre-convective ABL in Oklahoma; 3) conduct targeted short-duration experiments at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in northern Oklahoma concurrently with a second site to be chosen in “real-time” from the Oklahoma Mesonet in coordination with the (National Weather Service (NWS)-Norman Forecast Office; and 4) gain valuable experience in pursuit of NOAA’s goals for determining the value of airborne, mobile observing systems for monitoring rapidly evolving high-impact severe weather

  18. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  19. El sentido epicúreo de la amistad en Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Salmerón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ES] La amistad en Epicuro es procurada por la sabiduría. Además la amistad propicia la felicidad. La «sabiduría», un bien inmortal, conduce al hombre a buscar la «amistad», uno mortal. La sabiduría es un bien inmortal, y por tanto de dioses. Mas, si los dioses no intervienen en el curso del mundo, ¿qué sentido tienen para los epicúreos? La emulación. La divinidad es un modelo a imitar. Por la meditación se puede vivir como un dios entre humanos no sufriendo turbación ni despierto ni en sueños. Con todo la amistad entraña peligros, aun eligiéndola por el placer, soportamos los mayores males por los amigos. Mas estos riesgos merecen la pena correrse, pues los perjuicios posibles, son menos indeseables que la ausencia de amistad. Goethe coincide con los epicúreos en la importancia que confieren a la experiencia del momento. Goethe también sitúa la amistad junto a la sabiduría y la felicidad, pero sólo aceptaba la amistad si intensificaba la sensación de vida, si los momentos que generaba eran razonables y felices. Conforme a ello se tratan sus relaciones con Lenz, Schiller, Charlotte von Stein y Christiane Vulpius, ejemplificadas en personajes de ficción como Mignon y Mefistófeles. ; [EN] Friendship according to Epicurus is procured by wisdom. Furthermore friendship makes happiness possible. Wisdom, an inmortal good, leads the man to seek for friendship, a mortal good. As an inmortal virtue, Wisdom is an attribute of the Gods. But if Gods have no role in world´s leading, what a sense have them for the Epicureans? The sense of Emulation. Divinity is a role model. Through meditation is possible to live like a God among humans, suffering no restlessness neither awake nor in dreams. Yet friendship involves risks. Even choosing it for the pleasure, we endure the greatest evils on account of friends. But these risks are worthy, because the potential damages are less undesirable than no friendship. Goethe agrees with the

  20. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayssat, Robert E. [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach

  1. LabVIEW Library to EPICS Channel Access

    CERN Document Server

    Liyu, Andrei; Thompson, Dave H

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based and will run Windows for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Data acquisition hardware will be based on PCI cards. There will be about 300 rack-mounted computers. The Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is the SNS control system communication standard. This paper describes the approaches, implementation, and features of LabVIEW library to CA for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. We also discuss how the library implements the asynchronous CA monitor routine using LabVIEW's occurrence mechanism instead of a callback function (which is not available in LabVIEW). The library is used to acquire accelerator data and applications have been ...

  2. Design and application of an EPICS compatible slow plant system controller in J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, M. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zheng, W., E-mail: zhengwei@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhuang, G.; Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Underlying functionalities are encapsulated into plug-and-play modules. • The slow controller is EPICS compatible. • The slow controller can work as PSH. - Abstract: J-TEXT tokamak has recently implemented J-TEXT COntrol, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) system on the principle of ITER CODAC. The control network in J-TEXT CODAC system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). However, former slow plant system controllers in J-TEXT did not support EPICS. Therefore, J-TEXT has designed an EPICS compatible slow controller. And moreover, the slow controller also acts the role of Plant System Host (PSH), which helps non-EPICS controllers to keep working in J-TEXT CODAC system. The basic functionalities dealing with user defined tasks have been modularized into driver or plug-in modules, which are plug-and-play and configured with XML files according to specific control task. In this case, developers are able to implement various kinds of control tasks with these reusable modules, regardless of how the lower-lever functions are implemented, and mainly focusing on control algorithm. And it is possible to develop custom-built modules by themselves. This paper presents design of the slow controller. Some applications of the slow controller have been deployed in J-TEXT, and will be introduced in this paper.

  3. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitor...

  4. Potential and requirements for a standarized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Brants, H.A.M.; Buurma-Rethans, E.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Dofkova, M.; Donne, le C.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Huybrechts, I.; Keyzer, de W.; Laan, van der J.D.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Niekerk, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to

  5. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Freisling, H.; Huybrechts, I.; Ocke, M.C.; Niekerk, E.M.; Rossum, van C.; Bellemans, M.; Maeyer, de M.; Lafay, L.; Krems, C.; Amiano, P.; Trolle, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary

  6. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978......-wide for prospective investigations on the aetiology of cancers (and other diseases) that can integrate questionnaire data on lifestyle and diet, biomarkers of diet and of endogenous metabolism (e.g. hormones and growth factors) and genetic polymorphisms. First results of case-control studies nested within the cohort...... are expected early in 2003. The present paper provides a description of the EPIC study, with the aim of simplifying reference to it in future papers reporting substantive or methodological studies carried out in the EPIC cohort....

  7. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  8. A new reliable index to measure individual deprivation: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Emilie; Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Poirier, Gilles; Sass, Catherine; Vendittelli, Françoise; Moulin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Deprivation is associated with inequalities in health care and higher morbidity and mortality. To assess the reliability of a new individual deprivation score, the EPICES score and to analyse the association between the Townsend index, the Carstairs index and the EPICES score and causes of death in one French administrative region. Eligible patients were 16 years old or more who had come for consultation in Health Examination Centres of the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. An ecological study was performed between 2002 and 2007 in the 392 districts of this administrative region. The EPICES score was compared with the Townsend and the Carstairs indices. These three measurements of deprivation were compared with social characteristics, indicators of morbidity, health-care use and mortality and specific causes of death. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the reliability of the EPICES score. The association between deprivation and mortality was assessed by comparison of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) between the most and least deprived districts. The EPICES score was strongly correlated with the Townsend and Carstairs indices and with the health indicators measured. SMR increased with deprivation and the higher the deprivation the higher the SMR for all-cause mortality, premature and avoidable deaths and for most specific causes of death. The individual deprivation EPICES score is reliable. Deprivation was related to excess death rate, which clearly indicates that deprivation is a determinant factor that should be considered systematically by health policy makers and health-care providers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential and requirements for a standardized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Slimani, N; Brants, H; Buurma-Rethans, E; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Dofkova, M; le Donne, C; Freisling, H; Geelen, A; Huybrechts, I; De Keyzer, W; van der Laan, J D; Lafay, L; Lillegaard, I T; Niekerk, E M; de Vries, J H; Wilson-van den Hooven, E C; de Boer, E J

    2011-07-01

    To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to discuss potentials and barriers for a harmonized pan-European food consumption survey. The paper is based on the experiences in the 'European Food Consumption and Validation' Project, which included updating six existing and preparing one new country-specific EPIC-Soft version, applying EPIC-Soft in validation and feasibility studies, and estimating the intake of nutrients and flavoring substances. The experiences were discussed in the September 2009 workshop 'Pan-European Food Consumption Surveys--for Standardized and Comparable Transnational Data Collection'. EPIC-Soft is suitable for detailed and standardized food consumption data collection in pan-European food consumption surveys. A thorough preparation of all aspects of the food consumption survey is important for the quality and efficiency during data collection and processing. The preparation and data-handling phase of working with EPIC-Soft is labor intensive and requires trained, motivated and qualified personnel. Given the suitability of EPIC-Soft as standardized dietary assessment tool in European dietary monitoring, the proposed strategy toward a pan-European food consumption survey is to prepare well, to allow flexibility in national extensions and to start with a limited number of countries that are interested.

  10. Critical evaluation of the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip microarray for whole-genome DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidsley, Ruth; Zotenko, Elena; Peters, Timothy J; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Risbridger, Gail P; Molloy, Peter; Van Djik, Susan; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Stirzaker, Clare; Clark, Susan J

    2016-10-07

    In recent years the Illumina HumanMethylation450 (HM450) BeadChip has provided a user-friendly platform to profile DNA methylation in human samples. However, HM450 lacked coverage of distal regulatory elements. Illumina have now released the MethylationEPIC (EPIC) BeadChip, with new content specifically designed to target these regions. We have used HM450 and whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS) to perform a critical evaluation of the new EPIC array platform. EPIC covers over 850,000 CpG sites, including >90 % of the CpGs from the HM450 and an additional 413,743 CpGs. Even though the additional probes improve the coverage of regulatory elements, including 58 % of FANTOM5 enhancers, only 7 % distal and 27 % proximal ENCODE regulatory elements are represented. Detailed comparisons of regulatory elements from EPIC and WGBS show that a single EPIC probe is not always informative for those distal regulatory elements showing variable methylation across the region. However, overall data from the EPIC array at single loci are highly reproducible across technical and biological replicates and demonstrate high correlation with HM450 and WGBS data. We show that the HM450 and EPIC arrays distinguish differentially methylated probes, but the absolute agreement depends on the threshold set for each platform. Finally, we provide an annotated list of probes whose signal could be affected by cross-hybridisation or underlying genetic variation. The EPIC array is a significant improvement over the HM450 array, with increased genome coverage of regulatory regions and high reproducibility and reliability, providing a valuable tool for high-throughput human methylome analyses from diverse clinical samples.

  11. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, N; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Freisling, H; Huybrechts, I; Ocké, M C; Niekerk, E M; van Rossum, C; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Lafay, L; Krems, C; Amiano, P; Trolle, E; Geelen, A; de Vries, J H; de Boer, E J

    2011-07-01

    The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitoring. Within European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL), EPIC-Soft was adapted and further developed on various aspects that were required to optimize its use. In this paper, we present the structure and main interview steps of the EPIC-Soft program, after implementation of a series of new specifications deemed to satisfy specific requirements of pan-European monitoring surveys and other international studies. Updates to optimize the EPIC-Soft program were ascertained according to the following stepwise approach: (1) identification of requested specifications to be potentially implemented through an ad hoc 'EPIC-Soft specifications questionnaire' sent to past, current and possible future users of the software; (2) evaluation of the specifications in collaboration with two ad hoc task force groups and through a workshop; (3) development of a technical solution for each retained specification; (4) implementation of the specifications by software developers; (5) testing and amendment of bugs. A number of new specifications and facilities were implemented to EPIC-Soft program. In addition, the software underwent a full reprogramming and migration to a modern Windows environment, including changes in its internal architecture and user interface. Although the overall concept and structure of the initial software were not changed substantially, these improvements ease the current and future use of EPIC-Soft and increase further its adaptation to other countries and study contexts. EPIC-Soft is enriched with further functions and facilities expected to fulfil specific needs of pan-European dietary monitoring and risk assessment purposes. The validity, feasibility and relevance of this software for

  12. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma : The EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Renee T.; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as); Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argueelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandstrom, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among

  13. The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: EPIC 228732031b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Gandolfi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-short-period planet and summarize the properties of all such planets for which the mass and radius have been measured. The new planet, EPIC 228732031b, was discovered in K2 Campaign 10. It has a radius of {1.81}-0.12+0.16 {R}\\oplus and orbits a G dwarf with ...

  14. [Comment on barren lands: An epic search for diamonds in the North American Arctic Klondike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    In the book review of Barren Lands: An Epic Search for Diamonds in the North American Arctic (Eos, 13 May 2003), one sentence caught my eye:“the man who triggered a mining stampede not seen since the Klondike Gold Rush of 1849.”

  15. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    are a signature of period doubling of this oscillation; we note that this phenomenon is ubiquitous in RRc and RRd stars observed from space, and from ground with sufficient precision. The non-radial mode and subharmonic frequencies are not constant in frequency or in amplitude. The amplitude spectrum of EPIC...

  16. Performance Comparison of EPICS IOC and MARTe in a Hard Real-Time Control Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalace, Antonio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Neto, A.; De Tommasi, G.; Sartori, F.; Valcarcel, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    EPICS is used worldwide mostly for controlling accelerators and large experimental physics facilities. Although EPICS is well fit for the design and development of automation systems, which are typically VME or PLC-based systems, and for soft real-time systems, it may present several drawbacks when used to develop hard real-time systems/applications especially when general purpose operating systems as plain Linux are chosen. This is in particular true in fusion research devices typically employing several hard real-time systems, such as the magnetic control systems, that may require strict determinism, and high performance in terms of jitter and latency. Serious deterioration of important plasma parameters may happen otherwise, possibly leading to an abrupt termination of the plasma discharge. The MARTe framework has been recently developed to fulfill the demanding requirements for such real-time systems that are alike to run on general purpose operating systems, possibly integrated with the low-latency real-time preemption patches. MARTe has been adopted to develop a number of real-time systems in different Tokamaks. In this paper, we first summarize differences and similarities between EPICS IOC and MARTe. Then we report on a set of performance measurements executed on an x86 64 bit multicore machine running Linux with an IO control algorithm implemented in an EPICS IOC and in MARTe.

  17. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Anindya, E-mail: r-ani@vecc.gov.in; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  18. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  19. Poetics of the Epic and Survivals of the Genre in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to suggest that the ongoing and robust tradition of bringing together excerpts from legends, praise poems, songs and genealogical recitations during national ceremonies and festivals such as Incwala, vouch for an erstwhile epic culture in Swaziland. International Journal of Humanistic Studies Vol.3 2004: ...

  20. Risk of endometrial cancer in relationship to cigarette smoking : Results from the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AI-Zoughool, Mustafa; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Tjormeland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Gauthier, Estelle; Linseisen, Jakob; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Schulz, Mandy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Chryssa, Travezea; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Berrino, Franco; Pallilo, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boshuizen, Hendrick C.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Gram, Inger T.; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Agudo, Antonio; Larranaga, Nerea; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Lundin, Eva; Halmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Jenab, Mazda; Cust, Anne E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that cigarette smoking reduces the risk of endometrial cancer. We examined data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to analyze further aspects of the smoking-endometrial cancer relationship, such as possible

  1. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as…

  2. Mediterranean Style Diet and 12-Year Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases: The Epic-NL Cohort Stusy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Nooyens, A.J.C.; Kromhout, D.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Beulens, W.J.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita4, B.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis showed that a Mediterranean style diet may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Studies on disease-specific associations are limited. We evaluated the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) in relation to incidence of total and specific CVDs. Methods: The EPIC-NL

  3. Respondents' evaluation of the 24-h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft) in the EFCOVAL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Keyzer, de W.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Ruprich, J.; Lafay, L.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Niekerk, E.M.; Margaritis, I.; Rehurkova, I.; Crispim, S.P.; Freisling, H.; Henauw, de S.; Slimani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve participation rate, accuracy and respondents’ compliance, it is important to know the respondents’ viewpoint. Objective: To evaluate respondents’ preferences and perception about the EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European

  4. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode to that of t...

  5. Serial Interface through Stream Protocol on EPICS Platform for Distributed Control and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Arnab; Srivastava, Amit K.; Sunil, S.; Khan, Ziauddin

    2017-04-01

    Remote operation of any equipment or device is implemented in distributed systems in order to control and proper monitoring of process values. For such remote operations, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used as one of the important software tool for control and monitoring of a wide range of scientific parameters. A hardware interface is developed for implementation of EPICS software so that different equipment such as data converters, power supplies, pump controllers etc. could be remotely operated through stream protocol. EPICS base was setup on windows as well as Linux operating system for control and monitoring while EPICS modules such as asyn and stream device were used to interface the equipment with standard RS-232/RS-485 protocol. Stream Device protocol communicates with the serial line with an interface to asyn drivers. Graphical user interface and alarm handling were implemented with Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM) and Alarm Handler (ALH) command line channel access utility tools. This paper will describe the developed application which was tested with different equipment and devices serially interfaced to the PCs on a distributed network.

  6. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face

  7. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Casagrande, C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Lotze, G.; Kroke, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Bellegotti, M.; Ocké, M.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Agudo, A.; Larranaga, N.; Mattisson, I.; Andren, C.; Johansson, I.; Davey, G.; Welch, A.A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Saracci, R.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer.

  8. Politics in poetry: epic poetry as a critique of Dutch culture

    OpenAIRE

    O.M. Heynders

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a Dutch volume of epic poetry, using a disciplinary strategy (concepts and devices from narrative studies) and a cultural analytical and rhetorical approach. The volume “Roeshoofd hemelt” by Joost Zwagerman (2005) is a political poetic text that raises fundamental questions on issues of mental illness and on consumerism in contemporary Dutch society.

  9. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother…

  10. Politics in poetry: epic poetry as a critique of Dutch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Heynders

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a Dutch volume of epic poetry, using a disciplinary strategy (concepts and devices from narrative studies and a cultural analytical and rhetorical approach. The volume “Roeshoofd hemelt” by Joost Zwagerman (2005 is a political poetic text that raises fundamental questions on issues of mental illness and on consumerism in contemporary Dutch society.

  11. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  13. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  14. ATCA Shelf Manager EPICS device support for ITER CODAC Core System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Bruno, E-mail: bsantos@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Cruz, Nuno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • This architecture targets the health management integration into the NDS. • The developed solution supports the ShM redundancy features, specified by ATCA. • The average RTT was around 59 ms and in 99.9% of the cases was less than 130 ms. • Without losing any update cycle, can monitor a system shelf with approximately 400 sensors. • This solution enables the user to configure the entire system in DB files and st.cmd. - Abstract: The ITER CODAC Core System (CCS) is responsible for plant Instrumentation and Control (I&C) supervising and monitoring. This system uses the Enhanced Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Channel Access (CA) protocol as the interface with the Plant Operation Network (PON). This paper presents a generic EPICS device support developed for the integration of the ATCA Shelf Manager (ShM) into the ITER CCS, providing scalability and easy configuration. The device support uses the available HTTP interface on Shelf Manager in the communication layer. Both HTTP server and sensors/actuators definitions can be configured using the EPICS database file and the Input/Output Controller (IOC) initialization file. A proposal based on this device is also presented, targeting the Nominal Device Support (NDS) for health management. The EPICS device support running in an IOC provides Process Variables (PV) to the PON network with the system information and these PVs can be used by all CA clients, such as EPICS user interface clients, alarm systems and archive systems. Operation with redundant ATCA ShMs and device support scalability tests were performed and the results are presented.

  15. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  16. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  17. Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Büchner, F.L.; Kampman, E.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline

  18. THE STUDIES ABOUT THE EPIC OF OĞUZ KAAN / OĞUZ KAĞAN DESTANI ÜZERINE YAPILAN ÇALISMALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin BARS (M.A.H.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The epic of Oğuz Kaan is one of the most prominent Turkishepics existing at hand today. The epic of Oğuz Kaan is amasterpiece which expresses all the Turkish Notion’s heroic life. Thestories in the epic were constituted in very ancient times. However,because of the original form of the epic had lost it was exposed tosome changes, and transformed into stories. The epic of Oğuz Kaanexpanded with the adventures descendants of Oğuz and the adventuresof their chieftains as time passes, and a significant Oğuznâme cameinto existence. Some boks and articles related with the epic of OğuzKaan will be introduced in this article.

  19. Cross-calibrating XMM-Newton's EPIC effective areas for a default empirical correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, C.; Smith, M.; Tenzer, C.; Stuhlinger, M.; Santangelo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Since SAS version 14.0, there is an option available to XMM-Newton users to apply an empirical on-axis effective area correction to reconcile the three EPIC cameras amongst themselves via an energy-dependent multiplicative factor. However, CORRAREA, which is the corresponding extension in the XMM calibration files, is currently only implemented as a non-default tool as it is not yet considered fully validated and requires recalibration. The goal is to make CORRAREA a default correction, for which we perform the necessary data reduction, spectral fitting and analysis, including an automation of the process as far as possible for testing purposes and future updates. This poster introduces the project and shows the current status of the recalibration. Further development of the tool is intended to bring the EPIC cameras in line with instruments on other observatories.

  20. In the prehistory of the Cid epic poetry: el Cid was not el Cid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While he was alive, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar was given the title of «Campeador»; but never that of «Mio Cid», which belonged to Mio Cid Muño Muñoz, a warrior close to Rodrigo until his death in 1099. Muñoz’s deeds and epic title seem to have been fused with those of Rodrigo in the story-telling process that would climax in the Cantar de Mio Cid of 1206, an earlier version of which must have been popular in the 1180’s, when men began to call themselves «Mio Cid», or even «El Cid», a fashion which echoes the earlier one related to the epic couple of Roland and Olivier.

  1. Gregory of Nazianzus's De rebus suis and the tradition of epic didactic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Čelica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregory's poem De rebus suis (Carm.2.1.1 is examined in this article from the point of view both of its content and of its literary and stylistic features. In content, the poem is personal and reflexive, and its central theme appears to be a crisis of faith that its author had experienced in his later years. In form, it has all the characteristics of the epic didactic genre: it is metaphrastic in nature (i.e., it turns prose material into verse form; it is written in the archaizing epic language; it makes use of the modified Homeric simile (the so-called multiple correspondence simile; and it carefully avoids the use of specific liturgical terms and expressions replacing them instead with various poetic paraphrases. The overall conceptual simplicity of the poem is generic too, and it may have been modeled on the earliest known representative of the genre, Hesiod's Works and Days. .

  2. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  3. The joys or misfortunes of love in the courtly epics of Djado Sékou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theme of love permeates Niger's courtly epic as the narratives “Labdedjo” by Tinguizi and “Garba Mama” by Djéliba Badjo well exemplify. Djado Sékou is one of the storytellers who have sung the most of love, in particular, the love of men for one woman, Awli Djawando. Along with Lobbo Soga, Takadé Waldé, ...

  4. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  5. The sequels of the Fortunati ambo (Verg., Aen. IX 446-449: Epic and Empire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Río Torres-Murciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the well known apostrophe fortunati ambo (Aen. IX 446-449, Virgil ties literary durableness, which is a traditional aim of epic poetry, to the permanence of Roman empire. Nevertheless, this Virgilian analogy is put into question not only by Lucan, who overtly refutes it, but also by the epigones who, like Valerius Flaccus, Silius Italicus and Statius, look for their own way following in the great predecessor’s footsteps.

  6. Seismic Analysis of Pulsating Subdwarf B Star EPIC 212508753 Using the K2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, John; Reed, Michael D.; Baran, Andrzej; Telting, John H.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2018-01-01

    EPIC 212508753 is a subdwarf B (hot horizontal branch, sdB) star which has been observed by the Kepler Space Telescope during its extended mission, K2, in short cadence mode where a new image is obtained roughly every minute for about 75 days. Using time series analysis of the data we have found the star to be a rare hybrid pulsator with both g- and p-mode pulsations where most of the pulsations are p modes. These pulsators are extremely important as p modes sample near the surface and g modes can sample deeper, near to the core. This means that hybrid pulsators allow us to characterize the entire star. The hotter, predominantly p-mode pulsators are rarer so that makes EPIC 212508753 particularly interesting for seismic study. In this poster we will present preliminary results of our analysis of K2 data. We have discovered frequency multiplets in both the p- and g-mode regions which we use to identify pulsation modes and determine that EPIC 212508753 rotates like a solid body, in contrast to some other sdB stars.

  7. St Jude Epic heart valve bioprostheses versus native human and porcine aortic valves - comparison of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, Martins; Stradins, Peteris; Lacis, Romans; Ozolanta, Iveta; Pavars, Janis; Kasyanov, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    The major problem with heart valve bioprostheses made from chemically treated porcine aortic valves is their limited longevity caused by gradual deterioration, which has a causal link with valve tissue mechanical properties. To our best knowledge, there are no published studies on the mechanical properties of modern, commercially available bioprostheses comparing them to native human valves. The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of St Jude Epic bioprostheses and to compare them with native human and porcine aortic valves. Leaflets from eight porcine aortic valves and six Epic bioprostheses were analyzed using uni-axial tensile tests in radial and circumferential directions. Mechanical properties of human valves have been previously published by our group. Results are represented as mean values+/-S.D. Circumferential direction. Modulus of elasticity of Epic bioprostheses in circumferential direction at the level of stress 1.0 MPa is 101.99+/-58.24 MPa, 42.3+/-4.96 MPa for native porcine and 15.34+/-3.84 MPa for human aortic valves. Ultimate stress is highest for Epic bioprostheses 5.77+/-1.94 MPa, human valves have ultimate stress of 1.74+/-0.29 MPa and porcine 1.58+/-0.26 MPa. Ultimate strain in circumferential direction is highest for human valves 18.35+/-7.61% followed by 7.26+/-0.69% for porcine valves and 5.95+/-1.54% for Epic bioprostheses. Radial direction. Modulus of elasticity in radial direction is 9.18+/-1.81 MPa for Epic bioprostheses, 5.33+/-0.61 MPa for native porcine, and 1.98+/-0.15 MPa for human aortic valve leaflets. In the radial direction ultimate stress is highest for Epic bioprostheses 0.7+/-0.21 MPa followed by native porcine valves 0.55+/-0.11 MPa and 0.32+/-0.04 MPa for human valves. For human valves ultimate strain is 23.92+/-4.87%, for native porcine valves 8.57+/-0.8% and 7.92+/-1.74% for Epic bioprostheses. Epic bioprostheses have non-linear stress-strain behavior similar to native valve tissue, but they

  8. Standardisation of an European end-user nutrient database for nutritional epidemiology: what can we learn from the EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB) project?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    the absence of a reference European nutrient database for international nutritional epidemiology studies, the EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB) project has been set up to standardise nutrient databases (NDBs) across 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study. This paper reports the main...

  9. EPIC-Heart: The cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danesh, J.; Saracci, R.; Berglund, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Overvad, K.; Panico, S.; Thompson, S.; Fournier, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Canonico, M.; Kaaks, R.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Weikert, C.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, S.P.; Jensen, M.K.; Quiros, J.R.; Gonzalez-Svatetz, C.A.; Sanchez-Perez, M.J.; Larranaga, N.; Navarro Sanchez, C.; Moreno Iribas, C.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.; Roddam, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Trichopoulous, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Mattiello, A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Grobbee, D.E.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Melander, O.; Hallmans, G.; Wennberg, P.; Lund, E.; Kumle, M.; Skeie, G.; Ferrari, P.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2007-01-01

    EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the

  10. Pathology findings and validation of gastric and esophageal cancer cases in a European cohort (EPIC/EUR-GAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Fátima; Moutinho, Cátia; Pera, Guillem

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardia, non-cardia and intestinal and diffuse subtypes of gastric cancer may have different trends and etiological factors. However, the available information is not always collected in population cancer registries, and heterogeneous criteria have been applied for the histopathological...... classification of tumors. We describe the pathological features of incident gastric and esophageal cancers identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an investigation on gastric and esophageal cancer (EUR-GAST) in the EPIC project......, a validation study of diagnoses reported by EPIC centers was conducted by a European panel of pathologists. Original pathology reports, stained slides of tumors and the respective paraffin blocks were requested from the centers. RESULTS: The whole series encompassed 467 cancer cases (gastric and esophageal...

  11. Estimation of Leaf Area Index and its Sunlit Portion from DSCOVR EPIC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.; Yan, L.; Chen, C.; Yan, K.; Park, T.; Myneni, R. B.; Song, W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth at 16 km resolution (in equatorial zone) every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168o and 176o at ten UV to Near-IR narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (1.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (1.7) nm, 687.8 (0.6) nm, 764.0 (1.7) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents the theoretical basis of the algorithm designed for the generation of leaf area index (LAI) and diurnal course of sunlit leaf area index (SLAI) from EPIC Bidirectional Reflectance Factor of vegetated land. LAI and SLAI are defined as the total hemi-surface and sunlit leaf semi-surface per unit ground area. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. Leaf area and its sunlit portion are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity and carbon/nitrogen cycle. Status of the EPIC LAI/SLAI product and its validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  12. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Krasowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS.

  13. BRECHT'S EPIC THEATRE AS A MODERN AVANT-GARDE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POSTMODERN THEATRE/DRAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ribut Basuki

    2002-01-01

    As one of the most influential figures in theatre, Bertolt Brecht has stamped his legacy in the world theatre. His search for a new kind of theatre made his theatre a modern avant-garde which has left its traces in postmodern theatres. This paper tries to investigate Brecht's epic theatre as a modern avant-garde and its influence in postmodern theatre. His epic theatre was in fact a revolt against the main stream modern theatre in which Brecht openly declares that theatre should be 'pol...

  14. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Hardy; S.V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn; S. Zhang

    2005-08-21

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS.

  15. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, D; Shinn, M D; Zhang, S

    2005-01-01

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS

  16. Soft real-time EPICS extensions for fast control: A case study applied to a TCV equilibrium algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R., E-mail: rodrigo.castro@visite.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Romero, J.A.; Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Nieto, J.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Barrera, E.; De Arcas, G. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Implementation of a soft real-time control system based on EPICS technology. • High data throughput system control implementation. • GPU technology applied to fast control. • EPICS fast control based solution. • Fast control and data acquisition in Linux. - Abstract: For new control systems development, ITER distributes CODAC Core System that is a software package based on Linux RedHat, and includes EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as software control system solution. EPICS technology is being widely used for implementing control systems in research experiments and it is a very well tested technology, but presents important lacks to meet fast control requirements. To manage and process massive amounts of acquired data, EPICS requires additional functions such as: data block oriented transmissions, links with speed-optimized data buffers and synchronization mechanisms not based on system interruptions. This EPICS limitation turned out clearly during the development of the Fast Plant System Controller Prototype for ITER based on PXIe platform. In this work, we present a solution that, on the one hand, is completely compatible and based on EPCIS technology, and on the other hand, extends EPICS technology for implementing high performance fast control systems with soft-real time characteristics. This development includes components such as: data acquisition, processing, monitoring, data archiving, and data streaming (via network and shared memory). Additionally, it is important to remark that this system is compatible with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and is able to integrate MatLab code through MatLab engine connections. It preserves EPICS modularity, enabling system modification or extension with a simple change of configuration, and finally it enables parallelization based on data distribution to different processing components. With the objective of illustrating the presented solution in an actual

  17. BRECHT'S EPIC THEATRE AS A MODERN AVANT-GARDE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POSTMODERN THEATRE/DRAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ribut Basuki

    2002-01-01

    As one of the most influential figures in theatre, Bertolt Brecht has stamped his legacy in the world theatre. His search for a new kind of theatre made his theatre a modern avant-garde which has left its traces in postmodern theatres. This paper tries to investigate Brecht's epic theatre as a modern avant-garde and its influence in postmodern theatre. His epic theatre was in fact a revolt against the main stream modern theatre in which Brecht openly declares that theatre should be 'political...

  18. EPIC211089792 b: an aligned and inflated hot jupiter in a young visual binary

    OpenAIRE

    Santerne, A.; Hébrard, G.; Lillo-Box, J; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O; Barrado, D.; Debackere, A.; Deleuil, M.; Mena, E. Delgado; Montalto, M.; Pollacco, D.; Osborn, H. P.; Sousa, S. G.; Abe, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we report the discovery of a new hot Jupiter, EPIC211089792 b, first detected by the Super-WASP observatory and then by the K2 space mission during its campaign 4. The planet has a period of 3.25d, a mass of 0.73 +/- 0.04 Mjup, and a radius of 1.19 +/- 0.02 Rjup. The host star is a relatively bright (V=12.5) G7 dwarf with a nearby K5V companion. Based on stellar rotation and the abundance of Lithium, we find that the system might be as young as about 450 Myr. The observat...

  19. Heteroglossia and Discoursive Traditions: the Burlesque Style in Barco Centenera’s Epic Poem Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Ortiz Gambetta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the burlesque style in Martin del Barco Centenera’s epic poem Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata. In the first place, the notion of «discoursive traditions» is treated to give a wide framing to the text. Then, the concept of heteroglossia is analyzed and commented its use in the poem, regarding the use of anecdotes and three burlesque resources: irony, satire and grotesque. All these features enjoy the poem´s didactic style and intention of the work,...

  20. The word and music of epic song: From syncretism to sung poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the relationship between verbal and musical components of Serbian epic songs with rhythm seen as a morphological dominant. My aim is to enrich the musicological inquiry of this issue and provide a contribution that complements existing folkloristic and philological research outcomes. In terms of methodology, the study promotes the necessity of recording the performers’ recited versions of songs for the purposes of investigating the relationships between verbal and musical communication, as well as an interdisciplinary approach to these issues. Two paradigmatic examples are examined, each performed by the guslar representative of his respective period of guslar practice: Tanasije Vućić (1883-1937 and Boško Vujačić (b. 1947. The observed periods span less than one century, yielding an insignificant passage of time in terms of epic historicism, but nonetheless indicate significant differences between these two guslars’ sung and narrated rhythms. Compared to Vujačić, Vućić’s singing demonstrates a considerably smaller range of the absolute duration of the sung syllables (and therefore of an entire verse, and subsequently a much stricter syllabicity. Furthermore, Vućić’s singing reflects the ideal type of “isochronous pulse in duple meter” in a rather high degree, while Vujačić more consistently refers to narration, whereas the trochaic tendency is noticeable only at the initial part of the verse. The connections between these focused individual styles are discussed through the lens of guslars’ transition from amateur to professional capacity and the changed function of epics. Considering the consequences of the policy of invalid representation and experiencing epic song as poetry (void of musical component, and on the other hand, the effects of the strategy insistent on “citatory” (verbatim treatment of poetic templates that leads to suppressing poetic creativity, I intend to draw attention of the

  1. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... population differed slightly from the overall cohort but the differences were small for most characteristics and centres. The overall results suggest that, after adjustment for age, dietary intakes estimated from calibration samples can reasonably be interpreted as representative of the main cohorts in most...

  2. A Networks-Science Investigation into the Epic Poems of Ossian

    CERN Document Server

    Yose, Joseph; MacCarron, Pádraig; Platini, Thierry; Tonra, Justin

    2016-01-01

    In 1760 James Macpherson published the first volume of a series of epic poems which he claimed to have translated into English from ancient Scottish-Gaelic sources. The poems, which purported to have been composed by a third-century bard named Ossian, quickly achieved wide international acclaim. They invited comparisons with major works of the epic tradition, including Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and effected a profound influence on the emergent Romantic period in literature and the arts. However, the work also provoked one of the most famous literary controversies of all time, colouring the reception of the poetry to this day. The authenticity of the poems was questioned by some scholars, while others protested that they misappropriated material from Irish mythological sources. Recent years have seen a growing critical interest in Ossian, initiated by revisionist and counter-revisionist scholarship and by the two-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of the first collected edition of the poems in 1765. Here we inv...

  3. An Analysis of Pulsating Subdwarf B Star EPIC 203948264 Observed During Campaign 2 of K2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketzer Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary analysis of the newly–discovered pulsating subdwarf B (sdB star EPIC 203948264. The target was observed for 83 days in short cadence mode during Campaign 2 of K2, the two–gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. A time–series analysis of the data revealed 22 independent pulsation frequencies in the g–mode region ranging from 100 to 600 μHz (0:5 to 2:8 hours. The main method we use to identify pulsation modes is asymptotic period spacing, and we were able to assign all but one of the pulsations to either l = 1 or l = 2. The average period spacings of both sequences are 261:34 ± 0.78 s and 151:18 ± 0.34 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes range from 0.77 ppt down to the detection limit at 0.212 ppt, and are not stable over the duration of the campaign. We detected one possible low–amplitude, l = 2, rotationally split multiplet, which allowed us to constrain the rotation period to 46 days or longer. This makes EPIC 203948264 another slowly rotating sdB star.

  4. Enabling Future Large Searches for Exoplanet Auroral Emission with the EPIC Correlator Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.

    2017-05-01

    Extrasolar planets are expected to emit strong ``auroral'' emission at radio frequencies generated by the interaction of the host star's stellar winds with the planet's magnetosphere through electron-cyclotron maser emission. This transient emission lasts a few seconds to days and is almost fully circularly polarized. Detecting this emission in exoplanets is a critical probe of their magnetospheres and thus their interior compositions and habitability. The intensity and detectability of the emission depends on the suitability of many factors to the observing parameters such as the strength of the stellar wind power, the planetary magnetosphere cross-section, the highly beamed and coherent nature of electron-cyclotron emission, and narrow ranges of the planet's orbital phase. Large areas of sky must be surveyed continuously to high sensitivity to detect auroral emission. Next-generation radio telescopes with wide fields of view, large collecting areas and high efficiency are needed for these searches. This poses challenges to traditional correlator architectures whose computational cost scales as the square of the number of antennas. I will present a novel radio aperture synthesis imaging architecture - E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator (EPIC) - whose all-sky and full Stokes imaging capabilities will not only address the aforementioned factors preventing detection but also solve the computational challenges posed by large arrays. Compared to traditional imaging, EPIC is inherently fast and thus presents the unique advantage of probing transient timescales ranging orders of magnitude from tens of microseconds to days at no additional cost.

  5. An Analysis of Pulsating Subdwarf B Star EPIC 203948264 Observed During Campaign 2 of K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzer, Laura; Reed, Mike

    2017-10-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the newly-discovered pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) star EPIC 203948264. The target was observed for 83 days in short cadence mode during Campaign 2 of K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. A time-series analysis of the data revealed 22 independent pulsation frequencies in the g-mode region ranging from 100 to 600 μHz (0:5 to 2:8 hours). The main method we use to identify pulsation modes is asymptotic period spacing, and we were able to assign all but one of the pulsations to either l = 1 or l = 2. The average period spacings of both sequences are 261:34 ± 0.78 s and 151:18 ± 0.34 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes range from 0.77 ppt down to the detection limit at 0.212 ppt, and are not stable over the duration of the campaign. We detected one possible low-amplitude, l = 2, rotationally split multiplet, which allowed us to constrain the rotation period to 46 days or longer. This makes EPIC 203948264 another slowly rotating sdB star.

  6. The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC) at Centro de Astrobiología, Spain: Reproducibility and verification of scaling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormö, J.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G.; Melero Asensio, I.

    2012-09-01

    The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC) consists of a 20.5mm caliber, compressed gas gun and a 7m wide test bed. It is possible to vary the projectile size and density, the velocity up to about 5001n/"s, the impact angle. and the target composition. The EPIC is especially designed for the analysis of impacts into unconsolidated and liquid targets. i.e. allowing the use of gravity scaling. The general objective with the EPIC is to analyze the cratering and modification processes at wet-target (e.g. marinle) impacts. We have carried out 14 shots into dry sand targets with two projectile compositions (light and weak; heavy and strong), at two impact angles. at three impact velocities, and in both quarter-space and half- space geometries. We recorded the impacts with a high-speed camera and compared the results with numerical simulations using iSALE. The evaluation demonstrated that there are noticeable differences between the results from the two projectile types, but that the crater dimensions are consistent with scaling laws based on other impact experiments [1]. This proves the usefulness of the EPIC in the analysis of natural impacts.

  7. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigati...

  8. The coal epic at Freyming-Merlebach; L'epopee du charbon a Freyming-Merlebach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This information document has been realized on the closure of the Merlebach site. It is devoted to the coal epic at Freyming-Merlebach. The historical aspects of the exploitation, the working conditions, the economic and environmental aspects of the mine and the today situation are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and risk prediction in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Trip, Mieke D.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Luben, Robert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-01-01

    Objective The value of a family history for coronary heart disease (CHD) in addition to established cardiovascular risk factors in predicting an individual's risk of CHD is unclear. In the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort, the authors tested whether adding family

  10. Physical activity of subjects aged 50-64 years involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftenberger, M; Schuit, A.J.; Tormo, M J; Boeing, H; Wareham, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kumle, M; Hjartåker, A; Chirlaque, M D; Ardanaz, E; Andren, C; Lindahl, B; Peeters, P H M; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Bergmann, M M; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Salvini, S; Panico, S; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe physical activity of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a European prospective cohort study. Subjects: This analysis was restricted to participants in the age group

  11. The association between diet and obesity in specific European cohorts: DiOgenes and EPIC-PANACEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Huaidong, D.U.

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from two projects embedded within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) on the association between dietary factors and obesity risk, in particular change in weight and waist circumference. A total of 12 publications from DiOGenes and

  12. Fruits and vegetables and renal cell carcinoma: findings from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikert, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Becker, N.; Linseisen, J.; Lahmann, P.H.; Arvaniti, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichoupoulou, A.; Sieri, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Ljungberg, B.; Hallmans, G.; Berglund, G.; Wirfalt, E.; Pera, G.; Dorronsoro, M.; Gurrea, A.B.; Navarro, C.; Martinez, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Allen, N.; Roddam, A.W.; Bingham, S.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake data and complete follow-up information on cancer incidence were available for 375,851 participants recruited in

  13. Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Whittaker, John; Agudo, Antonio; Vineis, Paolo; Boffetta, Paolo; Jensen, Majken K; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kyriazi, Georgia; Soukara, Stavroula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Pérez, Maria-José Sánchez; Quirós, José Ramón; Berglund, Göran; Janzon, Lars; Rasmuson, Torgny; Weinehall, Lars; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco

  14. Ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, S.; Linseisen, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Whittaker, J.; Agudo, A.; Vineis, P.; Boffetta, P.; Jensen, M.K.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Kyriazi, G.; Soukara, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Peeters, P.H.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Gram, I.T.; Lund, E.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Dorronsoro, M.; Perez, M.J.; Quiros, J.R.; Berglund, G.; Janzon, L.; Rasmuson, T.; Weinehall, L.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco

  15. Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, Valeria; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Romieu, Isabelle; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Gonzalez Svatetz, Carlos Alberto; Rodriguez, Laudina; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Key, Timothy J.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Rinaldi, Sabina; Norat, Teresa; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Background: A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: Between 1992 and 2003,

  16. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  17. Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, M; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Travier, N; Hallmans, G; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Racine, A; Clavel, F; Saieva, C; Pala, V; Tumino, R; Mattiello, A; Vineis, P; Argüelles, M; Ardanaz, E; Amiano, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J; Molina Montes, E; Key, T; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Peeters, P H; Trichopoulou, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulos, D; Boeing, H; Kaaks, R; Katzke, V; Ye, W; Sund, M; Ericson, U; Wirfält, E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Skeie, G; Åsli, L A; Weiderpass, E; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Duell, E J

    2013-10-01

    In 1994, acrylamide (AA) was classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, AA was discovered at relatively high concentrations in some starchy, plant-based foods cooked at high temperatures. A prospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the dietary intake of AA and ductal adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort using Cox regression modeling. EPIC includes >500,000 men and women aged 35-75 at enrollment from 10 European countries. AA intake was estimated for each participant by combining questionnaire-based food consumption data with a harmonized AA database derived from the EU monitoring database of AA levels in foods, and evaluated in quintiles and continuously. After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 865 first incident adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas were observed and included in the present analysis. At baseline, the mean dietary AA intake in EPIC was 26.22 µg/day. No overall association was found between continuous or quintiles of dietary AA intake and PC risk in EPIC (HR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.01 per 10 µg/day). There was no effect measure modification by smoking status, sex, diabetes, alcohol intake or geographic region. However, there was an inverse association (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.88 per 10 µg/day) between AA intake and PC risk in obese persons as defined using the body mass index (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), but not when body fatness was defined using waist and hip circumference or their ratio. Dietary intake of AA was not associated with an increased risk of PC in the EPIC cohort.

  18. Associations of anthropometric characteristics with blood cholesterol fractions among adults. The Greek EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, V; Bamia, C; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2006-08-01

    To explore the independent associations of body height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol), in a large general population sample. Cross sectional. Urban and rural areas throughout Greece. In total,10 837 volunteers, 2034 men and 8803 women, aged 25-82 years, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), who have never smoked and never been treated for dyslipidemia. None. The effect of height on non-HDL-cholesterol was opposite but in absolute terms almost as important as that of BMI with no gender interaction. Among women, hip circumference was inversely associated with non-HDL-cholesterol (standardized coefficient bst = -1.11, with standard error (s.e.)=0.42) and positively with HDL-cholesterol (bst = 0.85, s.e.= 0.12) whereas, waist circumference was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol (bst = -1.16, s.e.=0.13) and strongly positively with non-HDL-cholesterol (bst = 8.83, s.e.= 0.45). Among men, associations were generally weaker (in absolute terms by about 50%) and for hip circumference the association with non-HDL-cholesterol was actually non significantly positive. Height was inversely associated with HDL and non-HDL-cholesterol implicating early life phenomena in the regulation of these variables. Larger hip circumference among women had beneficial effects on blood cholesterol fractions by increasing HDL-cholesterol and reducing non-HDL-cholesterol, whereas among men the relevant effects were less clear cut. The detrimental consequences of large waist circumference on both HDL (reduction) and non-HDL-cholesterol (increase) were also particularly marked among women. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (World Health Organization) and supported by the

  19. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature.

  20. Patterns of alcohol consumption in 10 European countries participating in the EPIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieri, S.; Agudo, A.; Kesse, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the quantities of alcohol and types of alcoholic beverages consumed, and the timing of consumption, in centres participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). These centres, in 10 European countries......). This provided detailed information on the distribution of alcohol consumption during the day in relation to main meals, and was used to determine weekly consumption patterns. The crude and adjusted (by age, day of week and season) means of total ethanol consumption and consumption according to type of beverage...... were stratified by centre and sex. Results: Sex was a strong determinant of drinking patterns in all 10 countries. The highest total alcohol consumption was observed in the Spanish centres (San Sebastian, 41.4 g day−1) for men and in Danish centres (Copenhagen, 20.9 g day−1) for women. The lowest total...

  1. On the Road to Hokitika: The Epics of a New Constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Suarez Lafuente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse Eleanor Catton’s novel The Luminaries mainly using Paul Carter’s theory of spatial history and Catton’s own notions of the influence of astronomy upon human behaviour. The novel portraits a number of individuals who get together in a sparsely populated spot in the South Island of New Zealand and develop a gold-rush town that will eventually become actual Hokitika. Turning a natural space into a "civilized" place requires much toiling and moiling, many personal clashes and the solving of a few mysteries —eventually Hokitika will have its own history grounded and The Luminaries can be concluded in a scene that rounds up the epic construction of the city and promises, at the same time, a consistent future.

  2. Status of the EPICS-based accelerator control system of the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burandt, Christoph; Birkhan, Jonny; Enders, Joachim; Kuerzeder, Thorsten; Pietralla, Norbert; Schoesser, Thomas; Steinhorst, Manuel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Superconducting Darmstadt Electron Linear Accelerator (S-DALINAC) is the primary research instrument of the Institut fuer Kernphysik at TU Darmstadt providing beams mainly for experiments on nuclear structure physics. Its control system has been migrated to an EPICS-based system throughout the last years. The development during this phase focused on the hardware frontend layer in order to allow for basic beam operation. However, some higher-level services like archiving and save/restore have already been installed, but still need to be reworked by some degree and complemented with additional services like an alarm handling system. This contribution will show the architecture of the S-DALINAC's accelerator control system and will summarize the ongoing development of the higher-level service layer.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of EPIC 201702477 (Bayliss+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D.; Hojjatpanah, S.; Santerne, A.; Dragomir, D.; Zhou, G.; Shporer, A.; Colon, K. D.; Almenara, J.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barrado, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Brown, T.; Cameron, A.; Cochran, W. D.; Demangeon, O.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Fulton, B.; Horne, K.; Hebrard, G.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lovis, C.; Mawet, D.; Ngo, H.; Osborn, H.; Palle, E.; Petigura, E.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, N.; Sefako, R.; Siverd, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a network of fully automated telescopes. Currently there are 10 LCOGT 1m telescopes operating as part of this network, eight of which are in the southern hemisphere: three at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, three at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and two at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. Each telescope is equipped with an imaging camera; either a "Sinistro" or an SBIG STX-16803. The Sinistro is LCOGT's custom built imaging camera that features a back-illuminated 4K*4K Fairchild Imaging CCD with 15μm pixels (CCD486 BI). With a plate scale of 0.387''/pixel, the Sinistro cameras deliver a FOV of 26.6'*26.6', which is important for monitoring a sufficient number of reference stars for high-precision differential photometry. The cameras are read out by four amplifiers with 1*1 binning, with a readout time of ~45s. The SBIG STX-16803 cameras are commercial CCD cameras which feature a frontside-illuminated 4K*4K CCD with 9μm pixels-giving a field of view of 15.8'*15.8'. These cameras are typically read out in 2*2 binning mode, which results in a read-out time of 12s. The Transiting Exoplanet CHaracterisation (TECH; lcogt.net/science/exoplanets/tech-project/) project uses the 1m telescopes in the LCOGT network to photometrically characterize transiting planets and transiting planet candidates. The first transit event for EPIC201702477b monitored by the TECH project was on 2015 March 15 from CTIO. We observed the target from 01:00 UT to 08:13 UT using a Sinistro in the r-band. The exposure times were 240s, the observing conditions were photometric, and the airmass ranged from 2.3 to 1.2. We detected a full transit of EPIC 201702477b with a depth and duration consistent with that seen in the K2 data. The next transit event occurred 41 days later on 2015 April 28, and was observable from SAAO. EPIC201702477 was monitored between 17:00 UT

  4. A VXI message based communications driver and resource manager for EPICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jeffrey O.

    1994-12-01

    The VXI specification describes an open architecture instrumentation bus based on extensions of existing VME bus standards. The VXI system architecture provides for a central resource manager that identifies all VXI devices in the system, manages the system self-test and diagnostic sequence, configures the system's A24 and A32 address maps, configures the system's commander/servant hierarchies, allocates the system's interrupt request lines and initiates normal system operation. The VXI system architecture also provides for a standard set of communication protocols for use with a special class of message-based devices. A message-based communication library and resource manager were developed for use with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) in compliance with the VXI specification. The portability, performance and completeness of the author's implementation are discussed.

  5. The return of epic formulas in various Italian translations of Kosovka djevojka (The Kosovo maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradaš Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the various Italian translations of the famous Serbian popular poem Kosovka djevojka [The Kosovo Maiden] and illustrates the different interpretations and consequent translations of epic formulas in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Italy. The Parry-Lord oral formulaic theory, together with other important contributions in the field of oral studies, is a starting point for this analysis, which also takes into consideration the socio-cultural context in which these translations were produced. Translation solutions are therefore brought into relation with the poetics of individual translators and especially with the socio-cultural context of their time. Particular attention is devoted to the centuriesold Italian rhetorical tradition, which influenced even the greatest experts in popular poetry in their interpretation of the figures and clichés typical of oral production.

  6. Between orality and literacy: parallelism and repetition in Russian folk epics and their challenge to translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0mm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Oral narratives have been relatively neglected by Translation studies, for the oral as such is hard to capture in writing without losing significant elements. In this paper I will focus on certain aspects and features of oral composition displayed as signs of the complex relationship between orality and literacy. In particular, I will present a series of problems involved in the translation of Russian oral epics in English and Italian. I will explore the specific kind of interference the style of the Russian folk poems (meant to be performed has created in the translated texts. The relationship between these two semiotic systems – oral and written – produces an intricate connection of different stylistic norms in the translation, resulting in a transfer of oral devices into the translated written text. Through an analysis of translations of Russian epics in Italian and English, I will show how this transfer is realized in English and Italian, and how orality has influenced translation strategies.

  7. El estudio prospectivo europeo sobre cáncer y nutrición (EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EPIC es un estudio prospectivo multicéntrico coordinado por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación del Cancer (IARC de la OMS, que se inició en 1993 con la recogida de datos y muestras de sangre en 23 centros de 10 países europeos: Alemania, Dinamarca, España, Francia, Grecia, Holanda, Italia, Noruega, Reino Unido y Suecia, En España se realiza en 5 áreas geográficas: Asturias, Granada, Guipúzcoa, Murcia y Navarra. Se incluyeron en la cohorte 519.978 individuos (de los cuales 366.521 son mujeres y en 385.719 de ellos se dispone de muestras de sangre por análisis de laboratorio. Hasta la fecha se han identificado 24.195 casos incidentes de cáncer. Los resultados de la comparación del consumo alimentario entre los 23 centros europeos se han publicado en el 2002, en un suplemento de una revista europea de Nutrición. Los primeros resultados obtenidos en EPIC sobre la relación de la dieta y el cáncer muestran un efecto protector del consumo de fibras, frutas y verduras sobre el cáncer colo-rectal, un efecto protector del consumo de frutas sobre el cáncer de pulmón, y de las frutas y verduras sobre el tracto digestivo superior, mientras que se ha confirmado que el alto consumo de frutas y verduras no tiene efecto sobre el cáncer de próstata. Usando un diario de 7 días para evaluar el consumo de grasas saturadas, se ha confirmado que un alto consumo de estas aumenta el riesgo de cáncer de mama.

  8. A versatile trigger and synchronization module with IEEE1588 capabilities and Epics support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.M.; Ruiz, M.; Borrego, J.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion. Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Event timing and synchronization are two key aspects to improve the implementation of distributed data acquisition (dDAQ) systems such as the ones used in fusion experiments. It is very important to integrate dDAQ in control and measurement networks. This poster analyzes the applicability of the IEEE 1588 and EPICS standards to solve these problems, and presents a hardware module implementation based in both of them that allow adding these functionalities to any DAQ. The IEEE1588 standard facilitates the integration of event timing and synchronization mechanisms in distributed data acquisition systems based on IEEE 803.3 (Ethernet). An optimal implementation of such system requires the use of network interface devices which include specific hardware resources devoted to the IEE1588 functionalities. Unfortunately, this is not the approach followed in most of the large number of applications available nowadays. Therefore, most solutions are based in software and use standard hardware network interfaces. This paper presents the development of a hardware module (GI2E) with IEEE 1588 capabilities which includes USB, RS232, RS485 and CAN interfaces. This permits the integration of any DAQ element that uses these interfaces in dDAQ systems in an efficient and simple way. The module has been developed with Motorola's Coldfire MCF5234 processor and National Semiconductors's PHY DP83640T, providing it with the possibility to implement the PTP protocol of IEEE 1588 by hardware, and therefore increasing its performance over other implementations based in software. To facilitate the integration of the dDAQ system in control and measurement networks the module includes a basic IOC (Input Output Controller) functionality of the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) architecture. This document is a poster. (authors)

  9. A versatile trigger and synchronization module with IEEE1588 capabilities and EPICS support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.M., E-mail: juanmanuel.lopez@upm.e [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Borrego, J.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Event timing and synchronization are two key aspects to improve in the implementation of distributed data acquisition (dDAQ) systems such as the ones used in fusion experiments. It is also of great importance the integration of dDAQ in control and measurement networks. This paper analyzes the applicability of the IEEE1588 and EPICS standards to solve these problems, and presents a hardware module implementation based in both of them that allow adding these functionalities to any DAQ. The IEEE1588 standard facilitates the integration of event timing and synchronization mechanisms in distributed data acquisition systems based on IEEE 803.3 (Ethernet). An optimal implementation of such system requires the use of network interface devices which include specific hardware resources devoted to the IEE1588 functionalities. Unfortunately, this is not the approach followed in most of the large number of applications available nowadays. Therefore, most solutions are based in software and use standard hardware network interfaces. This paper presents the development of a hardware module (GI2E) with IEEE1588 capabilities which includes USB, RS232, RS485 and CAN interfaces. This permits to integrate any DAQ element that uses these interfaces in dDAQ systems in an efficient and simple way. The module has been developed with Motorola's Coldfire MCF5234 processor and National Semiconductors's PHY DP83640T, providing it with the possibility to implement the PTP protocol of IEEE1588 by hardware, and therefore increasing its performance over other implementations based in software. To facilitate the integration of the dDAQ system in control and measurement networks the module includes a basic Input/Output Controller (IOC) functionality of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) architecture. The paper discusses the implementation details of this module and presents its applications in advanced dDAQ applications in the fusion community.

  10. The association of education with long-term weight change in the EPIC-PANACEA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Steinbrecher, A; Linseisen, J; Hermann, S; May, A; Luan, J; Ekelund, U; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Halkjær, J; Fagherazzi, G; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agnoli, C; Tumino, R; Masala, G; Mattiello, A; Ricceri, F; Travier, N; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Chirlaque, M-D; Sanchez, M-J; Rodríguez, L; Nilsson, L M; Johansson, I; Hedblad, B; Rosvall, M; Lund, E; Braaten, T; Naska, A; Orfanos, P; Trichopoulou, A; van den Berg, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Kaaks, R; Teucher, B; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Crowe, F L; Illner, A-K; Slimani, N; Gallo, V; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Peeters, P H M

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sectionally, educational attainment is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity, but this association is less clear for weight change during adult life. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational attainment and weight change during adult life in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a cohort study with 361,467 participants and up to 10 years of follow-up. Educational attainment was categorized according to the highest obtained school level (primary school or less, vocational secondary training, other secondary education and university). Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to study education in relation to weight at age 20 years (self-reported), to annual change in weight between age 20 years and measured weight at recruitment, and to annual change in weight during follow-up time. Higher educational attainment was associated with on average a lower body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years and a lower increase in weight up to recruitment (highest vs lowest educational attainment in men: -60 g per year (95% confidence interval (CI) -80; -40), women -110 g per year (95% CI -130; -80)). Although during follow-up after recruitment an increase in body weight was observed in all educational levels, gain was lowest in men and women with a university degree (high vs low education -120 g per year (95% CI -150; -90) and -70 g per year (95% CI -90; -60), respectively). Existing differences in BMI between higher and lower educated individuals at early adulthood became more pronounced during lifetime, which possibly impacts on obesity-related chronic disease risk in persons with lower educational attainment.

  11. Implementation of epic beaker anatomic pathology at an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Larry Blau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beaker is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS offered by Epic Systems Corporation as part of its suite of health-care software and bundled with its electronic medical record, EpicCare. It is divided into two modules, Beaker anatomic pathology (Beaker AP and Beaker Clinical Pathology. In this report, we describe our experience implementing Beaker AP version 2014 at an academic medical center with a go-live date of October 2015. Methods: This report covers preimplementation preparations and challenges beginning in September 2014, issues discovered soon after go-live in October 2015, and some post go-live optimizations using data from meetings, debriefings, and the project closure document. Results: We share specific issues that we encountered during implementation, including difficulties with the proposed frozen section workflow, developing a shared specimen source dictionary, and implementation of the standard Beaker workflow in large institution with trainees. We share specific strategies that we used to overcome these issues for a successful Beaker AP implementation. Several areas of the laboratory-required adaptation of the default Beaker build parameters to meet the needs of the workflow in a busy academic medical center. In a few areas, our laboratory was unable to use the Beaker functionality to support our workflow, and we have continued to use paper or have altered our workflow. In spite of several difficulties that required creative solutions before go-live, the implementation has been successful based on satisfaction surveys completed by pathologists and others who use the software. However, optimization of Beaker workflows has continued to be an ongoing process after go-live to the present time. Conclusions: The Beaker AP LIS can be successfully implemented at an academic medical center but requires significant forethought, creative adaptation, and continued shared management of the ongoing product by

  12. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, P; Roddam, A; Allen, N; Key, T

    2007-12-01

    To compare fracture rates in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Prospective cohort study of self-reported fracture risk at follow-up. The United Kingdom. A total of 7947 men and 26,749 women aged 20-89 years, including 19,249 meat eaters, 4901 fish eaters, 9420 vegetarians and 1126 vegans, recruited by postal methods and through general practice surgeries. Cox regression. Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88-1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89-1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89-1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90-1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90-1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69-1.44) for vegans. In this population, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. The higher fracture risk in the vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. An adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health, irrespective of dietary preferences. The EPIC-Oxford study is supported by The Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

  13. THE PLOT OF HUSBAND’S RETURN TO HIS WIFE’S WEDDING IN "THE ODYSSEY" BY HOMER AND IN THE SLAVIC AND RUSSIAN EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Malchukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plot of husband’s return to his wife’s wedding embodied both in the millenary Ancient epic literature represented by the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the Russian and Slavic epic. The study of Homer’s epic heritage, conducted over the years, includes a huge number of works of scientists around the world. Comparative-historical, comparative-genetic and comparative-typological studies found a link between oral folk tradition and epic poetry written by an author. The current international science is developing the hypothesis that professionally individual Homeric poems, which are at least 850 years old, were created in the ancient, oral poetry improvisation in a precise format of hexameter. The study of the Russian epic has less history, but the researches in this field have revealed the presence of Late Antiquity elements in the Slavic environment. These elements along with paganism and Christianity became the source of the people’s spiritual culture. The plot "the return of her husband", which is analyzed in the article, is widely-spread in folklore of many nations, and appeared rudimentarily in "The Odyssey". The western and eastern variants of this theme are diverse in genre structure and stylistic features. In Russian tradition the plot is presented in a large thematic variety "Dobrynya and Alyosha", which evolves into the epic genre due to contamination, small inserts in the epic genre. As a result, the great volume brings together the olden time and the ancient epic, creating intermediate forms comparable with the author’s imitations.

  14. [The use of the Epidemiology Cancer registry Baden-Württemberg in the follow-up of the EPIC cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, G; Zoller, D; Wiedmann, T; Bussas, U; El Idrissi-Lamghari, C; Kneisel, J; Batzler, W U; Becker, N

    2004-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective multicentre study that has been implemented to further the understanding of the association between diet and chronic diseases with emphasis on cancer. In Heidelberg from June 1994 until October 1998 about 25,500 subjects aged 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men were recruited. Apart from extensive questions about food intake, the participants were also asked to provide detailed information about their smoking habits, physical activity, subjective well-being, medical history and use of medications. As well as completing the questionnaire and a personal interview, the participants also gave blood samples and anthropometiric measures and the blood pressure were taken in standardized manner. The analyses of the EPIC study will depend on achieving a comprehensive record of all new cancer cases, and all deaths, together with the corresponding cause of death, within the study population. To date all self-reported incident cancer cases are verified by comparing them with pathology reports and hospital records. They are then coded according to the coding list for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O2) issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Since at begin of the investigation in the study region no cancer registration existed, the participants are followed -up by interval questioning ('active follow-up'). In order to integrate increasingly the data of the Cancer registry Baden-Württemberg (EKR-BW) attempts were made to explore record linkage systems. For this purpose, in the years 2000, 2002, 2003 record linkages between EPIC-Heidelberg and EKR-BW were performed. Procedures were evaluated for performing an anonymous linkage of the EPIC data with the data of the EKR-BW. After a pilot project on the feasibility of the linkage the program was evaluated on the EPIC data, record linkages are performed regularly. Different coding systems were applied

  15. The evaluation of the diet/disease relation in the EPIC study: considerations for the calibration and the disease models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Day, Nicholas E; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    to the same reference scale. A linear regression calibration model was used to correct the association between diet and disease for measurement errors in dietary exposures. In the present work, we describe an approach for analysing the EPIC data, using as an example the evaluation of the association between...... different geographical regions. This requires considerable work to standardize dietary measurements at the food and the nutrient levels. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a calibration study was set up to express individual dietary intakes according...... (CI): 0.95-0.99] and 0.93 (0.88-0.98), before and after calibration, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicentre study, the diet/disease association can be evaluated by exploiting the whole variability of intake over the entire study. Calibration may reduce between-centre heterogeneity in the diet...

  16. Spectral re-distribution and surface loss effects in Swift XRT (XMM-Newton EPIC) MOS CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Short, A D; Turner, M J L

    2002-01-01

    In the course of testing and selecting the EPIC MOS CCDs for the XMM-Newton observatory, the developed a Monte-Carlo model of the CCD response. Among other things, this model was used to investigate surface loss effects evident at low energies. By fitting laboratory data, these losses were characterised as a simple function of X-ray interaction depth and this result enabled the spectral re-distribution itself to be modelled as a simple analytical function. Subsequently, this analytical function has been used to generate the response matrix for the EPIC MOS instruments and will now be employed to model the spectral re-distribution for the Swift XRT CCD.

  17. Sacrifice and self-sacrifice of Prince Lazar in the national epic from Christian and pagan aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić-Ćirković Mirjana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the motives of sacrifice and self-sacrifice of Prince Lazar as a key to the construction of this epic character. At the beginning, consulting dictionaries and previous research, we determine the terminology and concepts of sacrifice self-sacrifice. Approaching the analysis of these motifs in the epic poems and accepting attitudes about their developmental line that ranges from medieval to folk literature, first search for Christian self-sacrifice. In the final part of the paper we provide a synthesis of Christian and pagan influence on the shaping of Lazarus motif of sacrifice and self-sacrifice with an emphasis on their share, hierarchy and function.

  18. The Age of Enlightenment’s considerations of epic poetry. A discussion of Pułtawa i Jagiellonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kwiatkowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Literary polemics are a very characteristic phenomenon of eighteenth century culture. Some of the polemics refer to the essential problems of culture, while others, such as the analysed discussion on “Jagiellonida” and “Pułtawa”, are critical in nature. The reviewers criticise the two unsuccessful epics, however, they also touch upon the important issues concerning this genre. Who should be the protagonist in epic literature? How to combine realism with fantasy fiction? Which classical authors should be imitated? The answers to these questions are sought by the theoreticians of Enlightenment literature and the participants in this argument. A reconstruction and juxtaposition of their opinions are presented in this article.

  19. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.

    2002-01-01

    study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... fish represented 49% and 45% of the intake of total fish in women and men, respectively, with the greatest consumption in centres in Spain and Greece and the least in the German and Dutch centres. Consumption of fatty fish reflected that of total fish. However, the greatest intake of very fatty fish...

  20. Flavonoid and lignan intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María José; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Wark, Petra A; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    ? 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICCDespite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exoc...

  1. Costs and financing of routine immunization: Approach and selected findings of a multi-country study (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan; Young, Darwin; Walker, Damian G

    2015-05-07

    Few detailed facility-based costing studies of routine immunization (RI) programs have been conducted in recent years, with planners, managers and donors relying on older information or data from planning tools. To fill gaps and improve quality of information, a multi-country study on costing and financing of routine immunization and new vaccines (EPIC) was conducted in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda and Zambia. This paper provides the rationale for the launch of the EPIC study, as well as outlines methods used in a Common Approach on facility sampling, data collection, cost and financial flow estimation for both the routine program and new vaccine introduction. Costing relied on an ingredients-based approach from a government perspective. Estimating incremental economic costs of new vaccine introduction in contexts with excess capacity are highlighted. The use of more disaggregated System of Health Accounts (SHA) coding to evaluate financial flows is presented. The EPIC studies resulted in a sample of 319 primary health care facilities, with 65% of facilities in rural areas. The EPIC studies found wide variation in total and unit costs within each country, as well as between countries. Costs increased with level of scale and socio-economic status of the country. Governments are financing an increasing share of total RI financing. This study provides a wealth of high quality information on total and unit costs and financing for RI, and demonstrates the value of in-depth facility approaches. The paper discusses the lessons learned from using a standardized approach, as well as proposes further areas of methodology development. The paper discusses how results can be used for resource mobilization and allocation, improved efficiency of services at the country level, and to inform policies at the global level. Efforts at routinizing cost analysis to support sustainability efforts would be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes : A comparison between EPICS XL and Celldyn Sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdan Panah, Haleh

    2006-01-01

    Flowcytometric technology has been widely used for measurement of the absolute numbers of T-lymphocytes subsets in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), defining the disease state, monitoring antiviral treatment, and identifying any risk for opportunistic infections. A manual preparing of the samples is required. More recently an automated and enclosed blood cell counting, Celldyn Sapphire has been introduced. In this study the performance of the Flow cytometer EPICS XL as a reference method fo...

  3. Erasmus Darwin's Deistic Dissent and Didactic Epic Poetry: Promoting Science Education to a Mixed Audience Under the Banner of Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kirsten Anne

    Erasmus Darwin's task as a Deistic Dissenter poet who wished to promote science education to a mixed audience was complex. There was mainstream concern over what Deists and Dissenters actually believed about God, their involvement in science, and, especially, how their published works, whatever the subject, might affect public morality and politics. I argue that Darwin's poetry is primarily in the genre of Lucretian didactic epic but that it also involves elements of other written traditions (literary and non-literary). I focus on English didactic poetry, the theological written traditions of Dissent and Deism, and a particular tradition of erotic satire. The genre of Lucretian didactic epic and the tradition of English didactic poetry are non-identical. In Darwin's Lucretian didactic epic, resemblances to such poems as Pope's Essay on Man challenge ideas about what kind of narrative a didactic poem in the English language can deliver. Techniques from the theological written traditions of Dissent and Deism reflect Darwin's affiliations, signal that science education fits within a larger debate about intellectual freedom, and promote tolerance for differences of opinion about nature. Mimicry of a particular tradition of erotic satire helps to downplay the address to a mixed audience while satirising some common misconceptions about poetry, botany, and women in the period. Darwin's poetry challenges ideas about what people from his community of belief meant to communicate or transmit by writing for the general public, what the general public was entitled to learn, and what poetry was able to teach. Perhaps Darwin's biggest modification of Lucretian didactic epic was that he did not tell his readers exactly what to think, but how.

  4. Analytical Validation and Capabilities of the Epic CTC Platform: Enrichment-Free Circulating Tumour Cell Detection and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Werner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epic Platform was developed for the unbiased detection and molecular characterization of circulating tumour cells (CTCs. Here, we report assay performance data, including accuracy, linearity, specificity and intra/inter-assay precision of CTC enumeration in healthy donor (HD blood samples spiked with varying concentrations of cancer cell line controls (CLCs. Additionally, we demonstrate clinical feasibility for CTC detection in a small cohort of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC patients. The Epic Platform demonstrated accuracy, linearity and sensitivity for the enumeration of all CLC concentrations tested. Furthermore, we established the precision between multiple operators and slide staining batches and assay specificity showing zero CTCs detected in 18 healthy donor samples. In a clinical feasibility study, at least one traditional CTC/mL (CK+, CD45-, and intact nuclei was detected in 89 % of 44 mCRPC samples, whereas 100 % of samples had CTCs enumerated if additional CTC subpopulations (CK-/CD45- and CK+ apoptotic CTCs were included in the analysis. In addition to presenting Epic Platform's performance with respect to CTC enumeration, we provide examples of its integrated downstream capabilities, including protein biomarker expression and downstream genomic analyses at single cell resolution.

  5. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the

  6. Combining multiple autosomal introns for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals: Application to the tribe Bovini (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; An, Junghwa; Ropiquet, Anne; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Couloux, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial sequences are widely used for species identification and for studying phylogenetic relationships among closely related species or populations of the same species. However, many studies of mammals have shown that the maternal history of the mitochondrial genome can be discordant with the true evolutionary history of the taxa. In such cases, the analyses of multiple nuclear genes can be more powerful for deciphering interspecific relationships. Here, we designed primers for amplifying 13 new exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) autosomal loci for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals. Three criteria were used for the selection of the markers: gene orthology, a PCR product length between 600 and 1200 nucleotides, and different chromosomal locations in the bovine genome. Positive PCRs were obtained from different species representing the orders Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Pholidota. The newly developed markers were analyzed in a phylogenetic study of the tribe Bovini (the group containing domestic and wild cattle, bison, yak, African buffalo, Asian buffalo, and saola) based on 17 taxa and 18 nuclear genes, representing a total alignment of 13,095 nucleotides. The phylogenetic results were compared to those obtained from analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome and Y chromosomal genes. Our analyses support a basal divergence of the saola (Pseudoryx) and a sister-group relationship between yak and bison. These results contrast with recent molecular studies but are in better agreement with morphology. The comparison of pairwise nucleotide distances shows that our nuDNA dataset provides a good signal for identifying taxonomic levels, such as species, genera, subtribes, tribes and subfamilies, whereas the mtDNA genome fails because of mtDNA introgression and higher levels of homoplasy. Accordingly, we conclude that the genus Bison should be regarded as a synonym of Bos, with the European bison

  7. A Client/Server Architecture for Supporting Science Data Using EPICS Version 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo [EPIC Consulting, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2015-04-21

    The Phase 1 grant that serves as a precursor to this proposal, prototyped complex storage techniques for high speed structured data that is being produced in accelerator diagnostics and beam line experiments. It demonstrates the technologies that can be used to archive and retrieve complex data structures and provide the performance required by our new accelerators, instrumentations, and detectors. Phase 2 is proposed to develop a high-performance platform for data acquisition and analysis to provide physicists and operators a better understanding of the beam dynamics. This proposal includes developing a platform for reading 109 MHz data at 10 KHz rates through a multicore front end processor, archiving the data to an archive repository that is then indexed for fast retrieval. The data is then retrieved from this data archive, integrated with the scalar data, to provide data sets to client applications for analysis, use in feedback, and to aid in identifying problem with the instrumentation, plant, beam steering, or model. This development is built on EPICS version 4 , which is being successfully deployed to implement physics applications. Through prior SBIR grants, EPICS version 4 has a solid communication protocol for middle layer services (PVAccess), structured data representation and methods for efficient transportation and access (PVData), an operational hierarchical record environment (JAVA IOC), and prototypes for standard structured data (Normative Types). This work was further developed through project funding to successfully deploy the first service based physics application environment with demonstrated services that provide arbitrary object views, save sets, model, lattice, and unit conversion. Thin client physics applications have been developed in Python that implement quad centering, orbit display, bump control, and slow orbit feedback. This service based architecture has provided a very modular and robust environment that enables commissioning teams

  8. High glycemic diet and breast cancer occurrence in the Italian EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, S; Pala, V; Brighenti, F; Agnoli, C; Grioni, S; Berrino, F; Scazzina, F; Palli, D; Masala, G; Vineis, P; Sacerdote, C; Tumino, R; Giurdanella, M C; Mattiello, A; Panico, S; Krogh, V

    2013-07-01

    There are theoretical reasons for suspecting that a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) diet may increase breast cancer risk, perhaps via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. However observational studies have produced inconsistent findings and it is controversial whether breast cancer risk is influenced by the carbohydrate characteristics of the diet. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary GI and GL and breast cancer in the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Women were recruited from 1993 to 1998 at five centers: Varese and Turin (north Italy), Florence (central Italy), and Ragusa and Naples (south Italy). Participants completed validated food frequency questionnaires from which GI and GL were estimated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models quantified the association between breast cancer risk and total carbohydrate intake, GI, and GL. During 11 years of follow-up, 879 breast cancer (797 invasive and 82 in situ) cases were indentified. High dietary GL was associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR 1.45, 95% CI = 1.06-1.99; highest vs. lowest quintile; p-trend 0.029), whereas dietary GI and total carbohydrate had no influence. The association was not modified by menopausal status or body mass index. Our data indicate that, in a Mediterranean population characterized by traditionally high and varied carbohydrate intake, a diet high in GL plays a role in the development of breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthy lifestyle index and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, G; Travier, N; Huerta, J M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Siersema, P D; Skeie, G; Weiderpass, E; Engeset, D; Ericson, U; Ohlsson, B; Agudo, A; Romieu, I; Ferrari, P; Freisling, H; Colorado-Yohar, S; Li, K; Kaaks, R; Pala, V; Cross, A J; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Bamia, C; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Fagherazzi, G; Dartois, L; May, A M; Peeters, P H; Panico, S; Johansson, M; Wallner, B; Palli, D; Key, T J; Khaw, K T; Ardanaz, E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Dorronsoro, M; Sánchez, M J; Quirós, J R; Naccarati, A; Tumino, R; Boeing, H; Gonzalez, C A

    2015-08-01

    Several modifiable lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol, certain dietary factors and weight are independently associated with gastric cancer (GC); however, their combined impact on GC risk is unknown. We constructed a healthy lifestyle index to investigate the joint influence of these behaviors on GC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The analysis included 461,550 participants (662 first incident GC cases) with a mean follow-up of 11.4 years. A healthy lifestyle index was constructed, assigning 1 point for each healthy behavior related to smoking status, alcohol consumption and diet quality (represented by the Mediterranean diet) for assessing overall GC and also body mass index for cardia GC and 0 points otherwise. Risk of GC was calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models while adjusting for relevant confounders. The highest versus lowest score in the healthy lifestyle index was associated with a significant lower risk of GC, by 51% overall (HR 0.49 95% CI 0.35, 0.70), by 77% for cardia GC (HR 0.23 95% CI 0.08, 0.68) and by 47% for noncardia GC (HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.32, 0.87), p-trendshealthy lifestyle behaviors of this index. Adopting several healthy lifestyle behaviors including not smoking, limiting alcohol consumption, eating a healthy diet and maintaining a normal weight is associated with a large decreased risk of GC. © 2014 UICC.

  10. Communication Patterns in the Perioperative Environment During Epic Electronic Health Record System Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Tynan H; Jennings, Samantha J; Levine, Wilton C

    2017-02-01

    In April 2016, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) went live with the Epic electronic health records (EHR) system, replacing a variety of EHRs that previously existed in different departments throughout the hospital. At the time of implementation, the Vocera® Badge Communication System, a wireless hands-free communication device distributed to perioperative team members, had increased perioperative communication flow and efficiency. As a quality improvement effort to better understand communication patterns during an EHR go-live, we monitored our Vocera call volume and user volume before, during and after our go-live. We noticed that call volume and user volume significantly increased during our immediate go-live period and quickly returned to baseline levels. We also noticed that call volume increased during periods of unplanned EHR downtime long after our immediate go-live period. When planning the implementation of a new EHR, leadership must plan for and support this critical communication need at the time of the go-live and must also be aware of these needs during unplanned downtime.

  11. [Dietary habits and cardiovascular disease: the experience of EPIC Italian collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Fasanelli, Francesca; Vineis, Paolo; Saieva, Calogero; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    to report and evaluate the evidence produced by the EPIC Italian collaboration (EPICOR Project) on the dietary determinants of cardiovascular diseases in Italy. prospective study carried out in a large Italian population, composed by cohorts recruited in Northern, Central and Southern Italy. data on dietary habits collected at the baseline observation through standardised questionnaires on 47,749 free-living adults at the time of the recruitment of the study (1993-1998). major coronary and cerebrovascular events (acute coronary syndrome, PTCA, CABG, ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke, TEA of supraortic vessels) identified at follow-up. The longitudinal analyses here reported have measured risks through the use of multivariate Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. the longitudinal analyses of EPICOR indicate that Mediterranean-oriented dietary habits, measured through specific indicators and the consumption of various typical food, are able to reduce coronary and cerebrovascular risks, and that this protection is possible even nowadays, although many changes in diet have occurred in the last decades in Italy. Habitual consumption of plant origin products, including all foods with low glycemic index, is an advantage for cardiovascular risk. the EPICOR Project is the largest, long-lasting Italian study on the relationship between diet and cardiovascular diseases. It is also the study with the greater number of observed variables. Its results point out the importance to support preventive programmes and industrial policies able to favour a dietary style inspired to the Italian Mediterranean tradition.

  12. [Dietary habits and social differences: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Ermini, Ilaria; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Martorana, Caterina; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on dietary habits in Italy. large Italian multicentric prospective cohort study. more than 45,000 subjects recruited between 1993 and 1998 in five Italian centres (Turin, Varese, Florence, Naples, and Ragusa). Dietary habits, educational level, and other characteristics were collected at baseline using standardised questionnaires. dietary habits collected for the EPIC study, grouped by food type and summarised by a Mediterranean dietary index. we observed differences in dietary habits and in lifestyle habits by tertile of educational level. Principally, we noticed a positive association between higher education and healthy dietary habits (reduction in intake of processed meat, bread and rice, sweet drinks; increase in intake of fruit and vegetables, yoghurt, fish, olive oil, and tea). a relationship between educational level and dietary habits is confirmed also in Italy, even if differences due to gender and residence area are present. This study shows an important role of dietary habits in health inequalities of the population with lower socioeconomic status.

  13. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers: results from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman; Konar, Meric; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnès; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Quirós, J Ramón; Maria Huerta, José; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Butt, Salma Tunå; Borgquist, Signe; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-03-15

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination. © 2016 UICC.

  14. Epics, popular culture and politics in a modern work of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Merenik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available “Death in Dallas” is a video-installation by Zoran Naskovski comprised of a visual documentary material connected to the assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the president of the USA and materials about his public and private life; b a soundtrack comprised of a poem accompanied by gusle by Jozo Karamatić with decasyllabic lyrics “Death in Dallas” by Božo Lasić. The unexpected and strange combo birthed a work of art which contains different layers of meaning and one of the most complete postmodern works of art in Serbian modern art. Naskovski had combined the seemingly incompatible codes of popular culture into a specific artistic method of its own genre – “Balkan noise”. Using the method of “noise” music, in which every noise, soundscape or voice has equal meaning and value; he included epics, tradition, politics, popular and folk culture. Finally, by doing so he had completely shifted the paradigm from modern to postmodern, from the substance of myth to a demystification of this type of representation.

  15. The Exile’s Epic Path to Healing: Authorial Intrusion in Purgatorio and Omeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Elizabeth Hill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores why two seemingly dissimilar poets, Dante Alighieri and Derek Walcott, writing from different time periods and places, both utilized authorial intrusion and became secondary characters in their respective epic poems, the Purgatorio and Omeros. I propose that by inserting themselves into their stories as minor characters, they were able to address their keen sense of exile. Exile granted these poets a freedom not only in what they could write, but also in how they could write, by allowing them to merge the personal and the political. As minor characters in the larger dramas they created on the page, Dante and Walcott used their character personae to reclaim both their lost homeland and history; as secondary characters they were better able to challenge the sins and injustices of larger institutions and establishments of the time, namely the crisis of Church and State in Christendom for Dante, and colonialism and its lingering aftereffects for Walcott.

  16. Clinical implications of JUPITER in a contemporary European population: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Rana, Jamal S; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-05-01

    Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) has raised several points of debate. We quantified the proportion of individuals meeting the JUPITER criteria, determined their risk profile, and their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events during a long-term follow-up in a contemporary European cohort. A total of 25 639 participants aged between 45 and 79 years were followed for 11.4 ± 2.8 years in EPIC-Norfolk population cohort. A total of 8397 individuals with complete data available were considered potentially eligible for primary prevention. A total of 846 (10.1%) individuals fulfilled the JUPITER criteria [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C (LDL-C) JUPITER criteria had significantly higher CHD risk compared with those with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L and C-reactive protein JUPITER criteria. In this European cohort, JUPITER-eligible individuals had significantly higher event rates compared with those with LDL-C JUPITER criteria qualified almost one-fifth of the population for statin therapy that otherwise would not have qualified based on SCORE or ATP III criteria.

  17. A comparative analysis of three widely used lipid management guidelines in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colkesen, Ersen B; Jørstad, Harald T; Peters, Ron J G; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Tijssen, Jan G P; Ferket, Bart S; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-02-01

    To compare the impact of three major guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). 21,263 men and women aged 39-79 years from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer) Norfolk cohort were retrospectively classified at baseline by statin therapy recommendations according to the NICE, ESC and ATPIII CVD prevention guidelines. Recommendations based on baseline data were related to 10-year follow-up to calculate number of new CVD events that could be prevented by statins, number-needed-to-treat (NNT) and CVD incidence decrease. Statin therapy was recommended to 34% by the NICE guideline, 29% by ESC and 32% by ATPIII. A total of 263 events could potentially have been prevented by application of the NICE guideline, 219 by ESC and 199 by ATPIII. The NNT with statins over 10 years was 27 with the NICE guideline, 28 with ESC and 34 with ATPIII. Application of the NICE guideline could have decreased CVD incidence by 13%; using ESC guidelines the figure is 11% and with ATPIII it is 10%. The NICE guideline selected greater percentages of elderly and subjects with prevalent CVD risk factors. It performed best in recommending statins and could have prevented the greatest number of CVD events. With all guidelines, nearly half the subjects who developed a CVD event were not considered eligible for statins at baseline. Less selective prevention strategies need to be explored.

  18. Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and cancer incidence: the Greek EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, V; Trichopoulou, A; Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Lagiou, P; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulos, D

    2008-01-01

    Adherence to traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) has been reported to be inversely associated with total, as well as cardiovascular, mortality. We have examined the relation between degree of such adherence and incidence of cancer overall in a general population sample of 25 623 participants (10 582 men, 15 041 women) of the Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). All subjects completed a validated, interviewer-administered, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at enrolment. Degree of adherence to the traditional MD was assessed through a 10-point scale (0 minimal; 9 maximal) that incorporated key dietary characteristics. During a median follow-up of 7.9 years and 188 042 total person-years, 851 medically confirmed incident cancer cases (421 men, 430 women) were recorded. Using proportional hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders, we found that a higher degree of MD adherence was associated with lower overall cancer incidence. A two-point increase in the score corresponded to a 12% reduction in cancer incidence (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.80, 0.95)). The association was exposure-dependent and stronger among women. This inverse association with MD adherence was considerably stronger than that predicted on the basis of the associations of the individual components of this diet and points to the value of analysing dietary patterns in cancer studies. PMID:18594542

  19. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi P Fransen

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7, followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001. A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14].

  20. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  1. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  3. CARTA AOS LOUCOS: UMA NARRATIVA ÉPICA MODERNA LETTER TO CRAZY: A MODERN EPIC NARRATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOEMA DE CASTRO e SILVA OLIVAL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Carta aos loucos – romance de Carlos Nejar – é uma narrativa alegórica em queo autor, a partir da tradição da narrativa clássica de Homero, e valendo-se dorecurso parodístico, instaura nova épica, assentada não no relato do acontecido,mas no questionamento, revelando a consciência crítica pós-moderna. Nesteensaio, procura-se relevar os meios pelos quais o narrador ousa novos paradigmasliterários, recriando a mitologia clássica, em torno do binômio Tempo versusPalavra, e mostrar como, enriquecido com a convivência dinâmica da prosa e dapoesia, o romance é a apologia do Verbo, tese que encontra reforço em ficcionistascontemporâneos.Carta aos loucos, Carlos Nejar’s romance, is an allegoric narrative in which theauthor, inspired on the tradition of Homero’ s classical narrative, and makinguse of the parodist resource creates a new epic, based not on the relating of thealready happened, but on the questioning, revealing a post-modern criticalconscience. The esayist tries to elevate the ways by which the narrator daresnew literary paradigms, recreating the classical mithology towards the binomialTime versus Word and to show how, enriched by the dinamic convenience onprose and poetry, the romance is an apology to “Verb”, a thesis shared by thecontemporaneous fictionists.

  4. A prospective analysis of the association between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk in EPIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Jensen, Majken K; Overvad, Kim; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Misirli, Gesthimani; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, María-José; Jakszyn, Paula; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stattin, Pär; Berglund, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Egevad, Lars; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of prostate cancer among 142,590 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Consumption of dietary fiber (total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber) was estimated by validated dietary questionnaires and calibrated using 24-hr dietary recalls. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using Cox regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors. During an average of 8.7 years follow-up, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 2,747 men. Overall, there was no association between dietary fiber intake (total, cereal, fruit or vegetable fiber) and prostate cancer risk, although calibrated intakes of total fiber and fruit fiber were associated with nonstatistically significant reductions in risk. There was no association between fiber derived from cereals or vegetables and risk and no evidence for heterogeneity in any of the risk estimates by stage or grade of disease. Our results suggest that dietary fiber intake is not associated with prostate cancer risk.

  5. Corneal biomechanical properties and glaucoma-related quantitative traits in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-07

    We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)- and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)-derived measures in a British population. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study--the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT.

  6. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  7. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J; Forouhi, Nita G; Ye, Zheng; Buijsse, Brian; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline WJ; Boeing, Heiner; Büchner, Frederike L; Dahm, Christina C; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Masala, Giovanna; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith JM; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. Subjects/Methods In the EPIC-InterAct (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. Results In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than two-fold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit, and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV sub-types, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV sub-types, only green leafy vegetable intake (RR: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Conclusions Sub-types of vegetables, such as root vegetables or green leafy vegetables may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect. PMID:22854878

  9. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  10. Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with aplastic anemia: a subgroup analysis of 116 patients from the EPIC trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jong Wook; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Shen, Zhi Xiang

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study enrolled a large cohort of 116 patients with aplastic anemia; the present analyses evaluated the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in this patient population. After 1 year, median serum ferritin decreased...... neutrophil and platelet counts remained stable during treatment, and there were no drug-related cytopenias. This prospective dataset confirms the efficacy and well characterizes the tolerability profile of deferasirox in a large population of patients with aplastic anemia. This study was registered at www...

  11. Love of Marko Kraljević in epic folk poems from Kosovo and Metohija (motive for conflict and resolving key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Love of Marko Kraljević in heroic poems from Kosovo and Metohija has a significant place. Whether she is directly involved or her role is veiled, it is evident that without her epic biography of hero would not be complete. Faithfull love proves loyalty in crucial moments and with that justifies trust of her master. Often, she is direct motive for conflict and in the specific situation she is described like indirect problem initiator as well as the key for its resolving.

  12. Deferasirox in iron-overloaded patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes: Results from the large 1-year EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Finelli, Carlo; Porta, Matteo Della

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year EPIC study enrolled 341 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); although baseline iron burden was >2500ng/mL, approximately 50% were chelation-naïve. Overall median serum ferritin decreased significantly at 1 year (p=0.002). Decreases occurred irrespective of whether...... patients were chelation-naïve or previously chelated; changes were dependent on dose adjustments and ongoing iron intake. Sustained reductions in labile plasma iron were observed. Discontinuation rate (48.7%) and adverse event profile were consistent with previously reported deferasirox data in MDS...

  13. Associated factors of estimated desaturase activity in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, K; Jacobs, S; Jansen, E; Weikert, C; di Giuseppe, R; Boeing, H; Schulze, M B; Kröger, J

    2014-05-01

    Altered activity of desaturase enzymes may be involved in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2-diabetes. Desaturase activities might be modifiable by diet and lifestyle-related factors, but no study has systematically investigated such factors so far. We aimed to evaluate the association of demographic, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle characteristics with estimated Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase activity. A subsample (n = 1782) of the EPIC-Potsdam study was used for a cross-sectional analysis, involving men and women, mainly aged 35-65 years. Fatty acid (FA) product-to-precursor ratios, derived from the FA composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids, were used to estimate desaturase activities. Multiple linear regression models were used with estimated Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase activity as outcome and demographic (age, sex), anthropometric (BMI, WHR), dietary intake (FAs, carbohydrates) and lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption) factors as exposure variables. Alcohol intake was positively associated with estimated Δ6- (explained variance in desaturase activity: 1.52%) and estimated Δ9-desaturase activity (explained variance: 5.53%). BMI and WHR showed a weak inverse association with estimated Δ5-desaturase activity (explained variance: BMI: 1.07%; WHR: 1.02%) and weak positive associations with estimated Δ6-(explained variance: BMI: 1.17%; WHR: 1.19%) and estimated Δ9-desaturase activities (explained variance: BMI: 0.70%; WHR: 0.96%). Age, sex, physical activity, smoking and dietary factors were only weakly associated with the estimated desaturase activities. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake as well as obesity measures are associated with the FA ratios reflecting desaturase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation of serum metabolites related to habitual diet: a targeted metabolomic approach in EPIC-Potsdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, A; von Ruesten, A; Drogan, D; Schulze, M B; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2013-10-01

    Serum metabolites have been linked to higher risk of chronic diseases but determinants of serum metabolites are not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual diet as a modifiable risk factor and relevant serum metabolites. This cross-sectional study comprised 2380 EPIC-Potsdam participants. Intake of 45 food groups was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and concentrations of 127 serum metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics. Reduced rank regression was used to find dietary patterns that explain the maximum variation of metabolites. In the multivariable-adjusted model, the proportion of explained variation by habitual diet was ranked as follows: acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines (5.7%), sphingomyelins (5.1%), diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (4.4%), lyso-phosphatidylcholines (4.1%), acylcarnitines (3.5%), amino acids (2.2%) and hexose (1.6%). A pattern with high intake of butter and low intake of margarine was related to acylcarnitines, acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines and hydroxy-sphingomyelins, particularly with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid side chains. A pattern with high intake of red meat and fish and low intake of whole-grain bread and tea was related to hexose and phosphatidylcholines. A pattern consisting of high intake of potatoes, dairy products and cornflakes particularly explained methionine and branched chain amino acids. Dietary patterns related to type 2 diabetes-relevant metabolites included high intake of red meat and low intake of whole-grain bread, tea, coffee, cake and cookies, canned fruits and fish. Dietary patterns characterized by intakes of red meat, whole-grain bread, tea and coffee were linked to relevant metabolites and could be potential targets for chronic disease prevention.

  15. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19-3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32-4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers.

  17. Television viewing time independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the EPIC Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-02-01

    Television viewing (TV), a highly prevalent behaviour, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk independently of physical activity. The relationship with mortality, however, is relatively unknown. We examined the prospective relationship between TV time and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality in a population-based cohort [The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Norfolk] of 13 197 men and women {age [SD (standard deviation)]: 61.5 ± 9.0 years}. Participants were free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 and were followed up for death ascertainment until 2009 (9.5 ± 1.6 years). TV time, total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use, participant and family history of disease and total energy intake were self-reported; height and weight were measured by standardized procedures. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for mortality were estimated per 1-h/day increase in TV. Each 1-h/day increase in TV time was associated with increased hazard of all-cause (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09; 1270 deaths) and cardiovascular (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.15; 373 deaths), but not cancer mortality (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.98-1.10; 570 deaths). This was independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes history, family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, body mass index (BMI) and PAEE. They were similar when stratified by gender, age, education, BMI and PAEE. The population-attributable fraction for all-cause mortality comparing the highest TV tertile (>3.6 h/day) with the lowest (time, a predominant leisure activity in modern society, in addition to advocating physical activity.

  18. Thermal design and analysis of a multi-stage 30 K radiative cooling system for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2010-09-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator further cools a large Focal Plane to ˜100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented ˜45° relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at ˜0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  19. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Monica Vece

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed.We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. Hazard ratios (HRs for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center.Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, P trend: 0.008. By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19-3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32-4.66; P trend 0.007. Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk.Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers.

  20. Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcic, M; de Batlle, J; Ricci, C; Biessy, C; Perrier, F; Huybrechts, I; Weiderpass, E; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cadeau, C; His, M; Cox, D G; Boeing, H; Fortner, R T; Kaaks, R; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Sieri, S; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, G; Amiano, P; Sánchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Buckland, G; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H; Key, T J; Riboli, E; Gylling, B; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I; Chajès, V

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), alcohol intake and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C > T and 1298A > C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend  = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend  = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations.

  2. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measures and Cognitive Function in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of RNFL thickness with cognitive test scores, adjusted for age, sex, education level, social class, visual acuity, axial length, and history of cataract surgery. Data were available from 5563 participants with a mean age of 67 years. A thicker HRT-derived RNFL thickness was associated with better scores for the SF-MMSE (0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], [0.02, 0.10], P = 0.005), HVLT (0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.29]; P = 0.014), and NART (-0.24, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.02], P = 0.035). The associations of RNFL thickness with SF-MMSE and HVLT remained significant following further adjustment for NART. We found a significant association between HRT-derived RNFL thickness and scores from cognitive tests assessing global function, recognition, learning, episodic memory, and premorbid intelligence. However, the associations were weak and not currently of predictive value. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the nature of these associations, and identify biological mechanisms.

  3. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  4. Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufkens, Anke M; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Kunst, Anton E; Mouw, Traci; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Goufa, Ioulia; Peeters, Petra H M; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zackrisson, Sophia; Almquist, Martin; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gallo, Valentina; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2012-02-01

    Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  6. Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Key, Timothy J

    2002-10-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) and to investigate dietary and other lifestyle factors that might account for any differences observed between the groups. Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). United Kingdom. Eleven thousand and four British men and women aged 20-78 years at blood pressure measurement. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported hypertension was significantly different between the four diet groups, ranging from 15.0% in male meat eaters to 5.8% in male vegans, and from 12.1% in female meat eaters to 7.7% in female vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians having similar and intermediate prevalences. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly different between the four diet groups, with meat eaters having the highest values and vegans the lowest values. The differences in age-adjusted mean blood pressure between meat eaters and vegans among participants with no self-reported hypertension were 4.2 and 2.6 mmHg systolic and 2.8 and 1.7 mmHg diastolic for men and women, respectively. Much of the variation was attributable to differences in body mass index between the diet groups. Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, have a lower prevalence of hypertension and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures than meat eaters, largely because of differences in body mass index.

  7. Laser Scanning Tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: Principal Components and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. Methods. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Results. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants. PMID:24030456

  8. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measures and Cognitive Function in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. Methods Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of RNFL thickness with cognitive test scores, adjusted for age, sex, education level, social class, visual acuity, axial length, and history of cataract surgery. Results Data were available from 5563 participants with a mean age of 67 years. A thicker HRT-derived RNFL thickness was associated with better scores for the SF-MMSE (0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], [0.02, 0.10], P = 0.005), HVLT (0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.29]; P = 0.014), and NART (−0.24, 95% CI [−0.46, −0.02], P = 0.035). The associations of RNFL thickness with SF-MMSE and HVLT remained significant following further adjustment for NART. Conclusions We found a significant association between HRT-derived RNFL thickness and scores from cognitive tests assessing global function, recognition, learning, episodic memory, and premorbid intelligence. However, the associations were weak and not currently of predictive value. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the nature of these associations, and identify biological mechanisms. PMID:27092718

  9. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935

  10. Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Glaucoma-Related Quantitative Traits in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)– and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)–derived measures in a British population. Methods. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study—the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. Results. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P < 0.001), and GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) average thickness (P = 0.006) and modulation (P = 0.003), and associated negatively with HRT linear cup-to-disc ratio (LCDR, P < 0.001), after adjustment for Goldmann-correlated IOP and other possible confounders. In the 602 participants undergoing the second examination, CH was associated negatively with LCDR (P = 0.008) after adjustment for GAT, CCT, and other possible confounders. Conclusions. Lower CH was associated with HRT and GDxVCC parameters in a direction that is seen in glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT. PMID:24334448

  11. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2017-09-13

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC for patients submitted to radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enaury Alves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Validation of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC questionnaire translated to Portuguese. This is an evaluation tool of the effects of treatment on quality of life of patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods In order to translate and validate, several recommended methodological techniques in the literature were included: initial translation, synthesis of translation, board committee review and back translation. Sample included 40 patients with localized prostate cancer submitted to surgical retropubic radical prostatectomy from 2008 to 2010. Results The internal consistency analysis of the scales of the questionnaire resulted in alpha Cronbach coefficients “very good” (> 0.9 and “good” (> 0.8 to 8 of 14 domains. The higher coefficients (0.94 were assigned to sexual score, subscales incontinence and sexual function. Post-operatory follow-up ranged from 3 to 35 months, median 18.7 months. Conclusions The Brazilian version of EPIC is reliable and valid, and is a useful tool to evaluate the impact of retropubic radical prostatectomy on quality of life of Brazilian patients with localized prostate cancer, in national and internationals studies.

  13. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  14. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2. The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

  15. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos and nanophthalmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alexander C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Broadway, David C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of small eyes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study. Design Community cross-sectional study. Setting East England population (Norwich, Norfolk and surrounding area). Participants 8033 participants aged 48–92 years old from the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study, Norfolk, UK with axial length measurements. Participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including visual acuity (LogMAR), ocular biometry, non-contact tonometry, autorefraction and fundal photography. A small eye phenotype was defined as a participant with one or both eyes with axial length of 0.48 LogMAR) and one participant was blind (>1.3 LogMAR). The prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was higher in participants with a small eye. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed presence of a small eye to be significantly associated with shorter height, lower body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure and lower intraocular pressure. Conclusions The prevalence of people with small eyes is higher than previously thought. While small eyes were more common in women, this appears to be related to shorter height and lower body mass index. Participants with small eyes were more likely to be blind or to have unilateral visual impairment. PMID:23883889

  16. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A.H. Lentjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users (SU make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK. Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Circulating Vitamin D in relation to cancer incidence and survival of the head and neck and oesophagus in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David C.; Midttun, Øivind; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Relton, Caroline; Vineis, Paolo; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Brustad, Magritt; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kvaskoff, Marina; Cadeau, Claire; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, Maria José; Agudo, Antonio; Lasheras, Cristina; Quirós, J. Ramón; Chamosa, Saioa; Riboli, Elio; Travis, Ruth C.; Ward, Heather; Murphy, Neil; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Papatesta, Eleni Maria; Boeing, Heiner; Kuehn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Anders; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D play a role in pathogenesis and progression of cancer, but prospective data on head and neck cancer (HNC) and oesophagus cancer are limited. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study recruited 385,747

  18. HORSE, WOMEN, WEAPON IN THE EPIC OF KÖROĞLU / KÖROĞLU DESTANI’NDA AT, KADIN, SİLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin BARS (M.A.H.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The epic of Köroğlu is one of the most loved epics whichreaches today from long centuries and stil keeps its place ofimportance in narration tradition. Đt is an epical work that leftdeep influences over Turkish world and over nations livedtogether with Turks for long centuries. Đt is a monument,binding the past and the present. Even today when taken intoconsideration of the wideness of its narreted and listenedgeographical area its importance from the view of maintainingthe cultural integrity between Turks will be understood muchbeter. Đt is difficult to come across such a work whichmaintains its vitality and dynamism with a wide performancearea in the lives of other nations. The perfection and thereachment of education level in Turkish epic tradition are thefactors which cause this result. Đn our writing the concepts ofhorse, woman and weapon which take place in Turkomanvariant of Köroğlu will be discussed.

  19. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software de...

  20. Formalin fixation affects equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent-microcomputed tomography (EPIC-μCT) imaging of osteochondral samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, K.E.M.; Malda, J.; Saris, D.B.F.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Steck, R.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Klein, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010 Dec;18(12):1586-91. Epub 2010 Oct 13. Formalin fixation affects equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent-microcomputed tomography (EPIC-μCT) imaging of osteochondral samples. Benders KE, Malda J, Saris DB, Dhert WJ, Steck R, Hutmacher DW, Klein TJ.

  1. Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, N.; Norat, T.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Skeie, G.; Dahm, C.C.; Overvad, K.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Racine, A.; Kaaks, R.; Teucher, B.; Boeing, H.; Bergmann, M.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Lagiou, P.; Palli, D.; Pala, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Siersema, P.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Hjartaker, A.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Dorronsoro, M.; Navarro, C.; Ardanaz, E.; Quiros, J.R.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Nilsson, L.; Palmqvist, R.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Crowe, F.L.; Fedirko, V.; Wark, P.A.; Chuang, S.C.; Riboli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold

  2. Cholesterol levels in small LDL particles predict the risk of coronary heart disease in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Luben, Robert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in small and large LDL particles with risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective case-control study nested in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Cases were apparently

  3. Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T.J.; Allen, N.; Appleby, P.N.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Miller, A.; Boeing, H.; Karalis, D.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Berrino, F.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Peeters, P.H.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Quiros, J.R.; Ardanaz, E.; Berglund, G.; Egevad, L.; Hallmans, G.; Stattin, P.; Bingham, S.; Day, N.; Gann, P.H.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association between self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 130544 men in 7

  4. Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. DESIGN: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). SETTING: 23 centres in 10 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 380 3...

  5. Evidence of Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Reynolds, C.S.; Nowak, M.A.; Homan, J.; Freyberg, M.J.; Ehle, M.; Belloni, T.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; van der Klis, M.; Charles, P.A.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed spectra of the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 obtained through simultaneous 76 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and 10 ks Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations during a bright phase of its 2002-2003 outburst. An extremely skewed, relativistic Fe Kalpha emission line and ionized disk

  6. Circulating secretory phospholipase A2 activity and risk of incident coronary events in healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallat, Ziad; Benessiano, Joelle; Simon, Tabassome; Ederhy, Stéphane; Sebella-Arguelles, Carla; Cohen, Ariel; Huart, Virginie; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tedgui, Alain; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2007-01-01

    To assess the association between secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity, which encompasses several types of sPLA2, and cardiovascular disease (CAD) in healthy individuals. We investigated this association in a nested case-control study among the 25,663 participants in EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

  7. I am Joaquin. Yo Soy Joaquin. An Epic Poem with a Chronology of People and Events in Mexican and Mexican American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rodolfo

    Both Spanish and English versions of the epic poem "I Am Joaquin" are given in this book. "I Am Joaquin" is the first work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos. It is a historical essay of the greatness and weakness of the Chicano people. Their psychological wounds, cultural genocide, social castration, nobility, courage,…

  8. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Bingham, Sheila A; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Hallmans, Göran; Sanchez, María José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Quirós, José Ramón; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Lund, Eiliv; Carneiro, Fátima; Linseisen, Jakob; Nagel, Gabriele; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fenger, Claus; Stenling, Roger; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  9. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-Nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, P.; Bingham, S.; Pera, G.; Agudo, A.; Luben, R.; Welch, A.; Boeing, H.; Giudice, G. del; Palli, D.; Saieva, C.; Krogh, V.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Simán, H.; Hallmans, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Barricarte, A.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Quirós, J.R.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.; Lund, E.; Carneiro, F.; Linseisen, J.; Nagel, G.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.O.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Fenger, C.; Stenling, R.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of Nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  10. Serum Lipid and Serum Metabolite Components in relation to anthropometric parameters in EPIC-Potsdam participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Jana; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Oresic, Matej; Nygren, Heli; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-10-01

    Lipidomic and metabolomic techniques become more and more important in human health research. Recent developments in analytical techniques enable the investigation of high amounts of substances. The high numbers of metabolites and lipids that are detected with among others mass spectrometric techniques challenge in most cases the statistical processes to bring out stable and interpretable results. This study targets to use the novel non-established statistical method treelet transform (TT) to investigate high numbers of metabolites and lipids and to compare the results with the established method principal component analysis (PCA). Serum lipid and metabolite profiles are investigated regarding their association to anthropometric parameters associated to obesity. From 226 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Potsdam study blood samples were investigated with an untargeted metabolomics approach regarding serum metabolites and lipids. Additionally, participants were surveyed anthropometrically to assess parameters of obesity, such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and body fat mass. TT and PCA are used to generate treelet components (TCs) and factors summarizing serum metabolites and lipids in new, latent variables without too much loss of information. With partial correlations TCs and factors were associated to anthropometry under the control for relevant parameters, such as sex and age. TT with metabolite variables (p=121) resulted in 5 stable and interpretable TCs explaining 18.9% of the variance within the data. PCA on the same variables generated 4 quite complex, less easily interpretable factors explaining 37.5% of the variance. TT on lipidomic data (p=353) produced 3 TCs as well as PCA on the same data resulted in 3 factors; the proportion of explained variance was 17.8% for TT and 39.8% for PCA. In both investigations TT ended up with stable components that are easier to interpret than the

  11. Association between erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and biomarkers of dyslipidemia in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S; Schiller, K; Jansen, E; Fritsche, A; Weikert, C; di Giuseppe, R; Boeing, H; Schulze, M B; Kröger, J

    2014-04-01

    Blood proportions of fatty acids (FAs) and FA-ratios reflecting desaturase activity are associated with the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Biomarkers of dyslipidemia are considered as potential mediators of this association. We evaluated associations of erythrocyte membrane proportions of individual disease-related polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), trans-FAs, dairy-derived saturated FAs (SFAs) (15:0, 17:0) and FA-ratios with biomarkers of dyslipidemia (high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample (n=1759) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Associations of individual FAs and FA-ratios with plasma biomarkers of dyslipidemia were evaluated by linear multivariable regression. Most notably, FA-ratios reflecting activity of Δ6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-coenzyme A-desaturase (SCD) were positively associated with triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (adjusted means (95% confidence interval (CI)) of triglycerides (mg/dl) across D6D tertiles: men--102 (94.7-110), 111 (104-120), 144 (134-156) and women--73.5 (70.0-77.2), 82.9 (79.0-86.9), 94.2 (89.7-98.9)); across SCD tertiles: men--99.0 (91.8-107), 115 (107-124), 144 (134-156) and women--72.4 (69.0-76.0), 81.5 (77.8-85.5), 97.2 (92.6-102)), whereas inverse associations with triglycerides were observed for the estimated Δ5-desaturase (D5D) activity (adjusted means (95% CI) of triglycerides (mg/dl) across D5D tertiles: men--128 (119-138), 121 (113-131), 106 (97.9-114) and women--92.0 (87.6-96.6), 82.8 (78.9-86.9), 75.3 (71.6-79.1), P-values for trend at least 0.0006). Furthermore, we observed generally weaker and less consistent associations of dairy-derived SFAs (mainly 17:0) with triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Individual PUFAs and trans-FAs were, if at all, only

  12. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  13. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: The EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine; Navionis, Anne-Sophie; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renee T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Peppa, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Skeie, Guri; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sandström, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight is a state of chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the risk of TC. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and included 475 first primary incident TC cases (399 women and 76 men) and 1,016 matched cancer-free cohort participants. Biomarkers were measured in serum samples using validated and highly sensitive commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) of TC by levels of each biomarker were estimated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for BMI and alcohol consumption. Adiponectin was inversely associated with TC risk among women (OR T3vs.T1  = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98, P trend  = 0.04) but not among men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.67-2.76, P trend  = 0.37). Increasing levels of IL-10 were positively associated with TC risk in both genders and significantly so in women (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13-2.25, P trend  = 0.01) but not in men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.78, 95% CI: 0.80-3.98, P trend  = 0.17). Leptin, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were not associated with TC risk in either gender. These results indicate a positive association of TC risk with IL-10 and a negative association with adiponectin that is probably restricted to women. Inflammation may play a role in TC in combination with or independently of excess weight. © 2017 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO); licensed by UICC.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of EPIC 211957146 (Sriram+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Choi, C. S.; Vivekananda Rao, P.

    2017-08-01

    Photometric observations of the variable EPIC 211957146 in the R band were taken using the IUCAA-Girawali Observatory (IGO) 2m telescope from 2015 February 5-22, for 5 nights (specifications of IGO 2m telescope CCD are as discussed in Sriram et al. 2016AJ....151...69S). An exposure time of 20-30s was given for imaging. B and V band observations were taken from the JCBT 1.3m telescope at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO) during 2016 February 3-8 and 2016 March 25-April 3 for a total of 7 nights. The JCBT 1.3m DFM telescope at VBO uses a 2K*4K UKATC CCD having a gain of 0.745e-/ADU and a read out noise of 4.2e-. The plate scale is 0.3arcsec/pixel resulting in an image of 10'*20' and images of the source in the B and V bands were taken with an integration time of 120s. Differential photometry was performed on the variable, with the comparison and check stars (of similar brightness) lying close to the variable. This source was also observed by the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 5, and the data were acquired from the MAST portal and the NASA Exoplanet Archive. K2 campaign 5 monitored the sky for a duration of ~74days and was fixed upon a single boresight position of 08h40m38s, +16°49'47'' starting from 2015 April 27 to July 10. Spectroscopic observation of the variable was performed during the nights of 2016 January 29-30 using the 2m Himalaya Chandra Telescope (HCT, IAO) equipped with the Himalaya Faint Object Spectrograph Camera (HFOSC) having a 2K*4K CCD. Spectra were obtained with an exposure time of 1800-2700s for both variable and spectrophotometric standard stars (BD+08 2015). A few spectra were also taken on 2016 February 1 using the Optomechanics Research spectrograph mounted on the 2.3m Vainu Bappu Telescope using a 1K*1K CCD. A 600lines/mm grating spanning a wavelength range of 2000-8000Å with a dispersion of 2.6Å/pixel and a resolution of ~5.3Å was used. The same spectrophotometric standard as before was used for observation, and an exposure time of 2700s was

  15. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Palikonda, R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Su, W.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  16. A method to encapsulate model structural uncertainty in ensemble projections of future climate: EPIC v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jared; Bodeker, Greg E.; Kremser, Stefanie; Tait, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    A method, based on climate pattern scaling, has been developed to expand a small number of projections of fields of a selected climate variable (X) into an ensemble that encapsulates a wide range of indicative model structural uncertainties. The method described in this paper is referred to as the Ensemble Projections Incorporating Climate model uncertainty (EPIC) method. Each ensemble member is constructed by adding contributions from (1) a climatology derived from observations that represents the time-invariant part of the signal; (2) a contribution from forced changes in X, where those changes can be statistically related to changes in global mean surface temperature (Tglobal); and (3) a contribution from unforced variability that is generated by a stochastic weather generator. The patterns of unforced variability are also allowed to respond to changes in Tglobal. The statistical relationships between changes in X (and its patterns of variability) and Tglobal are obtained in a training phase. Then, in an implementation phase, 190 simulations of Tglobal are generated using a simple climate model tuned to emulate 19 different global climate models (GCMs) and 10 different carbon cycle models. Using the generated Tglobal time series and the correlation between the forced changes in X and Tglobal, obtained in the training phase, the forced change in the X field can be generated many times using Monte Carlo analysis. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate realistic representations of weather which include spatial coherence. Because GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs) are less likely to correctly represent unforced variability compared to observations, the stochastic weather generator takes as input measures of variability derived from observations, but also responds to forced changes in climate in a way that is consistent with the RCM projections. This approach to generating a large ensemble of projections is many orders of magnitude more

  17. Inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz Et Pavon, Oken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available La atractiva apariencia de la madera de Cordia alliodora (laurel, sus características físico-mecánicas, su abundante regeneración natural, captura de carbono y protección al suelo, la hacen ideal para la reforestación. No obstante, la falta de material de siembra de buena calidad para suplir la demanda media anual, convierten la propagación vegetativa en una herramienta esencial para el mejoramiento genético, y la conservación de genotipos en bancos clonales. En este sentido, se propuso establecer una metodología para la inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de árboles de laurel utilizando reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Las concentraciones de citoquininas empleadas para la inducción de brotes a partir de árboles adultos fueron de: 0, 3000, 6000, 9000 mg L-1 de BAP sola y combinadas con 1000, 2000, 3000 mg L-1 de AIA, y se determinaron utilizando un Diseño Completo Aleatorizado (DCA. Las concentraciones de auxinas para el enraizamiento de los brotes fueron de 0, 1000, y 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA y AIB, mediante un DCA con arreglo factorial 3 x 3 (hormona ANA x hormona AIB. Se evaluó la inducción de brotes epicórmicos y se obtuvieron 2.67 brotes de 16.42 cm de longitud, con 6000 mg kg-1 de BAP + 2000 mg kg-1 de AIA. El porcentaje de enraizamiento fue 54%, número de raíces 1.78, longitud 2.59 con 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA + 1500 mg kg-1 de AIB. El uso de citoquininas y auxinas fue efectivo para provocar la diferenciación celular tanto en la inducción y rizogénesis de brotes epicórmicos de laurel.

  18. Inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz Et Pavon, Oken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carranza Patiño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La atractiva apariencia de la madera de Cordia alliodora (laurel, sus características físico-mecánicas, su abundante regeneración natural, captura de carbono y protección al suelo, la hacen ideal para la reforestación. No obstante, la falta de material de siembra de buena calidad para suplir la demanda media anual, convierten la propagación vegetativa en una herramienta esencial para el mejoramiento genético, y la conservación de genotipos en bancos clonales. En este sentido, se propuso establecer una metodología para la inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de árboles de laurel utilizando reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Las concentraciones de citoquininas empleadas para la inducción de brotes a partir de árboles adultos fueron de: 0, 3000, 6000, 9000 mg L-1 de BAP sola y combinadas con 1000, 2000, 3000 mg L-1 de AIA, y se determinaron utilizando un Diseño Completo Aleatorizado. Las concentraciones de auxinas para el enraizamiento de los brotes fueron de 0, 1000, y 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA y AIB, mediante un DCA con arreglo factorial 3 x 3 (hormona ANA x hormona AIB. Se evaluó la inducción de brotes epicórmicos y se obtuvieron 2.67 brotes de 16.42 cm de longitud, con 6000 mg kg-1 de BAP + 2000 mg kg-1 de AIA. El porcentaje de enraizamiento fue 54%, número de raíces 1.78, longitud 2.59 con 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA + 1500 mg kg-1 de AIB. El uso de citoquininas y auxinas fue efectivo para provocar la diferenciación celular tanto en la inducción y rizogénesis de brotes epicórmicos de laurel.

  19. Maternal height and breast cancer risk: results from a study nested within the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Michail; La Vecchia, Carlo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona

    2017-05-01

    The positive association of adult height with breast cancer (BC) risk has been hypothesized to be partly accounted for by an association of this risk with maternal height (operating in utero to modify hormone effects). In a case-control study (271 BC patients and 791 controls) nested within the EPIC-Greece cohort, we applied mediation analysis to calculate the direct and indirect (through the woman's own height) effect of maternal height on BC risk. Per 5 cm increase in maternal height and depending on its reference value: the indirect effect odds ratio ranges from 1.02 to 1.07; the direct effect odds ratio from 1.06 to 1.11; and the total (direct and indirect effects) from 1.08 to 1.19. The effect sizes consistently increased for higher reference categories of maternal height, but did not generally reach statistical significance, possibly due to the limited sample size.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Couto, Elisabeth; Wichmann, Janine

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We...... conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit...... stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per...

  1. Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with aplastic anemia: a subgroup analysis of 116 patients from the EPIC trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jong Wook; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Shen, Zhi Xiang

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study enrolled a large cohort of 116 patients with aplastic anemia; the present analyses evaluated the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in this patient population. After 1 year, median serum ferritin decreased...... adjustments and ongoing iron intake. Baseline labile plasma iron levels were within normal range despite high serum ferritin levels. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (22%) and diarrhea (16%). Serum creatinine increases more than 33% above baseline and the upper limit of normal occurred...... neutrophil and platelet counts remained stable during treatment, and there were no drug-related cytopenias. This prospective dataset confirms the efficacy and well characterizes the tolerability profile of deferasirox in a large population of patients with aplastic anemia. This study was registered at www...

  2. How do they hang from the nation? On Epic Poetry at the beginning of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena González Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Can the poet take charge of the “us” without succumbing to a sentimental idea of community with utopian postponement as its backbone? How can both the cause of women and that of the inferior nation be simultaneously debated without one of them tending to shadow the other beneath a totalizing umbrella? How do you construct a non-heroic epic appropriate to a time when mythic or technique narratives about the origin of a community are no longer possible?In their books of poems (published in 2000, Chus Pato and Ana Romaní present models which interrogate the community through the transformation of the epic’s poetic forms so as to questionnational identity through sexual difference.

  3. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  4. Potentially modifiable classic risk factors and their impact on incident myocardial infarction: results from the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Hoffmann, Kurt; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Hense, Hans-Werner; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-02-01

    Prospective data on the importance of established risk factors for myocardial infarction in Germany are sparse. The population-based cohort study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam with 159 incident cases of myocardial infarction (120 men, 39 women) occurring among 26 954 participants (10 463 men, 16 491 women) during an average follow-up time of 4.6 years. We examined the classic, potentially modifiable risk factors smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, abdominal obesity, and sporting inactivity, both individually and in combination, by estimating their prevalence and their relative and population-attributable risks of incident myocardial infarction. After adjusting for age, sex, educational attainment, alcohol intake, and the respective other classic risk factors the relative risks of myocardial infarction were 3.18 for smoking [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31, 4.38], 1.84 for hypertension (95% CI 1.27, 2.65), 1.81 for sporting inactivity (95% CI 1.04, 3.15), 1.64 for diabetes (95% CI 1.05, 2.56), 1.62 for abdominal obesity (95% CI 1.03, 2.56), and 1.15 for hyperlipidemia (95% CI 0.84, 1.59). Participants with four or all five significant risk factors had an approximately 11.5-fold higher risk of the coronary event than participants with none or one risk factor. Altogether, 84.3% of myocardial infarctions in the study population were attributable to the presence of the five risk factors smoking, hypertension, diabetes, sporting inactivity, and abdominal obesity. The majority of myocardial infarctions in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were explainable by potentially modifiable classic risk factors. Therefore, besides efforts to investigate novel coronary risk factors, the prevention of coronary disease should focus on strategies to reduce the prevalence of established risk factors.

  5. Genetic variability of the mTOR pathway and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. We chose the SNPs (n = 11 with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01 and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (OR(allele = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p = 1.3 x 10⁻³ for rs546950 and OR(allele = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, p = 5.6 x 10⁻⁴ for rs4955720. We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer.

  6. Fruits and vegetables and renal cell carcinoma: findings from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Becker, Nikolaus; Linseisen, Jacob; Lahmann, Petra H; Arvaniti, Athina; Kassapa, Christina; Trichoupoulou, Antonia; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Ljungberg, Börje; Hallmans, Göran; Berglund, Göran; Wirfält, Elisabet; Pera, Guillem; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Navarro, Carmen; Martinez, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2006-06-15

    We examined the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake data and complete follow-up information on cancer incidence were available for 375,851 participants recruited in EPIC centers of 8 countries. During an average follow-up of 6.2 years, 306 incident cases of RCC were identified. The associations of consumption of total vegetables, total fruits, combined total fruits and vegetables and specific subtypes of vegetables with RCC risk were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, stratified by centre and adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and RCC risk were observed despite a wide range of intake. The estimated relative risks (95% confidence intervals [CI]) in men and women combined were 0.97 (0.85-1.11) per 40 g increase in vegetable intake, 1.03 (0.97-1.08) per 40 g increase in fruit intake and 1.02 (0.93-1.11) per 80 g increase in fruit and vegetable intake combined. Among the vegetable subtypes, an inverse association was observed for root vegetables (RR per 8 g increase: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78-0.99). These results suggest that total consumption of fruits and vegetables is not related to risk of RCC, although we cannot exclude the possibility that very low consumption is related to higher risk. The relationship of specific fruit and vegetable subgroups with RCC risk warrant further investigation. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Freisling, Heinz; Cadeau, Claire; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Ramón Quirós, J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chamosa, Saioa; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Tim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; De Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2017-04-01

    Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, public health concern increased when acrylamide was identified in starchy, plant-based foods, processed at high temperatures. The purpose of this study was to identify which food groups and lifestyle variables were determinants of hemoglobin adduct concentrations of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) in 801 non-smoking postmenopausal women from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Biomarkers of internal exposure were measured in red blood cells (collected at baseline) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) . In this cross-sectional analysis, four dependent variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, sum of total adducts (HbAA + HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify determinants of the four outcome variables. All dependent variables (except HbGA/HbAA) and all independent variables were log-transformed (log2) to improve normality. Median (25th-75th percentile) HbAA and HbGA adduct levels were 41.3 (32.8-53.1) pmol/g Hb and 34.2 (25.4-46.9) pmol/g Hb, respectively. The main food group determinants of HbAA, HbGA, and HbAA + HbGA were biscuits, crackers, and dry cakes. Alcohol intake and body mass index were identified as the principal determinants of HbGA/HbAA. The total percent variation in HbAA, HbGA, HbAA + HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA explained in this study was 30, 26, 29, and 13 %, respectively. Dietary and lifestyle factors explain a moderate proportion of acrylamide adduct variation in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  8. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E A; Appleby, P N; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    2003-06-01

    To compare body mass index (BMI) in four diet groups (meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) and to investigate lifestyle and dietary factors associated with any observed differences. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data. A total of 37875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 y participating in EPIC-Oxford. Age-adjusted mean BMI was significantly different between the four diet groups, being highest in the meat-eaters (24.41 kg/m(2) in men, 23.52 kg/m(2) in women) and lowest in the vegans (22.49 kg/m(2) in men, 21.98 kg/m(2) in women). Fish-eaters and vegetarians had similar, intermediate mean BMI. Differences in lifestyle factors including smoking, physical activity and education level accounted for less than 5% of the difference in mean age-adjusted BMI between meat-eaters and vegans, whereas differences in macronutrient intake accounted for about half of the difference. High protein (as percent energy) and low fibre intakes were the dietary factors most strongly and consistently associated with increasing BMI both between and within the diet groups. Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI.

  9. 169. Resultados de la ablación epicárdica de las venas pulmonares con ultrasonidos de alta intensidad en la fibrilación auricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Romero Ferrer

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La ablación epicárdica de las venas pulmonares mediante HIFU permite conseguir ritmo sinusal en un 74% de pacientes a 3 años. El beneficio es claramente superior en los casos de FA paroxística, aunque hasta un 69% de pacientes con FA persistente/permanente mantienen ritmo sinusal a 3 años.

  10. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Rice Paddies as Influenced by Climate Change under Scenario A2 and B2 of an i-EPIC model of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in soils constitutes an important option that can be used to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and reduce environmental impacts. Soil organic carbon (SOC is both a source of carbon release and a sink for carbon sequestration. Our objectives in this study were to validate the interactive Environmental Policy Impact Calculator (i-EPIC model version 0509, as well as to estimate SOC sequestration under climate change scenarios A2 and B2 SRES emission scenarios in Thailand. The SOC estimated by i-EPIC was compared with data from the Office of Soil Resources Survey and Research, Land Development Department. The results indicated that performance testing of i-EPIC is able to estimate SOC. Validation of SOC proved to be satisfactory with a resulting root mean square error (RMSE % value of 34.60. The SOC content showed a decreasing trend under B2 and A2 climate scenarios (average 0.87% and 0.85%, respectively compared to the reference from 2007 (average 0.92%. Stepwise regression analysis also revealed that carbon from residue decomposition, biomass pool carbon, and the total change of the carbon pool were directly correlated with the SOC (R2= 0.99, p< 0.01. Furthermore, the change from rain supplied water to irrigation also resulted in an increase of carbon inputs but a decrease in the SOC sequestered during the 2007-2017 period. Regression analyses indicated that soil carbon sequestration responds linearly to carbon input. Significant changes in carbon input as well as decreases in SOC levels were observed as temperature and precipitation increased. Based on the testing and analysis, we concluded that i-EPIC is capable of reliably simulating effects of climate change on SOC sequestration. Based on the results, this knowledge and information can increase effectiveness in the promotion of integrated rice management for rice production in Thailand.

  11. Use of EPICS and Python technology for the development of a computational toolkit for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh, E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Swamy, Rajamannar, E-mail: rajamannar@ipr.res.in; Khirwadkar, Samir, E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach to software development for computational processing and experimental control. • Use of open source, cross platform, robust and advanced tools for computational code development. • Prediction of optimized process parameters for critical heat flux model. • Virtual experimentation for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components. - Abstract: The high heat flux testing and characterization of the divertor and first wall components are a challenging engineering problem of a tokamak. These components are subject to steady state and transient heat load of high magnitude. Therefore, the accurate prediction and control of the cooling parameters is crucial to prevent burnout. The prediction of the cooling parameters is based on the numerical solution of the critical heat flux (CHF) model. In a test facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components (PFC), the integration of computations and experimental control is an essential requirement. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) provides powerful tools for steering controls, data simulation, hardware interfacing and wider usability. Python provides an open source alternative for numerical computations and scripting. We have integrated these two open source technologies to develop a graphical software for a typical high heat flux experiment. The implementation uses EPICS based tools namely IOC (I/O controller) server, control system studio (CSS) and Python based tools namely Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib and NOSE. EPICS and Python are integrated using PyEpics library. This toolkit is currently under operation at high heat flux test facility at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) and is also useful for the experimental labs working in the similar research areas. The paper reports the software architectural design, implementation tools and rationale for their selection, test and validation.

  12. A Qualitative Investigation of Australian Youth Perceptions to Enhance School Physical Activity: The Environmental Perceptions Investigation of Children's Physical Activity (EPIC-PA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    There is more demand than ever for schools to equip children with the necessary skills to be physically active. The purpose of the Environmental Perceptions Investigation of Children's Physical Activity (EPIC-PA) study was to investigate elementary and secondary school children's perceptions to enhance the school physical activity environment. Four Australian government schools (2 elementary and 2 secondary) were recruited for the EPIC-PA study. During the study, 78 children were recruited aged 10 to 13 years. The focus group discussions consisted of 54 children (32 elementary and 22 secondary) and the map drawing sessions included 24 children (17 elementary and 7 secondary). The findings from the EPIC-PA study revealed insight into uniquely desired features to encourage physical activity such as adventure physical activity facilities (eg, rock climbing walls), recreational physical activity facilities (eg, jumping pillows), physical activity excursions, animal activity programs and teacher-directed activities. In addition to specific features, childrens revealed a host of policies for equipment borrowing, access to sports equipment/areas, music during physical activity time and external physical education lessons. Understanding the multiple suggestions from children of features to enhance physical activity can be used by schools and researchers to create environments conducive to physical activity participation.

  13. Theme of Ayyari and Javanmardi and its Didactic-Suggestive Teachings in Prose Epics (case study: Samak-e Ayyar, Darabnameh and Firouzshahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ja’afarpoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous researches, exploration of the theme of Ayyari and teachings of Javanmardi and branches of this socio-political rite has focused mostly on prose and sometimes poetic mystical texts due to elitist view of researchers, and centrality and special status of the Holy Quran and religious texts. Perhaps, elucidating and representing the close relation of Ayyari and Javanmardi to epic texts and showing didactic teachings of this moral society can be a new and impressive effort to reveal its primary and Iranian origin and also correct some existing incorrect considerations. By this background in mind, the present paper aims to introduce in two sections the theoretical foundations of research in four axes including: prose epic narratives, didactic literature, its nature and branches, historical background and ups and downs of Ayyari and Javanmardi. Then, by comparative and typological approach in two prose epics Samak-e Ayyar and Darabnameh, didactic-suggestive teachings of Ayyaran and Javanmardan are analyzed and described. Having an almost comprehensive view on previous studies in this field, the present article reveals some points not considered before.

  14. PROVERBS AND SOME OF THE USAGES IN THE EPIC OF KÖROĞLU / ATASÖZLERI VE KÖROĞLU DESTANI’NDA BAZI KULLANIMLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin BARS (M.A.H.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The epic of Köroğlu is an epical work that left deep influencesall over the Turkish world and over the nations lived together withTurks for long centuries. Even today when taken into consideration ofthe wideness of its narrated and listened geopraphical area, itsimportance from the view of maintaining the cultural integritybetween Turks will be understood much better. Đt is difficult to comeacross such a work like the epic of Köroğlu which maintains itsimportance with a wide performance area, in the lives of other nations.As for proverbs they are the expressions which tell a nation’s standardof judgement. These expressions containing the acquirement of thelife experiences for centuries inform that nation’s thought, yearning,criticism, observation and ideas. They advise people the principles andthe rules aiming to teach the good, the beautiful and the truth. Đn ourwriting the proverbs which take place in Turkoman variant of Köroğluwill be discussed.

  15. ANALISIS EFEKTIVITAS IKLAN TV SIRUP MARKISA DENGAN PENDEKATAN EPIC MODEL PT. MAJUJAYA POHON PINANG PADA KONSUMEN SWALAYAN MACAM YAOHAN MERAK JINGGA MEDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Yet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Present competition of syrup business becomes tighter in terms of product quality, promotion, price and services provided. With many syrup product competing in the market, the management of  company is required to be more accurate in determining the strategy used to win the competition. PT. MajuJaya PohonPinang was chosen to be the object of study because this company has applied various strategies in marketing their products and one of them is through advertisement. Therefore, it needs a follow up to find out how effective the advertisement of Pohon Pinang Markisa Syrup related to the buying decision. The purpose of this quantitive descriptive explanatory survey study conducted at PT. MajuJaya PohonPinang Macan Yaohan Supermarket Merak Jingga Medan was to find out and analyze the effectiveness of Markisa Syrup commercial advertisement viewed from EPIC (Empathy, Persuasion, Impact, and Communication dimensions and to find out the effectiveness and to partiality analyze the EPIC dimension using the theory of marketing management related to advertisement.  The population of this study was the consumers of Macan Yaohan Supermarket Merak Jingga Medan and 100 of them were selected to be respondents for this study. The data obtained were analyzed through univariate analysis with T-test. The result of this study showed that simultaneously the variable of Markisa Syrup TV Commercial Advertisement viewed based on the EPIC model was effective. Partially, persuasion was the most dominant variable of the effectiveness of Markisa Syrup TV Commercial Advertisement

  16. Two-year Clinical Outcomes Post Implantation of Epic(TM) Self-Expanding Nitinol Stents for the Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takuya; Iida, Osamu; Fujita, Masashi; Masuda, Masaharu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Okuno, Shota; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Fujihara, Masahiko; Yokoi, Yoshiaki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2017-10-05

    We investigated 2-year clinical outcomes after implantaton of Epic(TM) self-expanding nitinol stents for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD). This study was a multicenter and retrospective study. From February 2013 through October 2014, 292 lesions (chronic total occlusion, 21%; TASC Ⅱ C/D, 35%) in 217 consecutive patients (74±8 years; male, 81%; diabetes mellitus, 47%; dialysis, 21%; critical limb ischemia, 29%) who had undergone endovascular therapy (EVT) with Epic(TM) self-expanding nitinol stents for PAD with AIOD were analyzed. The primary endpoints were 2-year primary patency and target lesion revascularization (TLR)-free rate. The primary patency and freedom from TLR were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, predictors for loss of patency were estimated by Cox proportional hazard model. The mean follow-up duration was 19.1±8.5 months. Primary patency was 87.3% at 2 years. Freedom from TLR rate was 94.1% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a loss of patency. The Epic(TM) self-expanding nitinol stent was demonstrated to be safe and effectivene for AIOD when tested for two years in patients with PAD.

  17. Unelõiv ja Saarepiiga: Jüri Talveti kirjanduslik "Kalevipoeg" / The Rhisomes of „Kalevipoeg“: Literary Interpretation of the Estonian National Epic by Jüri Talvet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Laak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub eepose „Kalevipoeg“ käsitlusele võrdleva kirjandusteaduse vaatepunktist. „Kalevipoja“ uurimine ilukirjandusliku teosena muutis paradigmaatiliselt rahvuseepose senist tõlgendust ja seda tänu Jüri Talveti käsitlustele „Kalevipojast“ kui suurest Euroopa eeposest, silmapaistavast maailmakirjanduse kunsteeposte seas. Eepose teksti ja poeetika kirjandusteaduslik uurimine on selgitanud, kuidas eepose tekst on üles ehitatud sisemistele, intratekstuaalsetele seostele, mis korduvad gradatsiooniliselt ja toetuvad teatud kindlatele tekstuaalsetele sõlmpunktidele, näiteks „Saarepiiga“, „uni“ jpt. Enam kui autentsed allikad, on „Kalevipoja“ kui kirjandusliku teksti puhul oluline eepose toimimine pidevalt uusi tekste ärgitava tüvitekstina. Eepose analüüs näitab, kuidas selliste seoste alusel tekivad uued kultuurilised ühikud, kauneid näiteid selliste motiivikordustele rajatud seosteahelate kohta leidub ka Jüri Talveti luules.   The article focuses on the treatment of the epic The Kalevipoeg from the viewpoint of comparative literature. This approach is a continuation of the study of literary relations of the epic which, on the one hand is opposite to, but on the other hand continues the present folkloristic approach to The Kalevipoeg as a folklore-based epic, which is based on the comparative-historical method of studying folklore. F. R. Kreutzwald’s role in creating the national epic was enormous; the epic can be conceived as a fictional and intentional piece, emphasising the role of its author. Although different genres of genuine folklore can be recognised in the epic, works of fiction of European and world classics have also been used in its construction, and the text of the epic has itself become an intertextual foundation for new works of fiction. The paradigm of discussing the epic changed due to Jüri Talvet’s groundbreaking treatment of The Kalevipoeg as a great European epic and

  18. Associations of anthropometric markers with serum metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach: results of the EPIC-potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, U; Floegel, A; Steffen, A; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2016-06-27

    The metabolic consequences of type of body shape need further exploration. Whereas accumulation of body mass in the abdominal area is a well-established metabolic risk factor, accumulation in the gluteofemoral area is controversially debated. We evaluated the associations of anthropometric markers of overall body mass and body shape with 127 serum metabolites within a sub-sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. The cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 2270 participants, randomly drawn from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. Metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics. To select metabolites related with both waist circumference (WC) (abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat) and hip circumference (HC) (gluteofemoral fat, muscles and bone structure) correlations (r) with body mass index (BMI) as aggregating marker of body mass (lean and fat mass) were calculated. Relations with body shape were assessed by median metabolite concentrations across tertiles of WC and HC, mutually adjusted to each other. Correlations revealed 23 metabolites related to BMI (r⩾I0.20 I). Metabolites showing relations with BMI were showing similar relations with HC adjusted WC (WCHC). In contrast, relations with WC adjusted HC (HCWC) were less concordant with relations of BMI and WCHC. In both sexes, metabolites with concordant relations regarding WCHC and HCWC included tyrosine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C38:3, C38:4, lyso-phosphatidylcholine C18:1, C18:2 and sphingomyelin C18:1; metabolites with opposite relations included isoleucine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C42:0, acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:3, C42:4, C42:5, C44:4 and C44:6. Metabolites specifically related to HCWC included acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:2, C36:2, C38:2 and C40:4, and were solely observed in men. Other metabolites were related to WCHC only. The study revealed specific metabolic profiles for HCWC as marker of gluteofemoral body mass differing from

  19. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid fluidity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Janine; Jacobs, Simone; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Fritsche, Andreas; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2015-02-01

    The fluidity of cell membranes has been hypothesised as an important link in the association of fatty acids (FAs) with diabetes risk. The lipophilic index, which can be derived from the FA profile of blood or tissues, has recently been proposed as a novel measure of cell membrane FA fluidity. In this study we aimed to evaluate the lipophilic index in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We applied a nested case-cohort design (n = 1,740, including 362 cases) within the EPIC-Potsdam study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged men and women. Erythrocyte membrane FA proportions were measured at baseline and physician-confirmed incident diabetes was assessed during a mean follow-up of 7.0 years. The lipophilic index was calculated as the sum of the products of the FA proportions with the respective FA melting points. After multivariable adjustments, including body size measures, there was a positive association between the lipophilic index and diabetes risk (HR comparing top with bottom quartile 1.59 (95% CI 1.08, 2.34), p for trend across quartiles = 0.005). Adjustment for FAs, which are considered established diabetes risk markers, did not substantially attenuate this association. A high lipophilic index, reflecting lower membrane fluidity, may be associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that membrane fluidity may be an important mediator that links intake and metabolism of FAs to diabetes risk.

  1. Joint effect of unlinked genotypes: application to type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Sven; Meidtner, Karina; Arregui, Maria; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising approach to finding genetic effects beyond single-locus associations. We proposed the use of multilocus stepwise regression (MSR) to screen for allele combinations as a method to model joint effects, and compared the results with the often used genetic risk score (GRS), conventional stepwise selection, and the shrinkage method LASSO. In contrast to MSR, the GRS, conventional stepwise selection, and LASSO model each genotype by the risk allele doses. We reanalyzed 20 unlinked SNPs related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study (760 cases, 2193 noncases). No SNP-SNP interactions and no nonlinear effects were found. Two SNP combinations selected by MSR (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.050 and 0.048) included eight SNPs with mean allele combination frequency of 2%. GRS and stepwise selection selected nearly the same SNP combinations consisting of 12 and 13 SNPs (Nagelkerke's R² ranged from 0.020 to 0.029). LASSO showed similar results. The MSR method showed the best model fit measured by Nagelkerke's R² suggesting that further improvement may render this method a useful tool in genetic research. However, our comparison suggests that the GRS is a simple way to model genetic effects since it does not consider linkage, SNP-SNP interactions, and no non-linear effects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  2. Estimating usual food intake distributions by using the multiple source method in the EPIC-Potsdam Calibration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrock, Jennifer; Nöthlings, Ute; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dekkers, Arnold; Ocké, Marga; Harttig, Ulrich; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Knüppel, Sven; Andersen, Lene F; Boeing, Heiner

    2011-05-01

    Estimating usual food intake distributions from short-term quantitative measurements is critical when occasionally or rarely eaten food groups are considered. To overcome this challenge by statistical modeling, the Multiple Source Method (MSM) was developed in 2006. The MSM provides usual food intake distributions from individual short-term estimates by combining the probability and the amount of consumption with incorporation of covariates into the modeling part. Habitual consumption frequency information may be used in 2 ways: first, to distinguish true nonconsumers from occasional nonconsumers in short-term measurements and second, as a covariate in the statistical model. The MSM is therefore able to calculate estimates for occasional nonconsumers. External information on the proportion of nonconsumers of a food can also be handled by the MSM. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the MSM to a data set from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Calibration Study (2004) comprising 393 participants who completed two 24-h dietary recalls and one FFQ. Usual intake distributions were estimated for 38 food groups with a proportion of nonconsumers > 70% in the 24-h dietary recalls. The intake estimates derived by the MSM corresponded with the observed values such as the group mean. This study shows that the MSM is a useful and applicable statistical technique to estimate usual food intake distributions, if at least 2 repeated measurements per participant are available, even for food groups with a sizeable percentage of nonconsumers.

  3. Water, from Gilgamesh Epic to Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman: a look into polywater and the memory of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    Water is a complex source of imagination, dreams and rituals, where cultural differences ebb and flow, where a plethora of meanings and interpretations interlink and wash over one another. Water has an ambivalent character as stated in most of the ancient cosmogonies and in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Water's composition was discovered by the London scientist Henry Cavendish in about 1781. Although it is an apparently simple molecule (H2O), it has a highly complex and anomalous character. The anomalous properties of water are those where the behavior of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids. As often stated, life depends indeed on these anomalous properties of water. Notably there are 12 phase, 22 density, 12 material, 11 thermodynamic and 9 physical anomalies. A powerful look into the water molecule was given by Nobel Prize recipient Richard P. Feynman as published in Six easy pieces. A look into the most recent quest for more knowledge about water leads us to the concept of pathological science. The cases of "polywater" and "the memory of water" are indeed paradigmatic episodes of fraudulent research published in journals with high impact factors. In conclusion, men came out of water engineered to handle water, and water greatly affects mythology and philosophy and is a strong presence in the arts and science.

  4. Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Barupal, Dinesh K; Rothwell, Joseph A; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Kritikou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Merino, Susana; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Bodén, Stina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-04-15

    Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development. © 2016 UIC.

  5. The creative word and poetic visions of the world. The beginnings of an epic fantasy in C. S. Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Bautista, O. D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The enormous popularity of the book series The Chronicles of Narnia by British author C. S. Lewis invites the study of the work´s artistic quality that forms part of the beginning of the epic fantasy; not only because it represents a milestone in literary history, but also because it remains an expression of fundamental human needs that, in the same manner, were found in post-war days ofthe twentieth century, as observed in the great questions of postmodernity. The crisis of the greatstories generally expressed by religions and thecultural dissolution of major literary referencesproduce a fertile ground for the emergence ofliterary works, such as The Chronicles of Narnia,and propose a vision of the world and a projectfor the future. In this paper we will analyze theartistic value of The Magician’s Nephew (1955, abook which opens the collection of children’s books,as a work that offers a poetic vision of the worldwith the Judeo-Christian religious background ofcreation.

  6. Ethanol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Vrieling, Alina; Boffetta, Paolo; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Lowenfels, Albert B; Jensen, Majken K; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, G; Misirli, Gesthimani; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Redondo Cornejo, Ma Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Arriola, Larraitz; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, María-José; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Lindkvist, Björn; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ye, Weimin; Slimani, Nadia; Duell, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Michaud, Dominique S; Mouw, Traci; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2009-07-01

    To examine the association of baseline and lifetime ethanol intake with cancer of the pancreas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Included in this analysis were 478,400 subjects, of whom detailed information on the intake of alcoholic beverages at baseline and over lifetime was collected between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up time of 8.9 years, 555 non-endocrine pancreatic cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of ethanol intake at recruitment and average lifetime ethanol intake and pancreatic cancer adjusting for smoking, height, weight, and history of diabetes. Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment (relative risk (RR) = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.27 comparing 30+ g/d vs. 0.1-4.9 g/d) nor average lifetime ethanol intake (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.65-1.39) was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. High lifetime ethanol intake from spirits/liquor at recruitment tended to be associated with a higher risk (RR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.93-2.10 comparing 10+ g/d vs. 0.1-4.9 g/d), but no associations were observed for wine and beer consumption. These results suggest no association of alcohol consumption with the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Poetic function of Višnjić's epic poems in the works of Andrić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baćović Vukašin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is telling us about permeating of oral poetic images and narrations of our best novelist and narrator. Namely, the discussion is about the influence of Filip Višnjić's epic chronicle at certain segments and characters of our Nobel Prize recipient. Ivo Andrić, as the first-class artist of the written word, has proved himself as historian and chronicler of the subtlest feelings in Bosnian history knowledge, in particular during the period under Turkish power. Andrić has transformed historical components of Serbian uprising into his epochal literary works. His understanding of Bosnian reality was similar to the one of the poet Višnjić - the understanding as the light and sound. This is nicest said by the Andrić's prophets who arrive to those predictions from prophetic minds of Višnjić. We agree with opinion that history and numerous romanticists would continue searching for scholarly natured answers that would praise the poetry of Višnjić onto the level of the best folk chronicler.

  8. JBluIce-EPICS: a fast and flexible open-source beamline control system for macromolecular crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, S.; Hilgart, M.; Makarov, O.; Pothineni, S. B.; Yoder, D.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Venugopalan, N.; Becker, M.; Clift, M.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper overviews recent advances in the JBluIce-EPICS open-source control system designed at the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute at the Advanced Photon Source (GM/CA@APS). We discuss some technical highlights of this system distinguishing it from the competition, such as reduction of software layers to only two, possibility to operate JBluIce in parallel with other beamline controls, plugin-enabled architecture where the plugins can be written in any programming language, and utilization of the whole power of the Java integrated development environment in the Graphical User Interface. Then, we demonstrate how these highlights help to make JBluIce fast, easily adaptable to new beamline developments, and intuitive for users. In particular, we discuss several recent additions to the system including a bridge between crystal rastering and data collection, automatic detection of raster polygons from optical crystal centering, background data processing, and a pathway to a fully automated pipeline from crystal screening to solving crystal structure.

  9. [Consumption patterns and the principal sources of lipids and fatty acids in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation on Diet and Cancer (EPIC). The EPIC Group in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-06

    To evaluate the fat consumption and main sources of specific fatty acids in adults from the south and north of Spain. Dietary data from 25,816 women and 15,635 men, aged 29-69 years, participants in the European Prospective Study on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in the north (Asturias, Navarra and Guipúzcoa) and south (Murcia and Granada) of Spain, were used in a cross-sectional study. Information of habitual diet was collected by personal interview by means a computerized version of a diet history questionnaire. Energy and nutrient intake was estimated using a conversion table of more than 700 items compiled for the study in Spain. Saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) provided respectively between 11.2 to 13.3%, 15.6 to 20.0% and 5.6 to 7.4% of total calories intake. MUFA/SFA ratio showed values from 1.7 in males to 1.3 in females, the PUFA/SFA ratio showed values from 0.7 in males to 0.5 in males and females, and the n-6/n-3 ratio showed values from 10.8 in females to 7.4 in males. Olive oil was the major contributor (78% in women and 67% in men) of vegetable oils intake, which provides between 7 to 8% of total calories intake and between 31 to 48% of MUFA intake. Daily intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish was between 0.3 to 1.2 g. In most of the provinces whole milk and cheeses in women and preserved meat in men were the major contributors of SFA intake while contribution of red meat was less important. Patterns of fat consumption in adult population from the north and south of Spain are very similar.

  10. 3D virtual world remote laboratory to assist in designing advanced user defined DAQ systems based on FlexRIO and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpeño, A., E-mail: antonio.cruiz@upm.es [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Contreras, D.; López, S.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Arcas, G. de; Esquembri, S. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Assist in the design of FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO. • Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios. • Virtual actions simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process. • Virtual actions can make real changes remotely in the physical ITER’s Fast Controller. - Abstract: iRIO-3DLab is a platform devised to assist developers in the design and implementation of intelligent and reconfigurable FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO technologies. Although these architectures are very powerful in defining the behavior of DAQ systems, this advantage comes at the price of greater difficulty in understanding how the system works, and how it should be configured and built according to the hardware available and the processing demanded by the requirements of the diagnostics. In this regard, Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios due to their ability to provide immersive training experiences and collaborative environments. The designed remote laboratory is based on a 3D virtual world developed in Opensim, which is accessible through a standard free 3D viewer. Using a client-server architecture, the virtual world connects with a service running in a Linux-based computer executing EPICS. Through their avatars, users interact with virtual replicas of this equipment as they would in real-life situations. Some actions can be used to simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process, while others can be used to make real changes remotely in the physical system.

  11. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  12. Plasma elaidic acid level as biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and risk of weight change: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Scalbert, Augustin; Bueno de Mesquita, Bas; Romaguera, Dora; Gunter, Marc J; Vineis, Paolo; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verana; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, Jose Ramon; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Sonested, Emily; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicolas J; Peeters, Petra H M; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trend<.0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.

  13. Plasma elaidic acid level as biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and risk of weight change: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Chajès

    Full Text Available Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort.Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region.In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002 and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082 (p-trend<.0001. In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062 while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454. No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids.These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.

  14. Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2013-01-01

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources...... and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC...

  15. Tearing Down the Bridge between East and West: The (Re-)Writing of Albanian Identity in the Millosh Kopiliq Epic and Ismail Kadare’s The Siege

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Lien

    2016-01-01

    Albania lies at the crux of the doubly oriental identity of the Balkans on account of its Ottoman and Socialist past. This paper examines the role of the Ottoman Empire in literary works that engage with history in an effort to articulate a conception of Albanian identity as fundamentally European. The Kosovar epic ballads of Millosh Kopiliq and Ismail Kadare’s novel The Siege both portray the medieval conflicts between Albanians and Ottomans. Yet the works do not simply assert the cultural s...

  16. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  17. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    the baseline examination of 1367 Caucasian and 162 Asian women enrolled in the 1609-subject Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort (EPIC) study. After adjusting for age, study site, years postmenopause, and years of estrogen use, BMD was approximately 4-6% lower (P ... skeletal sites, but there was no significant difference for wrist or forearm BMD. Adding height, lean body mass, fat mass, and/or quadriceps muscle strength to the regression models reduced the racial differences at most skeletal sites; after these additional adjustments, Asian women had significantly...... lower BMD only for the lateral spine (-4.4%; P differences in BMD persist at certain skeletal sites...

  18. An Epic Text Imitating Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh: The Study of Critical Correction of Timornameh of Molana Abdullah Hatefi Kharjerdi Jami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    h Besak

    2014-11-01

    Novel and delicate meanings, beautiful and innovative descriptions and lexical and semantic embellishments put this Mathnavi amongst the most important historical epics of Persian literature. Also, the presence of old and rare words, Turkish and Mongolian words and idioms prevalent in the Persian language have made this work a valuable source for lexicographers. The historical aspect of this work is also of significance. The correction of this work can open a new space for broader researches on Hatefi, the style of his works and the condition of his time.

  19. Association of sleep duration with chronic diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 1994-1998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-3.59), cancer (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.09-1.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns.

  20. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight.

  1. Portion size adds limited information on variance in food intake of participants in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noethlings, Ute; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2003-02-01

    Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data should reflect interindividual variation and therefore measure variance in intake among populations. We conducted this analysis to evaluate the relevance of separate portion size questions to the interindividual variation in food intake. The contribution of portion size questions to the variance in food intake was quantified and compared with the variance when group-specific portion sizes would be assigned, using 26,764 FFQ of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Groups were defined according to gender, age (/=50 y) or body mass index (BMI) (/=26 kg/m(2)). The FFQ inquired about both consumption frequency and portion size. Linear regression models for each food item were fit with intake (g/d) as dependent variables and frequency of intake as independent variables. The mean coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the different food items explained by frequency only was 84.0% (71.2-95.7%). The R(2) for gender-, age- and BMI-specific frequencies of intake did not markedly alter the overall results. We conclude that the omission of individual portion size information would probably result in a notable reduction of interindividual variance. However, to reduce the respondents' burden and to increase data completeness in self-administration in large epidemiologic studies, the assignment of a constant portion size seems to be adequate. The variance was not increased markedly when constant gender-, age- and BMI-specific portion sizes were applied, thus supporting the assignment of an overall portion size.

  2. Interleukin-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism is associated with obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Hoffmann, Kurt; Rodrigues, Fabio U S; Sharma, Arya M; Klaus, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Boeing, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Homozygosity for the interleukin-6 (IL-6) g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism has recently been associated with indices of overweight. Homozygous subjects were observed to have reduced energy expenditure, suggesting that lower IL-6 gene transcription, caused by the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism, may be associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of this polymorphism with long-term weight gain. For 334 normal weight (20 30 kg/m2) subjects matched by age and sex originating from the population-based EPIC-Potsdam Study, recalled weight change from age 25 to study enrollment was determined, the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism was defined, and plasma concentrations of IL-6 and C-reactive protein were measured. The IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism was significantly associated with obesity (chi2 = 7,34, p = 0.026). Odds ratios for subjects with GC and CC genotypes for obesity were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.84 to 1.68; p = 0.323) and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.19 to 3.08; p = 0.007), respectively. Recalled weight change from age 25 years to study enrollment differed significantly according to genotype (p = 0.044) and was most pronounced in subjects with the CC genotype, suggesting that the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism is a susceptibility or modifying locus for common obesity and weight gain.

  3. Joint effects of risk factors for stroke and transient ischemic attack in a German population: the EPIC Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Berger, Klaus; Heidemann, Christin; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hoffmann, Kurt; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-03-01

    Single, modifiable risk factors for stroke have extensively been studied. In contrast, differences of their combined effects among stroke and transitoy ischemic attack (TIA) have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to assess single and joint effects of risk factors on the incidence of stroke and TIA and to compare their magnitudes in a large population-based German cohort. Incident cases of stroke and TIA were identified among 25,538 participants (aged 35-65 at baseline) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Relative risks for stroke and TIA related to modifiable risk factors were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. During 4.3 years of follow-up 100 stroke cases and 112 TIA cases occurred. Incidences of stroke and TIA were 91.7 and 102.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Relative risks for ischemic stroke (RR 5.12, 95% CI 1.49-17.6, p for trend<0.0001) and for TIA (RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.00-9.44, p for trend<0.024) were highest among participants having 4 or 5 modifiable risk factors. 58.5% of ischemic strokes and 26.2% of TIA cases were attributable to the 5 risk factors hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high alcohol consumption, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. Our data indicate that classical risk factors may explain almost 60% of ischemic stroke but only one in four TIA cases. Analysing potential differences of known risk factors between ischemic stroke and TIAs and the identification of other determinants of ischemic attacks are important steps to better explain the burden of stroke.

  4. Food groups as predictors for short-term weight changes in men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

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    Schulz, Mandy; Kroke, Anja; Liese, Angela D; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the effect of food group intake on subsequent 2-y weight change. Food-frequency questionnaire-based food intake data of 17,369 nonsmoking subjects of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were examined in their relation to a subsequent weight change. Dietary data, collected from 1994 to 1998, were grouped into 24 food groups. Weight change per year follow-up was the outcome of interest; large weight gain was defined as > or =2 kg; small weight gain as > or =1 kg to -2 kg and weight maintenance as +/- 1 kg. For each food group, a separate polytomous logistic regression model with stable weight as the reference group was constructed, controlling for age, body mass index, previous weight change, and behavioral and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated the increase in risk associated with each 100 g/d increment in food group intake. In women, consumption of high energy, high fat food groups significantly predicted large weight gain, e.g., fats (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.01-3.06), sauces (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.17-3.82) and meat (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), and the consumption of cereals predicted large weight loss (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.88). In men, intake of high energy, high sugar foods, i.e., sweets, was significantly predictive of large weight gain (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.13). Our data show that a diet rich in high fat and high energy foods predicts short-term weight gain even if controlled for many potential confounding factors.

  5. Association between chemerin, omentin-1 and risk of heart failure in the population-based EPIC-Potsdam study.

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    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Eichelmann, Fabian; Fritsche, Andreas; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner; Isermann, Berend; Weikert, Cornelia

    2017-10-26

    The adipokines chemerin and omentin-1 have been suggested to influence cardiovascular function. The study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between chemerin, omentin-1 concentrations and risk of incident heart failure (HF), respectively. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort (n = 27548) including a randomly drawn subsample and all incident HF cases during a mean follow-up of 8.2 ± 1.5 years. A total of 212 incident HF cases and 2168 individuals free of HF cases were included in the study. After multivariable adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors chemerin was strongly associated with risk of HF (HR per doubling chemerin: 4.91; 95%-CI: 2.57-9.39; p < 0.0001). Omentin-1 was not significantly related to HF risk in the overall study population. However, the association between omentin-1 and HF risk was modified by prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), showing that the shape of the association was linear in participants without prevalent CHD (HR doubling omentin-1: 2.11; 95%-CI: 1.36-3.27; p linear = 0.0009) and U-shaped in participants with pre-existing CHD (p non-linear = 0.006). Our study provides first evidence for a strong positive association between chemerin and risk of HF. The association between the adipokine omentin-1 and risk of HF may differ according to pre-existing CHD.

  6. Injury and illness in mountain bicycle stage racing: experience from the Trans-Sylvania Mountain Bike Epic Race.

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    McGrath, Todd M; Yehl, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The popularity of mountain bicycle (MTB) riding has increased significantly since its inception in the 1970s, as have injuries from MTB riding. As MTB stage racing is a relatively new segment of MTB racing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the injury and illness patterns associated with MTB stage racing to assist future medical providers in covering events. The Trans-Sylvania Mountain Bike Epic Race consisted of 7 stages. An onsite medical team of physicians, nurses, and paramedics provided medical coverage. The providers logged each medical encounter on a medical form. The log included the location where the treatment was provided (on course, at the finish or after the race), a description of the injury/illness, treatment that was rendered, the supplies needed for treatment, and the disposition of the patient (continue, withdraw but continue the next day, withdraw, or transfer to the hospital). A total of 52 athletes competed in the inaugural edition of the race. There were 30 separate medical encounters, with a total of 34 injuries/illnesses. Of these, 22 (65%) were classified as injury, and 12 (35%) were classified as illness. Four athletes withdrew from the race, 1 from injury and 3 from illness. Skin and soft tissue injuries/illnesses were the most prevalent. Injury and illness patterns of MTB stage racing are similar to those of other wilderness sporting events and prior data on MTB-related injuries. Minor skin, soft tissue, and orthopedic injuries are the most common. Illness accounts for the majority of withdrawals. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

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    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  8. Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Marleen J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Winkvist, Anna; Wennberg, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Aune, Dagfinn; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Apolipoprotein C-III Levels and Incident Coronary Artery Disease Risk: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Yang, Xiaohong; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Stroes, Erik S G; Witztum, Joseph L; Hovingh, G Kees; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2017-06-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoC-III levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apoC-III increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apoC-III plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apoC-III and CAD risk. Plasma apoC-III levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The study comprised 2711 apparently healthy study participants, of whom 832 subsequently developed CAD. We studied the association of baseline apoC-III levels with incident CAD risk, lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and inflammatory biomarkers. ApoC-III levels were significantly associated with CAD risk (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.48 for highest compared with lowest quintile), retaining significance after adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.94). ApoC-III levels were positively correlated with triglyceride levels, (r=0.39), particle numbers of very-low-density lipoprotein (r=0.25), intermediate-density lipoprotein (r=0.23), small dense low-density lipoprotein (r=0.26), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=0.15), whereas an inverse correlation was observed with large low-density lipoprotein particle number (r=-0.11), PC-reactive protein. ApoC-III levels are significantly associated with incident CAD risk. Elevated levels of remnant lipoproteins, small dense low-density lipoprotein, and low-grade inflammation may explain this association. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The association between dietary energy density and type 2 diabetes in Europe: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia W van den Berg

    Full Text Available Observational studies implicate higher dietary energy density (DED as a potential risk factor for weight gain and obesity. It has been hypothesized that DED may also be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but limited evidence exists. Therefore, we investigated the association between DED and risk of T2D in a large prospective study with heterogeneity of dietary intake.A case-cohort study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC study of 340,234 participants contributing 3.99 million person years of follow-up, identifying 12,403 incident diabetes cases and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. DED was calculated as energy (kcal from foods (except beverages divided by the weight (gram of foods estimated from dietary questionnaires. Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted by country. Risk estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis and heterogeneity was evaluated. Estimated mean (sd DED was 1.5 (0.3 kcal/g among cases and subcohort members, varying across countries (range 1.4-1.7 kcal/g. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, energy intake from beverages and misreporting of dietary intake, no association was observed between DED and T2D (HR 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.13, which was consistent across countries (I(2 = 2.9%.In this large European case-cohort study no association between DED of solid and semi-solid foods and risk of T2D was observed. However, despite the fact that there currently is no conclusive evidence for an association between DED and T2DM risk, choosing low energy dense foods should be promoted as they support current WHO recommendations to prevent chronic diseases.

  11. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes.

  12. Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Peeters, P H M; Mulligan, A A; Navarro, C; Slimani, N; Mattisson, I; Lundin, E; McTaggart, A; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Haftenberger, M; Lagiou, P; Kalapothaki, V; Evangelista, A; Frasca, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Engeset, D; Skeie, G; Tormo, M J; Ardanaz, E; Charrondière, U R; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5-12%) of all cohorts in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL. In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day-1 for men; 1.9 g day-1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups. Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

  13. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

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    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  14. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  15. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Gils, Carla H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-02-08

    Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circulating OPG and breast cancer risk has been examined in only one prior study. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 2008 incident invasive breast cancer cases (estrogen receptor (ER)+, n = 1622; ER-, n = 386), matched 1:1 to controls, were included in the analysis. Women were predominantly postmenopausal at blood collection (77%); postmenopausal women included users and non-users of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Serum OPG was quantified with an electrochemiluminescence assay. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The associations between OPG and ER+ and ER- breast cancer differed significantly. Higher concentrations of OPG were associated with increased risk of ER- breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile RR = 1.93 [95% CI 1.24-3.02]; p trend  = 0.03). We observed a suggestive inverse association for ER+ disease overall and among women premenopausal at blood collection. Results for ER- disease did not differ by menopausal status at blood collection (p het  = 0.97), and we observed no heterogeneity by HT use at blood collection (p het  ≥ 0.43) or age at breast cancer diagnosis (p het  ≥ 0.30). This study provides the first prospective data on OPG and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype. High circulating OPG may represent a novel risk factor for ER- breast cancer.

  16. Calibration-induced uncertainty of the EPIC model to estimate climate change impact on global maize yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Skalský, Rastislav; Porter, Cheryl H.; Balkovič, Juraj; Jones, James W.; Yang, Di

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the interactions between agricultural production and climate is necessary for sound decision-making in climate policy. Gridded and high-resolution crop simulation has emerged as a useful tool for building this understanding. Large uncertainty exists in this utilization, obstructing its capacity as a tool to devise adaptation strategies. Increasing focus has been given to sources of uncertainties for climate scenarios, input-data, and model, but uncertainties due to model parameter or calibration are still unknown. Here, we use publicly available geographical data sets as input to the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) for simulating global-gridded maize yield. Impacts of climate change are assessed up to the year 2099 under a climate scenario generated by HadEM2-ES under RCP 8.5. We apply five strategies by shifting one specific parameter in each simulation to calibrate the model and understand the effects of calibration. Regionalizing crop phenology or harvest index appears effective to calibrate the model for the globe, but using various values of phenology generates pronounced difference in estimated climate impact. However, projected impacts of climate change on global maize production are consistently negative regardless of the parameter being adjusted. Different values of model parameter result in a modest uncertainty at global level, with difference of the global yield change less than 30% by the 2080s. The uncertainty subjects to decrease if applying model calibration or input data quality control. Calibration has a larger effect at local scales, implying the possible types and locations for adaptation.

  17. The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

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    Hermann Silke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD and status inconsistency. Another target was to assess the influence of behaviour related risk factors on this association. Methods 8960 men and 6070 women, aged 45-65 years, from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were included. Socio-economic status was assessed by education/vocational training and occupational position at recruitment. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on CVD was collected. Results Compared to status consistent subjects, men who were in a higher occupational position than could be expected given their educational attainment had a nearly two-fold increased incidence of CVD (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.5; 2.4, adjusted for age. Smoking behaviour and BMI differed significantly between those who had adequate occupational positions and those who did not. Yet, these lifestyle factors, as opposed to age, did not contribute to the observed differences in CVD. No association of cardiovascular diseases and status inconsistency was found for women or in cases where education exceeded occupational position. Conclusions Status inconsistent men (occupational position > education had a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than status consistent men. However, harmful behaviour did not explain this relationship.

  18. Life satisfaction and risk of chronic diseases in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Germany study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Feller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. METHODS: The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. RESULTS: During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78 and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73 as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04 compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseases--particularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors.

  19. Determinants of non- response to a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Anne M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study. Methods Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2–11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%. Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11, aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02, living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43, less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19, of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39, reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10; especially ≥30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29. Conclusions Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews.

  20. Meal patterns across ten European countries - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Slimani, N; Park, M K; Freisling, H; Boeing, H; Buckland, G; Schwingshackl, L; Weiderpass, E; Rostgaard-Hansen, A L; Tjønneland, A; Affret, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Fagherazzi, G; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Naska, A; Orfanos, P; Trichopoulou, A; Pala, V; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Santucci de Magistris, M; Tumino, R; Engeset, D; Enget, T; Skeie, G; Barricarte, A; Bonet, C B; Chirlaque, M D; Amiano, P; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M J; Dias, J A; Drake, I; Wennberg, M; Boer, Jma; Ocké, M C; Verschuren, Wmm; Lassale, C; Perez-Cornago, A; Riboli, E; Ward, H; Forslund, H Bertéus

    2016-10-01

    To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study. Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion. Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries. Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35-74 years (n 36 020). Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38-43 % for women and 41-45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16-27 % for women and 20-26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south-north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13-20 % (women) and 10-17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24-34 % (women) and 23-35 % (men) in central/northern Europe. We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.

  1. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe: results from the EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David C; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, M Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M; Cirera, Lluís; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Struijk, Ellen A; Peeters, Petra H; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul

    2016-06-14

    Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk of premature death. We analysed data from 264,906 European adults from the EPIC prospective cohort study, aged between 40 and 70 years at the time of recruitment. Flexible parametric survival models were used to model risk of death conditional on risk factors, and survival functions and attributable fractions (AF) for deaths prior to age 70 years were calculated based on the fitted models. We identified 11,930 deaths which occurred before the age of 70. The AF for premature mortality for smoking was 31 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 31-32 %) and 14 % (95 % CI, 12-16 %) for poor diet. Important contributions were also observed for overweight and obesity measured by waist-hip ratio (10 %; 95 % CI, 8-12 %) and high blood pressure (9 %; 95 % CI, 7-11 %). AFs for physical inactivity and excessive alcohol intake were 7 % and 4 %, respectively. Collectively, the AF for all six risk factors was 57 % (95 % CI, 55-59 %), being 35 % (95 % CI, 32-37 %) among never smokers and 74 % (95 % CI, 73-75 %) among current smokers. While smoking remains the predominant risk factor for premature death in Europe, poor diet, overweight and obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption also contribute substantially. Any attempt to minimise premature deaths will ultimately require all six factors to be addressed.

  2. Macronutrient Composition of the Diet and Prospective Weight Change in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Romaguera, Dora; May, Anne M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Agudo, Antonio; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Slimani, Nadia; Perquier, Florence; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Crowe, Francesca L.; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Johansson, Ingeged; Hallmans, Göran; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial. Methods 373,803 subjects aged 25–70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992–2000) in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index. Results A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23–24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline. Conclusion Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese

  3. Macronutrient composition of the diet and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Vergnaud

    Full Text Available The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial.373,803 subjects aged 25-70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992-2000 in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index.A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23-24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline.Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese during adult life.

  4. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the EPIC-Italy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, S; Krogh, V; Agnoli, C; Ricceri, F; Palli, D; Masala, G; Panico, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Giurdanella, M C; Brighenti, F; Scazzina, F; Vineis, P; Sacerdote, C

    2015-06-15

    A carbohydrate-rich diet, resulting in high blood glucose and insulin, has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology. We investigated dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), in relation to colorectal cancer, in the prospectively recruited EPIC-Italy cohort. After a median 11.7 years, 421 colorectal cancers were diagnosed among 47,749 recruited adults. GI and GL were estimated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox modeling estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between colorectal cancer and intakes of total, high GI and low GI carbohydrate and GI and GL. The adjusted HR of colorectal cancer for highest versus lowest GI quartile was 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.78; p trend 0.031. Increasing high GI carbohydrate intake was also significantly associated with increasing colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04-2.03; p trend 0.034), whereas increasing low GI carbohydrate was associated with reducing risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p trend 0.033). High dietary GI and high GI carbohydrate were associated with increased risks of cancer at all colon sites (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.88, HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.22-2.65, respectively), whereas high GI carbohydrate and high GL were associated with increased risk of proximal colon cancer (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.18-3.16, HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.08-3.74, respectively). After stratification for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), cancer was significantly associated with GI, and high GI carbohydrate, in those with high WHR. These findings suggest that high dietary GI and high carbohydrate intake from high GI foods are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Jllumina - A comprehensive Java-based API for statistical Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and MethylationEPIC data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo; Skov, Ida; Lund, Jesper; Mohammadnejad, Afsaneh; Silva, Artur; Vandin, Fabio; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard

    2016-12-18

    Measuring differential methylation of the DNA is the nowadays most common approach to linking epigenetic modifications to diseases (called epigenome-wide association studies, EWAS). For its low cost, its efficiency and easy handling, the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its successor, the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip, is the by far most popular techniques for conduction EWAS in large patient cohorts. Despite the popularity of this chip technology, raw data processing and statistical analysis of the array data remains far from trivial and still lacks dedicated software libraries enabling high quality and statistically sound downstream analyses. As of yet, only R-based solutions are freely available for low-level processing of the Illumina chip data. However, the lack of alternative libraries poses a hurdle for the development of new bioinformatic tools, in particular when it comes to web services or applications where run time and memory consumption matter, or EWAS data analysis is an integrative part of a bigger framework or data analysis pipeline. We have therefore developed and implemented Jllumina, an open-source Java library for raw data manipulation of Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip data, supporting the developer with Java functions covering reading and preprocessing the raw data, down to statistical assessment, permutation tests, and identification of differentially methylated loci. Jllumina is fully parallelizable and publicly available at http://dimmer.compbio.sdu.dk/download.html.

  6. Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort that includes >500,000 participants from 10 European countries and has made a substantial contribution to knowledge in this research area. The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far from the EPIC study on the associations between fruit, vegetable, or fiber consumption and the risk of cancer at 14 different sites. The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk. For the other 9 cancer sites studied (stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, cervix, endometrium, prostate, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma) there were no reported significant associations of risk with intakes of total fruit, vegetables, or fiber. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Group level validation of protein intakes estimated by 24-hour diet recall and dietary questionnaires against 24-hour urinary nitrogen in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.; Runswick, S.; Ferrari, P.; Day, N.E.; Welch, A.A.; Key, T.J.; Miller, A.B.; Boeing, H.; Sieri, S.; Veglia, F.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2003-01-01

    A calibration approach was developed to correct for systematic between-cohort dietary measurement errors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large multicenter cohort study. To validate the 24-h diet recalls (24-HDRs) as reference measurements for

  8. Evaluation of 41 candidate gene variants for obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort by multi-locus stepwise regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Sven; Rohde, Klaus; Meidtner, Karina; Drogan, Dagmar; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. It is thought to originate from multiple genetic and environmental determinants. The aim of the current study was to introduce haplotype-based multi-locus stepwise regression (MSR) as a method to investigate combinations of unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for obesity phenotypes. In 2,122 healthy randomly selected men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the association between 41 SNPs from 18 obesity-candidate genes and either body mass index (BMI, mean=25.9 kg/m(2), SD=4.1) or waist circumference (WC, mean=85.2 cm, SD=12.6) was assessed. Single SNP analyses were done by using linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and other covariates. Subsequently, MSR was applied to search for the 'best' SNP combinations. Combinations were selected according to specific AICc and p-value criteria. Model uncertainty was accounted for by a permutation test. The strongest single SNP effects on BMI were found for TBC1D1 rs637797 (β = -0.33, SE=0.13), FTO rs9939609 (β=0.28, SE=0.13), MC4R rs17700144 (β=0.41, SE=0.15), and MC4R rs10871777 (β=0.34, SE=0.14). All these SNPs showed similar effects on waist circumference. The two 'best' six-SNP combinations for BMI (global p-value= 3.45⋅10(-6) and 6.82⋅10(-6)) showed effects ranging from -1.70 (SE=0.34) to 0.74 kg/m(2) (SE=0.21) per allele combination. We selected two six-SNP combinations on waist circumference (global p-value = 7.80⋅10(-6) and 9.76⋅10(-6)) with an allele combination effect of -2.96 cm (SE=0.76) at maximum. Additional adjustment for BMI revealed 15 three-SNP combinations (global p-values ranged from 3.09⋅10(-4) to 1.02⋅10(-2)). However, after carrying out the permutation test all SNP combinations lost significance indicating that the statistical associations might have occurred by chance. MSR provides a tool to search for risk-related SNP combinations of common traits or

  9. Association between the Fatty Liver Index and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Susanne; Jacobs, Simone; Kröger, Janine; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2015-01-01

    The fatty liver index (FLI) predicts fatty liver by using BMI, waist circumference, γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides. We investigated the association between the FLI and the risk of type 2 diabetes and evaluated to what extent single FLI components contribute to the diabetes risk. We analysed a case-cohort study (random sub-cohort: 1922; incident cases: 563) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. The proportion of exposure effect (PEE) explained by single FLI components was evaluated and effect decomposition using inverse probability weighting (IPW) was applied. Women and men with a FLI ≥ 60 compared to those with a FLI < 30 had a multivariable-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 17.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-28.0 and HR: 10.9; 95% CI 6.22-19.2, respectively. Adjustment for BMI or waist circumference attenuated this association in men [PEE BMI (95% CI) = 53.8% (43.9%-65.8%); PEE waist (95% CI) = 54.8% (44.2%-68.8%)]. In women, adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the association to a lesser degree than in men [PEE waist (95% CI) = 31.1%; (21.9%-43.1%)] while BMI had no appreciable effect [PEE BMI (95% CI) = 11.0% (2.68%-21.0%)]. γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides showed only a small attenuation in women [PEE GGT(95% CI) = 3.11% (-0.72%-4.48%); PEE TG (95% CI) = 6.36% (3.81%-9.92%)] and in men [PEE GGT = 0%; PEE TG (95% CI) = 6.23% (2.03%-11.8%)]. In women, the total effect was decomposed into a direct effect and 4 indirect effects (HR BMI = 1.10; HR waist = 1.28; HR GGT = 0.97 and HR TG = 1.03). In men, the 4 indirect effects were HR BMI = 1.25; HR waist = 1.29; HR GGT = 0.97 and HR TG = 0.99. These data suggest that the FLI, as a proxy for fatty liver, is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is only partly explained by standard estimates of overall and abdominal body fatness, particularly among women.

  10. Omentin-1 and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner; Isermann, Berend; Weikert, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    The recently identified adipokine omentin-1 is inversely associated with body fatness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in cross-sectional analyses. However, prospective data on the association between plasma omentin-1 levels and future risk of CVD are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 and incident myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort comprising a subsample of 2084 participants, including 50 CVD cases and 350 external incident CVD cases (mean follow-up of 8.2 ± 1.6 years). Prentice modified Cox regression adjusted for established CVD risk factors was used to estimate associations between omentin-1 and risk of MI and stroke, interactions were tested with cross-product terms. After multivariable adjustment, omentin-1 was not significantly associated with risk of MI (HR per doubling omentin-1:1.17; 95%-CI:0.79-1.72; p = 0.43), but with higher risk of stroke (HR per doubling omentin-1:2.22; 95%-CI:1.52-3.22; p < 0.0001). In subgroup analyses, associations between omentin-1 and stroke risk were generally stronger in lower versus higher CVD risk groups. For example, risk of stroke was stronger in participants without metabolic syndrome (HR per doubling omentin-1:2.58; 95%-CI:1.64-4.07; p < 0.0001) compared to those with metabolic syndrome (HR per doubling omentin-1:1.21; 95%-CI:0.59-2.50; p = 0.60) (p for interaction = 0.05). Similar interactions were observed when participants were classified in low or high risk groups according to waist circumference, triglyceride, hsCRP or adiponectin levels. Omentin-1 concentrations may be related to increased stroke risk. This association is stronger in metabolically healthy individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    Full Text Available Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents.In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed, yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables.During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98. Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99 and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02 in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99; this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99, with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.24.Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered.

  12. Osteocalcin Is Not Associated with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from the EPIC-NL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine R Zwakenberg

    Full Text Available To investigate whether total osteocalcin (tOC, uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC and percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes.This nested case control study included 1,635 participants, 833 incident diabetes cases and 802 non-diabetic control participants, aged 21-70 years from the EPIC-NL cohort. Baseline concentrations of tOC, ucOC and %ucOC were assessed. During 10 years of follow-up, diabetes cases were self-reported and verified against information from general practitioners or pharmacists. The association between the different forms of osteocalcin and diabetes risk was assessed with logistic regression adjusted for diabetes risk factors (waist circumference, age, sex, cohort, smoking status, family history of diabetes, hypertension, alcohol intake, physical activity and education and dietary factors (total energy intake and energy adjusted intake of fat, fiber, protein and calcium.TOC concentration was not associated with diabetes risk, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.97 (0.91-1.03 for each ng/ml increment after adjustment for diabetes risk factors and dietary factors. No association between ucOC and %ucOC and the risk of diabetes was observed either. In sex stratified analyses (P interaction = 0.07, higher %ucOC tended to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a multivariable model in women (OR 1.05 for each increment of 5% ucOC (1.00-1.11, Ptrend = 0.08, but not in men (OR 0.96 for each increment of 5% ucOC (0.88-1.04. When waist circumference was replaced by body mass index, none of the osteocalcin forms were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in the final model among both women and men.Available evidence suggests that tOC, ucOC and %ucOC are each not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, more large-scale cohort studies are needed to clarify the presence of any association between the different forms of osteocalcin and the risk of type 2

  13. Smoking and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study in European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Nilsson, Peter M; Ardanaz, Eva; Gavrila, Diana; Agudo, Antonio; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Beulens, Joline W; Boeing, Heiner; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J M; Franks, Paul W; Grioni, Sara; Huerta, José María; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, M Luisa; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the association between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, accounting for a large number of potential confounding factors, and to explore potential effect modifiers and intermediate factors. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct is a prospective case-cohort study within eight European countries, including 12,403 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals. After exclusion of individuals with missing data, the analyses included 10,327 cases and 13,863 subcohort individuals. Smoking status was used (never, former, current), with never smokers as the reference. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and random-effects meta-analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes. In men, the HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes were 1.40 (1.26, 1.55) for former smokers and 1.43 (1.27, 1.61) for current smokers, independent of age, education, center, physical activity, and alcohol, coffee, and meat consumption. In women, associations were weaker, with HRs (95% CI) of 1.18 (1.07, 1.30) and 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) for former and current smokers, respectively. There was some evidence of effect modification by BMI. The association tended to be slightly stronger in normal weight men compared with those with overall adiposity. Former and current smoking was associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with never smoking in men and women, independent of educational level, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. Smoking may be regarded as a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes prevention. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertruida J van Woudenbergh

    Full Text Available In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a European population.The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centers in 8 European countries and consists of a total of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,835 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Country-specific Hazard Ratios (HR for incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors using a Cox regression adapted for a case-cohort design. Subsequently, country-specific HR were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Tea consumption was studied as categorical variable (0, >0-<1, 1-<4, ≥ 4 cups/day. The dose-response of the association was further explored by restricted cubic spline regression. Country specific medians of tea consumption ranged from 0 cups/day in Spain to 4 cups/day in United Kingdom. Tea consumption was associated inversely with incidence of type 2 diabetes; the HR was 0.84 [95%CI 0.71, 1.00] when participants who drank ≥ 4 cups of tea per day were compared with non-drinkers (p(linear trend = 0.04. Incidence of type 2 diabetes already tended to be lower with tea consumption of 1-<4 cups/day (HR = 0.93 [95%CI 0.81, 1.05]. Spline regression did not suggest a non-linear association (p(non-linearity = 0.20.A linear inverse association was observed between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes. People who drink at least 4 cups of tea per day may have a 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers.

  15. Resting heart rate and incident heart failure in apparently healthy men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2012-10-01

    Increasing levels of resting heart rate are associated with increased risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and seem to play a role in the progression of heart failure. The shape of the association between resting heart rate and risk of developing heart failure has not been examined in healthy individuals of the general population. Hazard ratios (HRs) of heart failure comparing categories of resting heart rate [51-60 b.p.m. (reference), 61-70 b.p.m., 71-80 b.p.m., 81-90 b.p.m., and 91-100 b.p.m.] were calculated in apparently healthy men (9805) and women (12 321) aged 39-79 participating in the 'European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition' (EPIC) study in Norfolk. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 1356 incident cases of heart failure occurred. In participants without potential heart rate-modifying medication, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of heart failure were 3.3, 3.7, 4.0, 5.1, and 5.5 per 1000 person-years for increasing categories of resting heart rate; compared with the reference category, HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increasing categories of resting heart rate were 1.08 (0.88-1.34), 1.17 (0.94-1.46), 1.39 (1.08-1.79), and 1.42 (1.00-2.03), respectively, in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, prevalent diabetes, cholesterol concentration, social class, educational level, smoking, and physical activity. Within the reference range of resting heart rate (50-100 b.p.m.) each 10 b.p.m. increase was associated with an 11% increase in hazard of heart failure in multivariable analysis. The results did not change materially after adjusting for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease events during follow up (1.12, 1.06-1.18). Resting heart rate shows a graded association with hazard of heart failure in apparently healthy men and women which is not mediated by coronary heart disease. Further study is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Association between the Fatty Liver Index and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jäger

    Full Text Available The fatty liver index (FLI predicts fatty liver by using BMI, waist circumference, γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides. We investigated the association between the FLI and the risk of type 2 diabetes and evaluated to what extent single FLI components contribute to the diabetes risk. We analysed a case-cohort study (random sub-cohort: 1922; incident cases: 563 nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study. The proportion of exposure effect (PEE explained by single FLI components was evaluated and effect decomposition using inverse probability weighting (IPW was applied. Women and men with a FLI ≥ 60 compared to those with a FLI < 30 had a multivariable-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR of 17.6; 95% confidence interval (CI 11.1-28.0 and HR: 10.9; 95% CI 6.22-19.2, respectively. Adjustment for BMI or waist circumference attenuated this association in men [PEE BMI (95% CI = 53.8% (43.9%-65.8%; PEE waist (95% CI = 54.8% (44.2%-68.8%]. In women, adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the association to a lesser degree than in men [PEE waist (95% CI = 31.1%; (21.9%-43.1%] while BMI had no appreciable effect [PEE BMI (95% CI = 11.0% (2.68%-21.0%]. γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides showed only a small attenuation in women [PEE GGT(95% CI = 3.11% (-0.72%-4.48%; PEE TG (95% CI = 6.36% (3.81%-9.92%] and in men [PEE GGT = 0%; PEE TG (95% CI = 6.23% (2.03%-11.8%]. In women, the total effect was decomposed into a direct effect and 4 indirect effects (HR BMI = 1.10; HR waist = 1.28; HR GGT = 0.97 and HR TG = 1.03. In men, the 4 indirect effects were HR BMI = 1.25; HR waist = 1.29; HR GGT = 0.97 and HR TG = 0.99. These data suggest that the FLI, as a proxy for fatty liver, is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is only partly explained by standard estimates of overall and abdominal body fatness, particularly among women.

  17. Parâmetros ecocardiográficos de deposição de gordura epicárdica e sua relação com doença arterial coronariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valiente Mustelier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Gordura epicárdica tem sido associada com a presença de doença arterial coronariana (DAC significante. Entretanto, a associação entre infiltração lipomatosa do septo atrial e a infiltração de gordura do ventrículo direito (VD permanece incerta. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi totalmente estudado em pacientes hispânicos. OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação entre a gordura epicárdica, infiltração lipomatosa do septo atrial e a infiltração de gordura do VD na presença de DAC. MÉTODOS: Duzentos e cinquenta pacientes hispânicos (86 mulheres e 164 homens, média da idade 61,5 ± 8 vs 62 ± 10 respectivamente, submetidos à sua primeira angiografia coronariana invasiva (ACI foram estudados. No dia seguinte ao ACI, parâmetros de deposição de gordura epicárdica foram avaliados através de ecocardiografia modo 2D. Variáveis clínicas (idade, sexo, antecedentes pessoais do hábito de fumar, hipertensão e diabete melito, bem como a apresentação clínica da DAC e antropométricas (circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal [IMC] também foram coletadas. RESULTADOS: A gordura epicárdica (OR 1,27 p = 0,009, bem como a infiltração de gordura no VD (OR 2,94 p = 0,027, apresentaram uma associação significante e independente com a presença, mas não com a extensão (p = 0,516 e apresentação clínica (p = 0,153 da DAC. A extensão da deposição da gordura epicárdica mostrou uma associação proporcional e significante (p = 0,001 com a presença de DAC. CONCLUSÃO: A Gordura epicárdica e a infiltração de gordura do VD foram fatores significantes e independentes associados com a presença de DAC, a qual estava proporcionalmente aumentada de acordo com a extensão da deposição de gordura epicárdica.

  18. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  19. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...... and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11...

  20. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  1. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...... the baseline examination of 1367 Caucasian and 162 Asian women enrolled in the 1609-subject Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort (EPIC) study. After adjusting for age, study site, years postmenopause, and years of estrogen use, BMD was approximately 4-6% lower (P women at most...... skeletal sites, but there was no significant difference for wrist or forearm BMD. Adding height, lean body mass, fat mass, and/or quadriceps muscle strength to the regression models reduced the racial differences at most skeletal sites; after these additional adjustments, Asian women had significantly...

  2. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Overgaard, K; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    We present baseline bone densitometry from the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study (EPIC, sponsored by Merck, Sharp & Dohme) for the first time, in which 1609 women from England, Oregon, Hawaii and Denmark are participating to investigate the efficacy of daily oral alendronate...... forearm. In a random subgroup of 308 women, aged 45-60 years, on average 6 years since menopause (YSM), bone densitometry was measured once at baseline by RA of the phalanges besides the mandatory measurements by DXA. Bone densitometry was furthermore measured by SXA at the Danish site (89 women). Sixty......-eight of the women had duplicate measurements performed within 1-3 weeks to evaluate the short-term precision error (CV%). One hundred and one healthy premenopausal women, aged 25-48 years, were recruited at the Danish and Hawaiian sites to establish a reference group. The precision error was 1.5% for RA...

  3. Neutrophil CD64 expression - comparison of two different flow cytometry protocols on EPICs MCL and the Leuko64(™) assay on a Celldyn Sapphire haematology analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Oskar; Douhan Håkansson, Lena; Karawajczyk, Malgorzata; Garwicz, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the Trillium Diagnostics Leuko64(™) assay on Abbott Celldyn Sapphire haematology analyser compared to two flow cytometry protocols on Beckman Coulter EPICS MCL flow cytometer. CD64 expression on neutrophils was determined by two flow cytometry protocols and by a commercial assay on an automatic haematology analyser. The inclusion of study subjects was based on elevated procalcitonin (PCT) values, identifying patients where a systemic infection was suspected. Healthy blood donors were used as a reference group. Statistically significant correlations between the Trillium Diagnostics Leuko64(™) assay and the flow cytometry methods were found when measuring neutrophil CD64 expression. The good correlation between a reference method and an automated haematology analyser method for CD64 expression on neutrophils supports introduction of the latter assay for routine use as an independent biomarker of bacterial infection and inflammation.

  4. The Matter of Pirates in Chilean Epic: «Purén indómito» and «La guerra de Chile»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Navascués

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of piracy in the colonial epic poetry represents patterns of military defense against an enemy that sets an internal and external challenge from the sea and land. Sometimes, Pirates were especially considered dangerous if they tried to get alliances with subjected populations of Indians. In this article I begin by exploring the presence of Dutch privateers in a passage of Puren indómito, poem by Diego Arias de Saavedra, and their frustrated attempt to gain allies among Araucanian people. Then, two final Cantos of La guerra de Chile, an anonymous poem, were analyzed in relation with the tragic destiny of other Dutch sailor, Jacob Mahu, and how certain intertextual comparison with the episode of Adamastor in Os Lusiadas is argued from a global political lecture. Both poems show the fragility of the Spanish military force in the region.

  5. An Epic Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroy, Tashni-Ann

    2015-01-01

    For some students, intellectual curiosity and leadership are innate. For many, it must be nurtured. The Shaw University Honors College is an academic center of encouragement, interaction, and care for a diverse population of students. Many of them would otherwise never conceive of the marvelous opportunities and experiences they share during their…

  6. EPICS communication loss management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. O.

    1994-12-01

    In a distributed control system there are multiple processors interconnected by a communications media such as a LAN. Plant I/O points are often divided between these processors according to the number of points that a processor can promptly service and according to processor locations which minimize field wiring. A robust distributed control system should properly respond to temporary loss of communication with any portion of the system. This temporary loss could be caused by hardware or software failures or it could be caused by reconfiguring or rebooting other portions of the system. For the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System we have handled these temporary outages consistently and reliably. This capability makes it possible for distributed functions such as loop closure, sequencing, archiving, or operator consoles to take proper action at the beginning and end of the loss of communication with another part of the system. The control system continues to function in a degraded mode while some of its subsystems are not responding and resumes normal operation once a subsystem is restored.

  7. Diet and risk of chronic diseases: results from the first 8 years of follow-up in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ruesten, A; Feller, S; Bergmann, M M; Boeing, H

    2013-04-01

    There is still a need for scientific evidence about which foods characterize a healthy diet in terms of primary prevention of major chronic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to give a comprehensive overview on health-related foods, based on 8 years of follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. We used data from 23,531 participants of the EPIC-Potsdam study to analyse the associations between 45 single food groups and risk of major chronic diseases, namely, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes and cancer using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline using food-frequency questionnaires. Incident chronic diseases were determined by self-administered follow-up questionnaires and medically verified, based on inquiry to treating physicians, cancer registries or through death certificates. During follow-up, 363 incident CVD, 837 type 2 diabetes and 844 cancer cases were identified. Higher intakes of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables, coffee and cakes and cookies were found to be significantly associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. Conversely, higher intakes of low-fat dairy, butter, red meat and sauce were associated with higher risks of chronic diseases. Overall, a healthy diet was characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables and a low consumption of red meat and possibly butter, which is generally in line with previous findings. The paradoxical findings concerning the potential health benefit of coffee as well as cakes and cookies are interesting and should be investigated further.

  8. Plasma folate as marker of folate status in epidemiological studies: the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, D; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Wans, S; Luley, C; Boeing, H; Dierkes, J

    2004-09-01

    Folate deficiency is often discussed as a potential risk factor for CVD and some cancers. Reliable assessment of folate status in large-scale epidemiological studies is therefore of major importance. The present study assessed the value of plasma folate (PF) compared with erythrocyte folate (EF) as a marker of folate status in 363 participants in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. EF and PF, total homocysteine (tHcy), pyridoxine, cobalamin, creatinine, total protein and packed cell volume were determined; glutamate carboxypeptidase (GCP) C1561T, reduced folate carrier (RFC) G80A and methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were taken and dietary intake was assessed with the EPIC-Potsdam food-frequency questionnaire. Comparison of EF and PF with factors that may modulate their concentrations was performed. Cross-classification of blood folates in quintile categories resulted in correct classification into the same or adjacent category of 75.5 % of all subjects. Age, BMI, pyridoxine and cobalamin, fruit and vegetable intake, and vitamin supplementation 24 h before blood draw were positively associated with EF and with PF. For tHcy an inverse association was found. Participants with the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed significantly elevated EF concentrations compared with those with 677CT genotype; EF and PF were more strongly correlated (r 0.78, P<0.0001) for participants with MTHFR 677TT genotype than for those with the 677CC or 677CT genotype. In summary, our present results indicate that plasma folate seems to be a suitable marker for assessment of folate status for use in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  9. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  10. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Use of Two-Part Regression Calibration Model to Correct for Measurement Error in Episodically Consumed Foods in a Single-Replicate Study Design: EPIC Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogo, George O.; van der Voet, Hilko; Veer, Pieter van’t; Ferrari, Pietro; Leenders, Max; Muller, David C.; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Bamia, Christina; Braaten, Tonje; Knüppel, Sven; Johansson, Ingegerd; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Boshuizen, Hendriek

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, measurement error in dietary variables often attenuates association between dietary intake and disease occurrence. To adjust for the attenuation caused by error in dietary intake, regression calibration is commonly used. To apply regression calibration, unbiased reference measurements are required. Short-term reference measurements for foods that are not consumed daily contain excess zeroes that pose challenges in the calibration model. We adapted two-part regression calibration model, initially developed for multiple replicates of reference measurements per individual to a single-replicate setting. We showed how to handle excess zero reference measurements by two-step modeling approach, how to explore heteroscedasticity in the consumed amount with variance-mean graph, how to explore nonlinearity with the generalized additive modeling (GAM) and the empirical logit approaches, and how to select covariates in the calibration model. The performance of two-part calibration model was compared with the one-part counterpart. We used vegetable intake and mortality data from European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In the EPIC, reference measurements were taken with 24-hour recalls. For each of the three vegetable subgroups assessed separately, correcting for error with an appropriately specified two-part calibration model resulted in about three fold increase in the strength of association with all-cause mortality, as measured by the log hazard ratio. Further found is that the standard way of including covariates in the calibration model can lead to over fitting the two-part calibration model. Moreover, the extent of adjusting for error is influenced by the number and forms of covariates in the calibration model. For episodically consumed foods, we advise researchers to pay special attention to response distribution, nonlinearity, and covariate inclusion in specifying the calibration model. PMID:25402487

  12. Acrylamide and Glycidamide Hemoglobin Adducts and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study in Nonsmoking Postmenopausal Women from the EPIC Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case–control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case–control study in nonsmoking post-menopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96–3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94–3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose–response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case–control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26598536

  13. Acrylamide and Glycidamide Hemoglobin Adducts and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in Nonsmoking Postmenopausal Women from the EPIC Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, Petra H; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  15. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort. © 2015 UICC.

  16. A treelet transform analysis to relate nutrient patterns to the risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Nada; Moskal, Aurelie; Slimani, Nadia; Viallon, Vivian; Chajes, Veronique; Freisling, Heinz; Monni, Stefano; Knueppel, Sven; Förster, Jana; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Molina-Montes, Esther; Salmerón, Diego; Quirós, José Ramón; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; De Magistris, Maria Santucci; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bakker, Marije F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Tim; Travis, Ruth; Schmidt, Julie A; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology. Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study. The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in β-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·95, P trend<0·01) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·81, 0·98, P trend=0·02) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·87, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·98, P trend<0·01). TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.

  17. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -164 T > C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), depending on the cholesterol levels. Methods The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI) and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS) cases and 1 978 non-cases) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls) was used to replicate our findings. Results Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79). We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HRadditve = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78) for individuals with cholesterol levels Potsdam study. HRadditive was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL (HRadditve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03) in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HRadditve = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25). Conclusions Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels. PMID:23356586

  18. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -164 T > C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Fisher, Eva; Arregui, Maria; Weikert, Beate; Knüppel, Sven; Buijsse, Brian; Fritsche, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Moebus, Susanne; Weikert, Cornelia

    2013-01-29

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), depending on the cholesterol levels. The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI) and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS) cases and 1 978 non-cases) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls) was used to replicate our findings. Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79). We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HR(additve) = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78) for individuals with cholesterol levels Potsdam study. HR(additive) was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥ 200 mg/dL (HR(additve) = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03) in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HR(additve) = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25). Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels.

  19. Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Ye, Zheng; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Agudo, Antonio; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena A; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mancini, Francesca R; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date. Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study. Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria included assessment of macronutrient quantity (e.g., total carbohydrate) or indicators of quality (e.g., dietary fiber) by use of self-report or objective biomarkers of intake. Interactions identified in the review were subsequently examined in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-InterAct case-cohort study (n = 21,148, with 9403 T2D cases; 8 European countries). Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate country-specific HRs, 95% CIs, and P-interaction values, which were then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. A primary model was fitted by using the same covariates as reported in the published studies, and a second model adjusted for additional covariates and estimated the effects of isocaloric macronutrient substitution. Results: Thirteen observational studies met the eligibility criteria (n < 1700 cases). Eight unique interactions were reported to be significant between macronutrients [carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, dietary fiber, and glycemic load derived from self-report of dietary intake and circulating n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids] and genetic variants in or near transcription factor 7–like 2 (TCF7L2), gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), caveolin 2 (CAV2), and peptidase D (PEPD) (P-interaction < 0.05). We found no evidence of interaction when we

  20. Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Ye, Zheng; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Agudo, Antonio; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena A; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mancini, Francesca R; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date.Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study.Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria included assessment of macronutrient quantity (e.g., total carbohydrate) or indicators of quality (e.g., dietary fiber) by use of self-report or objective biomarkers of intake. Interactions identified in the review were subsequently examined in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-InterAct case-cohort study (n = 21,148, with 9403 T2D cases; 8 European countries). Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate country-specific HRs, 95% CIs, and P-interaction values, which were then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. A primary model was fitted by using the same covariates as reported in the published studies, and a second model adjusted for additional covariates and estimated the effects of isocaloric macronutrient substitution.Results: Thirteen observational studies met the eligibility criteria (n dietary fiber, and glycemic load derived from self-report of dietary intake and circulating n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids] and genetic variants in or near transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), caveolin 2 (CAV2), and peptidase D (PEPD) (P-interaction < 0.05). We found no evidence of interaction when we tried to replicate previously reported interactions. In addition, no interactions were detected in models with additional covariates

  1. „Kui kõik pirrud kahel otsal”: eepilise poliitika tagasitulek / “When All Spills at Both Their Ends”. The Return of Epic Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Jüristo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief decline of the heroic in the second half of the 20th century, the hero is back in Western culture and politics. If Lyotard claimed in 1979 that the time of “great heroes, great dangers, and great goals” is over, then in the new century they all seem to be back with a vengeance. This essay will explore some of the reasons, premises and implications of this heroic renaissance. Western concepts of the hero and heroic hark back to ancient Greece, where heroes were not only characters in epics and myths but also cult figures who were worshipped and venerated. The ancient Greek view of human nature was grounded in the concept of arete¯ that is usually translated as “virtue”, but in its original context it refers to a broader notion of excellence, according to the nature of a thing or being under discussion. It was by their superlative, god-like virtue that Greek heroes were distinguished from other mortals, as they exemplified the human limits of divine excellence. Although the exact and particular meanings of what constitutes a virtue constantly changed throughout antiquity, the basic premise of “the unity of virtue”, as well as how it constituted human nature, carried on into the Middle Ages and beyond. It was only with the emergence of modern ethics that this explicit link started to fade. However, the implicit relationship between virtues and heroism has survived to the present day. Our contemporary heroes are likewise embodiments of our own modern virtues. They articulate the framework that Charles Taylor has referred to as our “moral topography,” within which it is possible to conceive what it means to be human. Our heroes represent that which we value in ourselves as well as in others; they give us the means of self-understanding and self-creation while conflating the seemingly distinct categories of ethics and aesthetics. The beginning of the new century has been marked by an uneasy constellation of steadily

  2. Tradizione eroica e tradizione eroicomica nei Paralipomeni di Leopardi. Saggio di raffronti / Heroic and mock-epic tradition in the Paralipomeni by Leopardi. Some comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Penso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nell’ultimo periodo della sua vita, Leopardi diede una svolta al modo di intendere la propria arte poetica, che a partire dal 1830 si fa più aggressiva e battagliera, pronta finalmente a un più attivo incontro-scontro con il presente. Con l’abbandono di Recanati si apre dunque per il poeta una stagione nuova, quella (soprattutto satirica, molto differente da ogni altra sua esperienza precedente. Il frutto più particolare del "nuovo" corso leopardiano è costituito senza dubbio dai Paralipomeni della Batracomiomachia, il poemetto eroicomico che costituisce il coronamento della stagione comico-satirica del recanatese. Vero e proprio unicum nel panorama della produzione del poeta, questo libro terribile è nutrito da molteplici sensibilità letterarie e ascendenti più o meno scoperti. Il presente contributo punta dunque a indagare soprattutto quali sono stati per Leopardi i precedenti e i modelli che più hanno avuto influenza nel suo avvicinarsi al genere eroicomico, e attraverso quali strategie comunicative e modalità espressive ne abbia compiuto la rielaborazione e il superamento, allo scopo di servirsene per le sue peculiari esigenze satiriche, mettendo le suggestioni della tradizione al servizio della propria sferzante, e in vari sensi "nuova", ironia. In the last period of his life, Leopardi gave a twist to his way to make poetry, which became more aggressive and combative since 1830, ready to a more active clash with the present. With the abandonment of Recanati, a new season for the poet began: the (mostly satirical one, very different from any other previous experience. The most important result of Leopardi's 'new' course is indisputably the Paralipomeni della Batracomiomachia, the mock-epic poem which is the masterpiece of Leopardi's satirical poetry. A real unicum in Leopardi's production, this book is fed by multiple literary influences and sources, more or less discovered. This paper therefore aims to investigate which were

  3. The association of pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause of death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Manuela M; Rehm, Jürgen; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Drogan, Dagmar; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Beulens, Joline WJ; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Arriola, Larraitz; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Romaguera, Dora; Wark, Petra A; Romieu, Isabelle; Nunes, Luciana; Riboli, Elio; Ferrari, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence for an association between the pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause-specific risk of death. Methods Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated for different causes of death according to patterns of lifetime alcohol consumption using a competing risks approach: 111 953 men and 268 442 women from eight countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption at ages 20, 30, 40 or 50 years and at enrolment were used for the analysis; 26 411 deaths were observed during an average of 12.6 years of follow-up. Results The association between lifetime alcohol use and death from cardiovascular diseases was different from the association seen for alcohol-related cancers, digestive, respiratory, external and other causes. Heavy users (>5 drinks/day for men and >2.5 drinks/day for women), regardless of time of cessation, had a 2- to 5-times higher risk of dying due to alcohol-related cancers, compared with subjects with lifetime light use (≤1 and ≤0.5 drink/week for men and women, respectively). Compared with lifetime light users, men who used associated with a lower risk of death, largely due to cardiovascular disease but also other causes. However, the potential health benefits of alcohol use are difficult to establish due to the possibility of selection bias and competing risks related to diseases occurring later in life. PMID:24415611

  4. Dietary intake of folate equivalents and risk of myocardial infarction in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)--Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, Dagmar; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Dierkes, Jutta; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner

    2006-06-01

    To assess the relationship between intake of dietary folate equivalents and risk of myocardial infarction in a German cohort. Intake of dietary folate equivalents was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between intake of dietary folate equivalents and risk of myocardial infarction. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort, Germany. Subjects were 22,245 apparently healthy non-users of vitamin supplements aged 35-64 years. During 4.6 years of follow-up, 129 incident cases of myocardial infarction were identified. Compared with intake below the median (103 microg), higher intake of dietary folate equivalents was associated with a multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.91). The inverse association of folate intake and myocardial infarction risk was stronger in participants with an ethanol intake equal to or above the sex-specific median (HR=0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.79) and attenuated in those with a low ethanol intake (HR=0.67, 95% CI 0.37-1.22). An increased intake of dietary folate equivalents was observed to be associated with decreased risk of myocardial infarction in a German study population, pointing towards the importance of folate intake with respect to primary prevention of myocardial infarction.

  5. Risk of hypertension among women in the EPIC-Potsdam Study: comparison of relative risk estimates for exploratory and hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner

    2003-08-15

    Analysis of dietary patterns is considered a useful approach to the examination of diet-disease associations. This study examined the risk of incident hypertension associated with dietary patterns in 8,552 women in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Potsdam Study. The baseline examination was carried out between 1994 and 1998. During 2-4 years of follow-up (through May 15, 2002), 123 incident hypertension cases were verified by medical records. Two exploratory dietary patterns, a "traditional cooking" pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, sauce, potatoes, and poultry) and a "fruits and vegetables" pattern (fruits, raw vegetables, and vegetable oil), were identified by exploratory factor analysis and confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, a hypothesis-oriented pattern based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Study was defined (fruits, vegetables, and milk products). Patterns' associations with disease risk were estimated by Cox regression. While no significant associations were observed for the traditional cooking pattern or the fruits and vegetables pattern after adjustment for potential confounders, women in the third quartile of the DASH pattern were at lower risk than women in the lowest quartile (hazard rate ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.89). These results suggest that this hypothesis-oriented pattern might play an important role in the risk of hypertension.

  6. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Griffin, Simon; Jones, Andy P

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk study. Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute), daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA). Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling. After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (pweather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  7. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J.; Onland Moret, N. Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Methods Metabolites were measured with the AbsolueIDQp180 kit (Biocrates, Innsbruck, Austria) by mass spectrometry and included acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Measurements were performed on repeat serum samples collected two years apart in 27 fasting men from Turin, Italy, and 39 non-fasting women from Utrecht, The Netherlands, all participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Reproducibility was assessed by estimating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in multivariable mixed models. Results In fasting samples, a median ICC of 0.70 was observed. ICC values were fasting samples, the median ICC was 0.54. ICC values were fasting as compared to fasting samples, with a statistically significant difference for 19–36% of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Conclusion A single measurement per individual may be sufficient for the study of 73% and 52% of the metabolites showing ICCs >0.50 in fasting and non-fasting samples, respectively. ICCs were higher in fasting samples that are preferable to non-fasting. PMID:26274920

  8. The relationship between dietary magnesium intake, stroke and its major risk factors, blood pressure and cholesterol, in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lucy K M; Myint, Phyo K; Jennings, Amy; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-10-01

    Dietary magnesium could modify the major stroke risk factors, high blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol, but has been understudied in both sexes in a single population. This study aimed to investigate if dietary magnesium intake was associated with BP, total cholesterol (TC) and incident stroke risk in an adult population. We conducted cross-sectional analyses in a case-cohort study of 4443, men and women aged 40-75, representative of 25,639 participants years of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk cohort. The cohort included 928 stroke cases (42,556.5 person years). Dietary data from 7 day food diaries were analysed using multivariate regression to assess associations between quintiles or data-derived categories of dietary magnesium intake and BP, TC and stroke risk, adjusted for relevant confounders. We observed differences of -7 mmHg systolic BP (P trend ≤ 0.01) and -3.8 mmHg diastolic BP (P trend=0.01) between extreme intakes of magnesium in men, a significant inverse association with TC was observed (P trend=0.02 men and 0.04 women). Compared to the bottom 10%, the top 30% of magnesium intake was associated with a 41% relative reduction in stroke risk (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.38-0.93) in men. Lower dietary magnesium intake was associated with higher BP and stroke risk, which may have implications for primary prevention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection assessed by ELISA and by immunoblot and noncardia gastric cancer risk in a prospective study: the Eurgast-EPIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, C A; Megraud, F; Buissoniere, A

    2012-01-01

    of its effect on gastric cancer (GC) risk. Antibodies detected by western blot are known to persist longer after the loss of the infection. In a nested case-control study from the Eurogast-EPIC cohort, including 88 noncardia GC cases and 338 controls, we assessed the association between noncardia GC...... and H. pylori infection comparing antibodies detected by western blot (HELICOBLOT2.1) to those detected by ELISA (Pyloriset EIA-GIII((R))). By immunoblot, 82 cases (93.2%) were H. pylori positive, 10 of these cases (11.4%) were negative by ELISA and only 6 cases (6.8%) were negative by both ELISA...... and immunoblot. Multivariable odds ratio (OR) for noncardia GC comparing immunoglobulin G positive versus negative by ELISA was 6.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-15.1], and by immunoblot, the OR was 21.4 (95% CI 7.1-64.4). Using a western blot assay, nearly all noncardia GC were classified as H. pylori...

  11. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Licaj, Idlir; Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J; Onland Moret, N Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Metabolites were measured with the AbsolueIDQp180 kit (Biocrates, Innsbruck, Austria) by mass spectrometry and included acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Measurements were performed on repeat serum samples collected two years apart in 27 fasting men from Turin, Italy, and 39 non-fasting women from Utrecht, The Netherlands, all participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Reproducibility was assessed by estimating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in multivariable mixed models. In fasting samples, a median ICC of 0.70 was observed. ICC values were fasting samples, the median ICC was 0.54. ICC values were fasting as compared to fasting samples, with a statistically significant difference for 19-36% of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. A single measurement per individual may be sufficient for the study of 73% and 52% of the metabolites showing ICCs >0.50 in fasting and non-fasting samples, respectively. ICCs were higher in fasting samples that are preferable to non-fasting.

  12. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wu

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk study.Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute, daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA. Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling.After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01 and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions.Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  13. Parâmetros ecocardiográficos de deposição de gordura epicárdica e sua relação com doença arterial coronariana Parámetros ecocardiográficos de deposición de grasa epicárdica y su relación con la enfermedad arterial coronaria Echocardiographic parameters of epicardial fat deposition and its relation to coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valiente Mustelier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Gordura epicárdica tem sido associada com a presença de doença arterial coronariana (DAC significante. Entretanto, a associação entre infiltração lipomatosa do septo atrial e a infiltração de gordura do ventrículo direito (VD permanece incerta. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi totalmente estudado em pacientes hispânicos. OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação entre a gordura epicárdica, infiltração lipomatosa do septo atrial e a infiltração de gordura do VD na presença de DAC. MÉTODOS: Duzentos e cinquenta pacientes hispânicos (86 mulheres e 164 homens, média da idade 61,5 ± 8 vs 62 ± 10 respectivamente, submetidos à sua primeira angiografia coronariana invasiva (ACI foram estudados. No dia seguinte ao ACI, parâmetros de deposição de gordura epicárdica foram avaliados através de ecocardiografia modo 2D. Variáveis clínicas (idade, sexo, antecedentes pessoais do hábito de fumar, hipertensão e diabete melito, bem como a apresentação clínica da DAC e antropométricas (circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal [IMC] também foram coletadas. RESULTADOS: A gordura epicárdica (OR 1,27 p = 0,009, bem como a infiltração de gordura no VD (OR 2,94 p = 0,027, apresentaram uma associação significante e independente com a presença, mas não com a extensão (p = 0,516 e apresentação clínica (p = 0,153 da DAC. A extensão da deposição da gordura epicárdica mostrou uma associação proporcional e significante (p = 0,001 com a presença de DAC. CONCLUSÃO: A Gordura epicárdica e a infiltração de gordura do VD foram fatores significantes e independentes associados com a presença de DAC, a qual estava proporcionalmente aumentada de acordo com a extensão da deposição de gordura epicárdica.FUNDAMENTO: La grasa epicárdica ha venido siendo asociada con la presencia de enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC significativa. Sin embargo, la asociación entre la infiltración lipomatosa del septo atrial y

  14. MATERIAL CULTURE OBJECTS IN THE EPICS OF DEDE KORKUT AND ÂŞIK GARIP FOLK ROMANCE / DEDE KORKUT HİKÂYELERİ VE ÂŞIK GARİP HİKÂYESİ’NDE YER ALAN MADDİ KÜLTÜR ÜRÜNLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Süheyla SARITAŞ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the epic of Dede Korkut is one of the most popular Turkish folklore topics studied by Turkish folklorists. The book itself, which consists of twelve narratives, is considered as a bridge between the epic and the folk romance tradition, one of the most important cultural heritages of the Turks. Moreover, it contains spiritual and material cultural objects, important for the social and cultural life of the Turks. Similarly, a scholar comes across material cultural objects belonging to the Turkish culture in folk romances, created after the epic of Dede Korkut. In this article, in order to emphasize the changes in the social and cultural Turkish lives, I will be investigating the material cultural objects comparatively in the Book of Dede Korkut and Âşık Garip, a well-known folk romance which has an important place in the Turkish folk romance tradition.

  15. Manuscript criticism of Qirān-i Habashī’s epic narrated by Abū Tāhir al-Tarsūsī

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehyar Alavi Moghaddam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Qirān-i Habashī is a brave hero of the one Persian prose epics that Abū Tāhir al-Tarsūsī, creative Bard in the sixth century AH, narrated his glorious deeds and conquests. After Samak e Ayyār and Gardankeshān Name, Qirān-i Habashī is the third prose epic that its title was selected by its outstanding Ayyār’s name. First of all, it was found necessary that introduced six Turkish and Individual Arabic manuscripts of Qirān-i Habashī then presented a description of the Persian unique manuscript properties of this epic and its orthographic manner or grammar properties. The next part displayed influence of Qirān-i Habashī on the other narrations like Garshāsp Name, Abu Muslim Name, Iskandar Name and Malek Qasem and badi al-Zamān. It’s Surprising that for the first time character of Samak e Ayyār appeared in a different story with Qirān-i Habashī and Amr son of Umayyad zamri. Final part delivered evidence in association with Qirān-i Habashī that lead to divide of Ayyāran. In the end, this paper has presented a Description of Qirān-i Habashī’s story plot.

  16. Prevalência e desfechos clínicos de infecções em UTIs brasileiras: subanálise do estudo EPIC II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliézer Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar as taxas de prevalência de infecção em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras e mortalidade atribuída pela análise dos dados ­obtidos pelo estudo Extended Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC II. MÉTODOS: O EPIC II é um estudo multicêntrico, internacional, prospectivo, de prevalência de infecção em UTIs, realizado em apenas um dia. Ele descreve as características demográficas, fisiológicas, bacteriológicas, terapêuticas, acompanhamento até o 60º dia, a prevalência de infecção, a taxa de mortalidade de todos os pacientes internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva participantes entre zero hora e meia noite do dia 8 de maio de 2007. Um total de 14.414 pacientes foram inlcuídos no estudo original, sendo que destes, 1.235 eram brasileiros provenientes de 90 unidades de terapia intensiva do país, que representaram o foco do estudo. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.235 pacientes, 61,6% apresentavam infecção no dia do estudo, sendo que o pulmão era o principal sítio de infecção (71,2%. Metade dos pacientes apresentava cultura positiva, sendo que o predomínio foi de bacilos Gram-negativos (72%. No dia do estudo, o Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA mediano foi 5 (3-8 e o Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II mediano 36 (26-47. Os doentes infectados apresentaram escore SOFA significativamente maior do que os não infectados, 6 (4-9 e 3 (2-6, respectivamente. A taxa de mortalidade global na unidade de terapia intensiva foi 28,4%, sendo de 37,6% em infectados e 13,2% em não infectados (p<0,001. Da mesma forma, a taxa de mortalidade hospitalar foi maior em pacientes infectados (44,2% versus 17,7%, tendo como taxa global 34,2% (p<0,001. Na análise multivariada, os principais fatores relacioanados ao desenvolvimento de infecção foram cirurgia de emergência (OR: 2,89, IC95%=1,72-4,86; p<0,001, ventilação mecânica (OR=2,06, IC95%=1,5-2,82; p<0,001, SAPS II - por ponto obtido (OR=1,04, IC

  17. Terapia de resincronización con implante de electrodo ventricular izquierdo por vía epicárdica Resynchronization therapy with left ventricular electrode implant via epicardium

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gómez; Boris V Astudillo; Orrego, Carlos M.; Manuel A Coronado; Juan M Senior

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: la terapia de resincronización cardiaca es segura y efectiva para mejorar la clase funcional y la calidad de vida, y reducir la mortalidad en pacientes con falla cardiaca en estado funcional III y IV con terapia médica óptima. Métodos: este es el reporte del procedimiento realizado a un grupo de pacientes a quienes se les implantó un marcapasos tricameral para resincronización cardiaca, con inserción del electrodo ventricular izquierdo por vía epicárdica, realizado en la Unidad ...

  18. Body mass index history and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schulze, Matthias B; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner

    2006-08-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight in adults are considered to be among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The objective was to evaluate and compare the associations between weight changes during 2 different periods of adult life and the risk of type 2 diabetes and age at diagnosis. The study included 7720 men and 10 371 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study with information on weight history; 390 men and 303 women of these participants received a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes during 7 y of follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of weight changes between ages 25 and 40 y and ages 40 and 55 y. RR estimates in men and women were slightly higher for each unit of BMI gain between ages 25 and 40 y [men: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.30); women: 1.24 (1.20, 1.27)] than between ages 40 and 55 y [men: 1.13 (1.10, 1.16); women: 1.11 (1.08, 1.14)]. Severe weight gain between ages 25 and 40 y was associated with a higher diabetes risk in men (1.5 times) and in women (4.3 times) than were stable weight in early adulthood and weight gain in later life, and it resulted in an average lower age at diabetes diagnosis in men (5 y) and in women (3 y). Weight gain in early adulthood is related to a higher risk and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes than is weight gain between 40 and 55 y of age.

  19. Body iron stores and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montonen, J; Boeing, H; Steffen, A; Lehmann, R; Fritsche, A; Joost, H-G; Schulze, M B; Pischon, T

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between body iron stores and risk of type 2 diabetes. We designed a case-cohort study among 27,548 individuals within the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. During 7 years of follow-up, 849 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified. Of these, 607 remained for analyses after exclusion of participants with missing data or abnormal glucose levels at baseline. A sub-cohort of 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the full cohort, comprising 1,969 individuals after applying the same exclusion criteria. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, sports activity, bicycling, education, occupational activity, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and circulating levels of γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, fetuin-A, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol, higher serum ferritin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (RR in the highest vs lowest quintile, 1.73; 95% CI 1.15, 2.61; p(trend) = 0.002). No significant association was observed for soluble transferrin receptor (RR 1.33; 95% CI 0.85, 2.09; p(trend) = 0.50). The soluble transferrin receptor-to-ferritin ratio was significantly inversely related to risk (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.41, 0.91; p(trend) = 0.02). High ferritin levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes independently of established diabetes risk factors and a range of diabetes biomarkers whereas soluble transferrin receptor concentrations are not related to risk. These results support the hypothesis that higher iron stores below the level of haemochromatosis are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

  20. A dietary pattern protective against type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)--Potsdam Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, C; Hoffmann, K; Spranger, J; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Möhlig, M; Pfeiffer, A F H; Boeing, H

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with diabetes-related biomarkers and to investigate whether this pattern is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. A nested case-control study of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and 382 control subjects matched for sex and age was conducted. All subjects were participants in the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Dietary pattern score was derived using intake data on 48 food groups as exposure variables and the biomarkers HbA1c, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein and adiponectin as response variables in reduced rank regression. The association of the score with diabetes risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression analysis. A high score for the identified dietary pattern was characterised by a high intake of fresh fruit and a low intake of high-caloric soft drinks, beer, red meat, poultry, processed meat, legumes and bread (excluding wholegrain bread). Subjects with high scores had high plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin and low plasma concentrations of HbA1c and C-reactive protein. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratios for type 2 diabetes across increasing quintiles of the dietary pattern score were 1.0, 0.59, 0.51, 0.26 and 0.27, respectively (p = 0.0006 for trend). A high score for the identified dietary pattern is associated with a more favourable biomarker profile and a substantially reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Ellen A; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Fransen, Heidi P; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the association between adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet created by the Dutch Health Council in 2006 and overall and smoking-related cancer incidence. Prospective cohort study. Adherence to the guidelines, which includes one recommendation on physical activity and nine on diet, was measured using an adapted version of the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD) index. The score ranged from 0 to 90 with a higher score indicating greater adherence to the guidelines. We estimated the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals for the association between the DHD index (in tertiles and per 20-point increment) at baseline and cancer incidence at follow-up. We studied 35 608 men and women aged 20-70 years recruited into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study during 1993-1997. After an average follow-up of 12·7 years, 3027 cancer cases were documented. We found no significant association between the DHD index (tertile 3 v. tertile 1) and overall (HR = 0·97; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·07) and smoking-related cancer incidence (HR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·06) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Excluding the components physical activity or alcohol from the score did not change the results. None of the individual components of the DHD index was significantly associated with cancer incidence. In the present study, participants with a high adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet were not at lower risk of overall or smoking-related cancer. This does not exclude that other components not included in the DHD index may be associated with overall cancer risk.

  2. Tailoring iron chelation by iron intake and serum ferritin: the prospective EPIC study of deferasirox in 1744 patients with transfusion-dependent anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Porter, John; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Li, Chi-Kong; Seymour, John F; Elalfy, Mohsen; Gattermann, Norbert; Giraudier, Stéphane; Lee, Jong-Wook; Chan, Lee Lee; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Rose, Christian; Taher, Ali; Thein, Swee Lay; Viprakasit, Vip; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Kattamis, Antonis

    2010-04-01

    Background Following a clinical evaluation of deferasirox (Exjade) it was concluded that, in addition to baseline body iron burden, ongoing transfusional iron intake should be considered when selecting doses. The 1-year EPIC study, the largest ever investigation conducted for an iron chelator, is the first to evaluate whether fixed starting doses of deferasirox, based on transfusional iron intake, with dose titration guided by serum ferritin trends and safety markers, provides clinically acceptable chelation in patients (aged >or=2 years) with transfusional hemosiderosis from various types of anemia. The recommended initial dose was 20 mg/kg/day for patients receiving 2-4 packed red blood cell units/month and 10 or 30 mg/kg/day was recommended for patients receiving less or more frequent transfusions, respectively. Dose adjustments were based on 3-month serum ferritin trends and continuous assessment of safety markers. The primary efficacy end-point was change in serum ferritin after 52 weeks compared with baseline. The 1744 patients enrolled had the following conditions; thalassemia (n=1115), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=341), aplastic anemia (n=116), sickle cell disease (n=80), rare anemias (n=43) and other transfused anemias (n=49). Overall, there was a significant reduction in serum ferritin from baseline (-264 ng/mL; P5%) adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbances (28%) and skin rash (10%). Conclusions Analysis of this large, prospectively collected data set confirms the response to chelation therapy across various anemias, supporting initial deferasirox doses based on transfusional iron intake, with subsequent dose titration guided by trends in serum ferritin and safety markers (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821).

  3. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

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    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors.

  4. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

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    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  5. Observation of sGAG content of human hip joint cartilage in different old age groups based on EPIC micro-CT.

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    Li, Xiao-Fei; Cai, Xi-Ran; Fan, Fan; Niu, Hai-Jun; Li, Shu-Yu; Li, De-Yu; Fan, Yu-Bo; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2015-04-01

    To observe the age-related changes of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content of hip joint cartilage of elderly people based on Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast Agent (EPIC) micro-CT. Seventy human hip cartilage-bone samples were collected from hip-fracture patients (ages 51-96) and divided into five groups (10 years in an age group). They were first immersed in 20% concentration of the contrast agent Meglumine Diatrizoate (MD) for 6 h at 37 °C, and then scanned by micro-CT. Following scanning, samples were stained for sGAG with toluidine blue. The X-ray attenuation and sGAG optical density were calculated by image processing. The correlation between X-ray attenuation and sGAG optical density was then analyzed. The X-ray mean attenuation of the cartilage increased by 18.81% from the 50-80 age groups (p age group compared to the 80 age group. The X-ray mean attenuation of the superficial layer and middle layer increased by 31.60 % and 44.68% from the 50-80 age groups, respectively (p age group. However, the deep layer showed no significant change with aging. The sGAG optical density showed a linear correlation (r = -0.91, p < 0.01) with the X-ray attenuation. The sGAG content of hip joint cartilage varied with aging in elderly people. The changes in superficial layer and middle layer were more evident than deep layer.

  6. Dietary fibre intake and risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC.

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    Neil Murphy

    Full Text Available Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location.After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96. Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals.Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.

  7. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

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    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  8. Associations between dietary pattern and lifestyle, anthropometry and other health indicators in the elderly participants of the EPIC-Italy cohort.

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    Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Galasso, Rocco; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Berrino, Franco; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Baibas, Nikolaos; Krogh, Vittorio

    2006-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary behaviour is an important aetiological factor in various chronic diseases. We used principal component factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and to examine the associations of these patterns with health-related variables in a sample of elderly (> or =60 years) Italians participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the intake of food groups as estimated by semi-quantitative food questionnaires. Individual participants were assigned factor scores, indicating the extent to which their diet conformed to each of the four dietary patterns identified: prudent (cooked vegetables, pulses, cabbage, seed oil and fish); pasta & meat (pasta, tomato sauce, red meat, processed meat, bread and wine); olive oil & salad (raw vegetables, olive oil, soup and chicken); and sweet & dairy (sugar, cakes, ice cream, coffee and dairy). Highly educated people had high scores on prudent and low scores on pasta & meat. The pasta & meat and prudent patterns were strongly positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in men and women. Hyperlipidaemic men and women consumed more of the prudent and olive oil & salad patterns and less of the sweet & dairy pattern than those with normal lipids. The olive oil & salad was significantly higher and the pasta & meat and sweet & dairy patterns significantly lower in men and women who had dieted over the previous year, suggesting awareness of the health consequences of these patterns. Dietary pattern analysis provides a characterization of recurrent dietary behaviour in elderly people, and can be used to provide tangible dietary advice to elderly people.

  9. Non-HDL cholesterol vs. apo B for risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

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    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Rana, Jamal S; Arsenault, Benoit J; Shah, Prediman K; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the performance of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) compared with apolipoprotein B (apo B) in the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Therefore, we compared the associations between non-HDL-C and apo B in regard to CHD among apparently healthy Western European individuals. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study, 25,639 men and women aged 45-79 years were followed for 11·4 ± 2·8 years. Those with diabetes or prevalent CHD at baseline were excluded. A total of 2066 (12·1%) participants developed CHD during 195 692 person-years follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of future CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1·22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1·17-1·27] for LDL-C, 1·26 (95% CI 1·20-1·31) for non-HDL-C and 1·19 (95% CI 1·14-1·24) for apo B, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted HR of future CHD in the highest quartile LDL-C was 1·67 (95% CI: 1·47-1·91). For non-HDL-C and apo B, these respective HRs were 1·87 (95% CI: 1·62-2·15) and 1·56 (95% CI: 1·36-1·78). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that there was incremental and comparable increase in risk of CHD with increasing quartiles of both non-HDL-C and apo B. In this prospective study, non-HDL-C and apo B were comparable in their ability to predict risk of future CHD. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by socioeconomic status and financial hardship. Findings from older adults in the EPIC cohort.

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    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Beyond quantity, variety of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake prevents chronic conditions and is widely recommended as critical to healthful eating. FV consumption is socially patterned, especially for women, but little is known about multiple economic determinants of variety or whether they differ from those of quantity. To examine socioeconomic status and financial hardships in relation to variety and quantity of FV intakes among older British women and men. Cross-sectional study of 9580 adults (50-79 years) in the nationally representative EPIC cohort who responded to a postal Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (1996-2000) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (1998-2002). Variety counted unique items consumed (items/month) and quantity measured total intake (g/day). No consistent differences by any economic factor were observed for quantity of fruits or vegetables, except education in men. Lower education, lower social class and renting were independently associated with lower fruit variety and vegetable variety (p-trend bottom social classes by 2.9 items/month for men and 2.5 for women. Greater financial hardships were also independently associated with lower variety, with differences stronger in women for fruits and in men for vegetables. British older adults reporting greater economic disadvantage consistently consumed fewer different fruits or vegetables, but not lower amounts. Further nutrition studies of the protective effects, and underlying mechanisms, of FV variety are warranted for addressing social inequalities in older adults' diet quality. Dietary guidance should separately emphasise variety, and interventions should aim to address financial barriers to older adults' consumption of diverse FV. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in PTEN and PIK3CA in colorectal cancers in the EPIC Norfolk study: associations with clinicopathological and dietary factors

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    Mitrou Panagiota N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PTEN tumour suppressor gene and PIK3CA proto-oncogene encode proteins which contribute to regulation and propagation of signal transduction through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. This study investigates the prevalence of loss of PTEN expression and mutations in both PTEN and PIK3CA in colorectal cancers (CRC and their associations with tumour clinicopathological features, lifestyle factors and dietary consumptions. Methods 186 adenocarcinomas and 16 adenomas from the EPIC Norfolk study were tested for PTEN and PIK3CA mutations by DNA sequencing and PTEN expression changes by immunohistochemistry. Dietary and lifestyle data were collected prospectively using seven day food diaries and lifestyle questionnaires. Results Mutations in exons 7 and 8 of PTEN were observed in 2.2% of CRC and PTEN loss of expression was identified in 34.9% CRC. Negative PTEN expression was associated with lower blood low-density lipoprotein concentrations (p = 0.05. PIK3CA mutations were observed in 7% of cancers and were more frequent in CRCs in females (p = 0.04. Analysis of dietary intakes demonstrated no link between PTEN expression status and any specific dietary factor. PTEN expression negative, proximal CRC were of more advanced Dukes' stage (p = 0.02 and poor differentiation (p PIK3CA mutations and loss of PTEN expression demonstrated that these two events were independent (p = 0.55. Conclusion These data demonstrated the frequent occurrence (34.9% of PTEN loss of expression in colorectal cancers, for which gene mutations do not appear to be the main cause. Furthermore, dietary factors are not associated with loss of PTEN expression. PTEN expression negative CRC were not homogenous, as proximal cancers were associated with a more advanced Dukes' stage and poor differentiation, whereas distal cancers were associated with earlier Dukes' stage.

  12. Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

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    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-07-22

    Multiple economic factors and social relationships determine dietary behaviours, but the inter-relations between determinants is unknown. Whether women and men differ in the vulnerability to, and impact of, combined disadvantages is also unclear. We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men. Our sample comprised 9,580 over-50s (47 % of over-50 respondents) in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. We examined six economic factors (education, social class, home-ownership, money for needs, frequency of insufficient money for food/clothing, paying bills) and three social relationships (marital status, living arrangement and friend contact), independently and in combination, in relation to fruit variety and vegetable variety. We analysed gender-specific associations using multivariable linear regression with interaction terms. Lower social class, lower education, and difficulty paying bills were associated with lower fruit and vegetable variety in both genders, independent of social relationships. All social relationships were independently associated with fruit variety in men and with vegetable variety in both genders. Substantially lower variety was found for all combinations of low economic resources and lack of social relationship than for either measure alone, with men faring worse in the majority of combined disadvantages. For example, the difference in vegetable variety for men reporting low social class and non-married was much greater (β -4.1, [-4.8, -3.4]), than the independent association of low social class (β -1.5, [-1.8,-1.2]), or non-married (β -1.8, [-2.3,-1.3]). Variety was also lower among men with high economic resources but non-married or lone-living. A double burden of low economic resources and lack of social relationships suggested they are unique joint determinants, particularly in older men, and that public health efforts to improve healthy

  13. Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study.

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    Biesbroek, Sander; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Verschuren, Wm Monique; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Kramer, Gerard F H; Tyszler, Marcelo; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2014-04-07

    Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use of usual diet with mortality risk, and to estimate the effect of a modelled meat substitution scenario on health and the environment. The usual diet of 40011 subjects in the EPIC-NL cohort was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. GHGE and land use of food products were based on life cycle analysis. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine relative mortality risk. In the modelled meat-substitution scenario, one-third (35 gram) of the usual daily meat intake (105 gram) was substituted by other foods. During a follow-up of 15.9 years, 2563 deaths were registered. GHGE and land use of the usual diet were not associated with all-cause or with cause-specific mortality. Highest vs. lowest quartile of GHGE and land use adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were respectively 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86-1.17) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23). Modelled substitution of 35 g/d of meat with vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, pasta-rice-couscous, or fish significantly increased survival rates (6-19%), reduced GHGE (4-11%), and land use (10-12%). There were no significant associations observed between dietary-derived GHGE and land use and mortality in this Dutch cohort. However, the scenario-study showed that substitution of meat with other major food groups was associated with a lower mortality risk and a reduced environmental burden. Especially when vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, fish, or pasta-rice-couscous replaced meat.

  14. Evaluation of urinary resveratrol as a biomarker of dietary resveratrol intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

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    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Achaintre, David; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mancini, Francesca R; Affret, Aurelie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Küppel, Sven; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; La Vecchia, Carlo; Palli, Domenico; Contiero, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Noh, Hwayoung; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-06-01

    In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman's correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R 2 partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R 2 partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.

  15. Coffee and tea consumption, genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity and colorectal cancer risk-results from the EPIC cohort study.

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    Dik, Vincent K; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Van Gils, Carla H; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Cauchi, Stéphane; Yengo, Loic; Froguel, Philippe; Overvad, Kim; Bech, Bodil H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kühn, Tilman; Campa, Daniele; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Oikonomou, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosaria; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Argüelles, Marcial; Jirström, Karin; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena M; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Freisling, Heinz; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Riboli, Elio

    2014-07-15

    Coffee and tea contain numerous antimutagenic and antioxidant components and high levels of caffeine that may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the association between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk and studied potential effect modification by CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotypes, enzymes involved in the metabolization of caffeine. Data from 477,071 participants (70.2% female) of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study were analyzed. At baseline (1992-2000) habitual (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) coffee and tea consumption was assessed with dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio's (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potential effect modification by genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity was studied in a nested case-control set of 1,252 cases and 2,175 controls. After a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 4,234 participants developed CRC (mean age 64.7 ± 8.3 years). Total coffee consumption (high vs. non/low) was not associated with CRC risk (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18) or subsite cancers, and no significant associations were found for caffeinated (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.26) and decaffeinated coffee (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84-1.11) and tea (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.09). High coffee and tea consuming subjects with slow CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity had a similar CRC risk compared to non/low coffee and tea consuming subjects with a fast CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity, which suggests that caffeine metabolism does not affect the link between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk. This study shows that coffee and tea consumption is not likely to be associated with overall CRC. © 2013 UICC.

  16. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians

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    Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom. Participants 47 033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15 459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; Pvegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease. Conclusions Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease. PMID:21771850

  17. Cross Sectional Associations between Socio-Demographic Factors and Cognitive Performance in an Older British Population: The European Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabina A Hayat

    Full Text Available Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals.To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study.Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC in Norfolk Study, aged 48-92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006 and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests.Cognitive measures were available on 8584 men and women. Though age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with cognitive performance in multivariable analysis, different associations were observed for different cognitive tests. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of a poor performance score in all of the tests, except for the National Adult Reading Test (NART, an assessment of crystallized intelligence. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had poor performance for verbal episodic memory, Odds Ratio, OR = 1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI 1.72, 2.31, attention OR = 1.62, (95% CI 1.39, 1.88 and prospective memory OR = 1.46, (95% CI 1.29, 1.64; however, no sex difference was observed for global cognition, OR = 1.07 (95%CI 0.93, 1.24. The association with education was strongest for NART, and weakest for processing speed.Age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with performance on cognitive tests assessing a range of different domains. However, the magnitude of associations of these factors with different cognitive tests differed. The varying relationships seen across different tests may help explain discrepancies in results reported in the current literature, and provides insights into

  18. Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software.

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    Crispim, S P; Geelen, A; Le Donne, C; De Vries, J H M; Sette, S; Raffo, A; Siebelink, E; Ocke, M C; van't Veer, P; Leclercq, C

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings--raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine--was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety limits, the need for more detailed assessment using less aggregated data was judged necessary. First, screening methods--maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI), single-portion exposure technique (SPET), and modified theoretical added maximum daily intake (mTAMDI)--were applied. Next, individual food consumption data were used for creating models with different levels of detail to identify the foods: a model based on food groups and models based on food items. These were collected from 121 Dutch adults using a standardized 2 x 24-h dietary recall (EPIC-Soft) in the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) study. Three food item models were developed: without improvements of the flavouring descriptor built in the software; with improvements; and with use of non-specified flavour descriptors. Based on the results of at least one of the three screening methods, refined assessment was necessary for raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, and caffeine. When applying the food group model, the need for refinement was indicated for the four flavourings. When applying the food item models, only glycyrrhizinic acid and caffeine presented dietary exposure above the safety limits. In the raspberry ketone case, dietary exposure increased when improvements in food description were considered. The use of non-specified flavour descriptors hardly changed the results. The collection of detailed food consumption data at the individual level is useful in the dietary exposure assessment of these flavourings.

  19. Added Value of Serum Hormone Measurements in Risk Prediction Models for Breast Cancer for Women Not Using Exogenous Hormones: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

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    Hüsing, Anika; Fortner, Renée T; Kühn, Tilman; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnes; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gills, Carla H; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Dossus, Laure; Li, Kuanrong; Ferrari, Pietro; Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Circulating hormone concentrations are associated with breast cancer risk, with well-established associations for postmenopausal women. Biomarkers may represent minimally invasive measures to improve risk prediction models.Experimental Design: We evaluated improvements in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from risk prediction models developed by Gail and colleagues and Pfeiffer and colleagues using a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort, including 1,217 breast cancer cases and 1,976 matched controls. Participants were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Circulating sex steroids, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-binding protein 3, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated using backward elimination separately in women pre- and postmenopausal at blood collection. Improvement in discrimination was evaluated as the change in concordance statistic (C-statistic) from a modified Gail or Pfeiffer risk score alone versus models, including the biomarkers and risk score. Internal validation with bootstrapping (1,000-fold) was used to adjust for overfitting.Results: Among women postmenopausal at blood collection, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG were selected into the prediction models. For breast cancer overall, model discrimination after including biomarkers was 5.3 percentage points higher than the modified Gail model alone, and 3.4 percentage points higher than the Pfeiffer model alone, after accounting for overfitting. Discrimination was more markedly improved for estrogen receptor-positive disease (percentage point change in C-statistic: 7.2, Gail; 4.8, Pfeiffer). We observed no improvement in discrimination among women premenopausal at blood collection.Conclusions: Integration of hormone measurements in clinical risk prediction models may represent a strategy to improve breast cancer risk stratification. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4181-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017

  20. Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

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    May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noémie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI −706, −368) and 200 (−478, −87) gram less weight and 0.95 (−1.27, −0.639) and 0.99 (−1.29, −0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain. PMID:23226361

  1. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study.

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    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia; Chajès, Véronique; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cross, Amanda J; Skeie, Guri; Jenab, Mazda; Mancini, Francesca R; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Hansen, Camilla P; Overvad, Kim; Duell, Eric J; Redondo-Sánchez, Daniel; Amiano, Pilar; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Winkvist, Anna; Braaten, Tonje; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2017-07-21

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (-0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) (both P trend <0.008). Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.

  2. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A cross-sectional analysis. United Kingdom. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

  3. Major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in middle-aged persons from a Mediterranean country: the EPIC-Spain cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar-Castillón, P; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Tormo, M J; Sánchez, M J; Rodríguez, L; Quirós, J R; Navarro, C; Molina, E; Martínez, C; Marín, P; Lopez-Garcia, E; Larrañaga, N; Huerta, J M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M D; Buckland, G; Barricarte, A; Banegas, J R; Arriola, L; Ardanaz, E; González, C A; Moreno-Iribas, C

    2012-03-01

    No previous study has assessed the association between major dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a large cohort from a Mediterranean country. We studied prospectively 40,757 persons, aged 29-69 years, participating in the Spanish cohort of the EPIC study. Food consumption was collected between 1992 and 1996 with a validated history method. Individuals were followed-up until 2004 through record linkage with hospital discharge registers, population-based registers of myocardial infarction, and mortality registers to ascertain CHD events (fatal and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction or angina requiring revascularization). Two major dietary patterns were identified from factor analysis. The first pattern was labeled as Westernized, because of the frequent consumption of refined cereals and red meat; the second was called the evolved Mediterranean pattern, because of the frequent intake of plant-based foods and olive oil. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 606 CHD events were ascertained. No association was found between the Westernized pattern and CHD risk. In contrast, the score for the evolved Mediterranean pattern was inversely associated with CHD risk (p for trend = 0.0013); when compared with the lowest quintile of the evolved Mediterranean pattern score, the multivariable hazard ratios for CHD were 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.98) for the second quintile, 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.83) for the third quintile, 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.73) for the fourth quintile, and 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.94) for the fifth quintile. A Mediterranean diet, as consumed in this study population, was associated with a lower risk of CHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Topical Beta-Blockers and Cardiovascular Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Data from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

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    Pinnock, Claude; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Broadway, David C.; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine if topical beta-blocker use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, particularly among people with self-reported glaucoma. Methods: All participants who participated in the first health check (N = 25,639) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort (1993–2013) were included in this prospective cohort study, with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. We determined use of topical beta-blockers at baseline through a self-reported questionnaire and prescription check at the first clinical visit. Cardiovascular mortality was ascertained through data linkage with the Office for National Statistics mortality database. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Meta-analysis of the present study’s results together with other identified literature was performed using a random effects model. Results: We did not find an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.93, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.67–1.30). In the 514 participants with self-reported glaucoma, no association was found between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.56–1.40). In the primary meta-analysis of four publications, there was no evidence of an association between the use of topical beta-blockers and cardiovascular mortality (pooled HR estimate 1.10, 95% CI 0.84–1.36). Conclusion: Topical beta-blockers do not appear to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. This evidence does not indicate that a change in current practice is warranted, although clinicians should continue to assess individual patients and their cardiovascular risk prior to commencing topical beta-blockers. PMID:27551956

  5. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. Methods The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. Results 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants. PMID:26176222

  6. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Y Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD in a large British cohort study.The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997 and follow up (2006-2011 via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD.5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623 of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91 at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.3-0.8% and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%. In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and C-reactive protein (CRP were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD.We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Epic Poetry as a Means for Transmitting Social (Symbolic Capital in Renaissance and Baroque Litera- ture: the Artistic Experience of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

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    Жанна Некрашэвіч-Кароткая

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show the emergence and development of epic poetry in the Latin language literature of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th century-the first third of the 17th century with regard to the art history and sociological concept by Pierre Bourdieu (theory of fields. From such point of view the work of the authors at that time can be seen as the specific ways of positioning in the literature of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Latin culture (Latinitas was significant in forming cultural capital in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and works in Latin were the main means for transmitting social capital, which was also symbolic capital under the influence of certain habitus. Among such works are first of all the public and political ideas that were essential at that time (translatio imperii, “Jagellonian” patriotism, as well as the Polemon Legend. Theherois perfecti idea became a significant part of symbolic capital at that time. This idea provided legitimate access to the Consecration process and was embodied in the idealized images of the agents in the field of temporal authority (that of a grand prince, a king or a magnate. The axiological potential of this symbolic capital at the point where the fields of literature and authority intersect was so great and acceptable within the European context that not only local but also foreign authors where actively integrated into the field of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (which was also closely linked to the respective literature of the Polish Crown.

  9. Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Siersema, Peter; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hjartaker, Anette; Engeset, Dagrun; González, Carlos A.; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José R.; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Lena; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Wark, Petra A.; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. Methodology/Principal Findings After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. Conclusions/Significance Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:22761771

  10. Dietary, lifestyle and clinicopathological factors associated with BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct subsets of colorectal cancers in the EPIC Norfolk study

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    McTaggart Alison

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAF and K-ras proto-oncogenes encode components of the ERK signalling pathway and are frequently mutated in colorectal cancer. This study investigates the associations between BRAF and K-ras mutations and clinicopathological, lifestyle and dietary factors in colorectal cancers. Methods 186 adenocarcinomas and 16 adenomas from the EPIC Norfolk study were tested for BRAF and K-ras mutations. Diet and lifestyle data were collected prospectively using seven day food diaries. Results BRAF V600E mutation was found in 15.6% of colorectal cancers but at higher frequencies in cancers with proximal location, poor differentiation and microsatellite instability (MSI (all p K-ras mutation (mostly in codons 12 and 13 was found in 22.0% of colorectal cancers but at higher frequencies in cancers of more advanced Dukes' stage (p = 0.001, microsatellite stable (MSS status (p = 0.002 and in individuals with lower blood high-density lipoprotein concentrations (p = 0.04. Analysis of dietary factors demonstrated no link between BRAF mutation and any specific dietary constituent, however, K-ras mutation was found at higher frequencies in individuals with higher white meat consumption (p K-ras were observed at higher frequencies in individuals consuming lower amounts of fruit (p = 0.02. Conclusion These data support the model of BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct colorectal cancer subsets associated with different clinicopathological and dietary factors, acting as mutually exclusive mechanisms of activation of the same signalling pathway.

  11. Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop type 2 diabetes: results of the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

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    Spranger, Joachim; Kroke, Anja; Möhlig, Matthias; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Ristow, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2003-03-01

    A subclinical inflammatory reaction has been shown to precede the onset of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. We therefore examined prospectively the effects of the central inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the development of type 2 diabetes. We designed a nested case-control study within the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study including 27,548 individuals. Case subjects were defined to be those who were free of type 2 diabetes at baseline and subsequently developed type 2 diabetes during a 2.3-year follow-up period. A total of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were identified and matched with 384 non-disease-developing control subjects. IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be elevated in participants with incident type 2 diabetes, whereas IL-1beta plasma levels did not differ between the groups. Analysis of single cytokines revealed IL-6 as an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), sports, smoking status, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, and HbA(1c) (4th vs. the 1st quartile: odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5). The association between TNF-alpha and future type 2 diabetes was no longer significant after adjustment for BMI or WHR. Interestingly, combined analysis of the cytokines revealed a significant interaction between IL-1beta and IL-6. In the fully adjusted model, participants with detectable levels of IL-1beta and elevated levels of IL-6 had an independently increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes (3.3, 1.7-6.8), whereas individuals with increased concentrations of IL-6 but undetectable levels of IL-1beta had no significantly increased risk, both compared with the low-level reference group. These results were confirmed in an analysis including only individuals with HbA(1c) <5.8% at baseline. Our data suggest that the pattern of

  12. Associations of Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in the De Novo Lipogenesis Pathway with Proxies of Liver Fat Accumulation in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Jäger, Susanne; Jansen, Eugene; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker fatty acids (FAs) reflecting de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are strongly linked to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Liver fat accumulation could mediate this relation. There is very limited data from human population-based studies that have examined this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between specific FAs in the DNL pathway and liver fat accumulation in a large population-based study. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample (n = 1,562) of the EPIC-Potsdam study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged men and women. Baseline blood samples have been analyzed for proportions of 32 FAs in erythrocyte membranes (determined by gas chromatography) and biomarker concentrations in plasma. As indicators for DNL, the DNL-index (16:0 / 18:2n-6) and proportions of individual blood FAs in the DNL pathway were used. Plasma parameters associated with liver fat content (fetuin-A, ALT, and GGT) and the algorithm-based fatty liver index (FLI) were used to reflect liver fat accumulation. The DNL-index tended to be positively associated with the FLI and was positively associated with GGT activity in men (p for trend: 0.12 and 0.003). Proportions of 14:0 and 16:0 in erythrocytes were positively associated with fetuin-A, whereas 16:1n-7 were positively associated with the FLI and GGT activity (all p for trends in both sexes at least 0.004). Furthermore, the proportion of 16:1n-7 was positively related to fetuin-A in women and ALT activity in men (all p for trend at least 0.03). The proportion of 16:1n-9 showed positive associations with the FLI and GGT activity in men and fetuin-A in both sexes, whereas 18:1n-7 was positively associated with GGT activity in men (all p for trend at least 0.048). Findings from this large epidemiological study suggest that liver fat accumulation could link erythrocyte FAs in the DNL pathway to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases.

  13. Unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Chamosa, S; Etxezarreta, N; Arriola, L; Sánchez, M-J; Ardanaz, E; Molina-Montes, E; Chirlaque, M-D; Moreno-Iribas, C; Huerta, J-M; Egües, N; Navarro, C; Requena, M; Quirós, J-R; Fonseca-Nunes, A; Jakszyn, P; González, C-A; Dorronsoro, M

    2016-03-01

    High intakes of unprocessed red or processed meat may increase the risk of stroke. We aimed to examine the association between unprocessed red meat, processed meat and total red meat consumption and risk of total stroke and ischaemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted based on the data for 41,020 men and women aged 29-69 years at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 13.8 years, 674 incident cases of stroke (531 ischaemic strokes, 79 haemorrhagic strokes, 42 subarachnoid haemorrhages and 22 mixed or unspecified events) were identified. After multiple adjustment, unprocessed red meat, processed meat and total red meat consumption were not correlated with incidence of total stroke or ischaemic stroke in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HRs) for unprocessed red meat and processed meat and risk of total stroke comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.21; P-trend=0.15) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.32; P-trend=0.82) in men and 1.21 (95% CI 0.79-1.85; P-trend=0.10) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.51-1.27; P-trend=0.17) in women. The HRs for unprocessed red meat and processed meat and risk of ischaemic stroke were, respectively, 0.80 (95% CI 0.51-1.25; P-trend=0.51) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.57-1.29; P-trend=0.77) in men and 1.24 (95% CI 0.74-2.05; P-trend=0.13) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.47-1.42; P-trend=0.31) in women. In the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption were not associated with risk of stroke in men or women.

  14. Dietary Glycemic Load and Glycemic Index and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Dutch Men and Women: The EPIC-MORGEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The associations of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. Objective To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. Methods A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN) was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21–64 years at baseline (1993–1997) and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02–1.35]), while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89–1.33]). GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02–1.58]) but not in women (0.96 [0.75–1.22]). Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04–1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07–1.45]), but not in women. Conclusion Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:21998729

  15. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen J.; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M.; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjønneland, Anne; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991–1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19–0.29) adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27–0.50) further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0

  16. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L; Huerta, José M; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J M; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nick J

    2017-10-01

    Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19-0.29) adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27-0.50) further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0.05 each). Limitations include potential

  17. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods and Findings We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Conclusions Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to

  18. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Roura

    Full Text Available In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC. However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3/carcinoma in situ (CIS and invasive cervical cancer (ICC.We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR, odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03. Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use. Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8. A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6. Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7.Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening

  19. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines

  20. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Peeters, Petra H M; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bulgiba, Awang M; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Schütze, Madlen; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Redondo, María-Luisa; Buckland, Genevieve; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Wirfält, Elisabet; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2015-01-31

    Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; Ptrend=0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P=0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P=0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (Ptrend=0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. Higher

  1. Comparison of the EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire with combined heart rate and movement sensing in a nationally representative sample of older British adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa España-Romero

    Full Text Available To compare physical activity (PA subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2 and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults.Participants aged 60-64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE, sedentary behaviour, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women.EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement in men and women were 32.3 (-61.5 to 122.6 and 29.0 (-39.2 to 94.6 kJ/kg/day for PAEE; -4.6 (-10.6 to 1.3 and -6.0 (-10.9 to -1.0 h/day for sedentary time; -171.8 (-454.5 to 110.8 and -60.4 (-367.5 to 246.6 min/day for LPA; 91.1 (-159.5 to 341.8 and 55.4 (-117.2 to 228.0 min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho= 0.12 to 0.36; the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women.EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population.

  2. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D has not been evaluated.We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998 and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]. The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19-0.29 adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27-0.50 further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0.05 each. Limitations

  3. Tearing Down the Bridge between East and West:  The (Re-Writing of Albanian Identity in the Millosh Kopiliq Epic and Ismail Kadare’s The Siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania lies at the crux of the doubly oriental identity of the Balkans on account of its Ottoman and Socialist past. This paper examines the role of the Ottoman Empire in literary works that engage with history in an effort to articulate a conception of Albanian identity as fundamentally European. The Kosovar epic ballads of Millosh Kopiliq and Ismail Kadare’s novel The Siege both portray the medieval conflicts between Albanians and Ottomans. Yet the works do not simply assert the cultural superiority of Albanians in the face of “oriental barbarism”. Instead, the Ottomans serve to dramatize the ambiguous cultural and geographical positioning of Kosovo and Albania. Using Lucien Goldmann’s method of genetic structuralism, this study understands the particular identity articulated in each text as a response to the geographical, cultural and political environment of its author.Keywords: identity, nationalism, Kadare, Albania, Kosovo, orientalism, Ottoman Empire, Millosh Kopiliq

  4. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  5. Physical activity attenuates the genetic predisposition to obesity in 20,000 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

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    Shengxu Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that multiple genetic loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS increase the susceptibility to obesity in a cumulative manner. It is, however, not known whether and to what extent this genetic susceptibility may be attenuated by a physically active lifestyle. We aimed to assess the influence of a physically active lifestyle on the genetic predisposition to obesity in a large population-based study.We genotyped 12 SNPs in obesity-susceptibility loci in a population-based sample of 20,430 individuals (aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk cohort with an average follow-up period of 3.6 y. A genetic predisposition score was calculated for each individual by adding the body mass index (BMI-increasing alleles across the 12 SNPs. Physical activity was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine main effects of the genetic predisposition score and its interaction with physical activity on BMI/obesity risk and BMI change over time, assuming an additive effect for each additional BMI-increasing allele carried. Each additional BMI-increasing allele was associated with 0.154 (standard error [SE] 0.012 kg/m(2 (p = 6.73 x 10(-37 increase in BMI (equivalent to 445 g in body weight for a person 1.70 m tall. This association was significantly (p(interaction = 0.005 more pronounced in inactive people (0.205 [SE 0.024] kg/m(2 [p = 3.62 x 10(-18; 592 g in weight] than in active people (0.131 [SE 0.014] kg/m(2 [p = 7.97 x 10(-21; 379 g in weight]. Similarly, each additional BMI-increasing allele increased the risk of obesity 1.116-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.093-1.139, p = 3.37 x 10(-26 in the whole population, but significantly (p(interaction = 0.015 more in inactive individuals (odds ratio [OR] = 1.158 [95% CI 1.118-1.199; p = 1.93 x 10(-16] than in active individuals (OR = 1.095 (95% CI 1.068-1.123; p = 1

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  7. Tragedy and the Epic Inheritance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parthenogenesis Night produced: Doom, Fate, Death, Sleep, Dreams. Blame, Woe, the Hesperides, Destinies; Clotho, Lachesis ... were predominantly thought of as physical. in just the same way as the Olympian gods were thought of as having bodies, as having visited their temples (in the days before the world became too ...

  8. Tragedy and the Epic Inheritance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earth's children were Heaven, then the. Titans; gods, then people followed.2 Chaos' ... carefully gtven the Impression that the woman who had died was one of the servants), goes to the tomb and wrestles with .... in Egypt men weave and make wool, while women do business - the reverse of the Greek practice. 22 There are ...

  9. UNE MYTHOCRITIQUE DE LA CHANSON DE GUILLAUME EST-ELLE POSSIBLE ? DU VISIBLE À L’INVISIBLE DANS LA GESTE DE GUILLAUME D’ORANGE ET DE SES COMPAGNONS DE GUERRE (Is The Song of William susceptible to myth criticism? From the visible to the invisible in the Old French epic of William of Orange and his companions in arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Živčák

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to examine the appropriateness of myth criticism methods in the context of medieval French literature. The first part of the essay is conceived as a brief confrontation, opposing the theory of Mircea Eliade concerning the repetition of the Hero Archetype in traditional epics to some textual elements in the chansons de geste, analogous to “visible mythemes” which tend to appear in popular epic poetry. Through a series of comparisons, we come to the conclusion that the interpretation to which the “eliadian” scheme leads us expands the boundaries of a literary myth (an academic invisible and rather aspires to a “theology of text” (a lived invisible. The second part of the article provides the reader with a practical application of the results of the preceding reflections, and includes an interpretation of the story of Vivien based on the Christian concept of Imitatio Christi.

  10. An analytical study on the commencement and the ending of Šahryârnâmeh epic according to a storytellers’ narrative

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    عظیم جباره ناصرو

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available &Scaronahryârnâmeh is one of comparatively voluminous epics composes after the &Scaronâhnâmeh, but its commencement and ending is lost. This is the only heroic epic that begins suddenly with no introduction and also ends abruptly without any conclusion. Amongst the verses composed after the &Scaronâhnâmehhas met little welcome in the public. It seems that the difficulty of verses, meaning detachment, between different segments of the story andnarrative lacuna, especially at the beginning and the end of the story could be one of effective factors of this work’s being abandoned among people. In Kohmarreh-Sorkhi Region there are four oral narratives of heroic verses composed laterthan the &Scaronâhnâmeh among which, Borzūnâmeh and Bânūgo&scaronasbnâmeh are rampant among some storytellersand narrators, but Farâmarznâmeh and &Scaronahryârnâmeh have been abandoned by the public’s mentality. These recent two are narrated only by the oldest storyteller of the region, Alihossein Âlinežâd. In his narration, the verses have meaningful and lucid beginning and ending and the composer of this work is known- although he is unknown according to all studies done. This essays tries to accomplish these three with an analytical approach: 1- to mention a summary of the commencement and the end of the story in the extant storytelling narrative and responding to the question of whether the narrators have had access to a complete version of the work or they have independently created a beginning and an end for it 2- to point out the differences and the resemblances between the storytellers’ narrative and the versified one 3- to mention the story of how the versified work was created and to answer the question of how much one can trust the integrity of this story.

  11. The impact of overactive bladder, incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karin S; Sexton, Chris C; Irwin, Debra E; Kopp, Zoe S; Kelleher, Con J; Milsom, Ian

    2008-06-01

    To examine the effect overactive bladder (OAB) and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population sample, as OAB often occurs in conjunction with many other LUTS. A nested case-control analysis was performed on men and women with (cases) and without (controls) OAB, from the EPIC study. OAB was assessed using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Based on their responses to questions about LUTS, cases were classified into five groups; continent OAB, OAB with incontinence, OAB + postmicturition, OAB + voiding, and OAB + postmicturition + voiding. Both cases and controls were asked questions about symptom bother (OAB-q), generic QoL (EQ-5D), work productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment, WPAI), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), sexual satisfaction, and erectile dysfunction (men only) using the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Cases answered additional condition-specific questions HRQoL (OAB-q short form), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition and work productivity related to a specific health problem (WPAI-SHP). General linear models were used to evaluate group differences. Of the EPIC participants, 1434 identified OAB cases were matched by age, gender and country, with 1434 participants designated as controls. Cases and controls were primarily Caucasian (96.2% and 96.7%, respectively), and most (65%) were female; the mean age was 53.8 and 53.7 years, respectively. Comorbid conditions differed significantly by case/control status, with cases reporting significantly greater rates of chronic constipation, asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure, bladder or prostate cancer, neurological conditions and depression. There were significant differences between the cases and controls in all reported LUTS. The OAB + postmicturition + voiding group reported significantly greater symptom bother, worse HRQoL, higher rates of depression and decreased enjoyment of

  12. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

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    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  13. A cross-sectional analysis of the associations between adult height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 -2 and -3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Overvad, Kim; Grønbæk, Henning; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dossus, Laure; Boeing, Heiner; Kröger, Janine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zylis, Dimosthenis; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Gram, Inger T; Rodríguez, Laudina; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodwell, Sheila; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-03-01

    Height and BMI are risk factors for several types of cancer and may be related to circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a peptide associated with increased cancer risk. To assess the associations between height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -2 and -3. This cross-sectional analysis included 1142 men and 3589 women aged 32-77 years from the multi-centre study, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). In men, there was a positive association between height and IGF-I; each 10 cm increment in height was associated with an increase in IGF-I concentrations of 4.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-7.5%, p for trend = 0.005), but this association was not statistically significant for women (0.9%, 95% CI: - 0.7 to 2.6%, p for trend = 0.264). In both men and women, the association between IGF-I and BMI was non-linear and those with a BMI of 26-27 kg/m² had the highest IGF-I concentration. BMI was strongly inversely related to concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in men and in women (p for trend for all Height and BMI are associated with IGF-I and its binding proteins, which may be mechanisms through which body size contributes to increased risk of several cancers.

  14. Terapia de resincronización con implante de electrodo ventricular izquierdo por vía epicárdica Resynchronization therapy with left ventricular electrode implant via epicardium

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    Francisco Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la terapia de resincronización cardiaca es segura y efectiva para mejorar la clase funcional y la calidad de vida, y reducir la mortalidad en pacientes con falla cardiaca en estado funcional III y IV con terapia médica óptima. Métodos: este es el reporte del procedimiento realizado a un grupo de pacientes a quienes se les implantó un marcapasos tricameral para resincronización cardiaca, con inserción del electrodo ventricular izquierdo por vía epicárdica, realizado en la Unidad Cardiovascular y de Trasplantes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl y la Universidad de Antioquia, en noviembre de 2004 a febrero de 2006. Los pacientes elegidos para la inserción cumplían con los criterios de falla cardiaca estadio C o D, según la clasificación de la NYHA III ó IV, corroborado con prueba funcional menor de 5 MET, fracción de eyección menor del 35%, QRS mayor de 120 milisegundos y criterios ecocardiográficos de disincronía intraventricular, interventricular o aurículo-ventricular. Resultados: se incluyeron nueve pacientes: cinco hombres y cuatro mujeres, con edad promedio de 57 años; ocho pacientes tenían bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His. El procedimiento de implante se realizó en dos tiempos, el primero en la sala de hemodinámica donde se ubicó el electrodo de aurícula derecha y ventrículo derecho, y el segundo en el quirófano, donde se puso un electrodo del ventrículo izquierdo por vía epicárdica por minitoracotomía anterior izquierda. El tiempo total del procedimiento osciló entre 35 a 210 minutos con un promedio de 105 minutos, menor en los últimos pacientes. Las medidas intraoperatorias demuestran un umbral de estimulación promedio de 0,9 mv; la duración del QRS fue menor a 130 milisegundos luego de la estimulación biventricular en el 100% de los casos y el tiempo de detección al estimular con el electrodo ventricular izquierdo, fue mayor de 100 milisegundos en el 100% de los

  15. A poesia épica na construção dos Discursos de Dion Crisóstomo = Epic poetry in the construction of Dion Chrysostom’s Discourses

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    Andrea Lucia Dorini de Oliveira Carvalho Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao elaborar os seus Discursos, Dion Crisóstomo se vale das referênciasconstantes de Homero para a construção de imagens. Ao usar as imagens presentes na poesia épica grega, Dion Crisóstomo evoca as representações imagéticas presentes na literatura para difundir suas ideias filosóficas e políticas durante o final do Século I d.C sobos governos de Domiciano, Nerva e Trajano. Ao se fazer a análise desse autor, pretende-se também discutir a literatura como uma das formas de representação da identidade helenística sob o Principado Romano.The construction of images in the speeches of Dion Chrysostom was drawn from references in Homer. When the orator uses images from Greek epic poetry, Dion Chrysostom intimates the representation of images found in the literature to propagate his philosophical and political ideas during the first century A.D. under the administration of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. Current analysis of the author’s works discusses literature as one of the representational forms of Hellenistic identity under Romandomination.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life, Treatment Satisfaction, Adherence and Persistence in β-Thalassemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with Iron Overload Receiving Deferasirox: Results from the EPIC Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of iron overload using deferoxamine (DFO is associated with significant deficits in patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL and low treatment satisfaction. The current article presents patient-reported HRQOL, satisfaction, adherence, and persistence data from β-thalassemia (n=274 and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS patients (n=168 patients participating in the Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC study (NCT00171821; a large-scale 1-year, phase IIIb study investigating the efficacy and safety of the once-daily oral iron chelator, deferasirox. HRQOL and satisfaction, adherence, and persistence to iron chelation therapy (ICT data were collected at baseline and end of study using the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36v2 and the Satisfaction with ICT Questionnaire (SICT. Compared to age-matched norms, β-thalassemia and MDS patients reported lower SF-36 domain scores at baseline. Low levels of treatment satisfaction, adherence, and persistence were also observed. HRQOL improved following treatment with deferasirox, particularly among β-thalassemia patients. Furthermore, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with deferasirox at end of study and greater ICT adherence, and persistence. Findings suggest deferasirox improves HRQOL, treatment satisfaction, adherence, and persistence with ICT in β-thalassemia and MDS patients. Improving such outcomes is an important long-term goal for patients with iron overload.

  17. DETERMINATIONS ON EVALUATIONS OF EPIC CHARACTER OF HAMDI’S YUSUF AND ZULEYHA MASNAVI HAMDİ’NİN YÛSUF U ZÜLEYHÂ MESNEVİSİ’NİN EPİK KARAKTERİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ ÜZERİNE BAZI TESPİTLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YILMAZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the minstrel of Yusuf and Zuleyha written by Hamdullah Hamdi was dealed in the view of Axel olrik’s epic rules. While evaluation of Mesnevi’s epic character, Turkish folk stories and Turkish legends were taken into consideration. At the end of research we saw that the epic quality of the poetry was very rich and Hamdi used the various sources to stay active readers and listeners as if he was teller of a story or a legend. Hamdi behaved like a epic narrator and minstrel who suggested the products of folk literature. In this view, the writer is very close to the traditions of folk literature. In such comparative studies on minstrels, similarities between different traditions of Turkish folk literature will be obvious. Bu çalışmada Hamdullah Hamdi’nin Yusuf u Züleyha Mesnevisi Axel Olrik’in Epik Kurallar’ı yönünden ele alınmıştır. Mesnevinin epik karakteri değerlendirilirken Türk halk hikâyeleri ve Türk destancılık geleneği de göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. İnceleme neticesinde mesnevinin epik niteliğinin zengin olduğunu, Hamdi’nin tıpkı bir hikâye veya destan anlatıcısı gibi dinleyicinin/okuyucunun dikkatini canlı tutmak için çeşitli kaynaklardan faydalandığını gördük. Hamdi bilerek veya bilmeyerek halk edebiyatı mahsullerini ortaya koyan destancı ve âşıklar gibi davranmıştır. Bu yönüyle de yazar halk edebiyatı geleneğine yaklaşmaktadır. Mesneviler üzerine yapılacak bu tür karşılaştırmalı çalışmalarda Türk edebiyatının farklı gelenekleri arasındaki benzerlikler daha da gün yüzüne çıkacaktır.

  18. Association of a diabetes risk score with risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, specific types of cancer, and mortality: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Nöthlings, Ute; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schulze, Matthias B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a recently developed, non-invasive risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes on the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and specific types of cancer. A total of 23,455 participants from the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study aged 35-65 years and free of diabetes and major chronic diseases at baseline (1994-1998) were followed through 2006 for incident myocardial infarction, stroke, types of cancer, and death. Risk score points were assigned to each participant based on age, waist circumference, height, physical activity, history of hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of red meat, whole-grain bread, and coffee. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression models. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, participants with a high risk score (5-year probability to develop diabetes > or = 10%) had significantly higher risks of myocardial infarction (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0) and stroke (1.9, 1.0-3.6), but not of colon, breast or prostate cancer incidence, than those with a low score (5-year probability < 1%). In addition, participants with a high risk score had considerably higher risks of cardiovascular (HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.4), cancer (1.7, 1.1-2.7), and total mortality (2.4, 1.8-3.4), the latter being equivalent to a difference in life expectancy of 13 years. These data indicate that a risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes is also related to elevated risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and premature death in apparently healthy individuals and emphasize the need for early intervention in high-risk individuals.

  19. Identification of a dietary pattern characterized by high-fat food choices associated with increased risk of breast cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Mandy; Hoffmann, Kurt; Weikert, Cornelia; Nöthlings, Ute; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted thus far have mainly used a single-nutrient approach which may not be sufficient in detecting diet-cancer relationships. The aim of the study was to examine the association of a food pattern based on explained variations in fatty acid intake by means of reduced rank regression with breast cancer risk. Study participants were female subjects (n 15,351) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study free of cancer at baseline and with complete dietary and outcome information followed for an average of 6.0 years. Among those, 137 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. We identified a food pattern characterized by low consumption of bread, and fruit juices, and high consumption of processed meat, fish, butter and other animal fats, and margarine explaining >42 % of total variation in fatty acid intake (SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA). Intake of all four fatty acid fractions was positively associated with the pattern score. Adherence to this food pattern adjusted for covariates was associated with a two-fold risk (hazard ratio 2.00; 95 % CI 1.30, 3.09) of breast cancer comparing extreme tertiles of the pattern score. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, overweight status and use of hormone replacement therapy, respectively. In conclusion, a food pattern characterized by high-fat food choices was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Given that the food pattern was high in all fatty acid fractions, we found evidence for total dietary fat rather than for specific fatty acids to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  20. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K-T

    2015-12-01

    Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39-79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%-33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01-0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40-0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  1. Les images dans les Alexipharmaques de Nicandre The images in Nicander’s Alexipharmaca: how to assimilate epic tradition? Le immagini negli Alexipharmaca di Nicandro: come assimilare la tradizione epica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Cusset

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I show how Nicander, in his Alexipharmaca, reappropriates a standard epic practice, the use of similes, and how he uses these for ends that are not purely ornamental, but which answer as much to the construction of his hexameter poem as to the mythological or metapoetic discourse into a technical one. But the similes are not only a window open on another discursive type: they are also at times fully operative in the technical discourse and so take full part in medical description.In questo articolo mostriamo come, negli Alexipharmaca, Nicandro si appropri di una pratica stilistica comune nella poesia epica, vale a dire l’uso delle similitudini, e come egli le impiega per motivi che non sono puramente esornativi, ma che derivano tanto dalla costruzione del suo poema epico quanto dall’incursione in un discorso tecnico del discorso mitologico oppure metapoetico. Ma le similitudini non sono soltanto una finestra aperta su un altro tipo di discorso; sono talvolta anche pienamente assunte dal discorso tecnico e partecipano allora in pieno alla descrizione iologica.Nous montrons dans cet article comment Nicandre dans les Alexipharmaques se réapproprie une pratique stylistique ordinaire de la poésie épique, à savoir l’usage des comparaisons, et comment il les utilise à des fins qui ne sont pas purement ornementales, mais qui relèvent aussi bien de la construction de son poème hexamétrique que de l’incursion dans un discours technique du discours mythologique voire métapoétique. Mais les comparaisons ne sont pas seulement une fenêtre ouverte sur un autre type de discours ; elles sont aussi parfois pleinement assumées par le discours technique et participent alors pleinement à la description iologique.

  2. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Janine; Zietemann, Vera; Enzenbach, Cornelia; Weikert, Cornelia; Jansen, Eugène Hjm; Döring, Frank; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2011-01-01

    The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear. We aimed to investigate erythrocyte membrane FAs, desaturase activity, and dietary FAs in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We applied a nested case-cohort design (n = 2724, including 673 incident diabetes cases) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged subjects. Thirty erythrocyte membrane FAs (percentage of total FAs) and FA intake (percentage of total fat) were measured at baseline, and physician-confirmed incident diabetes was assessed during a mean follow-up of 7.0 y. We evaluated Δ⁵ desaturase (D5D) and Δ⁶ desaturase (D6D) activity by using FA product-to-precursor ratios (traditional approach) and by investigating variants in FADS1 and FADS2 genes that encode these desaturases (Mendelian randomization approach). As a main finding, erythrocyte 16:1n-7 and 18:3n-6 and FA ratios, which reflect stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) and D6D activity, were directly related to diabetes risk in multivariable-adjusted models [relative risks (95% CIs) comparing extreme quintiles: 16:1n-7, 2.11 (1.46, 3.05); 18:3n-6, 2.00 (1.38, 2.88); SCD, 2.61 (1.75, 3.89); and D6D, 2.46 (1.67, 3.63)], whereas the FA ratio that reflects D5D activity was inversely associated with risk [0.46 (0.31, 0.70)]. The Mendelian randomization approach corroborated the direct relation for D6D activity and tended to support the inverse relation for D5D activity. Proportions of dietary FAs showed only modest to low correlations with erythrocyte FAs and were not significantly associated with risk. The FA profile of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and activity of desaturase enzymes are strongly linked to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Association between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, inflammation and glycaemic pathways in eight European countries: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-InterAct study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Sharp, Stephen J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Ye, Zheng; Griffin, Jules; Guevara, Marcela; Huerta, José María; Kröger, Janine; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra; Dow, Courtney; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dinesen, Pia T; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Feskens, Edith J M; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena Andrea; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Ricceri, Fulvio; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Slimani, Nadia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2017-11-17

    Accumulating evidence suggests that individual circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are heterogeneous in their associations with cardio-metabolic diseases, but evidence about associations of SFAs with metabolic markers of different pathogenic pathways is limited. We aimed to examine the associations between plasma phospholipid SFAs and the metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, glycaemic and inflammation pathways. We measured nine individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and derived three SFA groups (odd-chain: C15:0 + C17:0, even-chain: C14:0 + C16:0 + C18:0, and very-long-chain: C20:0 + C22:0 + C23:0 + C24:0) in individuals from the subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study across eight European countries. Using linear regression in 15,919 subcohort members, adjusted for potential confounders and corrected for multiple testing, we examined cross-sectional associations of SFAs with 13 metabolic markers. Multiplicative interactions of the three SFA groups with pre-specified factors, including body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption, were tested. Higher levels of odd-chain SFA group were associated with lower levels of major lipids (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB)) and hepatic markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)). Higher even-chain SFA group levels were associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides, ApoB, ApoB/A1 ratio, ALT, AST, GGT and CRP, and lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA1. Very-long-chain SFA group levels showed inverse associations with triglycerides, ApoA1 and GGT, and positive associations with TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, ApoB and ApoB/A1. Associations were generally stronger at higher levels of BMI or alcohol consumption. Subtypes of SFAs are

  4. Axel Olrik’in Epik Yasaları Işığında Oğuz Kağan Destanı’na Bir Bakış A Glance At Oghuz Khagan Saga In The Light Of Axel Olrik’s Epic Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human beings’ relation with time and space has very ancientoffsets. It would be reasonable to seek the first data of these offsets innationalization processes as human beings realized their existencethrough social consensus. This social consensus has certainphenomena which mainly appear in cultural forms. The first data andassigning meanings during nations’ presenting their social existence aremainly found in epics. Therefore, it would be reasonable to focus onepics with a view that they are the codes of nations’ social memories. Itis a known fact that, beginning from their first ancestors, human beingshave always acted in accordance with some main purposes and themes.Therefore the importance of epics is paramount in terms of thearchetypes they accommodate. It is known that these archetypes notonly provide a means to read the past, but also shed light on ourpresent. This provides a remarkable opportunity to reach the roots ofthe cultural phenomena of nations and societies. When we look at theTurkish epics, we are welcomed by Oghuz Khagan Saga, which can becounted as an important leap forward in terms of Turks’ nationalizationprocess. There are different methods to understand and explain orassign meanings to epics. One of these methods is Axel Olrik’s “EpicLaws Theory”, one of the methods of Historical-Geographical FinnishSchool. This theory aims at approaching mythological works with auniversal standardization and evaluating these mythological workswithin the frame of certain principles. The aim of the present article isto read Oghuz Khagan Saga, fraught with symbols in terms of Turkishhistory’s mythical offsets, in the light of Axel Olrik’s epic laws and todiscuss the data obtained thereof in the context of the epic and itsnature. İnsanoğlunun zaman ve mekânla olan ilişkisi oldukça kadim uzantılara sahiptir. Bu uzantıların ilk verilerini milletleşme süreçlerinde aramak gerekir. Çünkü insanoğlu, yery

  5. Indução e cultivo in vitro de gemas adventícias em segmentos de epicótilo de laranja-azeda In vitro induction and culture of adventitious buds in epicotyl segments of sour orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Pereira da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a indução e a formação de gemas adventícias em explantes de laranja-azeda, pelo uso de fitorreguladores. Em experimentos de organogênese in vitro foram avaliados 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ e cinetina (CIN, em diferentes concentrações e sob duas condições de luminosidade; BAP e CIN combinados ou não com ácido naftalenoacético (ANA; e BAP e CIN isoladamente ou combinados entre si. Segmentos de epicótilo de 1 cm de comprimento, provenientes de plântulas de laranja-azeda germinadas in vitro, foram utilizados como explantes. Para induzir a formação de gemas, os segmentos foram cultivados em meio MT com ou sem adição de fitorreguladores. O material foi cultivado a 27ºC em ausência de luz por 30 dias, seguidos de fotoperíodo de 16 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro ou cinco repetições, a depender do experimento e, cada repetição foi constituída de placa de Petri com 20 explantes. Após 60 ou 70 dias de cultivo foram avaliados o percentual de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas por explante. A adição de BAP ao meio de cultura, combinada ou não com ANA, e em combinações com CIN promovem melhor resposta organogênica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the induction and formation of adventitious buds in sour orange explants through the use of plant regulators. In vitro organogenesis experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of BAP, TDZ, and KIN in different concentrations and under two light conditions; BAP and KIN, combined or not with NAA; BAP and KIN, separately or in combined concentrations. Sour orange epicotyl segments (1 cm length, from in vitro germinated plants, were used as explants. In order to induce bud formation, the explants were cultured in MT medium with or without the addition of plant regulators. The material was cultivated at 27ºC in the absence of light for 30 days, followed of culture

  6. THE CONTINUANCE AND RE-CONSTRUCTION OF THE COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS FROM EPIC TO MODERN POETRY: A READING PRACTICE OF YAHYA KEMAL’S O RÜZGÂR (THAT WIND AND OĞUZ KAĞAN DESTANI (THE EPIC OF OGHUZ KAGAN DESTANDAN MODERN ŞİİRE KOLEKTİF BİLİNCİN SÜREKLİLİĞİ VE YENİDEN İNŞASI: OĞUZ KAĞAN DESTANI İLE YAHYA KEMAL’İN O RÜZGÂR ŞİİRİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer GARİPER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the traces of collective subconscious on the base of literal works from pre-Islam period to modern period will at the same time mean to follow the traces of the maintenance that is changing according to the duration of the existence of the nation. It is possible to relate the mythological work of tribal period The Epic of Oghuz Kagan and Yahya Kemal‟s poem O Rüzgâr (That Wind in the frame of collective sense. In this essay, The Epic of Oghuz Kagan and Yahya Kemal‟s O Rüzgâr (That Wind will be analysed with the inter-texts method. İslâm öncesi dönemden modern döneme edebî eser düzleminde kolektif bilinçaltının izini sürmek, aynı zamanda millet varlığının zamana bağlı olarak değişim ve dönüşüm içerisindeki sürekliliğinin izini sürmek anlamına gelecektir. Kavmî dönemin mitolojik eseri Oğuz Kağan Destanı ile Yahya Kemal‟in O Rüzgâr şiiri arasında kolektif duyuş ve düşünüş çerçevesinde kendini gösteren metinlerarası ilişkiler ağı kurmak mümkündür. Bu yazıda arketipçi eleştiri ve metinlerarasılık yöntemiyle Oğuz Kağan Destanı ile O Rüzgâr şiiri çözümlenecektir.

  7. Arritmias potenciadas por isquemia sub-epicárdica en pared transmural heterogénea cardiaca: un estudio teórico de simulación Arrhythmias potentiated by sub-epicardial ischemia in transmural heterogeneous cardiac wall: theoretical simulation study

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    Óscar A Henao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La fibrilación ventricular, la isquemia miocárdica y la muerte súbita son fisiopatologías cardiacas inseparables. La influencia de la distribución de células del medio miocardio en la formación de arritmias en la pared heterogénea cardiaca en presencia de isquemia sub-epicárdica, no está del todo dilucidada. En este estudio se modela una porción plana de la pared transmural con diferentes configuraciones de células del medio miocardio que se adjuntan a las heterogeneidades bioquímicas presentes en isquemia sub-epicárdica para cuantificar su influencia en la formación de arritmias. Se obtuvieron reentradas lobulares no sostenidas en torno de la lesión isquémica que interfieren con las células M, alterando la repolarización del tejido. La función de vulnerabilidad que cuantifica la prospección a reentradas es aproximada por una función logística, y su mayor expresión ocurre en el minuto 8,75 de isquemia modelada. La heterogeneidad bioquímica y morfológica en el tejido virtual estudiado dan como resultado una arritmia por reentrada; su secuela en la vulnerabilidad del tejido aumenta a medida que crece la severidad de la hiperkalemia. Los electrogramas obtenidos muestran depresión TQ y elevación ST con una morfología de taquicardia ventricular polimórfica.Ventricular fibrillation, myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death are inseparable cardiac pathophysiologies. The influence of the distribution of myocardial cells in the formation of arrhythmias in the heterogeneous cardiac wall in the presence of sub-epicardial ischemia is not entirely elucidated. This study models a flat portion of the transmural wall under different myocardial cell configurations attached to the biochemical heterogeneity present in sub-epicardial ischemia to quantify their influence on the development of arrhythmias. Lobular non-sustained reentries were obtained around the ischemic lesion that interfere with M cells, altering the tissue

  8. Expressão gênica de adiponectina no tecido adiposo epicárdico após intervenção coronária percutânea com implante de stent metálico Adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue after percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta França Spener

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A visão clássica de tecido adiposo como um reservatório passivo para o armazenamento de energia não é mais válido. Na última década, o tecido adiposo tem demonstrado funções endócrinas, sendo o peptídeo mais abundante secretado pelos adipócitos a adiponectina. O tecido adiposo epicárdico (TAE é distribuído em torno das artérias coronárias e, a lesão endovascular causada pela presença de stent metálico intracoronário, poderia promover alterações inflamatórias na gordura periadventicial, contribuindo para reestenose. OBJETIVO: Determinar a expressão gênica de mediadores inflamatórios no tecido adiposo epicárdico após implante de stent metálico com reestenose que haviam sido encaminhados para tratamento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Amostras pareadas de TAE foram colhidas no momento da cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM em 11 pacientes (n = 22, uma amostra foi obtida do tecido em torno da area com stent e outra amostra em torno da artéria coronária sem stent. Expressão local de adiponectina foi determinada por reação em cadeia de polymerase em tempo real utilizando Taq DNA polimerase. RESULTADOS: Em duas amostras, não houve expressão do gene da adiponectina. Fomos capazes de identificar adiponectina em 20 amostras, no entanto, o padrão de expressão gênica foi heterogêneo. Não percebemos especificidade quando comparamos TAE obtido próximo à área de stent ou distante da área de stent. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve correlação entre a expressão do gene de adiponectina e a presença de stent intracoronárioBACKGROUND: The classical view of adipose tissue as a passive reservoir for energy storage is no longer valid. In the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to have endocrine functions and the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes is adiponectin. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is distributed around coronary arteries and endovascular injury, caused by the presence of

  9. Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ailsa A; Shakya-Shrestha, Subodha; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-11-01

    Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated. The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs. This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated. Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters. Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements.

  10. Phaeacians at the birthday party: A.P. 11.44 (Philodemus and its epic background Les Phéaciens à la fête : A.P. 11,44 (Philodème et son arrière-plan épique Feaci al banchetto: A.P. 11.44 (Filodemo e il suo background epico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bettenworth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans son célèbre poème d’invitation adressé à Pison, Philodème se réfère explicitement à l’épisode phéacien d’Homère, quand il décrit les plaisirs qui attendent son hôte. Par voie de conséquence, la discussion portant sur les allusions épiques du poème de Philodème se sont principalement concentrées sur le copieux banquet à Schérie. Cet article montre que, à côté du modèle phéacien, Philodème évoque aussi le séjour d’Ulysse dans l’humble cabane d’Eumée. L’allusion à ces deux scènes homériques d’hospitalité permet de souligner la combinaison de biens matériels et immatériels qui caractérise le festin à venir de Philodème. L’allusion à Homère souligne également le sous-entendu poétique de l’épigramme en général et, de manière plus spécifique, permet de clarifier la signification très controversée du vers 7.Nel suo celebre carme di invito a Pisone, Filodemo fa esplicito riferimento all’episodio omerico dei Feaci quando descrive i piaceri che attendono i suoi ospiti. La discussione delle allusioni epiche nel carme di Filodemo si è di conseguenza concentrata soprattutto sull’abbondante banchetto a Scheria. Questo articolo intende mostrare che, insieme al modello feace, Filodemo evoca anche il soggiorno di Odisseo nell’umile capanna di Eumeo. L’allusione a due scene omeriche di accoglienza aiuta a mettere in evidenza la combinazione di beni materiali e immateriali che contraddistingue l’imminente festa di Filodemo. L’allusione ad Omero, inoltre, sottolinea le implicazioni poetiche dell’epigramma in generale e, più specificamente, aiuta a chiarificare il dibattuto significato del verso 7.In his famous invitation poem to Piso, Philodemus explicitly refers to the Homeric Phaeacian episode when he describes the pleasures awaiting his guest. As a consequence, the discussion of epic allusions in Philodemus’ poem has mostly focused on the lavish banquet on Scheria. This

  11. NEW ITALIAN EPIC versión 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU MING I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Datta: ¿qué hemos dado? Amigo mío, la sangre que sacude mi corazón la espantosa audacia de un momento de debilidad que un siglo de cautela no podrá borrar. Por eso, sólo por eso, hemos existido, y no estará ni en nuestras necrológicas ni en los recuerdos que cubre la benéfica araña ni bajo los sellos rotos por el flaco notario ni en nuestras vacías estancias. T. S Eliot, The Waste Land La tarde del 11 de septiembre de 2001 trabajábamos en casa de Wu Ming 2. Dábamos el empujón final, enfilábamos la recta final antes de alcanzar la meta de nuestra novela 54. La entrega se había fijado para noviembre. Todavía nos curábamos esos días las heridas del veinte y veintiuno de julio en Génova. Heridas tan sólo metafóricas, gracias a Dios, aunque a un centenar de personas les había tocado peor suerte: cabezas vendadas, brazos rotos, pies enyesados y catéteres. Y un joven había muerto. Génova. Sólo quien haya estado por sus calles comprenderá. Pensábamos que habíamos acertado, al menos por el momento, con los “momentos-clave”, los “puntos de inflexión” y otros dispositivos para reproducir las frases hechas. Y, sin embargo... Un SMS, enviado no sé por quién, hermano de millones de SMS que en aquellos momentos atravesaban el éter, llegó a cada uno de nuestros cinco móviles. Solamente decía: “Enciende la tele”. Durante las semanas siguientes terminamos la novela. La entregamos al editor pocos días antes del inicio de la guerra de Afganistán. En último lugar escribimos una especie de premisa, casi una poesía: No hay ningún “después de la guerra”. Los idiotas llaman “paz” al simple hecho de alejarse del frente. Los idiotas defienden la paz apoyando el brazo armado del dinero. Tras la primera duna los encontronazos proseguían. Dientes de animales quiméricos hundiéndose en la carne, el cielo lleno de acero y humo, culturas enteras extirpadas de la faz de la tierra. Los idiotas combatían al enemigo de hoy alimentando a los del mañana. Los idiotas sacaban pecho, hablaban de “libertad”, “democracia”, “aquí entre nosotros”, comiendo los frutos de sus razias y saqueo. Defendían la libertad de las sombras chinescas de dinosaurios. Defendían el planeta de simulacros de asteroides. Defendían las sombras chinescas de una civilización. Defendían un simulacro de planeta. Tras la caída del Muro y la primera Guerra del Golfo, en occidente muchas personas (sobre todo esas que forjan la opinión pública hablaban de un “nuevo orden mundial”. Orden, claridad. Con la Guerra Fría terminada y la democracia victoriosa, alguno incluso se atrevió a declarar el Fin de la Historia. El Homo Liberalis era el modelo definitivo de ser humano. Se trataba, a partes iguales, de burda propaganda, de alucinación colectiva y de manía de grandeur. Los años noventa no fueron sólo “el decenio más voraz de la historia” (según la definición de Joseph Stiglitz, sino también el más iluso, megalómano, autoindulgente y barroco. La multicolor celebración del poder y del “estilo de vida occidental” llegó a niveles nunca antes alcanzados hasta hacer parecer frugales las fiestas del Antiguo Régimen en Versalles. El arte y la literatura no tuvieron necesidad de subirse al carro de la autocomplacencia, dado que ya habían subido hacía ya mucho tiempo, pero tuvieron nuevos motivos para regodearse en la ilusión o, tal vez, en la resignación. Nada nuevo podía darse bajo el sol, y muchos se convencieron de que lo único que se podía hacer era calentarse bajo el cálido sol de lo ya-creado. Como consecuencia: una orgía de citaciones, contorsión de ojos, parodias, pastiches, remakes, revivals irónicos, trash, distanciación y posmodernismo a cuatro euros. El 11 de septiembre pulverizó todas las torres de marfil y solamente ahora, siete años más tarde, mucha gente percibe las repercusiones. La misma repercusión que describíamos de forma alegórica en el prefacio a la novela 54. La conclusión de un ciclo histórico. La novela 54 se publicó en la primavera del 2002. Casi al mismo tiempo apareció en las librerías, publicado por nuestro mismo editor, la novela de Valerio Evangelisti Black Flag, a quien en ese momento no conocíamos personalmente. Black Flag es el segundo capítulo del Ciclo del Metallo, epopeya sobre el nacimiento del capitalismo industrial que el autor representa como manifestación de Ogun, una divinidad yoruba de los metales, de la minería, de la espada y del sacrificio...

  12. Epic Dimensions: a Comparative Analysis of 3d Acquisition Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C. A.; Akoglu, K. G.; Lassen, A. W.; Simon, S.

    2017-08-01

    When it comes to capturing the geometry of a cultural heritage artifact, there is certainly no dearth of possible acquisition techniques. As technology has rapidly developed, the availability of intuitive 3D generating tools has increased exponentially and made it possible even for non-specialists to create many models quickly. Though the by-products of these different acquisition methods may be incongruent in terms of quality, these discrepancies are not problematic, as there are many applications of 3D models, each with their own set of requirements. Comparisons of high-resolution 3D models of an iconic Babylonian tablet, captured via four different closerange technologies discussed in this paper assess which methods of 3D digitization best suit specific intended purposes related to research, conservation and education. Taking into consideration repeatability, time and resource implications, qualitative and quantitative potential and ease of use, this paper presents a study of the strengths and weakness of structured light scanning, triangulation laser scanning, photometric stereo and close-range photogrammetry, in the context of interactive investigation, conditions monitoring, engagement, and dissemination.

  13. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

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    Fermin E. Guerra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions.

  14. Epic of evolution seven ages of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Chaisson, Lola Judith

    2005-01-01

    In this enthralling and illuminating book, Eric Chaisson, author of the classic work Cosmic Dawn, synthesizes current scientific thinking regarding the origin and evolution of the universe. How did everything around us-the air, the land, the sea, and the stars-come to be? What is the source of order, form, and structure characterizing all material things? Drawing on recent breakthroughs in astrophysics and biochemistry, Chaisson explores the development of the most microscopic and the most immense aspects of our universe, including the idea that all objects-from quarks and quas

  15. Epic 1.0 (unconditional) : an equational programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum); J.F.T. Kamperman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe present EPIC, an equational programming language: its abstract syntax, static and operational semantics, and one of many possible concrete grammars of unconditional EPIC.

  16. Prognostic Indicators as Provided by the EPIC ClearView

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Coronary Artery Disease; Congestive Heart Failure; Valvular Heart Disease; Atrial Fibrillation; Hypertension; Pyelonephritis; Acute Renal Failure; Renal Failure; Viral Hepatitis; Alcoholic Hepatitis; Steatohepatitis; Cirrhosis; Asthma; COPD; Bronchitis; Emphysema; Pneumonia; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Diverticulitis; Peptic Ulcer Disease; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Cholecystitis; Pancreatitis; Malabsorption Disorders; Celiac Sprue; Diabetes

  17. The Mongol Warrior Epic: Masters of Thirteenth Century Maneuver Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    started among the Hungarians that their Cuman allies were going to go over to the Mongols. This rumor caused a very tenuous alliance to further...disintegrate to a point where constructive effort between the Hungarians and the Cumans ceased. Undoubtedly this rumor was started and fed by Mongol spies and

  18. Epic modes of veridiction and authoritarianism in the "new Turkey"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uestebay, Leor

    2017-01-01

    coup", the Erdogan-led government marks this day as the "Day of Democracy and National Unity" whilst toughening the conditions of the state of emergency that has caused massive dismissals and imprisonments of academics, civil servants, activists, journalists and politicians. The commemoration events...... of these neo-Orwellian rites. Notwithstanding the evidences of corruption, massacres of civilians in the Kurdish towns, and deep-rooted relations with the allegedly perpetuator of the putsch, i.e. the Fetullah Gülen movement, the President Erdogan imposes a ritualistic and transcendental "democracy...

  19. New English translation of the Estonian national epic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis antakse 2011. a. välja Triinu Kartuse inglise keelde tõlgitud "Kalevipoeg" Gunnar Neeme illustratsioonidega. Sellega tähistatakse "Kalevipoja" esmailmumise 150. aastapäeva

  20. Cult of mother Jugović in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baćović Vukašin K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The poetry about Kosovo is a poetry about the Fenix Bird and torture. Because of its esthetic worthiness it is included in the greatest poetry accomplishments of Serbian people and the human kind in general. The Death of the Mother of Jugović is the poem in which spirit trolds the central position. The nature of this mother is characterized by two most supreme human feelings: patriotism and maternity. The poem accumulates pain reaching enormous power of personal, family and collective misery. Love of the mother of Jugović is always fresh because it rises from the never ending spring of a mother's soul. Only great poets such as: Sofocles in Antigona, Aesylus in Prometheus Bound, Shakespeare in Hamlet, Njegoš in The Mountain Wreath and some particular poets of the Bible created similar poetic branches. The cult of the mother of Jugović needs to be breaded new generations may reach new cognitions and new worlds.

  1. NEW ITALIAN EPIC versión 2.0.

    OpenAIRE

    WU MING I

    2013-01-01

    Datta: ¿qué hemos dado? Amigo mío, la sangre que sacude mi corazón la espantosa audacia de un momento de debilidad que un siglo de cautela no podrá borrar. Por eso, sólo por eso, hemos existido, y no estará ni en nuestras necrológicas ni en los recuerdos que cubre la benéfica araña ni bajo los sellos rotos por el flaco notario ni en nuestras vacías estancias. T. S Eliot, The Waste Land La tarde del 11 de septiembre de 2001 trabajábamos en casa de Wu Ming 2. ...

  2. Mythical Language in Mayan Epic Popol Vuh - Comparative Reflections -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria BARAGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-Columbian peoples had quite advanced cultural level. Although the ravages of the Spanish Conquista was truly inhuman: Catholic missionaries in the name of faith destroyed all that was pagan, however, by miracle, and by perseverance of intelligence was preserved „Popol Vuh”, or The Book of the Nation. „Popol Vuh” is a sacred book of the Quiche Indians, who inhabited the territory of Guatemala. In it is related origin of the world and Mayan Indians, relates the adventures demigods and indigenous history. It is a reunion of religion and history, mythology and legends, customs and counsel. „Popol Vuh” is not just books of Quiche people , but also vestige of culture. Cosmogonic reasons, anthropological, etnogonice or existential reasons allows to find concordance with major texts of world literature, and then reveal not only intercultural meanings but also transcultural.