WorldWideScience

Sample records for exogenously applied ascorbic

  1. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  2. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone ...

  3. Impact of exogenous ascorbic acid on biochemical activities of rice callus treated with salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Isahak, Anizan; Mohamad, Azhar; Ashraf, Mehdi Farshad; Doni, Febri; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    The application of in vitro systems can lead to new methods of crop amelioration. This method has been widely utilized for breeding tenacities, particularly for stress tolerance selection. Salinity causes oxidative stress in callus by enhancing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), resulting in an efficient antioxidant system. The exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important requirement for tolerance. The present study aimed to examine in vitro selection strategy for callus induction in rice mature embryo culture on MS culture medium and to produce salt-tolerant callus under sodium chloride (NaCl) and AsA conditions in callus rice variety, MR269. This study also highlights changes in the activities of proline and antioxidants peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of callus under NaCl stress to understand their possible role in salt tolerance. However, various levels of exogenously applied AsA under saline conditions improved callus, and the antioxidant enzyme activities of AsA are related to resistance to oxidative stress. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that AsA-dependent antioxidant enzymes play a significant role in the salinity tolerance of callus rice.

  4. Exogenous tocopherol and ascorbic acid improve in vitro recovery of cryopreserved Rubus shoot tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative processes involved in stresses such as cold temperatures can decrease the viability of plant tissues. Antioxidants that counteract these oxidative reactions could improve plant viability following the stresses involved in cryopreservation. We studied the effects of exogenous vitamin E (V...

  5. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

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    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  6. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  7. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  8. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...

  9. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  10. Effect of applying modes of the polymer microneedle-roller on the permeation of L-ascorbic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sung-Kyun; Noh, Young-Wook; Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Han, Manhee; Lee, Seung S; Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2010-01-01

    Despite the advantages of drug delivery through skin, transdermal drug delivery is only used with a small subset of drugs because most compounds cannot cross the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, a new concept known as microneedle was introduced and could be used to pierce effectively to deliver drugs using micron-sized needles in a minimally invasive and painless manner. In this study, the polymer microneedle-roller was fabricated so that it can be applied into the permeation of L-ascorbic acid. Moreover, a recent publication suggested the possibility of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a hair restorer; hence, this study was carried out to check the effect of L-ascorbic acid itself on the hair growing rate in rats according to the presence of various application frequencies of the polymer microneedle-roller. When the polymer microneedle-roller was applied nine times with four directions into rat's shaved skin, the permeation of L-ascorbic acid increased by 10.54-fold compared to that of the absence of the polymer microneedle-roller. The histological examination revealed that the skin pretreated with various application frequencies of the polymer microneedle-roller had more transport pathways. The faster hair growing phenomenon was observed in the presence of polymer microneedle-roller compared to the absence of the polymer microneedle-roller.

  11. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  12. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (Ih ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of Ih currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Metabolism of exogenously applied fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle.

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    Hardin, C D; Roberts, T M

    1994-12-01

    Exogenously administered fructose 1,6-bisphosphate reportedly protects ischemic or hypoxic tissue and facilitates metabolic recovery. The mechanism of action of exogenous fructose 1,6-bisphosphate has been an issue of considerable debate, since there is a lack of direct evidence that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate can cross the cell membrane and act as an intermediate in glycolysis. We synthesized [1,6-13C]fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and directly examined its cellular metabolism in hog carotid artery segments using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. [1,6-13C]fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (2.1 mM) was metabolized by hog carotid artery during normoxia and hypoxia with a major metabolic product being [3-13C]lactate. The production of [3-13C]lactate was greater during hypoxia than during normoxia, indicating that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate metabolism responded to the energetic state of the tissue. We found that exogenously added fructose 1,6-bisphosphate at 2.1 mM did not significantly improve the ability of hypoxic hog carotid artery to maintain isometric force, whereas 20 mM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate did significantly, although modestly, improve isometric force maintenance. These results indicate that exogenously added fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is capable of entering cells and serving as a glycolytic intermediate.

  14. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Sharma; Sunil Pareek; Narashans Alok Sagar; Daniel Valero; Maria Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-...

  15. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  16. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Pareek, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  17. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT, spermine (SPE, and spermidine (SPD are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  18. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall. PMID:28817100

  19. Assessing the risk of exogenously consumed pharmaceuticals in land-applied human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U; Nicell, J A

    2010-01-01

    Once separated, the use of urine as fertilizer is a particular attractive proposition and can significantly mitigate the release of nutrients and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) to the environment. In the current study, a simple methodological framework is proposed for assessing risks that are posed by the land application of urine, which contains PhACs, in terms of 6 selected environmental and human-health endpoints. In total, 25 commonly used PhACs were conservatively assessed using the proposed methodology and results indicated that 14 of them may pose a risk with respect to either eco-toxicological or human-health endpoints. The receiving terrestrial environment was identified as the most susceptible of the eco-toxicological endpoints and hazard to human-health was most significant through food-chain transfer. The results highlight the need to consider the potential impacts associated with pharmaceuticals and the need to pre-treat urine to address the presence of problematic PhACs before it is applied on land.

  20. The role of topically applied L-ascorbic acid in ex-vivo examination of burn-injured human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Sarna, Ewa; Paluch, Jadwiga; Waksmańska, Wioletta

    2017-10-01

    Wound treatment and healing is complex and is comprised of an elaborate set of processes including cellular, spectroscopic and biochemical ones as well as the ;reaction; of local tissue to thermal injury. Vitamin C as L-ascorbic acid (LA) prevents injurious effects of oxidants because it reduces reactive oxygen species to stable molecules, it becomes oxidized to the short-lived ascorbyl radical. As a result, antioxidant treatment may contribute to minimizing injury in burn patients. The aim of this study is to assess changes in molecular structure of collagen extracted from human epidermis burn wound scab during incubation of the epidermis in L-ascorbic acid solution. The study will be performed using FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopies. During this research it was observed that the intensity of Raman peaks increased where healing was being modified by LA. The intensity of the amide III band at 1247 cm- 1 relative to the intensity at 1326 cm- 1 was used to test tissue repair degree at the incision site. FTIR spectra were recorded from frozen specimens of serum modified by LA; an analysis of shifts in the amide I band position was conducted. The appearance of a new band for frozen samples modified by LA was observed around 1149-1220 cm- 1. The above conclusions confirmed the creation of hydrogen bonds between Nsbnd H stretch and Cdbnd O. Samples being incubated in solutions of L-ascorbic acid demonstrated the absence of electrophoretic bands of albumin. Alterations in the surface of the skin incubated in L-ascorbic acid were investigated with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A decrease in external symptoms of burn injury was noted in the damaged epidermis incubated in L-ascorbic acid.

  1. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Chen

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc, which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1 and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1 were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50% after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120-165 and 180-210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered.

  3. Exogenously Applied 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) Ameliorates Detrimental Effects of Salinity by Reducing K+ Efflux via Depolarization-Activated K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nazila; Su, Nana; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    This study has investigated mechanisms conferring beneficial effects of exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolides (EBL) on plant growth and performance under saline conditions. Barley seedlings treated with 0.25 mg l-1 EBL showed significant improvements in root hair length, shoot length, shoot fresh weight and relative water content when grown in the presence of 150 mM NaCl in the growth medium. In addition, EBL treatment significantly decreased the Na+ content in both shoots (by approximately 50%) and roots. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that pre-treatment with EBL for 1 and 24 h suppressed or completely prevented the NaCl-induced K+ leak in the elongation zone of barley roots, but did not affect root sensitivity to oxidative stress. Further experiments using Arabidopsis loss-of-function gork1-1 (lacking functional depolarization-activated outward-rectifying K+ channels in the root epidermal cells) and akt1 (lacking inward-rectifying K+ uptake channel) mutants showed that NaCl-induced K+ loss in the elongation zone of roots was reduced by EBL pre-treatment 50- to 100-fold in wild-type Col-0 and akt1, but only 10-fold in the gork1-1 mutant. At the same time, EBL treatment shifted vanadate-sensitive H+ flux towards net efflux. Taken together, these data indicate that exogenous application of EBL effectively improves plant salinity tolerance by prevention of K+ loss via regulating depolarization-activated K+ channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Water Stress in Young Peach Trees and Improves Their Performance after Rewatering

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    Penella, Consuelo; Calatayud, Ángeles; Melgar, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars (‘Scarletprince’ and ‘CaroTiger’). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity. Upon rewatering, CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees sprayed with ascorbic acid (one or two applications) were similar to those of well-irrigated trees, but water-stressed trees that had not received ascorbic acid did not recover photosynthetical functions. Also, water status in sprayed water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees was improved to values similar to control trees. On the other hand, water-stressed ‘CaroTiger’ trees needed two applications of ascorbic acid to reach values of CO2 assimilation similar to control trees but these applications did not improve their water status. In general terms, different response mechanisms to cope with water stress in presence of ascorbic acid were found in each cultivar, with ‘Scarletprince’ trees preferentially using proline as compatible solute and ‘CaroTiger’ trees relying on stomatal regulation. The application of ascorbic acid reduced cell membrane damage and increased catalase activity in water-stressed trees of both cultivars. These results suggest that foliar applications of ascorbic acid could be used as a management practice for improving water stress tolerance of young trees under suboptimal water regimes. PMID:28979284

  5. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Water Stress in Young Peach Trees and Improves Their Performance after Rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Calatayud, Ángeles; Melgar, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars ('Scarletprince' and 'CaroTiger'). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity. Upon rewatering, CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of water-stressed 'Scarletprince' trees sprayed with ascorbic acid (one or two applications) were similar to those of well-irrigated trees, but water-stressed trees that had not received ascorbic acid did not recover photosynthetical functions. Also, water status in sprayed water-stressed 'Scarletprince' trees was improved to values similar to control trees. On the other hand, water-stressed 'CaroTiger' trees needed two applications of ascorbic acid to reach values of CO 2 assimilation similar to control trees but these applications did not improve their water status. In general terms, different response mechanisms to cope with water stress in presence of ascorbic acid were found in each cultivar, with 'Scarletprince' trees preferentially using proline as compatible solute and 'CaroTiger' trees relying on stomatal regulation. The application of ascorbic acid reduced cell membrane damage and increased catalase activity in water-stressed trees of both cultivars. These results suggest that foliar applications of ascorbic acid could be used as a management practice for improving water stress tolerance of young trees under suboptimal water regimes.

  6. Ameliorating Effects of Exogenously Applied Proline on Seed Composition, Seed Oil Quality and Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize (Zea mays L. under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions.

  7. Exogenous ochronosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Brogeras, M; Sánchez-Viera, M

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of a 70-year-old woman who had been using a skin-lightening cream containing hydroquinone for a previous diagnosis of melasma. She presented a hyperpigmentation predominantly on her cheeks and eyebrows. The biopsy showed deposition of yellow-brown globules in the dermis. A diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis was made. An attempt of treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been initiated recently.

  8. Effects of exogenously applied salicylic acid and putrescine alone and in combination with rhizobacteria on the phytoremediation of heavy metals and chickpea growth in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Bano, Asghari

    2017-09-21

    The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium. The chickpea seeds were soaked in 24 h fresh cultures of isolates for 2-3 h prior to sowing. The growth regulators (PGRs), SA and Put (300 mg/L), were applied to the seedlings as foliar spray at 3-leaf stage. The result revealed that plants treated with SA and Put alone or in combination with PGPRs, significantly enhanced the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoot. PGPR induces Ni accumulation in sensitive variety and Pb in both the varieties, the PGR in combination augment the bioremediation effects of PGPR and both sensitive and tolerant variety showed significant accumulation of Ni, Cd and Pb. SA was more effective in accumulating Ni and Cd whereas, significant accumulation of Pb was recorded in Put. PGPRs, further augmented the PGRs induced accumulation of heavy metals and macronutrients in chickpea shoot and in rhizosphere. SA increased the proline content of tolerant variety while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and proline content of the sensitive variety but decreased the stimulating effect of PGPR in proline production. Interactive effects of PGPR and PGRs is recommended for inducing phytoremediation in chickpea plants under drought stress.

  9. Effects of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant and osmoprotectant profiles and the C3-CAM shift in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surówka, Ewa; Dziurka, Michał; Kocurek, Maciej; Goraj, Sylwia; Rapacz, Marcin; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    Exogenously applied H2O2 (50, 100 and 200mM) to Mesembryanthemum crystallinum root medium induced a transition from C3 to Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM), as evaluated by diurnal malate (Δmal) fluctuations. A very high concentration of H2O2 (400mM) reduced Δmal below the value measured in control plants. An increase of malate content during the night in 400mM H2O2-treated plants might suggest that malate decarboxylation is crucial for CAM functioning. We conclude that malate plays a dual role: i) a protective and signaling function before CAM expression, and ii) a storage form of CO2 in plants performing CAM. A slight stimulation of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and net photosynthesis observed during the C3-CAM shift indicated that neither photoinhibition nor reduction of the photosynthetic rate were prerequisites for CAM. Moreover, CAM induction corresponded to a decrease of catalase activity. In CAM-performing plants, α-tocopherol, polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) and proline showed daily alterations and the content of α-tocopherol and polyamines was lower at the end of the day. In contrast, the proline concentration correlated with the applied H2O2 concentration and was higher at the end of the day in treated plants. The dynamic changes of antioxidant and osmolyte levels suggest their active role in preventing oxidative damage, stress acclimation mechanisms and involvement in metabolic regulation and/or signal transduction cascades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or microscopic pathological effects were observed in either mice, rats, or guinea pigs in short-term studies. Male guinea pigs fed a control basal diet and given up to 250 mg Ascorbic Acid orally for 20 weeks had similar hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum iron, liver iron, and liver glycogen levels compared to control values. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were fed diets containing up to 100,000 ppm Ascorbic Acid for 13 weeks with little toxicity. Chronic Ascorbic Acid feeding studies showed toxic effects at dosages above 25 mg/kg body weight (bw) in rats and guinea pigs. Groups of male and female rats given daily doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw Ascorbic Acid for 2 years had no macro- or microscopically detectable toxic lesions. Mice given Ascorbic Acid subcutaneous and intravenous daily doses (500 to 1000 mg/kg bw) for 7 days had no changes in appetite, weight gain, and general behavior; and histological examination of various organs showed no changes. Ascorbic Acid was a photoprotectant when applied to mice and pig skin before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The inhibition of UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity was also noted. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate administration immediately after exposure in hairless mice significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronic exposure to UV radiation. Pregnant mice and rats were given daily oral doses of Ascorbic Acid up to 1000 mg/kg bw with no indications of adult-toxic, teratogenic, or fetotoxic effects. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate were not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems, consistent with the antioxidant properties of these chemicals. In the presence of certain enzyme systems or metal ions, evidence of genotoxicity was seen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted a 2-year oral carcinogenesis bioassay of Ascorbic

  11. Ferrocene adsorbed into the porous octakis(hydridodimethylsiloxy)silsesquioxane after thermolysis in tetrahydrofuran media: An applied surface for ascorbic acid determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro do Carmo, Devaney, E-mail: docarmo@dfq.feis.unesp.br [Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Av. Brasil Centro, 56 CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Lataro Paim, Leonardo; Ramos Stradiotto, Nelson [Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14801-970, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Octakis(hydridodimethylsiloxi)silsesquioxane was synthesized and Ferrocene was adsorbed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymeric net through electrostatic interactions was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel materials presents electroacatalytic activity for Ascorbic acid. -- Abstract: Octakis(hydridodimethylsiloxi)silsesquioxane (Q{sub 8}M{sub 8}{sup H}) was synthesized and Ferrocene was adsorbed in a polymeric net through electrostatic interactions, with anion forming after the cleavage of any siloxy groups (ESFc). The nanostructured materials (Q{sub 8}M{sub 8}{sup H} and EsFc) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analyses and Voltammetric technique The cyclic voltammograms of the graphite paste electrode modified with ESFc showed one redox couple with E{sup 0} Prime = 0.320 V (1.0 mol L{sup -1} NaCl, v = 50 mV s{sup -1}), with a diffusion-controlled process and the redox process shows electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fercha Azzedine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

  13. Comparative study of the continuous wavelet transform, derivative and partial least squares methods applied to the overlapping spectra for the simultaneous quantitative resolution of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ozdemir, Abdil; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2005-03-09

    The simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in effervescent tablets in the presence of the overlapping spectra was accomplished by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), derivative spectrophotometry (DS) and partial least squares (PLS) approaches without using any chemical pre-treatment. CWT and DS calibration equations for AA and ASA were obtained by measuring the CWT and DS amplitudes corresponding to zero-crossing points of spectra obtained by plotting continuous wavelet coefficients and first-derivative absorbance values versus the wavelengths, respectively. The PLS calibration was constructed by using the concentration set and its full absorbance data consisting of 850 points from 220 to 305 nm in the range of 210-310 nm. These three methods were tested by analyzing the synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they were applied to the real samples containing two commercial pharmaceutical preparations of subjected drugs. A comparative study was carried out by using the experimental results obtained from three analytical methodologies and precise and accurate results were obtained.

  14. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide reversibly inhibits root gravitropism and induces horizontal curvature of primary root during grass pea germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinglong; Su, Miao; Wang, Liyan; Jiao, Chengjin; Sun, Zhengxi; Cheng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Wang, Chongying

    2012-04-01

    During germination in distilled water (dH(2)O) on a horizontally positioned Petri dish, emerging primary roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grew perpendicular to the bottom of the Petri dish, due to gravitropism. However, when germinated in exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the primary roots grew parallel to the bottom of the Petri dish and asymmetrically, forming a horizontal curvature. Time-course experiments showed that the effect was strongest when H(2)O(2) was applied prior to the emergence of the primary root. H(2)O(2) failed to induce root curvature when applied post-germination. Dosage studies revealed that the frequency of primary root curvature was significantly enhanced with increased H(2)O(2) concentrations. This curvature could be directly counteracted by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H(2)O(2), but not by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and pyridine, inhibitors of H(2)O(2) production. Exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment caused both an increase in the activities of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes [including ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)] and a reduction in endogenous H(2)O(2) levels and root vitality. Although grass pea seeds absorbed exogenous H(2)O(2) during seed germination, DAB staining of paraffin sections revealed that exogenous H(2)O(2) only entered the root epidermis and not inner tissues. These data indicated that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) could lead to a reversible loss of the root gravitropic response and a horizontal curvature in primary roots during radicle emergence of the seedling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Exogenous and endogenous corticosterone alter feather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRochers, David W; Reed, J Michael; Awerman, Jessica; Kluge, Jonathan A; Wilkinson, Julia; van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Aman, Joseph; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids affect feather replacement in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) after approximately 56% of flight feathers were removed. We hypothesized that corticosterone would retard feather regrowth and decrease feather quality. After feather regrowth began, birds were treated with exogenous corticosterone or sham implants, or endogenous corticosterone by applying psychological or physical (food restriction) stressors. Exogenous corticosterone had no impact on feather length and vane area, but rectrices were lighter than controls. Exogenous corticosterone also decreased inter-barb distance for all feathers and increased barbule number for secondaries and rectrices. Although exogenous corticosterone had no affect on rachis tensile strength and stiffness, barbicel hooking strength was reduced. Finally, exogenous corticosterone did not alter the ability of Bacillus licheniformis to degrade feathers or affect the number of feathers that failed to regrow. In contrast, endogenous corticosterone via food restriction resulted in greater inter-barb distances in primaries and secondaries, and acute and chronic stress resulted in greater inter-barb distances in rectrices. Food-restricted birds had significantly fewer barbules in primaries than chronic stress birds and weaker feathers compared to controls. We conclude that, although exogenous and endogenous corticosterone had slightly different effects, some flight feathers grown in the presence of high circulating corticosterone are lighter, potentially weaker, and with altered feather micro-structure.

  16. Adipogenic and Lipolytic Effects of Ascorbic Acid in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungjae; Choi, Kyung Min; Yim, Hong Soon; Park, Hyun Tae; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Min Goo

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has been reported to have an adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, while evidence also suggests that ascorbic acid reduces body weight in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of ascorbic acid on adipogenesis and the balance of lipid accumulation in ovariectomized rats, in addition to long-term culture of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Murine 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and ovariectomized rats were treated with ascorbic acid at various time points. In vitro adipogenesis was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, and in vivo body fat was measured by a body composition analyzer using nuclear magnetic resonance. When ascorbic acid was applied during an early time point in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, adipogenesis and fat mass gain significantly increased, respectively. However, lipid accumulation in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant reduction when ascorbic acid was applied after differentiation (10 days after induction). Also, oral ascorbic acid administration 4 weeks after OVX in rats significantly reduced both body weight and subcutaneous fat layer. In comparison to the results of ascorbic acid, which is a well-known cofactor for an enzyme of collagen synthesis, and the antioxidant ramalin, a potent antioxidant but not a cofactor, showed only a lipolytic effect in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, not an adipogenic effect. Taking these results into account, we concluded that ascorbic acid has both an adipogenic effect as a cofactor of an enzymatic process and a lipolytic effect as an antioxidant.

  17. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  18. Ascorbic acid induced atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-04-05

    In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation efficiency and the degradation mechanism of atrazine in the presence of ascorbic acid at different pH values. Although atrazine could be degraded by ascorbic acid in a wide pH range from 4 to 12, its degradation under either acidic (pH≤4) or alkaline (pH≥12) condition was more efficient than under neutral condition (pH=7). This pH dependent atrazine degradation was related to the reactive characteristic of atrazine and the reductive activity of ascorbic acid. The ascorbic acid induced atrazine degradation pathways at different pH were investigated by comparing the atrazine degradation intermediates with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography. It was found that more products were detected in presence of ascorbic acid at alkaline condition. The appearance of chloride ions confirmed the dechlorination of atrazine by ascorbic acid in the absence of molecular oxygen, while its dechlorination efficiency reached highest at pH 12. These results can shed light on the application of AA for the organic pollutant remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ∼85 and ∼15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The GRKO mice (∼85% ASC deficit) develop and grow normally when fed regular mouse chow (ASC content = 0) but suffer severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures with stresses that increase ASC requirements, such as pregnancy or castration. Castration greatly increases osteoclast numbers and activity in GRKO mice and promotes increased bone loss as compared with wild-type controls and additionally induces proliferation of immature dysplastic osteoblasts likely because of an ASC-sensitive block(s) in early differentiation. ASC and the antioxidants pycnogenol and resveratrol block osteoclast proliferation and bone loss, but only ASC feeding restores osteoblast differentiation and prevents their dysplastic proliferation. This is the first in vivo demonstration of two independent roles for ASC as an antioxidant suppressing osteoclast activity and number as well as a cofactor promoting osteoblast differentiation. Although humans have lost the ability to synthesize ASC, our mouse models suggest the mechanisms by which suboptimal ASC availability facilitates the development of osteoporosis, which has important implications for human osteoporosis. PMID:20410296

  20. Exogenous application of IAA alleviates effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in the medicinal plant Withania somnifera Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, S; Agrawal, S B

    2017-11-01

    Supplemental (s)-UV-B radiation has adverse effects on the majority of plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of the growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on various morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Withania somnifera, an indigenous medicinal plant, subjected to s-UV-B. The s-UV-B-treated plants received ambient + 3.6 kJm-2 ·day-1 biologically effective UV-B, and IAA was applied at two doses (200 and 400 ppm) to s-UV-B-exposed plants. The plant was forced to compromise its growth, development and photosynthetic patterns to survive under s-UV-B by increasing concentrations of secondary metabolites and antioxidants (thiol, proline, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase) to counteract oxidative stress. Increases in secondary metabolites were evidenced as increased activity of phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes: phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase, chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase. Application of different IAA doses reversed the detrimental effects of s-UV-B on W. somnifera by improving growth and photosynthesis and reducing concentrations of secondary metabolites and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant enzymes, however, had a synergistic effect on s-UV-B treatment and IAA application. The effects of s-UV-B on W. somnifera are ameliorated to varying degrees upon exogenous IAA application, and synergistic enhancement of antioxidant enzymes under s-UV-B+IAA treatment might be responsible for the partial recuperation of growth and plant protein content, as a UV-B-exposed plant is forced to allocate most of its photosynthate towards production of enzymes related to antioxidant defence. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Ascorbic acid stability in fruit juices during thermosonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Karla; Garvín, Alfonso; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2017-07-01

    Thermosonication is an emerging technology useful for inactivating microorganisms and enzymes in fruit juices. However, the effect of the ultrasound processing on the ascorbic acid content is not clear and the results reported in the literature are contradictory. In this work, the impact of sonication and thermosonication on the ascorbic acid content was first evaluated in model systems. Degassed model solutions at four different pH values (3-6) were processed with or without sonication for 60min at two different conditions of temperature (25 and 55°C). In all cases, the ascorbic acid was stable under the treatment. After that, two commercial deaerated fruit juices were processed with and without US at 55°C. The ascorbic acid was also retained in these juices after the ultrasound processing under the most severe conditions studied. In conclusion, previous degassing/deaerating of fruit juices is recommended to prevent ascorbic acid degradation when thermosonication is applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in specific activity of ascorbate peroxidase during seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in specific activity of ascorbate peroxidase during seed development of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) treated with salicylic acid. ... Four phenological growth stages were selected of seed and fruit development (BBCH 73, BBCH 77, BBCH 83 and BBCH 88) for enzyme assay. Aqueous SA was applied by three different ...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  7. Light regulates ascorbate in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntagkas, Nikolaos; Woltering, Ernst J.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    l-ascorbate (vitamin. C, ASC) is an antioxidant that is essential for the proper function not only of plants but also animals. Light is a major regulatory factor for ASC levels in plants. In this paper, we review the regulation of ASC by light and the involved biochemical and physiological

  8. Effect of salinity and ascorbic acid on growth, water and osmotic relations of Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Najjar-Khodabakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions that have negative impacts on crop production. In this research, because of medicinal and nutritional importance of the garden cress (Lepidium sativum plant, the interactive effects of salinity (225 mM NaCl and ascorbic acid (1 mM were evaluated on growth and its water relations. A completely randomized design with four replications was conducted under controlled conditions. The results showed that salinity decreased growth, relative water content, osmotic potential and soluble proteins and increased soluble sugars, amino acids and proline contents. Many of salinity damaged characteristic were improved by adding exogenous ascorbic acid to salty environment. Exogenous ascorbic acid alone, in comparison with control, enhanced the growth of garden cress by increasing relative water content, soluble sugars and soluble proteins contents. The results indicated that usage of ascorbic acid, as an antioxidant, reduced harmful effects of salinity stress and led to growth improvement in garden cress plants.

  9. Turn-on fluorescence detection of ascorbic acid with gold nanolcusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huijie; Yang, Dongqin; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2017-04-01

    In this report, a sensitive fluorescent detection of ascorbic acid was developed with protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters. The fluorescence signal from the gold nanoclusters could be effectively quenched by elemental iodine. This kind of quenching could be inhibited by ascorbic acid through a corresponding reduction process, thus a turn-on response toward ascorbic acid was obtained. The validity and performances of the detection scheme were evaluated. The fluorescence responses were linearly related to ascorbic acid in the concentration range 0.1-10μM, and the method was capable of detecting ascorbic acid down to 22nM. The high performances of the developed scheme greatly simplified the sample preparation step, and the method was successfully applied for real sample analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of 'Huangguan' Pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of 'Huangguan' pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect 'Huangguan' pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70-1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear.

  11. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in drugs and foods using surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Zarei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive procedure was proposed for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid. It was found that the reduction of Ag+ to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs by ascorbic acid in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a stabilizing agent produce very intense surface plasmon resonance peak of Ag-NPs. The plasmon absorbance of the Ag-NPs at λ = 440 nm allows the quantitative spectrophotometric detection of the ascorbic acid. The calibration curve was linear with concentration of ascorbic acid in the range of 0.5–60 μM. The detection limit was obtained as 0.08 μM. The influence of potential interfering substances on the determination of ascorbic acid was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in some powdered drink mixtures, commercial orange juice, natural orange juice, vitamin C injection, effervescent tablet, and multivitamin tablet.

  12. Effects of ascorbic acid on gingival melanin pigmentation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yasuko; Tai, Hideaki; Tanaka, Aya; Ikezawa-Suzuki, Ikuyo; Takagi, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    Gingival melanin pigmentation may cause esthetic concerns, even if no serious medical problem is present. As an inhibitor of melanin formation, ascorbic acid is often used to treat skin melanin pigmentation. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on gingival melanin pigmentation in vitro and in vivo. The effects of ascorbic acid on melanin formation were evaluated in vitro in B16 mouse melanoma cells and three-dimensional human skin models. In addition, a clinical trial was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of a gel containing ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AS-G gel) on gingival melanin pigmentation. This study used a double-masked, split-mouth design on 73 subjects with symmetric gingival melanin pigmentation. AS-G gel was applied to one side of the gingiva for 12 weeks, whereas placebo gel was applied to the other side as a control. Luminance (L*)-value, which describes the lightness of gingiva, was determined by spectrophotometry to obtain an objective measure of melanin pigmentation every 4 weeks. Ascorbic acid significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in B16 mouse melanoma cells (P ascorbic acid on melanin formation were also significant in three-dimensional human skin models (P Ascorbic acid (AS-G) has potential for the treatment of gingival melanin pigmentation.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862....1095 Ascorbic acid test system. (a) Identification. An ascorbic acid test system is a device intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in plasma, serum, and urine. Ascorbic acid...

  14. NaLS–ascorbic acid sys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The photogalvanic effect has been studied in three systems using photogalvanic cells and. NaLS–ascorbic acid–azur A, NaLS–ascorbic acid–azur B, NaLS–ascorbic acid–azur C systems. The pho- topotential and photocurrent generated by these systems are 770⋅0, 971⋅0, 623⋅0 mV and 160⋅0, 185⋅0,. 145⋅0 ...

  15. Exogenous nitric oxide-induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yahan; Li, Shunmin; Zeng, Kaifang

    2016-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol L(-1) sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity content, and delay the increase in total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. The results suggest that the use of exogenous NO is a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  17. Light-dependent regulation of ascorbate in tomato by a monodehydroascorbate reductase localized in peroxisomes and the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Noé; Garchery, Cécile; Gautier, Hélène; Jiménez, Ana; Stevens, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    Ascorbate is a powerful antioxidant in plants, and its levels are an important quality criteria in commercial species. Factors influencing these levels include environmental variations, particularly light, and the genetic control of its biosynthesis, recycling and degradation. One of the genes involved in the recycling pathway encodes a monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), an enzyme catalysing reduction of the oxidized radical of ascorbate, monodehydroascorbate, to ascorbate. In plants, MDHAR belongs to a multigene family. Here, we report the presence of an MDHAR isoform in both the cytosol and peroxisomes and show that this enzyme negatively regulates ascorbate levels in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Transgenic lines overexpressing MDHAR show a decrease in ascorbate levels in leaves, whereas lines where MDHAR is silenced show an increase in these levels in both fruits and leaves. Furthermore, the intensity of these differences is light dependent. The unexpected effect of this MDHAR on ascorbate levels cannot be explained by changes in the expression of Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway genes, or the activity of enzymes involved in degradation (ascorbate peroxidase) or recycling of ascorbate (dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase), suggesting a previously unidentified mechanism regulating ascorbate levels. © 2012 INRA Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. ASCORBIC ACID RETENTION IN CANNED LIME JUICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From linear regression calculations, 300 ppm sodium metabisulfite resulted in the longest shelf-life of 49 weeks while the control samples had the shortest shelf-life of 22 weeks. Key words: Ascorbic acid stability; Citrus aurantifolia; lime juice, sodium metabisulfite, sodium benzoate, shelf-life. Résumé ASCORBIC ACIDE ...

  19. ASCORBIC ACID AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF EXTRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados. (Caesalpina pulcherrima) stored at various temperatures were investigated. 2,6 - Dichlorophenolindophenol (dye) solution titration method was used in ascorbic acid determination while. Nutrient and Sabouraud agar were ...

  20. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The decreased semen ascorbate level may play a significant role in the reduced sperm characteris- ... dans le testicule, les niveaux des lipides 'et des lipoprotéines ont été évaluées dans le plasma de Nigeri~ ... Recently however, the role of ascorbic acid in the maintenance of sperm cell lipid membrane has ...

  1. Interaction of ascorbate with photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Mamedov, Mahir D; Semenov, Alexey Yu; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2014-11-01

    Ascorbate is one of the key participants of the antioxidant defense in plants. In this work, we have investigated the interaction of ascorbate with the chloroplast electron transport chain and isolated photosystem I (PSI), using the EPR method for monitoring the oxidized centers [Formula: see text] and ascorbate free radicals. Inhibitor analysis of the light-induced redox transients of P700 in spinach thylakoids has demonstrated that ascorbate efficiently donates electrons to [Formula: see text] via plastocyanin. Inhibitors (DCMU and stigmatellin), which block electron transport between photosystem II and Pc, did not disturb the ascorbate capacity for electron donation to [Formula: see text]. Otherwise, inactivation of Pc with CN(-) ions inhibited electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text]. This proves that the main route of electron flow from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] runs through Pc, bypassing the plastoquinone (PQ) pool and the cytochrome b 6 f complex. In contrast to Pc-mediated pathway, direct donation of electrons from ascorbate to [Formula: see text] is a rather slow process. Oxidized ascorbate species act as alternative oxidants for PSI, which intercept electrons directly from the terminal electron acceptors of PSI, thereby stimulating photooxidation of P700. We investigated the interaction of ascorbate with PSI complexes isolated from the wild type cells and the MenB deletion strain of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In the MenB mutant, PSI contains PQ in the quinone-binding A1-site, which can be substituted by high-potential electron carrier 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (Cl2NQ). In PSI from the MenB mutant with Cl2NQ in the A1-site, the outflow of electrons from PSI is impeded due to the uphill electron transfer from A1 to the iron-sulfur cluster FX and further to the terminal clusters FA/FB, which manifests itself as a decrease in a steady-state level of [Formula: see text]. The addition of ascorbate promoted photooxidation

  2. Ascorbic acid might play a role in the sclerotial differentiation of Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Christos D; Zervoudakis, George; Petropoulou, Katerine P

    2003-01-01

    Certain phytopathogenic fungi differentiate by forming sclerotia by an unclear biochemical mechanism. We have proposed that sclerotial differentiation might be regulated by fungal antioxidant defense. Part of this defense might be ascorbic acid, which in its reduced form is a well-known antioxidant. This natural antioxidant was studied in Sclerotium rolfsii in relation to oxidative-growth conditions, developmental stages and strain-differentiating ability. The transition of a sclerotial strain from the undifferentiated to the differentiated stage was accompanied by a sharp shift in the ratio of reduced/oxidized ascorbate toward the oxidized form. Ascorbate profiles and lipid peroxidation levels were different between the sclerotial strain grown under high- and low-oxidative stress conditions, as well as between a nonsclerotial S. rolfsii strain grown under high-oxidative stress conditions. In addition, the ratio of reduced/oxidized ascorbate in the nonsclerotial strain remained unchanged throughout growth. Lipid peroxidation under high-oxidative stress conditions in sclerotial S. rolfsii colonies one day before differentiation was 3.6-fold higher than in same-day colonies of this strain grown under low-oxidative stress conditions and 2.5-fold higher than in similar-day colonies of the nonsclerotial strain grown under high-oxidative stress conditions. Exogenous ascorbate caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lipid peroxidation and a proportional inhibition of the degree of sclerotial differentiation in the sclerotial strain grown under high-oxidative stress conditions by lowering its lipid peroxidation before differentiation to levels similar to the strain grown under low-oxidative stress conditions and to the nonsclerotial strain. Ascorbic acid might be produced by the sclerotial strain to reduce oxidative stress, although less efficiently than the nondifferenting strain. The data of this study support our theory that oxidative stress might be the

  3. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate an...

  4. Exogenous Testosterone Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... source of energy for the mammalian brain. The mechanism of action of steroid hormones on target organ cells, and the role of testosterone as a performance enhancing drug are discussed. Keywords: Exogenous testosterone, Protein, Glucose, Gluconeogenesis, Hypoproteinemic rat. Animal Research International Vol.

  5. Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesar Elmagirbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidative Stress Triggers Tgf-Beta-Dependent Muscle Dysfunction by Accelerating Ascorbic Acid Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Diego; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Bolis, Marco; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Solagna, Francesca; Blaauw, Bert; Zito, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress are two related phenomena that have important metabolic consequences. As many skeletal muscle diseases are triggered by oxidative stress, we explored the chain of events linking a hyperoxidized ER (which causes ER and oxidative stress) with skeletal muscle dysfunction. An unbiased exon expression array showed that the combined genetic modulation of the two master ER redox proteins, selenoprotein N (SEPN1) and endoplasmic oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1), led to an SEPN1-related myopathic phenotype due to excessive signalling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. The increased TGF-beta activity in the genetic mutants was caused by accelerated turnover of the ER localized (anti-oxidant) ascorbic acid that affected collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix. In a mouse mutant of SEPN1, which is dependent on exogenous ascorbic acid, a limited intake of ascorbic acid revealed a myopathic phenotype as a consequence of an altered TGF-beta signalling. Indeed, systemic antagonism of TGF-beta re-established skeletal muscle function in SEPN1 mutant mice. In conclusion, this study sheds new light on the molecular mechanism of SEPN1-related myopathies and indicates that the TGF-beta/ERO1/ascorbic acid axis offers potential for their treatment. PMID:28106121

  7. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  8. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, William L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 μM from 100 μM ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the Cmax value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their Tmax values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:29302210

  11. Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B N

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data concerning the role of ascorbic acid in both the maintenance of photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against reactive oxygen species and photoinhibition are reviewed. The function of ascorbic acid as an electron donor in the "Krasnovsky reaction", as well as its physiological role as a donor to components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which was first studied by A. A. Krasnovsky in the 1980s, is discussed. Data on the content and transport of ascorbic acid in plant cells and chloroplasts are presented.

  12. An immunohistological study of anhydrous topical ascorbic acid compositions on ex vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Geoffrey K; Markovic, Boban; Hayes, Amanda

    2006-06-01

    Ascorbic acid has numerous essential and beneficial functions in normal and photoaged skin. Ionisation of ascorbic acid in aqueous topical formulations leads to oxidative degradation. Ascorbic acid in an anhydrous vehicle would inherently have greater stability. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of two anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid on neocollagenesis and cytokeratin production in ex vivo human skin. Vitamin C preparations were applied topically onto the surface of freshly excised human abdominal skin. Following an exposure time of 48 h with appropriate controls, skin discs were cut into sections, placed on slides and assessed using immunohistochemical (antibodies: collagen type I, III, cytokeratin) staining. Analysis was performed using microscopy and descriptive rating. Both formulations resulted in increased production of collagen types I and III and cytokeratin. The application of anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid to ex vivo human skin in this study resulted in neocollagenesis and increased production of cytokeratin. This approach appears to enable biological effects of ascorbic acid in the skin using a vehicle which would provide it greater stability than an aqueous vehicle.

  13. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage.

  14. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Merete Boye; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147.......Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147....

  15. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we applied this approach to evaluate the effects of increasing concentration of exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. We show that the STOCSY analysis correctly identifies the different types of correlations among the enriched metabolites involved in the fermentation, ...

  16. Effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid on proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, during the exogenously applied SA to salt stress, proline metabolism was significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied between the SA and salt stress, leading to the maintenance of the turgor by accumulating higher levels of free proline accumulation in C. recutita, supporting its protection from salt ...

  17. Ascorbate Oxidase-Based Amperometric Biosensor for L-Ascorbic Acid Determination in Beverages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gábor Csiffáry; Péter Futo; Nóra Adányi; Attila Kiss

    2016-01-01

    ...). The linear measuring range for L-ascorbic acid was between 5 and 150 μmol/L. As L-ascorbic acid is a vital vitamin and a common antioxidant used in food industry, fruit juices and vitamin C effervescent tablets were examined. The results were compared to HPLC measurements.

  18. Ascorbic acid as a bifunctional hydrogen bond donor for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 under ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Arayachukiat, Sunatda

    2017-07-14

    Readily available ascorbic acid was discovered as an environmentally benign hydrogen bond donor (HBD) for the synthe-sis of cyclic organic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides in the presence of nucleophilic co-catalysts. The ascorbic acid/TBAI (TBAI: tetrabutylammonium iodide) binary system could be applied for the cycloaddition of CO2 to various epoxides under ambient or mild conditions. DFT calculations and catalysis experiments revealed an intriguing bifunctional mechanism in the step of CO2 insertion involving different hydroxyl moieties (enediol, ethyldiol) of the ascorbic acid scaffold.

  19. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Construction of an amperometric ascorbate biosensor using epoxy resin membrane bound Lagenaria siceraria fruit ascorbate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, C S; Chauhan, Nidhi; Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Ascorbate oxidase purified from Lagenaria siceraria fruit was immobilized onto epoxy resin "Araldite" membrane with 79.4% retention of initial activity of free enzyme. The biosensor showed optimum response within 15s at pH 5.8 and 35°C, which was directly proportional to ascorbate concentration ranging from 1-100μM. There was a good correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between serum ascorbic acid values by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present method. The enzyme electrode was used for 200 times without considerable loss of activity during the span of 90 days when stored at 4°C.

  1. Distribution and metabolism of ascorbic acid in pear fruits (Pyrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 1

    2013-04-17

    4048 ... Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway and uronic acid pathway whereas the flesh and core had lower capability for ascorbate synthesis. .... assay is based on the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by ascorbic acid in acidic solution.

  2. application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ) using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer solution the ALP enzymatic hydrolysis product of AAP was ascorbic acid (AA), which was an electro-active ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid mixture in their pure forms and combined dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tamer Z.

    2016-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC separation was performed on Phenomenex C18 analytical column with 0.1% v/v acetic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), as mobile phase. The separation was done at ambient temperature with flow rate of 1 mL·min- 1 in isocratic mode. HPLC measurements were carried out using ultraviolet detection wavelength at 257 nm. The average retention times were 2.72 and 7.00 min for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 5.0-30.0 for ascorbic acid and 10.0-60.0 μg·mL- 1 for rutin. The limits of detection were 1.06 and 1.89 μg·mL- 1 and limits of quantification were 3.54 and 6.31 μg·mL- 1 for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The proposed HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of ascorbic acid in its tablets and for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference method show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in respect to accuracy and precision.

  4. Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

    2012-04-21

    In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ˙OH and ˙NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 μM ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes.

  5. Magnetic ionic liquid assisted single-drop microextraction of ascorbic acid before its voltammetric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Zahra; Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh; Mohamadim, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, we coupled a microextraction technique using a magnetic ionic liquid with voltammetric determination. A hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquid that contains the tetrachloromanganate(II) anion, namely, aliquat tetrachloromanganate(II), was synthesized and used for the extraction of ascorbic acid from aqueous solutions followed by voltammetric determination. The extraction procedure was carried out using a single drop microextraction technique in which the ascorbic acid containing magnetic ionic liquid was separated with a magnet and then cast onto the surface of a carbon paste electrode modified with TiO 2 nanoparticles for the voltammetric quantification of the extracted ascorbic acid. Electrochemical quantification was carried out in a blank phosphate buffer solution. After optimizing different experimental conditions, a linear concentration range of 1.50-40.0 nM with a detection limit of 0.43 nM was obtained for the determination of ascorbic acid. The presented approach was successfully applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in samples of vitamin C effervescent tablets and orange juice. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis by ascorbic acid: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnell, S R

    1985-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor for lysyl hydroxylase and prolyl hydroxylase, enzymes essential for collagen biosynthesis. In addition, L-ascorbic acid preferentially stimulates collagen synthesis in a manner which appears unrelated to the effect of L-ascorbic acid on hydroxylation reactions. This reaction is stereospecific and unrelated to intracellular degradation of collagen. The effect apparently occurs at a transcriptional or translational level, since L-ascorbic acid preferenti...

  7. Environmental Method to Determine Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Simultaneously via Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Zohry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many various methods were applied to determine dopamine and ascorbic acid simultaneously using hazardous materials and complex procedures. Derivative absorption spectra can give safely and five sensitive derivative equations that are used for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid in the UV region, using first and second derivative spectroscopy with high precision at pH value of 9.2. Dopamine and ascorbic acid can be detected in the ranges of 0.375–9.45 mg L−1 and 0.352–5.28 mg L−1, respectively. These obtained methods could be used to determine both reagents in real and synthesized samples.

  8. Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of London King Size® Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Lipids. ... Malondialdehyde production in the tissues was reduced by ascorbic acid and or beta-carotene given daily to the rats. It is implied that ascorbic acid or ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njhbs.v2i1.11451.

  9. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  10. Iodometric determination of the ascorbic acid (Vitamin c) content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ascorbic acid content of seven different fruits –grapefruit, lime, orange, tangerine, banana, pawpaw and pineapple was determined by iodine titration, in order to know which fruit would best supply the ascorbic acid need for the body. Results showed that tangerine had the highest value of ascorbic acid, ...

  11. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ascorbate Oxidase-Based Amperometric Biosensor for l-Ascorbic Acid Determination in Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiffáry, Gábor; Fűtő, Péter; Adányi, Nóra; Kiss, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Summary A novel biosensor for l-ascorbic acid determination in different beverages was elaborated. The ascorbate oxidase enzyme (AAO) from Cucurbita sp., EC 1.10.3.3, was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode with poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as a crosslinking agent. The standards and samples were measured first with a blank electrode. An inert protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was immobilized on the surface of this electrode with PEGDGE. The BSA mass was equivalent to the mass of 10 U of AAO enzyme immobilized on the electrodes (0.021 mg). The linear measuring range for l-ascorbic acid was between 5 and 150 µmol/L. As l-ascorbic acid is a vital vitamin and a common antioxidant used in food industry, fruit juices and vitamin C effervescent tablets were examined. The results were compared to HPLC measurements. PMID:27904390

  13. Ascorbate Oxidase-Based Amperometric Biosensor for L-Ascorbic Acid Determination in Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Fűtő

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biosensor for l-ascorbic acid determination in different beverages was elaborated. The ascorbate oxidase enzyme (AAO from Cucurbita sp., EC 1.10.3.3, was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode with poly(ethylene glycol (400 diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE as a crosslinking agent. The standards and samples were measured first with a blank electrode. An inert protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA, was immobilized on the surface of this electrode with PEGDGE. The BSA mass was equivalent to the mass of 10 U of AAO enzyme immobilized on the electrodes (0.021 mg. The linear measuring range for l-ascorbic acid was between 5 and 150 μmol/L. As l-ascorbic acid is a vital vitamin and a common antioxidant used in food industry, fruit juices and vitamin C effervescent tablets were examined. The results were compared to HPLC measurements.

  14. Plasma Ascorbic Acid Concentration and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the plasma ascorbic acid concentration, haematocrit, reticulocyte count and blood cell morphology in homozygous sickle cell disease in Enugu metropolis. Materals and Methods: Forty known sickle cell anaemia patients (HbSS) and ten non-sicklers (HbAA) were used as tests and controls respectively.

  15. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  16. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological investigation of its effects on fibre degradation in ruminants. ... There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. ... Keywords: Fibre digestion, histology, in vitro digestion ...

  17. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1,* Patricia Almudéver,2,* Juan-Manuel Serrano,1 Javier Milara,2–5 Ana Torrens,1 Inmaculada Expósito,1 Julio Cortijo2–51Sesderma Laboratorios, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, 3Clinical Research Unit, University General Hospital Consortium, 4CIBERES, Health Institute Carlos III, 5Research Foundation of the University General Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than

  18. Occurrence of L-Ascorbic Acid in Euglena gracilis z

    OpenAIRE

    SHIGEOKA, Shigeru; NAKANO, Yoshihisa; KITAOKA, Shozaburo

    1980-01-01

    Euglena gracilis synthesizes L-ascorbic acid. The content of total L-ascorbic acid in the cells grown photoautotrophically for 9 days in the stationary phase was 4.01 μmole/10^9 cells, corresponding to 4.25 mg per g dry weight. The oxidized form, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid was about 20% of total L-ascorbic acid. Illumination influenced the acid content markedly. From the present data, formation and physiological roles of L-ascorbic acid seem to be strongly affected by illumination.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF Na-ASCORBATE ON ASCORBATE CONCENTRATION IN THE PLASMA AND TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlovic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Male guinea pigs of a Hartley-derived strein, a mean starting weight of 325 g + 70 g (s.d., immunized with bovine serum albumine, were studied in animals maintained on various amount of ascorbic acid for 28 days. Animals were paid-fed on ascorbate-free diet (standard ''dry'' meal (Wagner Guinea Pig Diet. The animals were immunized with bovine serum albumuine (BSA, Miles 0.2 mg being administered in complete Freund's adjuvans on day 0 (0.025 mg /foot pad and 0.1 mg in the nuchal skin and again on day 14 in 1% saline into the nuchal skin. The animals were separated into five categories of five animals each and put on a daily schedule of intraperitoneal injections of 0, 10, 25, 100 i 250 mg Na-ascorbate (Bronson. Blood was taken by cardiac puncture from each animal on experimental days 0, 14 and 28. At the end of experiment all animals were anesthetized and tissue samples were taken for evaluation of vitamin C with Zannoni methods. The immunized guinea pigs receiving no supplementation showed a reduction in ascorbic acid concentration of 59% at 14 days to 67% at 28 days. In the meantime, no difference between the 10 and 25 mg doses in relative change. Guinea pigs receiving the mega doses (100 mg and 250 mg/day exhibited increased plasma levels, the former showing a greater increase than latter. At the end of the experiment the gain in the 100 mg group had dropped to 12%, but in the 250 mg group it continued to raise. Of greater significance than the plasma levels are the ascorbate concentrations measured in various tissues of selected animals that had been maintained for 28 days on these ascorbate regimens. Intraperitoneal administration of Na-ascorbate a rapid increase of ascorbic acid plasma concentration. The greatest the ascorbate concentrations was obtained in the case of the adrenal (95.3, pituitary (89.1 and spleen (29.7 per 100 g in the respective cases. Under the same circumstances the ascorbate concentrations in the brain and in the eye

  20. The use of ascorbic acid as a food additive: technical-legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Varvara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6 is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and – as confirmed by the legal decision reported – it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments.

  1. The Use of Ascorbic Acid as a Food Additive: Technical-Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvara, Michele; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Giuseppe; Disanto, Chiara; Pagliarone, Cosimo Nicola; Celano, Gaetano Vitale

    2016-01-18

    Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and - as confirmed by the legal decision reported - it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments.

  2. Can antioxidant's reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity contribute to aged seed recovery? Contrasting effect of melatonin, ascorbate and glutathione on germination ability of aged maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that antioxidants such as AA (reduced ascorbate), glutathione (GSH) (reduced glutathione) and melatonin can delay seed ageing. Can they recover aged seed? Artificial aged maize seeds were obtained and their reduced germination rate (GR) and high lipid peroxidation were recorded. Exogenous melatonin was applied on these aged seeds and enhanced GR was observed. However, treatment with other antioxidants such as AA, GSH or DMTU (dimethyl thiourea) did not significantly improve or even reduce the GR of aged seeds. In addition, melatonin improved germination ability of theses aged seeds can be significantly impaired by DDC (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, a specific inhibitor of superoxide dismutase or superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and ATZ (aminotriazol, a specific inhibitor of catalase or CAT). In a further study, we found that melatonin but not other antioxidants (AA, GSH and DMTU) significantly induced CAT and SOD activities of aged seeds after imbibition. Accordingly, melatonin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in aged seeds than that of other antioxidants. Taken together, these data suggest that melatonin induced antioxidant enzyme but not its direct reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity contributing to recovery of aged maize seeds.

  3. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) in Defence Feeding,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    remain to be elucidated. It is therefore not surprising that there is controversy about the optimal daily intake. The primary known nutritional role of... Nutrition Board, 1974) down from 60 mg in 1969 (Food & Nutrition Board, 1969). The World Health Organisation recommends 30 mg per day (Passmore, Nicol...loosening . of the teeth, bone fragility and anaemia (Johnson, 1979). However, scurvy represents an extreme case of ascorbic acid deprivation and it

  4. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Comparison of fruit quality and GC-MS-based metabolite profiling of kiwifruit 'Jecy green': Natural and exogenous ethylene-induced ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sooyeon; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2017-11-01

    We applied exogenous ethylene to 'Jecy green' kiwifruit to elucidate the differences in fruit quality and metabolite profiling between naturally ripe (NR) and ethylene-induced ripe (ER) kiwifruit. Kiwifruit were exposed to ethylene (200μL/L) for 12h at 20°C and maintained for 9days at 20°C. Two metabolites of ascorbic acid and arabinose significantly decreased during kiwifruit ripening regardless of the ripening method. The concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, citric acid, and malic acid in NR fruit were substantially higher than those in ER fruit, while the concentrations of fructose, glucose, and quinic acid in ER fruit were higher than those in NR fruit. NR and ER kiwifruit were statistically similar in regard to overall sensory profile, even though the metabolite profiling showed a little difference. The application of ethylene to 'Jecy green' kiwifruit to regulate ripening for commercial purposes can result in good quality fruit without side effects. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  7. Effect of preservation method and storage condition on ascorbic acid loss in beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market is flooded with vitamin-enriched foods, mainly beverages. Major vitamins for enriching beverages are the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E. Ascorbic acid is readily oxidized and lost during storage of the beverages, at rates depending on the conditions of storage. This fact is of great importance for the consumer who must know how to store beverages and when to consume them in order to get the maximum benefit of added vitamin C. The objective of this paper was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid lost in beverages applying different preservation methods and storage condition. Beverage was made in laboratory conditions with synthetic L-ascorbic acid added according to the national legislations. After 30 days of storage at 4-8oC ascorbic acid overall loss was from 81.01% to 90.27% in thermally pasteurized samples and from 97.83 % to almost complete loss in samples preserved with sodium benzoate.

  8. Intracellular Ascorbate Prevents Endothelial Barrier Permeabilization by Thrombin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William H.; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular ascorbate (vitamin C) has previously been shown to tighten the endothelial barrier and maintain barrier integrity during acute inflammation in vitro. However, the downstream effectors of ascorbate in the regulation of endothelial permeability remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated ascorbate as a mediator of thrombin-induced barrier permeabilization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their immortalized hybridoma line, EA.hy926. We found that the vitamin fully prevented increased permeability to the polysaccharide inulin by thrombin in a dose-dependent manner, and it took effect both before and after subjection to thrombin. Thrombin exposure consumed intracellular ascorbate but not the endogenous antioxidant GSH. Likewise, the antioxidants dithiothreitol and tempol did not reverse permeabilization. We identified a novel role for ascorbate in preserving cAMP during thrombin stimulation, resulting in two downstream effects. First, ascorbate maintained the cortical actin cytoskeleton in a Rap1- and Rac1-dependent manner, thus preserving stable adherens junctions between adjacent cells. Second, ascorbate prevented actin polymerization and formation of stress fibers by reducing the activation of RhoA and phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Although ascorbate and thrombin both required calcium for their respective effects, ascorbate did not prevent thrombin permeabilization by obstructing calcium influx. However, preservation of cAMP by ascorbate was found to depend on both the production of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, which ascorbate is known to activate, and the subsequent generation cGMP by guanylate cyclase. Together, these data implicate ascorbate in the prevention of inflammatory endothelial barrier permeabilization and explain the underlying signaling mechanism. PMID:26152729

  9. Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffery M; Gardner, David K

    2002-10-01

    Embryo development following cryopreservation is reduced compared with fresh embryos. One of the traumas that cryopreservation imparts on embryos is an increase in oxidative stress. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the addition of the antioxidant ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions on subsequent embryo development. Mouse embryos at the 2-cell and blastocyst stages were either slow-frozen or vitrified in solutions containing either no ascorbate or 0.1 or 0.5 mmol/l ascorbate. The effects on the levels of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent embryo development and physiology were assessed. Addition of ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions reduced the levels of hydrogen peroxide in embryos. Furthermore, addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate significantly enhanced inner cell mass development in blastocysts. Embryos cryopreserved with ascorbate had significantly lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and increased rates of metabolism compared with those cryopreserved in the absence of ascorbate. The benefits of ascorbate were significantly greater in embryos that were slow-frozen compared with those that were vitrified. These data indicate that the addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions for the mammalian embryo would be of significant value.

  10. Modelling the effects of transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid on substandard quality wheat flour by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decade, there have been observed extreme variations in climatic conditions which in combination with inadequate agro techniques lead to decreased quality of mercantile wheat, actally flour. The application of improvers can optimise the quality of substandard wheat flour. This paper focuses to systematic analysis of individual and interaction effects of ascorbic acid and transglutaminase as dough strengthening improvers. The effects were investigated using the Response Surface Methodology. Transglutaminase had much higher linear effect on the rheological and fermentative properties of dough from substandard flour than L-ascorbic acid. Both transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid additions had a significant linear effect on the increase of bread specific volume. Effects of transglutaminase and ascorbic acid are dependent on the applied concentrations and it is necessary to determine the optimal concentration in order to achieve the maximum quality of the dough and bread. Optimal levels of tested improvers were determined using appropriate statistical techniques which applied the desirability function. It was found that the combination of 30 mg/kg of transglutaminase and 75.8 mg/kg of L-ascorbic acid achieved positive synergistic effect on rheological and fermentative wheat dough properties, as well on textural properties and specific volume of bread made from substandard quality flour.

  11. Exogenous salicylic acid improves freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsuk; Min, Kyungwon; Arora, Rajeev

    2017-10-20

    Salicylic acid (SA)-treatment has been reported to improve plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, its effect on freezing tolerance has not been well investigated. We investigated the effect of exogenous SA on freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. We also explored if nitric oxide (NO) and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediation was involved in this response, since these are known as primary signaling molecules involved in many physiological processes. A micro-centrifuge tube-based system used to apply SA to petiolate spinach leaves (0.5 mM over 4-d) was effective, as evident by SA content of leaf tissues. SA-treatment did not hamper leaf growth (fresh and dry weight; equatorial and longitudinal length) and was also not significantly different from 25% Hoagland controls vis-à-vis growth. SA application significantly improved freezing tolerance as evidenced by reduced ion-leakage and alleviated oxidative stress (lower accumulation of O2·- and H2O2) following freeze-thaw stress treatments (-6.5, -7.5, and -8.5 °C). Improved freezing tolerance of SA-treated leaves was paralleled by increased proline and ascorbic acid (AsA) accumulation. A 9-d cold acclimation (CA) treatment also improved leaf freezing tolerance (compared to non-acclimated control) and was accompanied by accumulation of SA and proline. Our results indicate that increased FST may be associated with accumulation of compatible solutes (proline) and antioxidants (AsA). Notably, the beneficial effect of SA on freezing tolerance was abolished when either H2O2- or NO-scavenger (1 μM N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA or 100 μM hemoglobin, HB, respectively) was added to SA as pretreatment. Our data suggest that SA-induced freezing tolerance in spinach may be mediated by NO and H2O2 signaling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise : Partition of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.S.; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of ascorbic acid between the lipid and aqueous phase was investigated in mayonnaises enriched with fish oil containing a synergistic antioxidant mixture of ascorbic acid, lecithin and gamma-tocopherol, i.e., the A/L/T system (Loliger and Saucy 1989). The ascorbic acid was found...... to be located in the aqueous phase indicating that the A/L/T system broke down in mayonnaises. Based on the hypothesis that synergistic antioxidant action between ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol requires that the three components are in close assembly, the results offer an explanation as to why the A...

  13. Sodium L-ascorbate enhances elastic fibers deposition by fibroblasts from normal and pathologic human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinek, Aleksander; Kim, Hyunjun J; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Andrew; Mitts, Thomas F

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid), a known enhancer of collagen deposition, has also been identified as an inhibitor of elastogenesis. Present studies explored whether and how the L-ascorbic acid derivative (+) sodium L-ascorbate (SA) would affect production of collagen and elastic fibers in cultures of fibroblasts derived from normal human skin and dermal fat, as well as in explants of normal human skin, stretch-marked skin and keloids. Effects of SA on the extracellular matrix production were assessed quantitatively by PCR analyses, western blots, biochemical assay of insoluble elastin and by immuno-histochemistry. We also evaluated effects of SA on production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of IGF-I and insulin receptors. SA, applied in 50-200 μM concentrations, stimulates production of both collagen and elastic fibers in all tested cultures. Moreover, combination of SA with a proline hydroxylase inhibitor induces a beneficial remodelling in explants of dermal scars, resulting in the inhibition of collagen deposition and induction of new elastogenesis. Importantly, we revealed that SA stimulates elastogenesis only after intracellular influx of non-oxidized ascorbate anions (facilitated by the sodium-dependent ascorbate transporter), that causes reduction of intracellular ROS, activation of c-Src tyrosine kinase and the enhancement of IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor that ultimately triggers elastogenic signalling pathway. Our results endorse the use of this potent stimulator of collagen and elastin production in the treatment of wrinkled and stretch-marked skin. They also encourage inclusion of SA into therapeutic combinations with collagenogenesis inhibitors to prevent formation of dermal scars and keloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid for Enhanced Long-term Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    applied to AA are not safe for use in food products, particularly the agents selected for cross linking of proteins . Careful consideration of the...bars, beverage powder, biscuits, chocolate or other confectionery product, as well as a selection of freeze dried meals. 5. Summary and...method for the determination of total L-ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Food Chemistry

  15. Development of a new ascorbic acid sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto da Silva Alfaya

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The SiO2/SnO2/Phosphate composite, SSF, was prepared by the sol-gel process. The redox dye methylene blue was immobilized on the SSF surface. This new material was utilized in the preparation of a modified carbon paste electrode (SSFAM and its electrochemical characteristics were studied by the cyclic voltammetry technique. The SSFAM sensor presented a formal potential of -90 mV vs SCE, excellent stability regarding the number of cycles and regarding the pH of electrolyte support solution ranging from 2.0 to 8.0. The SSFAM sensor was utilized for the determination of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, utilizing the chronoamperometry technique, and presented a response time of 1.5 s, a linear response range between 2.0 x 10-4 and 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 7.8 x 10-6 mol L-1, considering a relation signal/noise = 3. The results obtained for real samples by the SSFAM sensor were compared with those from the standard method for determination of ascorbic acid by the 2,6-dichlorophenilindophenol. The comparison of the obtained results by the two methods demonstrated that the SSFAM sensor has great utilization potential.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid from pungent peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Crosby, Kevin; Jifon, John L; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-01-01

    The development of simultaneous extraction and determination of bioactive molecules from natural products is becoming more popular. The present study reports the development of a method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of both capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid in peppers. Capsaicin (341.61 µg/g), dihydrocapsaicin (119.91 µg/g) and ascorbic acid (2,109.60 µg/g) were extracted with 3% metaphosphoric acid-ethanol (2:8) as a solvent. The efficient extraction of capsaicinoids (412.61 µg/g) and ascorbic acid (2,785.93 µg/g) was achieved at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:8 after 30 minutes of sonication. Simultaneous separation of capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid was achieved using a Gemini C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.03M phosphoric acid and methanol. Capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid were simultaneously detected at 282 and 254 nm, respectively. The recovery of capsaicinoids ranged from 96.21 to 108.71%, and the recovery of ascorbic acid ranged from 97.01 to 98.83%. The limits of detection for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and ascorbic acid were 0.24, 0.21 and 0.26 µg, respectively. Relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day variability in the results was less than 3%, indicating that the method produced highly reproducible results. Therefore, this method enables the reproducible, simultaneous separation and quantification of capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid from peppers.

  17. Ameliorative effects of betaine and ascorbic acid administration to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, supplementation of betaine and ascorbic acid to broiler chickens during the hot-dry season may improve health and production, decrease mortality and increase their productivity. Keywords: Broiler chickens, lipid peroxidation, betaine, ascorbic acid. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(23) 2295-2306 ...

  18. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Hematological parameters are indicators of blood cells production and quality. They are affected variously in ... who do not smoke or take tobacco snuff, served as controls. Spectrophotometric method was adopted for ascorbic acid ... the mouth and alimentary canal.[13] The results of ascorbic acid concentrations obtained ...

  19. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs administered ascorbic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... The experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of an antioxidant ascorbic acid on erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs transported by road for 4 h during the harmattan season. 16 pigs administered with ascorbic acid at the dose of 250 mg/kg per os and individually served as.

  20. Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on Streptococcus mutans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium ascorbate has been suggested to modify bleaching agents' side effects especially on composite resin bonding to dental hard tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on Streptococcus mutans adherence to bleached enamel surfaces. Sixty enamel slabs from bovine ...

  1. Synthesis of New L-Ascorbic Ferulic Acid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility and chemical study of the coupling conditions of L-ascorbic acidwith ferulic acid derivatives are described on the basis of the known synergistic effects ofmixtures of various antioxidants. Novel L-ascorbic ferulic hybrids linked at the C-3hydroxyl group were prepared with the aim to protect the alcohol function and the enediolsystem.

  2. Cloning and analysis of the ascorbate peroxidase gene promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is known to catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water and enhance plants' tolerance in stress environment. An ascorbate peroxidase protein (BnAPX) was previously isolated from Brassica napus in our laboratory and it was located in the chloroplast. In order to clarify the physiological function of ...

  3. Distribution and metabolism of ascorbic acid in pear fruits ( Pyrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbate accumulation levels, distribution and key enzyme activities involved in synthesizing via Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway and recycling in different pear fruit tissues during development were studied. Results show that the ascorbate contents increased with the fruit development, and reached the highest titers in 30 days ...

  4. Enhancement of salt tolerance in sugarcane by ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid is a non-enzymatic antioxidant which plays an important role in the activation of biological defense mechanisms. The effect of 24 h ascorbic acid (0.5 mM) pretreatment was observed on subsequent growth and development of callus cultures as well as in vitro-grown plants of Saccharum sp. hybrid (cvs.

  5. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  6. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma | Anderson | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen White children with bronchial asthma were divided into two groups; one received standard antiasthma chemoprophylaxis (SAC) and the other SAC supplemented with 1 g ascorbic acid (Redoxon) given as a single daily dose for a 6-month period. In 10 patients the effects of ascorbic acid on exerciseinduced ...

  7. Response of Adult Cockerels to Different Sources of Ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the response of Adult cockerels to three sources of ascorbic acid (AA). The sources of ascorbate (vitamin C) tested were industrial, medical and from natural (baobab pulp) in a completely randomized design. Weekly feed intake, feed:gain and weight gain were affected (P<0.05) by the ...

  8. Modelling of Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Ascorbic Acid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) loss in thermally treated pawpaw and potato was modelled mathematically. Isothermal experiments in the temperature range of 50 -80 oC for the drying of pawpaw and 60 -100 oC for the blanch-drying of potato were utilized to determine the kinetics of ascorbic acid loss in both fruit and vegetable.

  9. Lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid levels in Nigeria children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the roles of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the plasma of 406 parasitaemic and 212 non-parasitaemic Nigerian children.

  10. Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure. Methods: In the present study, ameliorating effect of 200 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid (Asc), 500 mg/kg/day of metformin (Met) and ...

  11. APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID 2-PHOSPHATE AS A NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrochemical assay of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer solution the ALP enzymatic hydrolysis product of AAP was ascorbic acid (AA), which was an electro-active substance and had ...

  12. Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) stored at various temperatures were investigated. 2,6 - Dichlorophenolindophenol (dye) solution titration method was used in ascorbic acid determination while Nutrient and Sabouraud agar were ...

  13. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to diets of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to the diets of indigenous Venda hens on egg production, hatchability and subsequent productivity of the chicks. The first part of the study determined the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to the diets of Venda hens on ...

  14. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant activity of Rhamnus kurdica Boiss for flower and leaves in flowering and ... The antioxidant capability, total phenol, total flavonoid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing power contents of polar and non-polar extracts for flower and ...

  15. Preventive and therapeutic potential of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Morgana; Fraga, Daiane Bittencourt; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we summarize the involvement of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases by presenting available evidence on the behavioral and biochemical effects of this compound in animal models of neurodegeneration as well as the use of ascorbic acid as a therapeutic approach to alleviate neurodegenerative progression in clinical studies. Ascorbate, a reduced form of vitamin C, has gained interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration. In the brain, ascorbate exerts neuromodulatory functions and scavenges reactive oxygen species generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism. These are important properties as redox imbalance and abnormal protein aggregation constitute central mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Indeed, several studies have indicated an association between low serum ascorbate concentrations and neurodegeneration. Moreover, ascorbic acid is a suitable candidate for supplying either antioxidant defense or modulation of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism under neurodegenerative conditions. Ascorbic acid acts mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing the formation of protein aggregates, which may contribute to the reduction of cognitive and/or motor impairments observed in neurodegenerative processes. Although several studies support a possible role of ascorbic acid administration against neurodegeneration, more researches are essential to substantiate the existing results and accelerate the knowledge in this field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Low activation barriers characterize intramolecular electron transfer in ascorbate oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic reduction kinetics of the zucchini squash ascorbate oxidase (AO; L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.3) by pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were investigated. Changes in the absorption bands of type 1 [Cu(II)] (610 nm) and type 3 [Cu(II)] (330 nm) were monitored...

  17. Modelling of thermal degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) loss in thermally treated pawpaw and potato was modelled mathematically. Isothermal experiments in the temperature range of 50 -80 oC for the drying of pawpaw and 60 -100 oC for the blanch-drying of potato were utilized to determine the kinetics of ascorbic acid loss in both fruit and vegetable.

  18. Stability Studies of a Mixture of Paracetamol and Ascorbic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    release solid oral dosage forms: acetaminophen. (paracetamol). J Pharm Sci 2006; 95 (1): 4-14. 9. Roy P, Kulkarni AP. Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid by. Lipoxygenase: Effect of Selected Chemicals. Food. ChemToxicol 1996; 34(6): 563-570. 10. Deutsch J.C. Ascorbic acid possesses labile oxygen atoms in aqueous solution.

  19. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs administered ascorbic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of an antioxidant ascorbic acid on erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs transported by road for 4 h during the harmattan season. 16 pigs administered with ascorbic acid at the dose of 250 mg/kg per os and individually served as experimental animals and ...

  20. A quick method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yajun; Wu, Mingjia

    2005-02-15

    A method of quickly determining ascorbic acid and sorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection was developed. The choice of background electrolyte, wavelength, injection time and applied voltage were discussed. Ascorbic acid and sorbic acid were well separated in 80mmolL(-1) boric acid-5mmolL(-1)borax (pH = 8.0) in 5min at the detecting wavelength of 270nm. Under the optimum condition, the method has linear ranges of 2.54-352.00mgL(-1) for ascorbic acid and 1.08-336.39mgL(-1) for sorbic acid with the detection limit of 1.70mgL(-1) for ascorbic acid and 0.54mgL(-1) for sorbic acid, respectively. Other organic acids in fruit juices have no effect on the detection. This method is very feasible and simple and can be used to detect ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices.

  1. Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Ascorbic Acid Using a 2-Chlorobenzoyl Ferrocene/Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Zia Mohammadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode with 2-chlorobenzoyl ferrocene (2CBF and carbon nanotube (2CBFCNPE was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The diffusion coefficient (D = 1.42 × 10-6 cm2 s-1, and the kinetic parameter such as the catalytic rate constant (k = 3.7 × 10 3 M-1 s-1 of ascorbic acid oxidation at the surface of 2CBFCNPE were determined using electrochemical approaches. It has been found that under an optimum condition (pH 4.0, the oxidation of ascorbic acid at the surface of such an electrode occurs at a potential about 85 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Applying square wave voltammetry, in phosphate buffer solution (PBS of pH 4.0, the oxidation current increases linearly with two concentration intervals of ascorbic acid, one is 1.0 × 10-7-2.5 × 10-6 M and the other is 2.5 × 10-6-7.0 × 10-5 M. Detection limit (3δ was obtained 64.0 nM. This method was also examined for determination of ascorbic acid in some real samples.

  2. Voltammetric iodometric titration of ascorbic acid with dead-stop end-point detection in fresh vegetables and fruit samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdini, R A; Lagier, C M

    2000-07-01

    The present work describes a method for determining ascorbic acid, which combines iodometry with a voltammetric technique to detect the end point of the titration. In addition, the validity of the method applied to natural vegetable or fruit samples was assessed. The results were compared with those obtained by an accurate method such as HPLC using UV detection. Similar values of ascorbic acid for different natural samples were obtained by means of this approach (p > 0.05). The limit of quantification was 0.1 mg. This technique presents the advantage of other electroanalytical methods such as avoiding filtration or ultracentrifugation steps, with the additional benefit of using the platinum electrodes, which are routinely used in the laboratory. These facts allow a rapid and efficient quantification of ascorbic acid with very low cost of reagents and equipment.

  3. Managing Agricultural Indigenous And Exogenous Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Agricultural Indigenous And Exogenous Knowledge Through Information And Communication Technologies For Poverty Reduction In Tanzania. ... Access to, and use of, ICTs provides new and faster ways of delivering and accessing information and knowledge that may improve productivity in a wide range of ...

  4. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    2013-07-08

    Jul 8, 2013 ... Abstract. There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. Four forages, treated with EFE, were evaluated in vitro and histologically, in an attempt to determine the effect of EFE on tissue degradation. Weeping love ...

  5. Effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on micropropagation and microtuberization from nodal cuttings of Manihot esculenta was studied. Direct and indirect organogeneses were established from these explants. When nodal cuttings were cultured in the presence of 0.01 to 0.1 mg.L-1 of BAP or NAA there was ...

  6. Allosteric modulation of retinal GABA receptors by ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Vickers, Evan; Moraga Cid, Gustavo; Aguayo, Luis G.; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Calvo, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA and GABAC) belong to the cys-loop receptor family of ligand-gated ion channels. GABAC receptors are highly expressed in the retina, mainly localized at the axon terminals of bipolar cells. Ascorbic acid, an endogenous redox agent, modulates the function of diverse proteins, and basal levels of ascorbic acid in the retina are very high. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on retinal GABA receptors has not been studied. Here we show that the function of GABAC and GABAA receptors is regulated by ascorbic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from bipolar cell terminals in goldfish retinal slices revealed that GABAC receptor-mediated currents activated by tonic background levels of extracellular GABA, and GABAC currents elicited by local GABA puffs, are both significantly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, a significant rundown of GABA-puff evoked currents was observed in the absence of ascorbic acid. GABA-evoked Cl- currents mediated by homomeric ρ1 GABAC receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were also potentiated by ascorbic acid in a concentration-dependent, stereospecific, reversible, and voltage-independent manner. Studies involving the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups showed that the two cys-loop cysteines and histidine 141, all located in the ρ1 subunit extracellular domain, each play a key role in the modulation of GABAC receptors by ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that retinal GABAA IPSCs and heterologously expressed GABAA receptor currents are similarly augmented by ascorbic acid. Our results suggest that ascorbic acid may act as an endogenous agent capable of potentiating GABAergic neurotransmission in the CNS. PMID:21715633

  7. Comparison of ascorbate metabolism in fruits of two citrus species with obvious difference in ascorbate content in pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Jin-Xia; Wang, Fang-Fang; Zhong, Jing; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Li, Guo-Huai; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2011-12-15

    Citrus fruit is widely consumed and provides ascorbate for human health. The ascorbate content in pulp is generally higher in orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) than in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). However, what contributes to such difference is still unknown. In the present study, ascorbate accumulation, expression profiles of genes involved in L-galactose pathway and activity changes of enzymes related with L-ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation and recycling were investigated during fruit development and ripening in fruit pulp of Satsuma mandarin and orange. As fruit ripens, total ascorbate (T-ASC) or AA content increased in mandarin whereas fluctuated on a relatively high level in orange. Concentrations of T-ASC or AA in pulp of orange were over 1.5-fold higher than that in pulp of Satsuma mandarin during fruit ripening. Further analysis showed that each transcript of four genes (encoding GDP-D-mannose-3',5'-epimerase, GDP-L-galactose-pyrophosphatase, L-galactose dehydrogenase and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase respectively) in orange was almost on a higher level and the activities of oxidation enzymes (ascorbate oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were lower during fruit ripening as compared with Satsuma mandarin. As ascorbate pool size is decided by the combination of biosynthesis, oxidation and recycling, therefore, higher expression of four genes along with lower activity of oxidation enzymes should contribute at least partially to the higher ASC accumulation in orange pulp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Ascorbate Biosynthesis during Early Fruit Development Is the Main Reason for Its Accumulation in Kiwi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Liang, Dong; Li, Juan; Wang, Yanlei

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid (AsA) is a unique antioxidant as well as an enzyme cofactor. Although it has multiple roles in plants, it is unclear how its accumulation is controlled at the expression level, especially in sink tissues. Kiwifruit (Actinidia) is well-known for its high ascorbate content. Our objective was to determine whether AsA accumulates in the fruits primarily through biosynthesis or because it is imported from the foliage. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically investigated AsA levels, biosynthetic capacity, and mRNA expression of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis in kiwi (A. deliciosa cv. Qinmei). Recycling and AsA localization were also monitored during fruit development and among different tissue types. Over time, the amount of AsA, with its capacity for higher biosynthesis and lower recycling, peaked at 30 days after anthesis (DAA), and then decreased markedly up to 60 DAA before declining more slowly. Expression of key genes showed similar patterns of change, except for L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP). However, GPP had good correlation with the rate of AsA accumulation. The expression of these genes could be detected in phloem of stem as well as petiole of leaf and fruit. Additionally, fruit petioles had greater ascorbate amounts, although that was the site of lowest expression by most genes. Fruit microtubule tissues also had higher AsA. However, exogenous applications of AsA to those petioles did not lead to its transport into fruits, and distribution of ascorbate was cell-specific in the fruits, with more accumulation occurring in larger cells. Conclusions These results suggest that AsA biosynthesis in kiwi during early fruit development is the main reason for its accumulation in the fruits. We also postulate here that GPP is a good candidate for regulating AsA biosynthesis whereas GDP-L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphorylase is not. PMID:21151561

  9. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudrat A. Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and ascorbate oxidase (AO involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review.

  10. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nudrat A; Shafiq, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA) is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review.

  11. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nudrat A.; Shafiq, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA) is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review. PMID:28491070

  12. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  13. Ascorbic acid deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Mishthu; Baweja, Devinder Kaur; Patil, Sandyadevi S; Shivaprakash, P K

    2011-07-01

    Scurvy is well known since ancient times, but it is rarely seen in the developed world today owing to the discovery of its link to the dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid. It is very uncommon in the pediatric population, and is usually seen in children with severely restricted diet attributable to psychiatric or developmental disturbances. The condition presents itself by the formation of perifollicular petechiae and bruising, gingival inflammation and bleeding, and, in children, bone disease. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old developmentally delayed boy who had a diet markedly deficient in vitamin C resulting from extremely limited food choices. He presented with debilitating bone pain, inflammatory gingival disease, and perifollicular hyperkeratosis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiographic findings. The importance of diet history is emphasized. We present this case with the aim to help the clinician identify scurvy and implement treatment for a potentially fatal but easily curable disease.

  14. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbatein vitroandin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the C max value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their T max values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  15. Apparent effect of ascorbic acid medication on semen metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W A; Harden, T E; Dawson, E B

    1979-10-01

    The apparent effect of ascorbic acid therapy for nonspecific spermagglutination on semen levels of ascorbic acid as well as macro- and micrometals was determined in 20 men (ages 25 to 38). Pretreatment diagnosis was based on infertility and relatively low ratings in sperm density, motility, motility index, and semen volume, and were associated with large numbers of abnormal sperm, sperm precursors, and leukocytes. The pretreatment levels of ascorbic acid, sodium, iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, lead, magnesium, and copper were measured in each patient's semen and compared with levels following 60 days of dietary vitamin C supplementation (1.0 gm/day). Analysis of the vitamin C preparation prescribed revealed that each subject was given an impure ascorbic acid medication to supplement a normal diet. Therefore, the significant increases in levels of ascorbic acid and metals in semen following therapy could not be attributed to ascorbic acid alone, nor, similarly, the improved physical parameters of each subject's semen following therapy; no apparent spermagglutination and restored fertility may be due to the interaction of ascorbic acid with cations found in semen.

  16. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  17. Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Hong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-02-15

    The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of (206)Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb(2+) ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60-85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60-66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exogenous jasmonic acid induces stress tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) exposed to imazapic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan; Doganlar, Zeynep Banu

    2016-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is one of the important phytohormones, regulating the stress responses as well as plant growth and development. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of exogenous JA application on stress responses of tobacco plant exposed to imazapic. In this study, phytotoxic responses resulting from both imazapic and imazapic combined with JA treatment are investigated comparatively for tobacco plants. For plants treated with imazapic at different concentrations (0.030, 0.060 and 0.120mM), antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase), carotenoids, glutathione and malondialdehyte (MDA) contents, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid levels as well as herbicide residue amounts on leaves increased in general compared to the control group. In the plants treated with 45µM jasmonic acid, pigment content, antioxidant activity and phytohormone level increased whereas MDA content and the amount of herbicidal residue decreased compared to the non-treated plants. Our findings show that imazapic treatment induces some phytotoxic responses on tobacco leaves and that exogenous jasmonic acid treatment alleviates the negative effects of herbicide treatment by regulating these responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary embolism due to exogenous estrogen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Caner; Carus, Murat; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a relatively common clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism, which develops in relation to acute pulmonary arterial occlusion mostly caused by thrombi of the lower limbs. 29year old female admitted to emergency department with pulmonary thromboembolism due to an ingestion of 17 Diana 35 pills (2 mg cyproterone acetate and 0.035mg ethinyl estradiol) in a suicide attempt without any previously known predisposing factors. After thrombolytic therapy, the patient was discharged with oral warfarin treatment. We know that exogenous estrogen increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in therapeutic use. It should be kept in mind that even single ingestion of a single high-dose exogenous estrogen intake may induce pulmonary thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Lutein, Trolox, ascorbic acid and combination of Trolox with ascorbic acid can improve boar semen quality during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo-Ghiuru, Florin; Miclea, Ileana; Hettig, Andrea; Ladoşi, Ioan; Miclea, Vasile; Egerszegi, István; Zăhan, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Due to pour quality of cryopreserved boar semen, artificial innsemination with frozen-thawed semen is quite limited. Developing protocols of boar semen cryopreservation represents a priority but also a challange. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of lutein, Trolox, ascorbic acid, and certain combinations of Trolox with ascorbic acid on boar semen cryopreservation procedure. Antioxidants were added to lactose-egg yolk extender, containing a final concentration of 3% glycerol and 0.5% Equex-STM. Semen of six boars was cryopreserved using straw-freezing procedure. After cryopreservation semen was thawed and evaluated for motility, normal apical ridge (NAR), hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The results showed better motility after thawing at the concentration of 10 μM lutein, 200 μM Trolox, 200 μM ascorbic acid and 400-200 μM Trolox and ascorbic acid. The supplementation on boar freezing extender with 10 μM lutein increased post-thawed motility, NAR and HOST values (P Trolox and ascorbic acid, with better results in the case of DFI (P Trolox and 200 μM ascorbic acid provided significant differences (P Trolox and ascorbic acid used in boar semen cryopreservation can improve the quality of spermatozoa.

  1. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  2. [The study of absorption efficiency and restoring effects of collagen and ascorbic acid on aged skin by fluorescence and reflection spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Lin, Yu-Min; Wang, Shi-Yuan; Yeh, D C

    2012-12-01

    Collagen is one of the main structural proteins in human dermis. The lack and atrophy of collagen induces the appearance of wrinkles and beginning of aging. L-ascorbic acid has significant effects on skin-whitening and anti-oxidation, which helps keep skin beautiful and healthy, respectively. With auto-fluorescence, the amount of collagen is in proportion to the strength of its fluorescence spectrum. Therefore, a new method is proposed to determine the content of collagen and the health of skin through the analysis of fluorescence and reflection spectra. Compared with conventional chemical analysis, this method needs less time, and is much more noninvasive. Solutions of different concentration of external collagen and L-ascorbic acid were applied on healthy, spotted and wrinkled skin in this study. By the time dependence of fluorescence and reflection spectra, the effects of skin absorption and restoration of collagen and L-ascorbic acid were derived, respectively. The experiment shows that the collagen or L-ascorbic acid solution of adequate concentration is best for skin absorption. Admixed with suitable concentration of L-ascorbic acid, the collagen solution was well absorbed and results in effect of smoothing wrinkles; the effect of L-ascorbic acid to clear up the spots was also demonstrated. By scientific explorations shown above, the restoration effects of cosmetic materials were validated, and people's confusion and myth about skincare products were avoided. Consequently, this study helps advance cosmetic industry.

  3. Bonding Effectiveness of Universal Adhesive to Intracoronal Bleached Dentin Treated with Sodium Ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Thaís Fantinato; Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; Raucci, Walter; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Colucci, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of restorative protocol with sodium ascorbate on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a universal adhesive to intracoronal bleached dentin. One hundred-and-twenty bovine dentin fragments were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=10), according to the bleaching procedure (unbleached and bleached) and restorative protocol (no treatment, 10% sodium ascorbate -10SA, 35% sodium ascorbate -35SA and two-step etch-and-rinse -ER or one-step self-etch -SE Scotchbond universal adhesive approaches). Four whitening sessions were performed using 35% hydrogen peroxide. The samples from control groups were kept in relative humidity at 37 °C. Immediately after bleaching procedures, the assigned antioxidant solution was applied on dentin and restorative procedures were performed following either the ER or the SE approach. After 24 h, the specimens were subjected to SBS test. Data (MPa) were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Lower SBS values were found for bleached specimens (8.54 MPa) compared with those unbleached (12.13 MPa) (padhesive strategies. The group treated with 10SA submitted to ER approach (10.14 MPa) was similar to untreated groups (p>0.05). It may be concluded that bond strength of composite resin to intracoronal dentin was affected by restorative protocol and reduced by bleaching.

  4. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo Cruz-Rus; Iraida Amaya; José F. Sánchez-Sevilla; Miguel A. Botella; Victoriano Valpuesta

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa...

  5. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, CC; Pereira, APC; Silva, JRF; Oliveira, LS; Resck, MCC; Grechi, CO; Bernardes, MTCP; Olímpio, FMP; Santos, AMM; Incerpi, EK; Garcia, JAD

    2009-01-01

    .... OBJECTIVE: to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period...

  6. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Ascorbic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    sabdariffa aqueous extract possesses antioxidant potency comparable with that of ascorbic acid. Keywords: Oxidative stress, antioxidants, Hibiscus sabdariiffa, ferrous sulphate, Clarias gariepinus. INTRODUCTION. The interaction between contaminants and biomolecules is the first step in the generation of toxic effects.

  7. Comparison of Ascorbic Acid Content of some Selected Fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber, Cabbage, Spinach and Tomatoes) sourced from Yankaba market, Kano state. Colorimetric method was used for the determination. The ascorbic acid content in the ... helps the body absorb iron from plant foods. (Chopra and Kanwar ...

  8. Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid at gold nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid modified electrode.

  9. Combined effect of sodium valproate and ascorbic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional antiepileptic drug) and ascorbic acid (potent antioxidant) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures. Thirty mice were divided into six groups of five each (n=5). Group 1 served as control and administered normal saline 1ml/kg, ...

  10. Study of Plasma Ascorbic Acid Levels in Wheezing Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagdeote AN; Paunipagar PV; Muddeshwar MG; Suryawanshi NP

    2011-01-01

    ...: In a cross sectional blood samples of 50 patients attending pediatrics OPD, having wheezing and shortness of breath were analyzed for plasma Ascorbic acid level and compared with healthy controls of same age and sex. Results...

  11. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v/v). Powder properties were investigated and tablets of ascorbic acid were formulated using MCS and MCC as direct compression excipients. RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were comparable to those of MCC ...

  13. Does sodium ascorbate improve bond strength after dental bleaching techniques?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaucia C Rodrigues Nascimento; Marcella Y Reis Guerreiro; Flávia Furtado Carvalho; André Rossi Força; Mário H Silva e Souza Junior; Sandro Cordeiro Loretto

    2015-01-01

    ...), were included in the review. Results: Most of studies revealed that sodium ascorbate could restore the altered redox potential of the oxidized bonding substrate, thus reversing the compromised bonding...

  14. Carbon Dot Based Sensing of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upama Baruah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate carbon dot based sensor of catecholamine, namely, dopamine and ascorbic acid. Carbon dots (CDs were prepared from a green source: commercially available Assam tea. The carbon dots prepared from tea had particle sizes of ∼0.8 nm and are fluorescent. Fluorescence of the carbon dots was found to be quenched in the presence of dopamine and ascorbic acid with greater sensitivity for dopamine. The minimum detectable limits were determined to be 33 μM and 98 μM for dopamine and ascorbic acid, respectively. The quenching constants determined from Stern-Volmer plot were determined to be 5 × 10−4 and 1 × 10−4 for dopamine and ascorbic acid, respectively. A probable mechanism of quenching has been discussed in the paper.

  15. Evaluation of the anti-wrinkle effect of an ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch via a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Yang, H; Kim, S; Kim, M; Kang, H; Kim, N; An, S; Koh, J; Jung, H

    2016-08-01

    Although an ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch has been developed to improve anti-wrinkle effects, an efficacy evaluation with a control group has not yet been performed. In this study, the anti-wrinkle effect of an ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch was evaluated in a double-blind clinical study with a control group. In addition, a cumulative skin irritation and sensitization potential of the ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch was performed. Twenty-three subjects were selected for anti-wrinkle effect evaluation in a double-blind clinical study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group I subjects applied an ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch on a crow's feet area on the left side of the face and a control sample on a crow's feet area on the right side of the face every 4 days. Group II subjects placed the same patches on opposite sides of the face. Global Photodamage Score and skin replica analysis were conducted by visual inspection and skin visiometer, respectively. A skin irritation and sensitization assessment was performed on 51 subjects using the modified Shelanski & Shelanski procedure. Cumulative skin irritation potential and skin sensitization of the ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch and control sample were evaluated. Skin treated with the ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch showed a statistically significant improvement in both the Global Photodamage Score and visiometer R values (P skin irritation and sensitization assessment demonstrated that the ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch did not induce any cumulative skin irritation potential or skin sensitization. An ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patch produced a significant anti-wrinkle effect without skin irritation and sensitization problems. This cosmetic dissolving microneedle patch can be used efficiently in the anti-wrinkle cosmetic field with patient convenience. © 2015 Society

  16. Studies on the biological oxidation - The oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Barrón, E. S.; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Chicago, Chicago, Estados Unidos; Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Lima, Lima, Perú; Guzmán Barrón, Alberto; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Chicago, Chicago, Estados Unidos; Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Lima, Lima, Perú; Klemperer, Friedrich; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Chicago, Chicago, Estados Unidos; Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Lima, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Biological fluids can be divided according to their behavior toward ascorbic acid into two groups: those having an inhibitory mechanism that protects the ascorbic acid oxidation, and those lacking this mechanism. Animal fluids and some of vegetable origin (those containing dosables amounts of ascorbic acid) corresponding to the first group. Ascorbic acid is protected from oxidation in the fluids by the action of copper catalyst. Fluids from plants (those that contain very little ascorbic acid...

  17. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Bostanci, Basak; Demirel, Ozlem Ozbas; Genc, Feyza; Tekin, Kemal; Koban, Yaran; Dincel, Aylin Sepici; Sen, Murat; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), the main antioxidant agent in the cornea on transepithelial corneal cross-linking (CXL) where the main mechanism is oxidation. Twenty eyes of 20 rabbits were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (7 eyes) had transepithelial corneal CXL after being fed with normal diet; Group 2 (7 eyes) had corneal CXL after once-daily subcutaneous injections of 200 mg of ascorbic acid in addition to normal diet; and the control group (6 eyes) was fed with normal diet but did not have corneal CXL performed. Ascorbic acid levels were measured in aqueous humor and plasma, and biomechanical measurements were applied to the cornea. There was a significant difference in ascorbic acid levels of plasma (P = 0.008) and aqueous humor (P = 0.006) between group 1 and 2. The Young's modulus values of group 1 and 2 were similar (P = 0.741) and were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01). The increase rate in Young's modulus values was 37.3% in group 1 and 43.9% in group 2 compared to control group. The ultimate strain values in group 1 and 2 were similar (P = 0.632) and were significantly higher than control group (P = 0.04, P = 0.03). The ultimate stress values in group 1 and 2 were similar (P = 0.836) and were significantly lower than control group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Systemic vitamin C does not appear to decrease effectiveness of transepithelial corneal CXL. Therefore, there is no reason to stop or reduce vitamin C supplementation before corneal CXL therapy.

  18. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  19. A direct ascorbate fuel cell with an anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneeb, Omar; Do, Emily; Tran, Timothy; Boyd, Desiree; Huynh, Michelle; Ghosn, Gregory; Haan, John L.

    2017-05-01

    Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is investigated as a renewable alternative fuel for alkaline direct liquid fuel cells (DLFCs). The environmentally- and biologically-friendly compound, L-ascorbic acid (AA) has been modeled and studied experimentally under acidic fuel cell conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a more efficient fuel in alkaline media than in acidic media. An operating direct ascorbate fuel cell is constructed with the combination of L-ascorbic acid and KOH as the anode fuel, air or oxygen as the oxidant, a polymer anion exchange membrane, metal or carbon black anode materials and metal cathode catalyst. Operation of the fuel cell at 60 °C using 1 M AA and 1 M KOH as the anode fuel and electrolyte, respectively, and oxygen gas at the cathode, produces a maximum power density of 73 mW cm-2, maximum current density of 497 mA cm-2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V. This performance is significantly greater than that of an ascorbic acid fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane, and it is competitive with alkaline DLFCs fueled by alcohols.

  20. Ascorbic acid deficiency in patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Ilinca; Mitran, Cristina Iulia; Mitran, Madalina Irina; Ene, Corina Daniela; Tampa, Mircea; Georgescu, Simona Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lichen planus (LP). In the present study, the interest of the authors is focused on the investigation of ascorbic acid status in patients with LP and identification of parameters that might influence the level of this vitamin. We analyzed the level of urinary ascorbic acid (reflectometric method) in 77 patients with LP (cutaneous LP (CLP)-49 cases; oral LP (OLP)-28 cases) and 50 control subjects. The evaluation of all participants included clinical examination and laboratory and imaging tests. Compared to the control group (19.82 mg/dl) the level of ascorbic acid was significantly lower both in patients with CLP (8.47 mg/dl, p = 0.001) and in those with OLP (8.04 mg/dl, p = 0.001). In patients with LP it was found that the deficiency of ascorbic acid increases with age (r = -0.318, p = 0.032). The urinary concentrations of ascorbic acid were significantly lower in patients with LP associated with infections compared to patients with LP without infections. The urinary ascorbic acid level may be a useful parameter in identifying patients with LP who are at risk of developing viral or bacterial infections.

  1. Exogenous 3,3'-diindolylmethane increases Brassica napus L. seedling shoot growth through modulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Arun; Roode, Enrico; Klein, Ashwil; Keyster, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Brassica napus L. (cv. AV Garnet) seeds were pre-treated with 15μM 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to investigate whether DIM could enhance seed germination. Further treatment of seedlings with 15μM DIM for 14days explored the effects on seedling shoot growth. Exogenous DIM led to improved germination percentage, increased seedling shoot lengths, and increased fresh and dry weights. Furthermore, DIM triggered induction of superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content however, no change in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and cell death (assessed with Evans Blue assay) was detected for both the control and DIM treated seedling shoots. We also observed increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in response to exogenous DIM, two fundamental enzymes in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. These results indicate that exogenous DIM treatment enhances seed germination and improves seedling shoot growth through possible activation of a reactive oxygen species signalling pathway involving O2(-) and H2O2 in B. napus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Exogenous NO mediated GSH-PCs synthesis pathway in tomato under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yu, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Min; Cui, Xiu-Min

    2014-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), as a biologically active molecule, widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stresses. By using solution culture, this paper reported the dynamic changes in enzyme activity and metabolites related to GSH-PCs synthesis way mediated by exogenous NO in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The results showed that exogenous NO could affect the metabolic pathway of GSH-PCs in tomato seedlings under copper stress. Compared with CK, the activity of γ-ECS and GS was significantly activated, consequently resulting in a sharp rise in GSH and PCs contents in tomato root. Moreover, γ-ECS and GS activity, GSH and PCs contents constantly rise with the extension of processing time under copper stress. Adding exogenous SNP could further improve γ-ECS and GS activity in tomato, and promote the production of GSH and PCs, which contributed to enhancing the ability of removing superoxide and chelating excess Cu2+ to reduce its biological toxicity. To a certain extent, GSH-PCs metabolic changes in leaf lagged behind that in roots. Exogenous BSO could significantly inhibit γ-ECS activity, and applying SNP could significantly reverse the inhibition on GSH and PCs synthesis by BSO. BSO had little effects on PCs content in leaf. Under copper stress, exogenous NO may initiate a signal mechanism and reduce the biotoxicity and oxidative damage caused by excessive Cu2+ by activating or enhancing the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in the GSH-PCs synthesis path.

  3. Labile iron potentiates ascorbate-dependent reduction and mobilization of ferritin iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badu-Boateng, Charles; Pardalaki, Sofia; Wolf, Claude; Lajnef, Sonia; Peyrot, Fabienne; Naftalin, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Ascorbate mobilizes iron from equine spleen ferritin by two separate processes. Ascorbate alone mobilizes ferritin iron with an apparent K m (ascorbate) ≈1.5mM. Labile iron >2μM, complexed with citrate (10mM), synergises ascorbate-dependent iron mobilization by decreasing the apparent K m (ascorbate) to ≈270μM and raising maximal mobilization rate by ≈5-fold. Catalase reduces the apparent K m(ascorbate) for both ascorbate and ascorbate+iron dependent mobilization by ≈80%. Iron mobilization by ascorbate alone has a higher activation energy (E a =45.0±5.5kJ/mole) than when mediated by ascorbate with labile iron (10μM) (E a =13.7±2.2kJ/mole); also mobilization by iron-ascorbate has a three-fold higher pH sensitivity (pH range 6.0-8.0) than with ascorbate alone. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits ascorbate's iron mobilizing action. EPR and autochemiluminescence studies show that ascorbate and labile iron within ferritin enhances radical formation, whereas ascorbate alone produces negligible radicals. These findings suggest that iron catalysed single electron transfer reactions from ascorbate, involving ascorbate or superoxide and possibly ferroxidase tyrosine radicals, accelerate iron mobilization from the ferroxidase centre more than EPR silent, bi-dentate two-electron transfers. These differing modes of electron transference from ascorbate mirror the known mono and bidentate oxidation reactions of dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide with di-ferrous iron at the ferroxidase centre. This study implies that labile iron, at physiological pH, complexed with citrate, synergises iron mobilization from ferritin by ascorbate (50-4000μM). This autocatalytic process can exacerbate oxidative stress in ferritin-containing inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... levels among CPR users in a laboratory experiment. We also observe no differences between weak external regulations and no regulations, after controlling for a potential confound. However, when we add communication to our endogenous treatment, we observe significant behavioral differences between...

  5. Phase I evaluation of intravenous ascorbic acid in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Monti

    Full Text Available Preclinical data support further investigation of ascorbic acid in pancreatic cancer. There are currently insufficient safety data in human subjects, particularly when ascorbic acid is combined with chemotherapy.14 subjects with metastatic stage IV pancreatic cancer were recruited to receive an eight week cycle of intravenous ascorbic acid (three infusions per week, using a dose escalation design, along with standard treatment of gemcitabine and erlotinib. Of 14 recruited subjects enrolled, nine completed the study (three in each dosage tier. There were fifteen non-serious adverse events and eight serious adverse events, all likely related to progression of disease or treatment with gemcitabine or erlotinib. Applying RECIST 1.0 criteria, seven of the nine subjects had stable disease while the other two had progressive disease.These initial safety data do not reveal increased toxicity with the addition of ascorbic acid to gemcitabine and erlotinib in pancreatic cancer patients. This, combined with the observed response to treatment, suggests the need for a phase II study of longer duration.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00954525.

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid, salt, lemon juice, and honey on drying kinetics and sensory characteristic of dried mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Abano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ascorbic acid, salt solution, lemon juice, and honey pretreatment on the drying kinetics and sensory characteristics were studied. Pretreatments used affected the effective moisture diffusivity and rehydration properties of the dried mangoes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.22 × 10-10 m2/s for ascorbic acid, 1.80 × 10-10 m2/s for salt solution, 2.01 × 10-10 m2/s for lemon juice, 1.93 × 10-10 m2/s for honey pretreated mangoes, and 2.31 × 10-10 m2/s for the control slices. Pretreatments enhanced the drying rate potential of mangoes. Among the thin-layer drying models fitted to the experimental data, the Middil model gave the best fit. The ascorbic acid pretreated samples were the best while the salt solution ones were the poorest with respect to reconstitution capacity. Consumer studies for overall preference for taste, colour, texture, flavour and chewiness of the dried products revealed that there was a higher preference for honey pretreated dried samples followed by the ascorbic acid, control, lemon juice, and salt solution pretreated samples. The results demonstrate that these pretreatments can be applied to enhance the moisture transport during drying and the quality of the dried products.

  7. Roles of Siderophores, Oxalate, and Ascorbate in Mobilization of Iron from Hematite by the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas mendocina▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehner, Carolyn A.; Awaya, Jonathan D.; Maurice, Patricia A.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    In aerobic, circumneutral environments, the essential element Fe occurs primarily in scarcely soluble mineral forms. We examined the independent and combined effects of a siderophore, a reductant (ascorbate), and a low-molecular-weight carboxylic acid (oxalate) on acquisition of Fe from the mineral hematite (α-Fe2O3) by the obligate aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina ymp. A site-directed ΔpmhA mutant that was not capable of producing functional siderophores (i.e., siderophore− phenotype) did not grow on hematite as the only Fe source. The concentration of an added exogenous siderophore (1 μM desferrioxamine B [DFO-B]) needed to restore wild-type (WT)-like growth kinetics to the siderophore− strain was ∼50-fold less than the concentration of the siderophore secreted by the WT organism grown under the same conditions. The roles of a reductant (ascorbate) and a simple carboxylic acid (oxalate) in the Fe acquisition process were examined in the presence and absence of the siderophore. Addition of ascorbate (50 μM) alone restored the growth of the siderophore− culture to the WT levels. A higher concentration of oxalate (100 μM) had little effect on the growth of a siderophore− culture; however, addition of 0.1 μM DFO-B and 100 μM oxalate restored the growth of the mutant to WT levels when the oxalate was prereacted with the hematite, demonstrating that a metabolizing culture benefits from a synergistic effect of DFO-B and oxalate. PMID:20118367

  8. Epigenetic impacts of ascorbate on human metastatic melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eVenturelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing evidence has emerged demonstrating that high-dose ascorbate bears cytotoxic effects on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, making ascorbate a pro-oxidative drug that catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production in tissues instead of acting as a radical scavenger. This anticancer effect of ascorbate is HIF-1α- and O2–dependent. However, whether the intracellular mechanisms governing this effect are modulated by epigenetic phenomena remains unknown. We treated human melanoma cells with physiological (200 µM or pharmacological (8 mM ascorbate for 1 h to record the impact on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT-activity, histone deacetylases (HDACs and microRNA expression after 12 h. The results were analyzed with the MIRUMIR online tool that estimates the power of microRNA to serve as potential biomarkers to predict survival of cancer patients.FACS cell cycle analyses showed that 8 mM ascorbate shifted BLM melanoma cells towards the sub-G1 fraction starting at 12 h after an initial primary G2/M arrest, indicative for secondary apoptosis induction. In pharmacological doses ascorbate inhibited the DNMT-activity in nuclear extracts of MeWo and BLM melanoma cells, but did not inhibit human HDAC enzymes of classes I, II and IV. The expression of 151 microRNAs was altered 12 h after ascorbate treatment of BLM cells in physiological or pharmacological doses. Pharmacological doses up-regulated 32 microRNAs (≥4-fold mainly involved in tumor suppression and drug resistance in our preliminary microRNA screening array. The most prominently up-regulated microRNAs correlated with a significantly increased overall survival of breast cancer- or nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients of the MIRUMIR database with high expression of the respective microRNA. Our results suggest a possible epigenetic signature of pharmacological doses of ascorbate in human melanoma cells and support further pre-clinical and possibly even clinical evaluation of ascorbate

  9. The effect of ascorbate on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, K; Kurata, T; Yashiro, M; Tsuge, M; Ohtsuki, S; Morishima, T

    2010-03-01

    Minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (MRAS) is a common, painful and inflammatory ailment of the oral cavity with juvenile onset and unknown aetiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of ascorbate (vitamin C) to reduce the frequency of MRAS and severity of pain. Sixteen MRAS patients (9 boys and 7 girls: mean age, 12.0 +/- 2.4 years old) were assigned to take an oral dosage of 2000 mg/m(2)/day ascorbate. Their baseline frequency of outbreaks and the level of pains were compared during the treatment; in addition, a crossover clinical trial was performed. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes play a role in the pathogenesis, and then superoxide anion production was evaluated in prior to ascorbate treatment. The data indicated a statistically significant 50% reduction in oral ulcer outbreaks and a decline of pain level. Neutrophils were primed for superoxide anion production in the patients with MRAS. Ascorbate may modulate the generation of reactive oxygen species and augment neutrophil apoptosis, which could prevent neutrophil-mediated inflammation. Ascorbate seems to be effective, but the findings of our study were preliminary and it should be re-evaluated with a larger randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  11. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  12. Green reduction of graphene oxide by ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Zahra; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Allafchian, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Graphene, a single layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms in a hexagonal (two-dimensional honey-comb) lattice, has attracted strong scientific and technological interest due to its novel and excellent optical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. The solution-processable chemical reduction of Graphene oxide (GO is considered as the most favorable method regarding mass production of graphene. Generally, the reduction of GO is carried out by chemical approaches using different reductants such as hydrazine and sodium borohydride. These components are corrosive, combustible and highly toxic which may be dangerous for personnel health and the environment. Hence, these reducing agents are not promising choice for reducing of graphene oxide (GO). As a consequence, it is necessary for further development and optimization of eco-friendly, natural reducing agent for clean and effective reduction of GO. Ascorbic acid, an eco-friendly and natural reducing agents, having a mild reductive ability and nontoxic property. So, the aim of this research was to green synthesis of GO with ascorbic acid. For this purpose, the required amount of NaOH and ascorbic acid were added to GO solution (0.5 mg/ml) and were heated at 95 °C for 1 hour. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical results, GO were reduced with ascorbic acid like hydrazine with better electrochemical properties and ascorbic acid is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide process.

  13. Combined therapy of Ulmo honey (Eucryphia cordifolia and ascorbic acid to treat venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano del Sol Calderon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the clinical effect of topical treatment using Ulmo honey associated with oral ascorbic acid in patients with venous ulcers. METHOD: longitudinal and descriptive quantitative study. During one year, 18 patients were assessed who were clinically diagnosed with venous ulcer in different stages, male and female, adult, with a mean injury time of 13 months. Ulmo honey was topically applied daily. The dressing was applied in accordance with the technical standard for advanced dressings, combined with the daily oral consumptions of 500 mg of ascorbic acid. The monitoring instrument is the assessment table of venous ulcers. RESULTS: full healing was achieved in 100% of the venous ulcers. No signs of complications were observed, such as allergies or infection. CONCLUSION: the proposed treatment showed excellent clinical results for the healing of venous ulcers. The honey demonstrated debriding and non-adherent properties, was easy to apply and remove and was well accepted by the users. The described results generated a research line on chronic wound treatment.

  14. All-solid-state potentiometric sensors for ascorbic acid by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltsistas, Panayotis G.; Prodromidis, Mamas I.; Efstathiou, Constantinos

    2004-01-23

    The development of all-solid-state potentiometric ion selective electrodes for monitoring of ascorbic acid, by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact is described. The applied methodology is based on the use of PVC membrane modified with some firstly-tested ionophores (triphenyltin(IV)chloride, triphenyltin(IV)hydroxide and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid) and a novel one synthesized in our laboratory (dibutyltin(IV) diascorbate). Synthesis protocol and some preliminary identification studies are given. A conductive graphite-based polymer thick film ink was used as an internal solid contact between the graphite electrode and the PVC membrane. The presence and the nature of the solid contact (plain or doped with lanthanum 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPI)) seem to enhance the analytical performance of the electrodes in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. The analytical performance of the constructed electrodes was evaluated with potentiometry, constant-current chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The interference effect of various compounds was also tested. The potential response of the optimized Ph{sub 3}SnCl-based electrode was linear against ascorbic acid concentration range 0.005-5.0 mM. The applicability of the proposed sensors in real samples was also tested. The detection limit was 0.002 mM ascorbic acid (50 mM phosphate, pH 5 in 50 mM KCl). The slope of the electrodes was super-Nernstian and pH dependent, indicating a mechanism involving a combination of charge transfer and ion exchange processes. Fabrication of screen-printed ascorbate ISEs has also been demonstrated.

  15. Determination of Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Fruit Juices and Wine by Voltammetry Performed at Pt and Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Pisoschi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r2 = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM. R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r2 = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM. R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement.

  16. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress.

  17. The future of exogenous surfactant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Notter, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Since the identification of surfactant deficiency as the putative cause of the infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Avery and Mead in 1959, our understanding of the role of pulmonary surfactant in respiratory physiology and the pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) has advanced substantially. Surfactant replacement has become routine for the prevention and treatment of infant RDS and other causes of neonatal lung injury. The role of surfactant in lung injury beyond the neonatal period, however, has proven more complex. Relative surfactant deficiency, dysfunction, and inhibition all contribute to the disturbed physiology seen in ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Consequently, exogenous surfactant, while a plausible therapy, has proven to be less effective in ALI/ARDS than in RDS, where simple deficiency is causative. This failure may relate to a number of factors, among them inadequacy of pharmaceutical surfactants, insufficient dosing or drug delivery, poor drug distribution, or simply an inability of the drug to substantially impact the underlying pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Both animal and human studies suggest that direct types of ALI (eg, aspiration, pneumonia) may be more responsive to surfactant therapy than indirect lung injury (eg, sepsis, pancreatitis). Animal studies are needed, however, to further clarify aspects of drug composition, timing, delivery, and dosing before additional human trials are pursued, as the results of human trials to date have been inconsistent and largely disappointing. Further study and perhaps the development of more robust pharmaceutical surfactants offer promise that exogenous surfactant will find a place in our armamentarium of treatment of ALI/ARDS in the future. 2011 Daedalus Enterprises

  18. Mitochondria, Energy and Cancer: The Relationship with Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J.; Rosario-Pérez, Glorivee; Guzmán, Angélica M.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Duconge, Jorge; Lavergne, Julio; Fernandez, Nadia; Ortiz, Norma; Quintero, Ana; Mikirova, Nina; Riordan, Neil H.; Ricart, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic Acid (AA) has been used in the prevention and treatment of cancer with reported effectiveness. Mitochondria may be one of the principal targets of ascorbate's cellular activity and it may play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. Mitochondria, besides generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP), has a role in apoptosis regulation and in the production of regulatory oxidative species that may be relevant in gene expression. At higher concentrations AA may increase ATP production by increasing mitochondrial electron flux, also may induce apoptotic cell death in tumor cell lines, probably via its pro-oxidant action In contrast, at lower concentrations AA displays antioxidant properties that may prevent the activation of oxidant-induced apoptosis. These concentration dependent activities of ascorbate may explain in part the seemingly contradictory results that have been reported previously. PMID:23565030

  19. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Lack of post-sampling stability of ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid and failure to block their in vivo equilibrium have lowered their value as biomarkers of oxidative stress and limited the ability to further investigate their possible role in disease prevention. In the present paper......, the analytical reproducibility was tested by repeated analysis of plasma aliquots from one individual over four years. The plasma was subjected to acidic deproteinization with an equal volume of 10% meta-phosphoric acid containing 2 mM EDTA and analyzed for ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid by high......-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. In a parallel experiment, stability of human plasma samples treated as above and stored at -80°C for five years was tested in a cohort of 131 individuals. No degradation or shift in the equilibrium between ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid was observed...

  20. Study of Plasma Ascorbic Acid Levels in Wheezing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeote AN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive Oxygen species induced bronchial abnormalities may have important consequences in asthma, the main symptom being wheezing specially in children. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant known to quench the reactive oxygen species. A beneficial effect of fresh fruit consumption on lung function has been observed in several studies. Plasma levels Vitamin C was determined in relation to wheezing symptoms in cross sectional study. Methods: In a cross sectional blood samples of 50 patients attending pediatrics OPD, having wheezing and shortness of breath were analyzed for plasma Ascorbic acid level and compared with healthy controls of same age and sex. Results: The total number of 50 wheezing children were in the age group of 2 to 12 years with similar age matched controls. It was observed that the plasma ascorbic acid concentration in the wheezing children (0.43 – 0.12 mg/dl was significantly decreased as compared to the normal controls ( 0.75 – 0.18 mg/dl P< 0.001. The highly significant low levels of plasma ascorbic acid level in wheezing children was irrespective of sex and severity of symptoms. However the ascorbic acid levels were at the lower side in female and with severe symptoms. Conclusions: Plasma Ascorbic acid levels were significantly, decreased in the process of scavenging the reactive oxygen species. Ascorbic acid directly neutralizes free radical and protects the bronchial tissue from oxidative injury, so it can be concluded that the consumption of fruit rich in vitamin C may reduce wheezing symptoms in children.

  1. Cryptic red light signal regulates ascorbic acid in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmagadda, Lakshmi; Kadur Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad

    2009-02-15

    The regulation of endogenous level of ascorbic acid in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) by cryptic red light signal (CRS) was studied. CRS is a cellular signal induced by red light pre-irradiation that amplifies the action of phytochrome, and is known to enhance anthocyanin synthesis in sorghum. A phytochrome-enhanced endogenous level of ascorbic acid in soybean seedlings was amplified by CRS. The lifetime of CRS was from 0 to 2h and the peak of enhancement was between 16 and 24h of dark incubation after the end of treatment.

  2. Physiological role of exogenous nitric oxide in improving performance, yield and some biochemical aspects of sunflower plant under zinc stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the possible roles of sodium nitroprusside in protection against oxidative damage due to zinc toxicity in sunflower plants. Physiochemical parameters in sunflower plants exposed to Zn2+ (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg soil) alone or combined with SNP were measured. The results showed that excess of Zn decreased plant growth, seed yield components and photosynthetic pigments content. On the other hand, Zn stress increased the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascrobate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), coupled with the appearance of novel protein bands. Furthermore, Zn stress increased Zn content in roots and shoots. The amounts of Zn in roots were higher than shoots. A marked increase in total saturated fatty acids accompanied by a decrease in total unsaturated fatty acids was observed. Exogenously application of SNP (20 μM) increased growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments content, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents, antioxidant enzyme activities and the quality of the oil in favour of the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, SNP application increased Zn concentration in roots and inhibited Zn accumulation in shoots. Therefore, it is concluded that SNP treatment can help reduce Zn toxicity in sunflower plants.

  3. Proteomic and biochemical responses of canola (Brassica napus L.) exposed to salinity stress and exogenous lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Akçalı, Nermin; Terzi, Hakan

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the mitigating effects of exogenous lipoic acid (LA) on NaCl toxicity, proteomic, biochemical and physiological changes were investigated in the leaves of canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Salinity stress decreased the growth parameters and contents of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), and increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, cysteine and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The foliar application of LA alleviated the toxic effects of salinity stress on canola seedlings and notably decreased MDA content and increased growth parameters, cysteine content, and activities of CAT and POD. In the proteomic analyses, total proteins from the leaves of control, LA, NaCl and NaCl+LA treated-seedlings were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 28 proteins were differentially expressed. Of these, 21 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins had functions related to photosynthesis, stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein folding and stabilization indicating that LA might play important roles in salinity through the regulation of photosynthesis, stress defense and signal transduction related proteins. The proteomic findings have provided new insight to reveal the effect of LA on salinity stress for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of antioxidant system of tomato to water deficit stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Daneshmand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses including water deficit stress may produce oxidants such as reactive oxygen species that damage the membrane structure in plants. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid has a critical role in the cell and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In this research, effects of ascorbic acid at two levels (0 and 10 mM and water deficit stress based on 3 levels of field capacity (100, 60 and 30% were studied in tomato plants. Both levels of stress increased lipid peroxidation, reduced the amount of ascorbic acid and glutathione and increased the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and reduced the growth parameters. Ascorbic acid treatment, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione levels and decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and positive effects of ascorbic acid treatment appeared to improve the plant growth parameters.

  6. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITINABSTRACT Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  7. Ascorbic acid levels of trematode parasites of fish and mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, R S; Misra, K C

    1980-01-01

    Ascorbic acid levels of seven species of digenetic trematodes, living under different environmental conditions in fish and mammals were determined colorimetrically. Ascorbic acid levels ranged from 0.312 mg/100 g fresh weight in Gastrothylax crumenifer to 5.070 mg/100 g fresh weight in Fasciola indica. Low levels of ascorbic acid were detected in the rumen parasites and in Isoparorchis hypselobagri. In contrast the liver parasites were found to have relatively high ascorbic acid levels.

  8. Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) but not in spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Lars M; Beacham, Andrew M; Reade, John P H; Monaghan, James M

    2016-07-01

    Babyleaf salads such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well-watered controls. We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Ascorbic Acid Induces Necrosis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via ROS, PKC, and Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Woo; Cho, Heui-Seung; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    Ascorbic acid induces apoptosis, autophagy, and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which ascorbic acid induces death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cells. Ascorbic acid markedly reduced cell viability and induced death without caspase activation and an increase in cytochrome c. Hep2 cells exposed to ascorbic acid exhibited membrane rupture and swelling, the morphological characteristics of necrotic cell death. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in Hep2 cells treated with ascorbic acid, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine blocked ascorbic acid-induced cell death. Ascorbic acid also stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, especially PKC α/β activation, and subsequently increased cytosolic calcium levels. However, ascorbic acid-induced necrotic cell death was inhibited by Ro-31-8425 (PKC inhibitor) and BAPTA-AM (cytosolic calcium-selective chelator). ROS scavenger NAC inhibited PKC activation induced by ascorbic acid and Ro-31-8425 suppressed the level of cytosolic calcium increased by ascorbic acid, indicating that ROS is represented as an upstream signal of PKC pathway and PKC activation leads to the release of calcium into the cytosol, which ultimately regulates the induction of necrosis in ascorbic acid-treated Hep2 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbic acid induces necrotic cell death through ROS generation, PKC activation, and cytosolic calcium signaling in Hep2 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 417-425, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effects of exogenous proline and osmotic stress on morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For evaluation of growth parameters of strawberry callus under osmotic stress and exogenous proline, embryonic calli were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing four sucrose (osmotic stress) treatments including 3, 6, 9 and 12% and various concentrations of exogenous Lproline (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 ...

  11. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-02

    Aug 2, 2012 ... exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. ... Exogenous stress; in vivo NMR; metabolomic; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; STOCSY .... Proton decoupled 13C-NMR spectra of yeast medium during fermentation: (a) representative spectra at the beginning and (b) at the end ...

  12. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  13. modelling of thermal degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    dried, cooked, canned and frozen fruit and vegetables are a ... Samuel E. Agarry, Biochemical Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical .... Table 1: Rate Constants for Thermal Degradation of Ascorbic Acid in Potato and Pawpaw at Various. Temperatures. Food Material. T oC. ) (min. 10. 1. 3. −. −. xK. T.

  14. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breads were also characterized in general aspect - especially shelf-life - based on the presence of fungi. The dough rheology results showed that the formulation developed in the presence of 0.01% xylanase/amylase and 200 ppm of ascorbic acid was more efficient. Improved shelf-life was obtained from the ...

  15. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipoprotein Lipase Activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... triglycerides by the enzyme, clearing factor lipase or lipo- ... W. A DE KLERK. Date received: 23 November 1973. the enzyme acts at the surface of the capillary endothelial cells where the triglycerides, carried in the plasma very- low-density ... lipid intake restriction and high ascorbic acid intakes.

  16. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC. Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healing is a complex process that involves cellular and biochemical events. Several medicines have been used in order to shorten healing time and avoid aesthetic damage. OBJECTIVE: to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period; and analyse the thickness and the collagen fibre organization in the injured tissue. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus weighing 270 ± 30 g were used. After thionembutal anesthesia, 15 mm transversal incisions were made in the animals' cervical backs. They were divided into two groups: Control Group (CG, n = 12 - skin wound cleaned with water and soap daily; Treated Group (TG, n = 12 - skin wound cleaned daily and treated with ascorbic acid cream (10%. Samples of skin were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red for morphologic analysis. The images were obtained and analysed by a Digital Analyser System. RESULTS: The ascorbic acid acted on every stage of the healing process. It reduced the number of macrophages, increased the proliferation of fibroblasts and new vessels, and stimulated the synthesis of thicker and more organized collagen fibres in the wounds when compared to CG. CONCLUSION: Ascorbic acid was shown to have anti-inflammatory and healing effects, guaranteeing a suiTable environment and conditions for faster skin repair.

  17. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C C; Pereira, A P C; Silva, J R F; Oliveira, L S; Resck, M C C; Grechi, C O; Bernardes, M T C P; Olímpio, F M P; Santos, A M M; Incerpi, E K; Garcia, J A D

    2009-11-01

    Healing is a complex process that involves cellular and biochemical events. Several medicines have been used in order to shorten healing time and avoid aesthetic damage. to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period; and analyse the thickness and the collagen fibre organization in the injured tissue. Male Rattus norvegicus weighing 270 +/- 30 g were used. After thionembutal anesthesia, 15 mm transversal incisions were made in the animals' cervical backs. They were divided into two groups: Control Group (CG, n = 12) - skin wound cleaned with water and soap daily; Treated Group (TG, n = 12) - skin wound cleaned daily and treated with ascorbic acid cream (10%). Samples of skin were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red for morphologic analysis. The images were obtained and analysed by a Digital Analyser System. The ascorbic acid acted on every stage of the healing process. It reduced the number of macrophages, increased the proliferation of fibroblasts and new vessels, and stimulated the synthesis of thicker and more organized collagen fibres in the wounds when compared to CG. Ascorbic acid was shown to have anti-inflammatory and healing effects, guaranteeing a suiTable environment and conditions for faster skin repair.

  18. Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... ... Hernandez JA, delRio LA, Sevilla F (1997). Evidence for the presence of the ascorbate glutathione cycle in mitochondria and peroxisomes of pea leaves. Plant Physiol. 114: 275-284. Laser KD, Lersten NR (1972). Anatomy and cytology of micro- sporogenesis in cytoplasmic male sterile angiosperms. Bot.

  19. Ascorbate peroxidase gene from Brassica napus enhances salt and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA clone, BnAPX (GenBank: FJ965556.1) encoding ascorbate peroxidase and isolated from Brassica napus, was successfully introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation into the function of BnAPX demonstrated that BnAPX transgenic plants grew better than wild type under NaCl stress, and also had ...

  20. Kinetics of Ascorbic acid degradation in asceptically packaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent ban on importation of fruit juices into Nigeria led to increase in production of locally - made orange juice. Degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid at refrigeration (70C ± 20C) and ambient temperature (280C ± 20C) were evaluated by the application of zero-order reaction kinetic. Results showed satisfactory ...

  1. iodometric determination of the ascorbic acid (vitamin c)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The ascorbic acid content of seven different fruits –grapefruit, lime, orange, tangerine, banana, pawpaw and pineapple was determined by iodine titration, in order .... removing the peels and cutting them into two transversely, the juices were expressed from the .... of benefit to the body. REFERENCES. Carpenter, K. J., 1986.

  2. Ascorbic acid is a key participant during the interactions between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The possible role of L-ascorbate (AsA) as a biochemical signal during the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration was examined in leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. AsA content was either decreased as in AsA-deficient vtc1 mutants or increased by treatment with L-galactono-1, 4-lactone (L-GalL, a precursor ...

  3. Lead induced dyslipidemia: The comparative effects of ascorbate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the comparative effects of ascorbate and chelating agents on some markers of lipid metabolism in lead exposed rats, 35 male Wistar rats were used. They were grouped randomly into five (n=7); 28 of which were administered 75 mg/kg body weight lead acetate (PbAc) orally for 14 days after which their blood ...

  4. Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brassica napus, ATP6 is related to Pol cytoplasmic male sterility. To understand the mechanism of Pol CMS, proteins which interact with ATP6 were screened in a yeast two-hybrid system. A partial sequence of a putative and ascorbate peroxidase (Bn-APX) was isolated from Brassica napus. By use of rapid amplification ...

  5. Modulatory Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Spermatoxicity of Artesunate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of short-term use of oral artesunate on testicular function in rats. Artesunate is an atermisinin derivative, now widely used to treat malaria. We also studied the modulatory effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on any toxicity that might occur. We compared sperm parameters, serum testosterone, ...

  6. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis.

  7. Ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mercury is a highly toxic metal that exerts its adverse effects on the health of humans and animals through air, soil, water and food. Aim: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of the effects of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride-induced changes on the histomorphology of the spleen of adult Wistar Rats.

  8. Ascorbic acid promotes a TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast phenotype switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Bram; Wouters, Olaf Y; de Rond, Saskia; Boersema, Miriam; Gjaltema, Rutger A F; Bank, Ruud A

    2017-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA), generally known as vitamin C, is a crucial cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including prolyl-3-hydroxylase (P3H), prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H), and lysyl hydroxylase (LH)-mediated collagen maturation. Here, we investigated whether AA has additional functions in the regulation

  9. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco snuffing, like cigarette smoking, is known to be a common habit among the adults of Igbo communities in Nigeria. In view of the various pharmacological actions of nicotine and other additive constituents of tobacco snuff, there is growing concern that ascorbic acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood ...

  10. Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: The incidence of acetaminophen-induced nephropathy is reported to be increasing, with no available prophylactic or curative regimen. The present study is an experimental animal study designed to evaluate the protective effects of graded oral doses of ascorbic acid (ASC) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ...

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid in coccidial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid on broiler chicken challenged with coccidial oocysts was studied. The percentage mortality was significant (P<0.05) for all the treatments. The adrenal weight, caecal length and width for all the treatments were significantly (P<0.05) different. Caecum length was ...

  12. Urinary ascorbic acid and serum concentrations of circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence or absence of ascorbic acid in urine and serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and albumin in HIV infected subjects. A total of 90 participants (30 Symptomatic HIV infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 30 Symptomatic HIV infected ...

  13. Protective effect of oral ascorbic acid (vitamin c) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be on the increase, with limited therapeutic or chemoprophylactic options. In the present in vivo study, single daily oral doses (100 – 500 mg/kg) of ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated for their protective effects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ...

  14. Silver nanoparticles prepared in presence of ascorbic acid and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ...

  15. Changes in plasma lipid peroxide and ascorbic acid levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and method: This study was conducted on the relationship between plasma lipid peroxides, ascorbic acid levels and diabetes mellitus. Forty two diabetic patients (24 males and 18 females) age grouped between 40 - 60 years were studied in the diabetic clinic of Federal Medical Centre Owerri. Controls were ...

  16. Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these ...

  17. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... The antioxidant capability, total phenol, total flavonoid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing power contents of polar and non-polar extracts for flower and leaves in two stages of growth for Rhamnus kurdica Boiss in flowering were evaluated in this work. The polar extraction of flower of R.

  18. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the.

  19. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the biochemical, physiological ...

  20. Modulating effects of ascorbic acid on rectal temperature of pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on fluctuations in rectal temperature (RT) of pigs transported by road during the harmattan season. Sixteen pigs administered orally with AA at the dose of 250 mg/kg served as experimental animals, and 13 others ...

  1. An Inquiry into the Effect of Heating on Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations that study the effect of heating on ascorbic acid are commonly performed in schools, but the conclusions obtained are quite variable and controversial. Some results indicate that heating may destroy vitamin C, but others suggest that heating may have no effect. This article reports an attempt to resolve this confusion through a…

  2. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  3. Apparent increase of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) levels in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) levels in Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers purchased from shops and open markets in Cardiff, U.K. were determined in the raw, boiled and fried (chips) pieces by 2,6, Dichlorophenolindophenol dye (DCP) method in the laboratory. The chips were prepared in sunflower oil, corn oil and ...

  4. Stability Studies of a Mixture of Paracetamol and Ascorbic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of the temperature of water used for the preparation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid mixture on its stability, as well as to assess the influence of humidity on the stability of single components and their mixtures. Methods: The stability of the mixtures in aqueous medium was evaluated with ...

  5. Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of acetaminophen-induced nephropathy is reported to be increasing, with no available prophylactic or curative regimen. The present study is an experimental animal study designed to evaluate the protective effects of graded oral doses of ascorbic acid (ASC) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxic ...

  6. Effect of supplemental Ascorbic acid and disturbance stress on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with four hundred day-old Anak broilers to determine the effects of dietary Ascorbic acid (AA) and disturbance (D) dress on the performance of broiler chickens in a tropical environment. There were four treatments consisting of two levels of disturbance (ID) and (4D) and two levels of dietary AA (0 ...

  7. Mixed metal complexes of isoniazid and ascorbic acid: chelation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Novel mixed complexes of isoniazid and ascorbic acid have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic absorption data, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, melting point, thin layer chromatography and solubility. The metal ions involved in the complex formation are Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+. The melting ...

  8. Morphological characters and ascorbic acid content of an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture stress can be deleterious to physicochemical properties of crop species to a varying degree. The influence of moisture stress on the ascorbic acid content in the leaf and morphological characters of an elite genotype of Corchorus olitorius were tested in a glasshouse experiment. The experiment was arranged in a ...

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...

  10. Modulatory Role of Ascorbic Acid on Behavioural Responses of Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on adult local pigs with the aim of investigating the modulatory role of ascorbic acid (AA) on their behavioural responses to 4-h, road transportation during the harmattan season. Sixteen adult pigs administered with AA at the dose of 250 mg/kg dissolve in sterile water served as experimental ...

  11. Ameliorative effects of ascorbic acid on rectal temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was performed with the aim of investigating the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) on stress due to road transportation of rabbits. Nine rabbits administered AA served as the treated animals, while seven others given sterile water were used as the controls. All the rabbits were transported by road for 2 h under ...

  12. ascorbic acid retention in canned lime juice preserved with sulfur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASCORBIC ACID RETENTION IN CANNED LIME JUICE. PRESERVED WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE AND BENZOIC ACID. Francis M Malhooko“ and Elizabeth N Kiniiya'. ABSTRACT. The effects of two levels each of sodium metabisulfite and sodium benzoate on the shelf-life of canned lime juice stored at ambient temperature ...

  13. Modulatory Effect of Ascorbic Acid Supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of investigating the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on the physiological and behavioural parameters in confined West African dwarf goats during the rainy season. A total of fourteen adult West Africa Dwarf goats, male and non-pregnant, non-nursing female were used for the ...

  14. Determination of ascorbic acid content of some tropical fruits by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ascorbic acid content of three common juicy tropical fruits, orange, water melon and cashew, were determined using iodometric titration method under three temperature regimes (refrigerated, room temperature, and heated to about 80 oC), representing the range of temperatures the fruits may be exposed to during ...

  15. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  16. Changes in specific activity of ascorbate peroxidase during seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... spray (FS). Key words: Salicylic acid, BBCH, pea, ascorbate peroxidase, foliar application, Pisum sativum. INTRODUCTION ... green feast and rondo), with SA concentrations (0, 10–4 and 10–5 M in water) as subplots and ... growth stages, that is, BBCH 73 (30% of pods reached average maximum length) ...

  17. Comparison of ascorbic acid content of some selected fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deficiency of ascorbic acid is believed to result in scurvy, a disease characterized by spongy and sore gum, loose teeth, anaemia, swollen joint, fragile blood vessels. Frequent intake, therefore of these vegetables rich in vitamin C (especially tomatoes) will help prevent these problems in human being. This indicated that ...

  18. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  19. Mixed Metal Complexes of Isoniazid and Ascorbic Acid: Chelation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    email: misitura4real@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. Novel mixed complexes of isoniazid and ascorbic acid have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic absorption data, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, melting point, thin layer chromatography and solubility. The metal ions involved in the complex ...

  20. Assessing foliar ascorbate content in the rice diversity panel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early spring plantings of rice can have poor stands due to cold temperatures. Our previous studies have shown that high vitamin C (ascorbate AsA) Arabidopsis lines are tolerant to cold stress. The rice diversity panel 1 (RDP1) represents the genetic diversity of Oryza sativa and has been extensively...

  1. Cloning and characterization of an ascorbate peroxidase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ascorbate peroxidase (APX) cDNA, designated MaAPX1, was isolated from banana fruit by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). MaAPX1 shares an extensive sequence identity (79 to 83%) with other plant APX homologues. Southern blot analysis revealed only two copies of the APX gene in the banana genome ...

  2. Effect of ascorbic and folic acids supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on the effect of supplementation of ascorbic and folic acids on the oxidative hormones, enzymatic antioxidants, haematological and biochemical properties of layers exposed to increased heat load. A total of 72 Isa Brown laying hens at 31 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups ...

  3. Role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during senescence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Programmed cell death is an integral part of normal plant development including leaf senescence. This study investigated the response of some component of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, chlorophylls.a & b, protein content, and membrane leakage during the developmental stages of Phaseolus cotyledons from imbibition till ...

  4. Ameliorative effects of ascorbic acid on rectal temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This experiment was performed with the aim of investigating the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) on stress due to road transportation of rabbits. Nine rabbits administered AA served as the treated animals, while seven others given sterile water were used as the controls. All the rabbits were transported by road ...

  5. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg-1) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL-1 of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg-1) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL-1 of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Exogenous tooth discoloration in children: black stains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, D; Chabane-Lemboub, A; Le Gall, M

    2011-12-01

    Black-stains are a coloring frequently met in pediatric dentistry. They can be medically diagnosed as 1-mm borders or unfinished lines formed by a dark exogenous substance which follows the gingival festoon of bet coronary (in cervical third of the crown) temporary teeth and permanent, or they can appear in like points or dark spots. They are caused by bacteria anaerobic chromogenous. The dominant responsible species are actinomyces. Blacks-stains are ferrous depots, formed following a chemical interaction on the surface of the tooth between sulphide of hydrogen (under the effect of the anaerobic bacteria which are producing hydrogen) and the iron contained in the saliva (by a healthy diet) or that released by red blood corpuscles (in case of bloody gums). Black-stains are a shape of characteristic dental plaque by its flora with trend to calcify. It contains an insoluble iron salt with a content raised in calcium and in inorganic phosphor. The coloring Black-stain is a mild pathology and has no incidence on the vitality of the tooth. Certainly these spots are unsightly. The dental surgeon in current practice can deprive them. The pediatrician plays a leading role in the diagnosis and advice to parents and patients affected by these stains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Exogenous surfactant therapy: new synthetic surfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze-Masmonteil, Th

    2008-06-01

    There are numerous pulmonary conditions in which qualitative or quantitative anomalies of the surfactant system have been demonstrated. In premature newborns with immature lungs, a functional deficit in surfactant is the main physiopathologic mechanism of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since the landmark pilot study of Fujiwara, published more than 20 years ago, the efficacy of exogenous surfactant for the treatment of neonatal RDS has been established by numerous controlled studies and meta-analyses. Enlightened by a growing insight into both the structure and function of the different surfactant components, a new generation of synthetic surfactants has been developed. Various complementary approaches have confirmed the fundamental role of the two hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C, in the surfactant system, thus opening the way to the design of analogues, either by chemical synthesis or expression in a prokaryotic system. An example of these peptide-containing synthetic surfactant preparations, lucinactant (Surfaxin), has been recently tested in comparison to a synthetic surfactant that does not contain protein as well as to animal derived surfactant preparations. Major clinical outcomes between lucinactant and animal-derived surfactant preparations were fund similar in two randomized controlled trials, opening the way to a new generation of synthetic surfactants in the near future.

  8. Iron (II) ions induced oxidation of ascorbic acid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, A; Batna, A; Dudda, A; Spiteller, G

    1996-12-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is suspected to be involved in the generation of chronic diseases. A model reaction for LPO is the air oxidation of PUFAs initiated by Fe2+ and ascorbic acid. In the course of such model reactions glycolaldehyde (GLA) was detected as main aldehydic product. Since it is difficult to explain the generat on of GLA by oxidation of PUFAs, it was suspected that GLA might be derived by oxidation of ascorbic acid. This assumption was verified by treatment of ascorbic acid with Fe2+. Produced aldehydic compounds were trapped by addition of pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA-HCl), trimethylsilylated and finally identified by gas chromatography/mass spectronetry (GC/MS). Oxidation of ascorbic acid with O2 in presence of iron ions produced not only glycolaldehyde (GLA), but also glyceraldehyde (GA), dihydroxyacetone (DA) and formaldehyde. Glyoxal (GO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected as trace compounds. The yield of the aldehydic compounds was increased by addition of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) or H2O2. The buffer influenced the reaction considerably: Iron ions react with Tris buffer by producing dihydroxyacetone (DA). Since ascorbic acid is present in biological systems and Fe2+ ions are obviously generated by cell damaging processes, the production of GLA and other aldehydic components might add to the damaging effects of LPO. Glucose suffers also oxidation to short-chain aldehydic compounds in aqueous solution, but this reaction requires addition of equimolar amounts of Fe2+ together with equimolar amounts of H2O2 or 13-hydroperoxy -9-cis-11-trans-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE). Therefore this reaction, also influenced by the buffer system, seems to be not of biological relevance.

  9. Combined toxicity of cadmium and copper in Avicennia marina seedlings and the regulation of exogenous jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhongzheng; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Jun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-03-01

    Seedlings of Avicennia marina were exposed to single and combined metal treatments of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a factorial design, and the combined toxicity of Cu and Cd was tested. The effects of the exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on chlorophyll concentration, lipid peroxidation, Cd and Cu uptake, antioxidative capacity, endogenous JA concentration, and type-2 metallothionein gene (AmMT2) expression in seedlings of A. marina exposed to combined metal treatments were also investigated. A binary mixture of low-dose Cd (9 µmolL(-1)) and high-dose Cu (900 µmolL(-1)) showed toxicity to the seedlings, indicated by the significant augmentation in leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduction in leaf chlorophylls. The toxicity of the combined metals was significantly alleviated by the addition of exogenous JA at 1 µmolL(-1), and the chlorophyll and MDA contents were found to be restored to levels comparable to those of the control. Compare to treatment with Cd and Cu only, 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly enhanced the ascorbate peroxidase activity, and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly decreased the uptake of Cd in A. marina leaves. The relative expression of leaf AmMT2 gene was also significantly enhanced by 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA, which helped reduce Cd toxicity in A. marina seedlings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  11. Ascorbate prevents microvascular dysfunction in the skeletal muscle of the septic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Tyml, K; Lidington, D; Wilson, J X

    2001-03-01

    Septic patients have low plasma ascorbate concentrations and compromised microvascular perfusion. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine whether ascorbate improves capillary function in volume-resuscitated sepsis. Cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats. The concentration of ascorbate in plasma and urine, mean arterial blood pressure, and density of continuously perfused capillaries in the extensor digitorum longus muscle were measured 24 h after surgery. CLP caused a 50% decrease (from 56 +/- 4 to 29 +/- 2 microM) in plasma ascorbate concentration, 1,000% increase (from 46 +/- 13 to 450 +/- 93 microM) in urine ascorbate concentration, 20% decrease (from 115 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg) in mean arterial pressure, and 30% decrease (from 24 +/- 1 to 17 +/- 1 capillaries/mm) in the density of perfused capillaries, compared with time-matched controls. A bolus of intravenous ascorbate (7.6 mg/100 g body wt) administered immediately after the CLP procedure increased plasma ascorbate concentration and restored both blood pressure and density of perfused capillaries to control levels. In vitro experiments showed that ascorbate (100 microM) inhibited replication of bacteria and prevented hydrogen peroxide injury to cultured microvascular endothelial cells. These results indicate that ascorbate is lost in the urine during sepsis and that a bolus of ascorbate can prevent microvascular dysfunction in the skeletal muscle of septic animals. Our study supports the view that ascorbate may be beneficial for patients with septic syndrome.

  12. Exogenous proline and glycine betaine mediated upregulation of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems provides better protection against salt-induced oxidative stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  13. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md.; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB. PMID:24991566

  14. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49 and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54 rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC and chlorophyll (chl content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA, glutathione (GSH and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, and glyoxalase I (Gly I activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings’ tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  15. Influence of Dietary Ascorbic Acid on the Immune Responses of Juvenile Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (length, 13.6 ± 1.4 cm [mean ± SD]; weight, 53.6 ± 4.2 g) were fed twice daily with diets containing varying levels of ascorbic acid (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Significant increases in daily weight and length occurred in fish fed more than 50 mg/kg ascorbic acid. The lysozyme activity of fish fed diets containing ascorbic acid was considerably increased in rockfish plasma at 400 mg/kg ascorbic acid and in kidney at over 50 mg/kg ascorbic acid. Total plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were markedly elevated in fish fed 400 mg/kg ascorbic acid. The results suggest that dietary ascorbic acid supplementation in juvenile rockfish can induce a significant increase in growth and in immunological features such as lysozyme activity and plasma IgM levels.

  16. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Photoinhibition by Accelerating Non-photochemical Quenching in Tomato Seedlings Exposed to Moderate Light during Chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling. In response to moderate light during chilling, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the effective photochemical efficiency (F′v/F′m) of PSII were both substantially reduced, showing severe photoinhibition in tomato seedlings, whereas exogenous application of melatonin effectively alleviated the photoinhibition. Further experiment showed that melatonin accelerated the induction of NPQ in response to moderate light and maintained higher level of NPQ upon longer exposure to light during chilling. Consistent with the increased NPQ was the elevated de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments in melatonin-pretreated seedlings exposed to light during chilling. Enzyme activity assay showed that violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction in the xanthophyll cycle, was activated by light and the activity was further enhanced by application of melatonin. Further analysis revealed that melatonin induced the expression of VDE gene in tomato seedlings under moderate light and chilling conditions. Ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor of VDE and the level of it was found to be increased in melatonin-pretreated seedlings. Feeding tomato seedlings with dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of VDE, blocked the effects of melatonin on the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments and the induction of NPQ. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin mitigates photoinhibition by

  17. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure...... of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation...... of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...

  18. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (vitamin E, ascorbic acid) have been demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers compared with those in nonsmokers (Pacht et al 1986). Enhanced activi- ties of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase have also been demonstrated in alveolar macrophages from young smokers ...

  19. Induction of virus resistance by exogenous application of double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Neena; Worrall, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Karl E; Xu, Zhi Ping; Carroll, Bernard J

    2017-10-01

    Exogenous application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for virus resistance in plants represents a very attractive alternative to virus resistant transgenic crops or pesticides targeting virus vectors. However, the instability of dsRNA sprayed onto plants is a major challenge as spraying naked dsRNA onto plants provides protection against homologous viruses for only 5 days. Innovative approaches, such as the use of nanoparticles as carriers of dsRNA for improved stability and sustained release, are emerging as key disruptive technologies. Knowledge is still limited about the mechanism of entry, transport and processing of exogenously applied dsRNA in plants. Cost of dsRNA and regulatory framework will be key influencers towards practical adoption of this technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet environmental ...

  1. Effects of exogenous polyamines and inhibitors of polyamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) or three exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were added into a modified HLM-1 maturation medium inoculated with embryogenic tissues. Medium responses were ...

  2. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  3. Toxicity of the pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate to freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus: lethality, biochemical effects and role of dietary ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Madhuban; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2009-08-01

    Static bioassays were made in the laboratory to determine lethal concentration of the pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (RS)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyrate] for the freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus and effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticide on some biochemical parameters of the fish. For exposure periods of 24 to 96 h, LC(50) values of fenvalerate ranged from 5.83-4.76 micro g/L and 4.24-2.94 micro g/L, respectively for water and acetone soluble fenvalerate. Two sublethal concentrations of fenvalerate were used in the bioassays for biochemical parameters: 2.1 micro g/L for 24 h and 1.4 micro g/L for 96 h exposure, both concentrations representing 50% of LC(50) value of acetone soluble fenvalerate for the respective exposure period. Hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen, alkaline phosphatase of liver and ascorbic acid of blood, liver, and kidney decreased while haemoglobin (Hb) %, plasma glucose levels and acid phosphatase level of liver increased after 24 h exposure to 2.1 micro g/L fenvalerate. Longer exposure (96 h) to even a lower concentration (1.4 micro g/L) of fenvalerate resulted in reduction of all the parameters (except Hb %) tested as compared with control. Fish previously fed for 60 days with a diet supplemented by a high level of ascorbic acid (100 mg/100 g diet) could reverse most of the effects caused by 24 h exposure to 2.1 micro g/L fenvalerate. A lower level of ascorbic acid (50 mg/ 100 g diet) supplement could not influence these effects of fenvalerate. Even the higher dose of ascorbic acid supplementation (100 mg/100 g diet) could not relieve the stress parameters, except for Hb% and HSI, when the pesticide was applied at 1.4 micro g/L for a longer time period (96 h).

  4. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  5. Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Vegetables by Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞMUŞ, Zeynep; ÇETİN, Sevil Müge

    2014-01-01

    Determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in garlic, green pepper and chestnut was performed by derivative spectrophotometry without using any pre-separation or background correction techniques. The method is based on the measurement of the distances between two extremum values (peak-to-peak amplitudes) in second and third order derivative spectra of the extracts. Ten percent trichloroacetic acid was found to be the most suitable extraction solution. In the second order derivative spectru...

  6. Nitrate, Nitrite and ascorbic acid content of commercial and home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and ascorbic acid were determined in four samples of commercial and fifteen samples of home - prepared complementary infant foods common in Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite values of the commercial food samples ranged from 3.1– 3.9mgNO3- N/100g and 5.0 - 16.0ug N02 - N/100g ...

  7. Anti-Allergic Activity of Monoacylated Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kaori; Morishita, Yuta; Matsuno, Hiroaki; Aota, Yusuke; Ito, Hideyuki; Tai, Akihiro

    2017-12-12

    2- O -α-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) is one of the stable ascorbic acid (AA) derivatives known as provitamin C agents. We have previously synthesized two types of monoacylated derivatives of AA-2G, 6- O -acyl-2- O -α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acids having a straight-acyl chain of varying length from C₄ to C 18 (6-sAcyl-AA-2G) and a branched-acyl chain of varying length from C₆ to C 16 (6-bAcyl-AA-2G) in order to improve the bioavailability of AA-2G. In this study, 6-sAcyl-AA-2G and 6-bAcyl-AA-2G per se showed the inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase activity and degranulation. 6-sAcyl-AA-2G exhibited strong inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase activity and degranulation in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effects tended to become stronger with increasing length of the acyl chain. 2- O -α-d-Glucopyranosyl-6- O -hexadecanoyl-l-ascorbic acid (6-sPalm-AA-2G), which has a straight C 16 acyl chain, was the most potent effective for inhibition of hyaluronidase activity and for inhibition of degranulation among the 6-sAcyl-AA-2G derivatives and the two isomers of 6-sPalm-AA-2G. Furthermore, percutaneous administration of 6-sPalm-AA-2G significantly inhibited IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. These findings suggest that 6-sPalm-AA-2G will be useful for treatment of allergies.

  8. Over-expression of ascorbate oxidase in the apoplast of transgenic tobacco results in altered ascorbate and glutathione redox states and increased sensitivity to ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanmartin, Maite; Drogoudi, Pavlina D.; Lyons, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants expressing cucumber ascorbate oxidase (EC.1.10.3.3) were used to examine the role of extracellular ascorbic acid in mediating tolerance to the ubiquitous air pollutant, ozone (O3). Three homozygous transgenic lines, chosen on the basis o...

  9. Iontophoresis promotes percutaneous absorption of L-ascorbic acid in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Mutsuhito; Akiyama, Minoru; Ohnishi, Yoshihiro; Tajima, Shingo; Komata, Ki-ichi; Mitsui, Yukio

    2003-09-01

    Percutaneous absorption of ascorbic acid is limited by its impermeability and instability. We attempted to improve the percutaneous absorption of ascorbic acid by use of iontophoresis after topical application of ascorbic acid. Radioactivities extracted from epidermal, dermal and blood compartments after topical application of [14C]ascorbic acid was measured in the presence or absence of iontophoresis. Autoradiography was also performed to study the histological distribution of the radioactivity of ascorbic acid. Iontophoresis greatly enhanced percutaneous absorption of [14C]ascorbic acid in the rat skin. Radioactive ascorbic acid in the dermis reached a maximum level at 1 h after application whereas, in the topical application method, the uptake of ascorbic acid in both epidermis and dermis was quite low. Autoradiography of skin specimens indicated that iontophoresis accelerated the absorption of ascorbic acid through both transepidermal and pilo-sebaceous routes. Iontophoretic delivery system of ascorbic acid may provide a more efficient tool for its percutaneous absorption than a simple topical application.

  10. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Given the importance of ascorbic acid to human nutrition, several technologies have been developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways. This paper provides an overview of these approaches as well as the consequences that changes in ascorbic acid content have on plant growth and function. Discussed is the capacity of plants to tolerate changes in ascorbic acid content. The many functions that ascorbic acid serves in plants, however, will require highly targeted approaches to improve their nutritional quality without compromising their health.

  11. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  12. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Given the importance of ascorbic acid to human nutrition, several technologies have been developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways. This paper provides an overview of these approaches as well as the consequences that changes in ascorbic acid content have on plant growth and function. Discussed is the capacity of plants to tolerate changes in ascorbic acid content. The many functions that ascorbic acid serves in plants, however, will require highly targeted approaches to improve their nutritional quality without compromising their health. PMID:24278786

  13. Phase I safety trial of intravenous ascorbic acid in patients with severe sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenterally administered ascorbic acid modulates sepsis-induced inflammation and coagulation in experimental animal models. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I trial was to determine the safety of intravenously infused ascorbic acid in patients with severe sepsis. Methods Twenty-four patients with severe sepsis in the medical intensive care unit were randomized 1:1:1 to receive intravenous infusions every six hours for four days of ascorbic acid: Lo-AscA (50 mg/kg/24 h, n = 8), or Hi-AscA (200 mg/kg/24 h, n = 8), or Placebo (5% dextrose/water, n = 8). The primary end points were ascorbic acid safety and tolerability, assessed as treatment-related adverse-event frequency and severity. Patients were monitored for worsened arterial hypotension, tachycardia, hypernatremia, and nausea or vomiting. In addition Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores and plasma levels of ascorbic acid, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and thrombomodulin were monitored. Results Mean plasma ascorbic acid levels at entry for the entire cohort were 17.9 ± 2.4 μM (normal range 50-70 μM). Ascorbic acid infusion rapidly and significantly increased plasma ascorbic acid levels. No adverse safety events were observed in ascorbic acid-infused patients. Patients receiving ascorbic acid exhibited prompt reductions in SOFA scores while placebo patients exhibited no such reduction. Ascorbic acid significantly reduced the proinflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. Unlike placebo patients, thrombomodulin in ascorbic acid infused patients exhibited no significant rise, suggesting attenuation of vascular endothelial injury. Conclusions Intravenous ascorbic acid infusion was safe and well tolerated in this study and may positively impact the extent of multiple organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial injury. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01434121. PMID

  14. Production of ascorbic acid releasing biomaterials for pelvic floor repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangır, Naşide; Bullock, Anthony J; Roman, Sabiniano; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    An underlying abnormality in collagen turnover is implied in the occurrence of complications and recurrences after mesh augmented pelvic floor repair surgeries. Ascorbic acid is a potent stimulant of collagen synthesis. The aim of this study is to produce ascorbic acid releasing poly-lactic acid (PLA) scaffolds and evaluate them for their effects on extracellular matrix production and the strength of the materials. Scaffolds which contained either l-ascorbic acid (AA) and Ascorbate-2-Phosphate (A2P) were produced with emulsion electrospinning. The release of both drugs was measured by UV spectrophotometry. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 2weeks. Cell attachment, viability and total collagen production were evaluated as well as mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed between AA, A2P, Vehicle and PLA scaffolds in terms of fibre diameter and pore size. The encapsulation efficiency and successful release of both AA and A2P were demonstrated. Both AA and A2P containing scaffolds were significantly more hydrophilic and stronger in both dry and wet states compared to PLA scaffolds. Fibroblasts produced more collagen on scaffolds containing either AA or A2P compared to cells grown on control scaffolds. This study is the first to directly compare the two ascorbic acid derivatives in a tissue engineered scaffold and shows that both AA and A2P releasing electrospun PLA scaffolds increased collagen production of fibroblasts to similar extents but AA scaffolds seemed to be more hydrophilic and stronger compared to A2P scaffolds. Mesh augmented surgical repair of the pelvic floor currently relies on non-degradable materials which results in severe complications in some patients. There is an unmet and urgent need for better pelvic floor repair materials. Our current understanding suggests that the ideal material should be able to better integrate into sites of implantation both biologically and mechanically. The impact of

  15. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  16. Separative determination of ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, N; Otsuka, M; Kurata, T; Inagaki, C

    1981-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to the determination of ascorbic acid (AsA) and erythorbic acid (ErA). The apparatus was a Shimadzu model LC-2P Liquid Chromatograph equipped with a UV detector set at 254 nm. The separation was achieved on a LiChrosorb-NH2 column which was pre-treated with 0.1 M ammonium monophosphate solution using a mixture of acetonitrile, acetic acid and water (87:2:11, v/v) as an eluant. The HPLC method has the following advantages: AsA and ErA are quantitated after being distinctly separated, analysis time per one sample is short, and AsA or ErA levels as low as 1.0 X 10(-2) microgram are detectable. Recovery experiments with dehydro-AsA and dehydro-ErA, involving reduction with H2S, give satisfactory results.

  17. Arsenic trioxide and Ascorbic Acid Demonstrates Promising Activity against Primary Human CLL Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Xiaobin B.; Mone, Andrew P; Mo, Xiaokui; Vargo, Melissa; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    The compromised antioxidant defense system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggested a potential use for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generating Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) and Ascorbic Acid. While both ATO and ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity in CLL B cells as single agents, the efficacy of ATO is enhanced by ascorbic acid. This effect is dependent on increased ROS accumulation, as pretreatment of B-CLL cells with a glutathione reducing buthionine sulfoximine or catalase inhibiting aminotriazole, enhanced ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Petreatment with reducing agents such as catalase, or thiol anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or GSH also abrogated ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Hu1D10 mediated cell death was enhanced with ATO and ascorbic acid, thus justifying potential combination of ATO/arsenic trioxide therapy with antibodies such as Hu1D10 that also cause accumulation of ROS. PMID:20171736

  18. The determination of exogenous formaldehyde in blood of rats during and after inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Anne J; Staal, Yvonne C M; Duistermaat, Evert; Engel, Roel; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2013-02-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is suspected of being associated with the development of leukemia. An inhalation experiment with FA was performed in rats to study whether FA can enter the blood and could thus cause systemic toxicity in remote tissues such as the bone marrow. Therefore, a sophisticated analytical method was developed to detect blood concentrations of FA during and after single 6-h exposure by inhalation. In order to differentiate between exogenous and endogenous FA the rats were exposed to stable isotope ((13)C) labeled FA by inhalation. During and after exposure of the rats to (13)C-FA their blood was analyzed to determine the ratio between labeled and natural FA in blood and the total blood concentration of FA. With respect to sensitivity, with the applied method exogenous (13)C-FA could have been detected in blood at a concentration approximately 1.5% of the endogenous FA blood concentration. Exogenous (13)C-FA was not detectable in the blood of rats either during or up to 30 min after the exposure. It was concluded that the inhalation of (13)C-FA at 10 ppm for 6h did not result in an increase of the total FA concentration in blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Silica-titania xerogel doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanova, Maria A; Morosanova, Elena I

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most important vitamins to monitor in dietary sources (juices and vitamins) and biological liquids. Silica and silica-titania xerogels doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds (HPC) have been synthesized varying titanium(IV) and HPC content in sol. Their surface area and porosity have been studied with nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy, their elemental composition has been studied with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The redox properties of the sensor material with sufficient porosity and maximal HPC content have been studied with potentiometry and solid phase spectrophotometry and it has been used for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid. The proposed method is characterized by good selectivity, simple probe pretreatment and broad analytical range (2-200 mg/L, LOD 0.7 mg/L) and has been applied to the analysis of fruit juices, vitamin tablets, and synthetic urine. New sensor material has been used for simple and selective solid phase spectrophotometric procedure of ascorbic acid determination in fruit juices, vitamin tablets, and synthetic urine.Graphical abstractWe synthesized several silica-titania xerogels doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds, studied their properties, and designed the sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic urine.

  20. The Effects of Foliar Application of Benzyl Adenine, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine on Some Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Petunia (Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salehi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of growth and flowering of petunia as one of the most popular and cultivated bedding plants in Iran, is of significant importance. Thus, a CRD experiment with five replications was conducted at the Research Greenhouse of Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.  From 48 days after sowing, when the seedlings had 5-6 true leaves, the seedlings were sprayed with  thiamine (0 and 100 mgL-1, ascorbic acid (0 and 100 mg L-1 and benzyl adenine (0 and 200 mg L-1 at 4 steps during  growth and development. The results indicated that the treatment of ascorbic acid with thiamine and benzyl adenine led to 2.5 and 3.5-fold increases in the number and length of lateral shoots compared to control treatment. The greatest fresh weight was obtained with ascorbic acid with thiamine and benzyl adenine treatment which led to a 2.5-fold increase in this trait, compared to the control. The highest dry weight was achieved in benzyl adenine treatment. The greatest vase-life and flower diameter were found with ascorbic acid (100 mg L-1, thiamine (100 mg L-1 and benzyl adenine (200 mg L-1 treatments in an extent that the flower longevity and diameter were increased by 83% and 72%, respectively, in comparison to control. Furthermore, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and reduced sugars concentrations were significantly increased by the foliar-applied compounds compared to control.

  1. SKIN PERMEATION ENHANCEMENT EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND TRIETHYL CITRATE ON ROFECOXIB

    OpenAIRE

    Malay K Das; ABDUL B. AHMED

    2008-01-01

    The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid and triethyl citrate (TEC) on the in vitro skin permeation of rofecoxib across rat epidermis was investigated. Skin pre-treatment with ascorbic acid and TEC at different concentrations, followed by application of rofecoxib gel, showed higher permeation flux than the control condition. The mechanism underlying this permeation enhancement was probed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR spectra of rat epidermis treated with ascorbic ...

  2. Hypotonic shock stimulates ascorbate release from coronary artery endothelial cells by a Ca2+ -independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kim A; Samson, Sue E; Wilson, John X; Grover, Ashok K

    2006-10-24

    In endothelial cells, anion channels open upon osmotic swelling during shear stress and hypotonic shock. Therefore, we examined the effects of hypotonic shock on release of the antioxidant anion ascorbate from pig coronary artery endothelial cells. Hypotonic shock potentiated ascorbate release from freshly isolated or cultured pig coronary artery endothelial cells; subsequently cultured endothelial cells were used. The hypotonic shock-induced increase in Asc release was rapid, depended on the degree of hypotonic shock, and not due to membrane leakiness. Stimulating P2Y2 like receptors in endothelial cells with ATP causes ascorbate release via a Ca2+ -mediated pathway. Hypotonic shock-induced release differed from the Ca2+-mediated Asc release because: (a) the increase in release with hypotonic shock was additive to that with ATP or A23187 (Ca2+ -ionophore), (b) apyrase, suramin or removing extracellular Ca2+ did not affect the hypotonic shock-stimulated release, (c) anion channel blockers inhibited the release by the two pathways differently, and (d) hypotonic shock increased the ascorbate release from endothelial cells and cultured smooth muscle cells whereas the Ca2+ -mediated ascorbate release occurred only in endothelial cells. Accumulation of ascorbate by endothelial cells was examined at extracellular ascorbate concentrations of 10 (Na+ -ascorbate symporter not saturated) and 5000 microM (Na+ -ascorbate symporter saturated). Hypotonic shock and A23187 decreased ascorbate accumulation at 10 microM ascorbate but increased it at 5000 microM. The effects of the two treatments were additive and also differed from each other with substitution of gluconate for extracellular chloride. Thus, ascorbate release from endothelial cells can be potentiated by two distinct pathways - hypotonic shock mediated and ATP/Ca2+ stimulated.

  3. Compartment-Specific Importance of Ascorbate During Environmental Stress in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Bernd

    2017-08-10

    Ascorbate is an essential antioxidant in plants. Total contents and its redox state in organelles are crucial to fight and signal oxidative stress. Recent Advances: With quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical methods, highest ascorbate contents have recently been measured in peroxisomes (23 mM) and the cytosol (22 mM), lowest ones in vacuoles (2 mM), and intermediate concentrations (4-16 mM) in all other organelles. The accumulation of ascorbate in chloroplasts and peroxisomes is crucial for plant defense. Its depletion in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria during biotic stress leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of chlorosis and necrosis. In the apoplast and vacuoles, ascorbate is the most important antioxidant for the detoxification of ROS. The cytosol acts as a hub for ascorbate metabolism as it reduces its oxidized forms that are produced in the cytosol or imported from other cell compartments. It is a sink for ascorbate that is produced in mitochondria, distributes ascorbate to all organelles, and uses ascorbate to detoxify ROS. As ascorbate and its redox state are involved in protein synthesis and modifications, it can be concluded that ascorbate in the cytosol senses oxidative stress and regulates plant growth, development, and defense. Future research should focus on (1) dissecting roles of ascorbate in vacuoles and the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, (2) identifying the physiological relevance of ascorbate transporters, and (3) correlating current data with changes in the subcellular distribution of related enzymes, ROS, and gene expression patterns.

  4. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  5. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation and differentiation by modulating autophagy in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xin [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Dai, Hui [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Zhuang, Binyu [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Chai, Li; Xie, Yanguang [Institute of Dermatology of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yuzhen, E-mail: liyuzhen@medmail.com.cn [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-04-08

    The effects and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation are still less known. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of exogenous H{sub 2}S on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H{sub 2}S) for 24 h. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with differentiation and autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe autophagic vacuoles, and flow cytometry was applied to evaluate apoptosis. NaHS promoted the viability, induced the differentiation, and enhanced autophagic activity in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Blockage of autophagy by ATG5 siRNA inhibited NaHS-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. The current study demonstrated that autophagy in response to exogenous H{sub 2}S treatment promoted keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our results provide additional insights into the potential role of autophagy in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Exogenous H{sub 2}S promotes keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. • The effects of H{sub 2}S on proliferation and differentiation is modulated by autophagy. • Exogenous H{sub 2}S has no effect on keratinocyte apoptosis.

  6. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  7. Role Of Ascorbic Acid In Imparting Tolerance To Plants Against Oxidizing Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant in plants which play important role in activation of many physiological and defense mechanisms. The level of ascorbic acid in plants is determinant of its tolerance against the adverse effect of oxidizing pollutants. The present study tries to relate the variation in ascorbic acid content with the tolerance and sensitivity of two selected plant species viz. Azadirachtaindica and Pongamiapinnata by calculating their Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI during winter season from November to March in the urban city Delhi of North India. Moreover ascorbic acid is also an important part of chloroplast it protects different components of photosynthetic system from oxidative stress. Thus to understand the role of ascorbic acid in imparting tolerance to plants against oxidizing pollutants the changes in chlorophyll content of the selected plant species with variation in ambient ozone concentration was analysed. It was found that as per APTI values Azadirachta sp. came under tolerant range with highest ascorbic acid content whereas Pongamia sp. was under intermediate range with less ascorbic acid content. It was statistically established that ozone has no significant relation with chlorophyll content of Azadirachta sp. which has the highest ascorbic acid content. Whereas ambient ozone concentrations showed significant negative relation with the chlorophyll content of Pongamia sp. p 0.05. Thus it was observed that the plants with high ascorbic acid content are tolerant and have greater ability to remediate pollutants.

  8. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdyntseva, Nadezda V; Ivanova, Anna A; Ivanov, Vladimir V; Cherdyntsev, Evgeny; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan; Kagiya, Tsutomu V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorbic acid, brain glutathione level, as well as behavioral performance using open field apparatus were measured. Administration of high (non-therapeutic) doses of the nitrotriazole drug sanazole results in neurotoxicity in mice as evidenced from behavioral performance, emotional activity and depletion of the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, in the brain. The serum levels of ascorbic acid was also found reduced in high dose sanazole treated animals. Per os administration of ascorbic acid glucoside significantly reduced the neurotoxicity. This effect was associated with the prevention of glutathione depletion in mouse brain and restoring the ascorbic acid level in serum. Administration of ascorbic acid glucoside, but not ascorbic acid, before sanazole administration protected from sanazole-induced neurotoxicity by preventing the decrease in the brain reduced glutathione level and providing high level of ascorbic acid in plasma.

  9. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda V Cherdyntseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorbic acid, brain glutathione level, as well as behavioral performance using open field apparatus were measured. Results: Administration of high (non-therapeutic doses of the nitrotriazole drug sanazole results in neurotoxicity in mice as evidenced from behavioral performance, emotional activity and depletion of the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, in the brain. The serum levels of ascorbic acid was also found reduced in high dose sanazole treated animals. Per os administration of ascorbic acid glucoside significantly reduced the neurotoxicity. This effect was associated with the prevention of glutathione depletion in mouse brain and restoring the ascorbic acid level in serum. Conclusion: Administration of ascorbic acid glucoside, but not ascorbic acid, before sanazole administration protected from sanazole-induced neurotoxicity by preventing the decrease in the brain reduced glutathione level and providing high level of ascorbic acid in plasma.

  10. Exogenous melatonin suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence by activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase antioxidant pathway and down-regulating chlorophyll degradation in excised leaves of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

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    Jing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’ leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8 supplemented with melatonin or water (control and exposed to dark treatment for 8 d. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69 during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant

  11. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

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    Xiao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  12. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; José F Sánchez-Sevilla; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturon...

  13. Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Monica N

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the neuropsychiatric presentations elicited by spontaneous hypercortisolism and exogenous supraphysiologic glucocorticoids. Patients with Cushing disease and syndrome develop a depressive syndrome: irritable and depressed mood, decreased libido, disrupted sleep and cognitive decrements. Exogenous short-term glucocorticoid administration may elicit a hypomanic syndrome with mood, sleep and cognitive disruptions. Treatment options are discussed. Brain imaging and neuropsychological studies indicate elevated cortisol and other glucocorticoids are especially deleterious to hippocampus and frontal lobe. The research findings also shed light on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in conditions that have substantial subgroups exhibiting elevated and dysregulated cortisol: aging, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Complex patterns of synchrony in networks undergoing exogenous drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jack; Zochowski, Michal

    2007-03-01

    It has been established that various exogenous oscillatory drives modulate neural activity (and potentially information processing) in the brain. We explore the effect of an exogenous drive on the spatio-temporal pattern formation of a network of coupled non-identical R"ossler oscillators. We investigate the formation and properties of the phase locked states, dependent on the network properties as well as those of the external drive. We have found that such drive has a complex effect on the pattern formation in the network, depending on the coupling strength between the oscillators, drive strength as well as its frequency relative to the oscillators.

  15. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...

  16. Receptor-mediated enhancement of beta adrenergic drug activity by ascorbate in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F Dillon

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Previous in vitro research demonstrated that ascorbate enhances potency and duration of activity of agonists binding to alpha 1 adrenergic and histamine receptors. OBJECTIVES: Extending this work to beta 2 adrenergic systems in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to study ascorbate binding to adrenergic receptor preparations and peptides. Force transduction studies on acetylcholine-contracted trachealis preparations from pigs and guinea pigs measured the effect of ascorbate on relaxation due to submaximal doses of beta adrenergic agonists. The effect of inhaled albuterol with and without ascorbate was tested on horses with heaves and sheep with carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction. MEASUREMENTS: Binding constants for ascorbate binding to beta adrenergic receptor were derived from concentration-dependent spectral shifts. Dose- dependence curves were obtained for the relaxation of pre-contracted trachealis preparations due to beta agonists in the presence and absence of varied ascorbate. Tachyphylaxis and fade were also measured. Dose response curves were determined for the effect of albuterol plus-and-minus ascorbate on airway resistance in horses and sheep. MAIN RESULTS: Ascorbate binds to the beta 2 adrenergic receptor at physiological concentrations. The receptor recycles dehydroascorbate. Physiological and supra-physiological concentrations of ascorbate enhance submaximal epinephrine and isoproterenol relaxation of trachealis, producing a 3-10-fold increase in sensitivity, preventing tachyphylaxis, and reversing fade. In vivo, ascorbate improves albuterol's effect on heaves and produces a 10-fold enhancement of albuterol activity in "asthmatic" sheep. CONCLUSIONS: Ascorbate enhances beta-adrenergic activity via a novel receptor-mediated mechanism; increases potency and duration of beta adrenergic agonists effective in asthma and COPD; prevents tachyphylaxis; and reverses fade. These novel effects are

  17. The mechanism of ascorbic acid-induced differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temu, Tecla M.; Wu, Ke-Ying; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    The ATDC5 cell line exhibits a multistep process of chondrogenic differentiation analogous to that observed during endochondral bone formation. Previous investigators have induced ATDC5 cells to differentiate by exposing them to insulin at high concentrations. We have observed spontaneous differentiation of ATDC5 cells maintained in ascorbic acid-containing α-MEM. A comparison of the differentiation events in response to high-dose insulin vs. ascorbic acid showed similar expression patterns of key genes, including collagen II, Runx2, Sox9, Indian hedgehog, and collagen X. We took advantage of the action of ascorbic acid to examine signaling events associated with differentiation. In contrast to high-dose insulin, which downregulates both IGF-I and insulin receptors, there were only minimal changes in the abundance of these receptors during ascorbic acid-induced differentiation. Furthermore, ascorbic acid exposure was associated with ERK activation, and ERK inhibition attenuated ascorbic acid-induced differentiation. This was in contrast to the inhibitory effect of ERK activation during IGF-I-induced differentiation. Inhibition of collagen formation with a proline analog markedly attenuated the differentiating effect of ascorbic acid on ATDC5 cells. When plates were conditioned with ATDC5 cells exposed to ascorbic acid, ATDC5 cells were able to differentiate in the absence of ascorbic acid. Our results indicate that matrix formation early in the differentiation process is essential for ascorbic acid-induced ATDC5 differentiation. We conclude that ascorbic acid can promote the differentiation of ATDC5 cells by promoting the formation of collagenous matrix and that matrix formation mediates activation of the ERK signaling pathway, which promotes the differentiation program. PMID:20530736

  18. Ascorbate as seen through plant evolution: the rise of a successful molecule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Noé; Gautier, Hélène; Stevens, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbate is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis. This review aims to look at ascorbate from an evolutionary perspective. Cyanobacteria, algae, and bryophytes contain lower concentrations of ascorbate than higher plants, where the molecule accumulates in high concentrations in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and tissues. This increase in ascorbate concentration is paralleled by an increase in the number of isoforms of ascorbate peroxidase and the ascorbate regenerating enzymes mono- and dehydroascorbate reductase. One way of understanding the rise in ascorbate concentrations is to consider ascorbate as a molecule among others that has been subject to selection pressures during evolution, due to its cost or benefit for the cell and the organism. Ascorbate has a low cost in terms of synthesis and toxicity, and its benefits include protection of the glutathione pool and proper functioning of a range of enzymes. The hypothesis presented here is that these features would have favoured increasing roles for the molecule in the development and growth of multicellular organisms. This review then focuses on this diversity of roles for ascorbate in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants, including fruits and seeds, as well as further functions the molecule may possess by looking at other species. The review also highlights one of the trade-offs of domestication, which has often reduced or diluted ascorbate content in the quest for increased fruit growth and yield, with unknown consequences for the corresponding functional diversity, particularly in terms of stress resistance and adaptive responses to the environment.

  19. Degradation of L-Ascorbic Acid in the Amorphous Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan O; Ismail, Yahya; Christina, Belinda; Mauer, Lisa J

    2018-02-05

    Ascorbic acid degradation in amorphous solid dispersions was compared to its degradation in the crystalline state. Physical blends and lyophiles of ascorbic acid and polymers (pectins and polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]) were prepared initially at 50:50 (w/w), with further studies using the polymer that best inhibited ascorbic acid crystallization in the lyophiles in 14 vitamin : PVP ratios. Samples were stored in controlled environments (25 to 60 °C, 0% to 23% RH) for 1 mo and analyzed periodically to track the physical appearance, change in moisture content, physical state (powder x-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy), and vitamin loss (high performance liquid chromatography) over time. The glass transition temperatures of select samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry, and moisture sorption profiles were generated. Ascorbic acid in the amorphous form, even in the glassy amorphous state, was more labile than in the crystalline form in some formulations at the highest storage temperature. Lyophiles stored at 25 and 40 °C and those in which ascorbic acid had crystallized at 60 °C (≥70% ascorbic acid : PVP) had no significant difference in vitamin loss (P > 0.05) relative to physical blend controls, and the length of storage had little effect. At 60 °C, amorphous ascorbic acid lyophiles (≤60% ascorbic acid : PVP) lost significantly more vitamin (P ascorbic acid, a scenario likely encountered in foods wherein vitamins are naturally present or added at low concentrations and production practices may promote amorphization of the vitamin. Vitamin C is one of the most unstable vitamins in foods. This study documents that amorphous ascorbic acid is less stable than crystalline ascorbic acid in some environments (for example, higher temperatures within 1 wk), especially when the vitamin is present at low concentrations in a product. These findings increase the understanding of how material science properties influence the stability of

  20. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  1. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Selected Oxidative Biomarkers in Bovine Spermatozoa Subjected to Ferrous Ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdá, E; Tušimová, E; Kováčik, A; Paál, D; Libová, Ľ; Lukáč, N

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin (QUE) is a natural flavonol-type flavonoid with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of QUE to reverse ROS-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to QUE treatment (7.5, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l) in the presence or absence of a pro-oxidant, that is ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol/l FeSO4 and 750 μmol/l ascorbic acid) during a 6-h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified via luminometry, and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro culture to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (p vitality and antioxidant characteristics (p < 0.01 with respect to the enzymatic antioxidants, p < 0.001 in relation to GSH) with a concentration range of 50-100 μmol/l QUE revealing to be the most effective. Our results suggest that QUE exhibits significant ROS-scavenging and metal-chelating properties which may prevent spermatozoa alterations caused by ROS, and preserve the functionality of male reproductive cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Resveratrol offers protection to oxidative stress induced by ferrous ascorbate in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdá, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Tušimová, Eva; Massányi, Peter; Lukáč, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol and phytoestrogen exhibiting cardioprotective, anticancer, antibacterial and vasorelaxing properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. This study was designed to determine the efficiency of RES to reverse the ROS-mediated impairment of the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to RES treatment (5, 10, 25 and 50 μmol L(-1)) in the presence or absence of a pro-oxidant, i.e., ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol L(-1) FeSO4 and 750 μmol L(-1) ascorbic acid) during a 6-h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro experiments in order to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (P vitality and antioxidant characteristics (P < 0.001 in case of SOD; P < 0.01 with respect to 25-50 μmol L(-1) RES and P < 0.05 in relation to 10 μmol L(-1) RES; P < 0.05 in case of GSH), with 50 μmol L(-1) RES proving to be the most effective RES concentration. Our results suggest that RES possesses significant antioxidant properties that may prevent the deleterious effects caused by ROS to spermatozoa, and preserve the fertilization potential of male reproductive cells.

  3. Thermal stability of L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Makule, Edna Edward; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of vitamin C (including l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] and dehydroascorbic acid [DHAA]) in crushed broccoli was evaluated in the temperature range of 30 to 90 degrees C whereas that of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was evaluated in the temperature range of 20 to 95 degrees C. Thermal treatments (for 15 min) of crushed broccoli at 30 to 60 degrees C resulted in conversion of l-AA to DHAA whereas treatments at 70 to 90 degrees C retained vitamin C as l-AA. These observations indicated that enzymes (for example, AAO) could play a major role in the initial phase (that is, oxidation of l-AA to DHAA) of vitamin C degradation in broccoli. Consequently, a study to evaluate the temperature-time conditions that could result in AAO inactivation in broccoli was carried out. In this study, higher AAO activity was observed in broccoli florets than stalks. During thermal treatments for 10 min, AAO in broccoli florets and stalks was stable until around 50 degrees C. A 10-min thermal treatment at 80 degrees C almost completely inactivated AAO in broccoli. AAO inactivation followed 1st order kinetics in the temperature range of 55 to 65 degrees C. Based on this study, a thermal treatment above 70 degrees C is recommended for crushed vegetable products to prevent oxidation of l-AA to DHAA, the onset of vitamin C degradation. The results reported in this study are applicable for both domestic and industrial processing of vegetables into products such as juices, soups, and purees. In this report, we have demonstrated that processing crushed broccoli in a temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C could result in the conversion of l-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic (DHAA), a very important reaction in regard to vitamin C degradation because DHAA could be easily converted to other compounds that do not have the biological activity of vitamin C.

  4. Ascorbic acid metabolism during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Karppinen, Katja; Suokas, Marko; Hohtola, Anja; Häggman, Hely; Spinardi, Anna; Mignani, Ilaria; Jaakola, Laura

    2012-07-15

    Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) possesses a high antioxidant capacity in berries due to the presence of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AsA). Accumulation of AsA and the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes of the main AsA biosynthetic route and of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well as the activities of the enzymes involved in AsA oxidation and recycling were investigated for the first time during the development and ripening of bilberry fruit. The results showed that the AsA level remained relatively stable during fruit maturation. The expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes in the AsA main biosynthetic route showed consistent trends with each other as well as with AsA levels, especially during the first stages of fruit ripening. The expression of genes and activities of the enzyme involved in the AsA oxidation and recycling route showed more prominent developmental stage-dependent changes during the ripening process. Different patterns of activity were found among the studied enzymes and the results were, for some enzymes, in accordance with AsA levels. In fully ripe berries, both AsA content and gene expression were significantly higher in skin than in pulp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Ascorbate peroxidase. A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkelmann, J R; Trelease, R N

    1996-02-01

    The glyoxysomes of growing oilseed seedlings produce H2O2, a reactive oxygen species, during the beta-oxidation of lipids stored in the cotyledons. An expression library of dark-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutm L.) cotyledons was screened with antibodies that recognized a 31-kD glyoxysomal membrane polypeptide. A full-length cDNA clone (1258 bp) was isolated that encodes a 32-kD subunit of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) with a single, putative membrane-spanning region near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide. Internal amino acid sequence analysis of the cotton 31-kD polypeptide verified that this clone encoded this protein. This enzyme, designated gmAPX, was immunocytochemically and enzymatically localized to the glyoxysomal membrane in cotton cotyledons. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase, a protein that reduces monodehydroascorbate to ascorbate with NADH, also was detected in these membranes. The co-localization of gmAPX and monodehydroascorbate reductase within the glyoxysomal membrane likely reflects an essential pathway for scavenging reactive oxygen species and also provides a mechanism to regenerate NAD+ for the continued operation of the glyoxylate cycle and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Immunological cross-reactivity of 30- to 32-kD proteins in glyoxysomal membranes of cucumber, sunflower, castor bean, and cotton indicate that gmAPX is common among oilseed species.

  6. Microencapsulation of ascorbic acid: effect of process variables on product characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Hawlader, M N; Zhu, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study deals with a comparative investigation of the characteristics of ascorbic acid microcapsules prepared by different methods, such as thermal phase separation, melt dispersion, solvent evaporation and spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), release tests and size distribution were used for the evaluation of product characteristics. The results show that microencapsulated ascorbic acid could prevent the ascorbic acid colour change, retard its core release rate, and generally mask its acid taste. In the thermal phase separation, molecular weight (Mw) of ethyl cellulose (EC) and the addition of polyisobutylene (PIB) significantly influenced the aggregation and release rate of microcapsules. In the melt dispersion method, spherical particles were prepared by using carnauba. The ascorbic acid release rate was found to be slower in the case of carnauba-encapsulated ascorbic acid than that made by EC using other methods. In the solvent evaporation method, a higher Mw of EC and the addition of plastizer were also found to be important for good encapsulation. In the spray drying method, loss of ascorbic acid was found to be minimum during microencapsulation. Starch and beta-cyclodextrin encapsulated ascorbic acid delayed the degradation of ascorbic acid during storage at 38 degrees C and relative humidity 84.0%.

  7. Investigation of L(+)-Ascorbic Acid with Raman Spectroscopy in Visible and UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    calculations with 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets for several conformations of ascorbic acid and the anions. Raman spectra were measured during titration with NaOH base in an oxygen-poor environment to avoid fluorescence when solutions were alkaline. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption band for ascorbic acid in aqueous...

  8. Susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris to zinc ascorbate and antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iinuma K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiro Iinuma1, Norihisa Noguchi2, Hidemasa Nakaminami2, Masanori Sasatsu2, Setsuko Nishijima3, Isami Tsuboi1 1BML General Laboratory, Matoba, Kawagoe, Saitama, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, 3Department of Dermatology, Nishijima Skin Clinic, Osaka, Japan Purpose: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of ascorbic acid derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes was tested either alone or in combination with a variety of antimicrobial agents, and their fractional inhibitory concentration index was determined using checkerboard tests. The antimicrobial effectiveness of zinc ascorbate in the treatment of acne vulgaris, either alone or in combination with antibiotics such as clindamycin that are commonly used in Japan for the treatment of acne vulgaris, was therefore examined. Materials and methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 strains of clindamycin-sensitive and/or clindamycin-resistant P. acnes isolated from acne vulgaris patients was tested, in comparison with a type strain of P. acnes. Results: Zinc ascorbate showed antimicrobial activity against a type strain of P. acnes and its concentration (0.064% was sufficiently lower than the normal dose (5% of other ascorbic acid derivatives. Combinations of zinc ascorbate with clindamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol showed an additive effect, and zinc ascorbate alone effectively inhibited the growth of all P. acnes including clindamycin-resistant strains. Conclusion: The results provide novel evidence that the combination of zinc ascorbate and clindamycin is effective for acne vulgaris treatment. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility, ascorbic acid derivatives, combination therapy, checkerboard test

  9. Effect of ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide on mouse neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARDAWAY, CHRISITNA M.; BADISA, RAMESH B.; SOLIMAN, KARAM F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the antioxidant compounds widely used against free radical stress. The present study was undertaken to examine whether ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), alone or in combination, could influence cell viability. The murine neuroblastoma cell line, N2a, was used to perform a dose response curve for ascorbic acid. It was observed that ascorbic acid alone at physiological concentrations (0.1–0.4 mM) did not cause any cell death. However, at pharmacological concentrations (1–6 mM), ascorbic acid caused dose-dependent cell death. The lethal concentration at which 50% cells were killed (LC50) was determined to be approximately 3.141 mM ascorbic acid at 24 h. H2O2 up to 300 μM alone did not cause significant cell death. In the combined treatment, when the cells were treated with ascorbic acid at physiological concentrations (0.4 mM) and H2O2 at 400 μM, higher rates of cell death were observed compared to the cell death rates caused by either compound alone. Subsequent experiments revealed that cell death was partly mediated through the loss of total glutathione levels in the cells. These data suggest that the combination of ascorbic acid and H2O2 is disadvantageous for cancer cell survival. Further studies are required to ascertain the physiological significance of these observations. PMID:22469841

  10. Control of lethal browning by using ascorbic acid on shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ascorbic acid during explants preparation and the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid in controlling lethal browning and survival of the explants in local banana cv. Mzuzu banana were investigated. The explants were taken from young suckers. The shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's ...

  11. Interference-Blind Microfluidic Sensor for Ascorbic Acid Determination by UV/vis Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Hongyan; Oliveira Fernandes, Ana Carolina; Cardoso, Susana

    2016-01-01

    the microfluidic channel, enzyme-catalyzed reaction occurs and only converts the target molecules to its products. The whole process is monitored by an end-channel UV/vis spectroscopic detection. Ascorbate oxidase and L-ascorbic acid (AA) are taken as enzyme-substrate model in this study to investigate...

  12. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Riet, G.; Kessels, A. G.; Knipschild, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation, 500 mg twice daily in the treatment of pressure ulcers as an adjunct to standardized treatment. The design consisted of a multicenter blinded randomized trial. The control group received 10 mg of ascorbic acid

  13. Ascorbic acid effects on in vitro maturation of mouse oocyte with or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and COCs from germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to metaphase II (MII) and prevents cumulus cell degeneration at certain levels, especially 250 μM/ml of ascorbic acid (P < 0.05). However, further studies on the potential effects of different concentrations of ascorbic acid on oocyte maturation are needed.

  14. Environmental stress sensitivity of an ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, P L; Williams, E H; Last, R L

    1996-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a powerful reducing agent found in millimolar concentrations in plants, and is proposed to play an important role in scavenging free radicals in plants and animals. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of this antioxidant in plant environmental stress adaptation or ascorbate biosynthesis. We report the isolation of soz1, a semi-dominant ozone-sensitive mutant that accumulates only 30% of the normal ascorbate concentration. The results of genetic approaches and feeding studies show that the ascorbate concentration affects foliar resistance to the oxidizing gas ozone. Consistent with the proposed role for ascorbate in reactive oxygen species detoxification, lipid peroxides are elevated in soz1, but not in wild type following ozone fumigation. We show that the soz1 mutant is hypersensitive to both sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet B irradiation, thus implicating ascorbate in defense against varied environmental stresses. In addition to defining the first ascorbate deficient mutant in plants, these results indicate that screening for ozone-sensitive mutants is a powerful method for identifying physiologically important antioxidant mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. Analysis of soz1 should lead to more information about the physiological roles and metabolism of ascorbate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8790441

  15. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  16. Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora goats 1,2. T.D.A. Forbes,* D.R. Tolleson and C.M. .... or pulsatile LH secretion may cause infertility (Randel, 1990;. Short et ai., 1990). The combination of poor ..... Bioi. Reprod. 29, 11. RANDEL, R.D., 1990. Nutrition and postpartum rebreeding in cattle. J. Anim.

  17. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine whether inoculating a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet ...

  18. Effects of whey, molasses and exogenous enzymes on the ensiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the effects of whey, molasses and exogenous enzymes on fermentation, aerobic stability and nutrient composition of ensiled maize cobs. Five treatments were ensiled in 1.5 L anaerobic glass jars over 32 days, namely i) control (maize cobs without additives (CON); ii) maize cobs with ...

  19. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  20. Enhanced antioxidant defense after exogenous application of Ca 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both of these nutrients play an important role in ameliorating drought stress in crop plants. This experiment was designed to study whether exogenous application of Ca2+ and K+ before the drought could enhance the potential of plants to survive under limiting water conditions. Brassica napus L. cv Bulbul-98 seedlings ...

  1. Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 JournalPaper TA30056,Texas Agric. Exp. 5ta. 2 This research is a contribution to Western Regional Research. ProjectW-112, ReproductivePerformancein DomesticRuminants. Dailey, 1982), and heifers (Hardin & Randel, 1983) given exogenous GnRH, and to alter progesterone production by bovine corpora lutea in vitro ...

  2. The Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Sperm Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Sperm Characteristics of West African Dwarf Goat Bucks. ... As a result, melatonin had a positive effect on reproductive status of WADG as shown by significant higher testicular development, testosterone and sperm quality. However the effect of melatonin was more pronounced in the ...

  3. Effect of exogenous gibberellic acid on germination, seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exogenous application of gibberellin increased germination percentage and improved length and fresh weight of roots and shoots under salt treatment. It also increased both acid phosphatase and phytase activities in roots under this constraint. The application of gibberellic acid compensated for the negative effect of ...

  4. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  5. Utilization of exogenous siderophores and natural catechols by Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, N.; Coulanges, V; Andre, P.; Vidon, D J

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes does not produce siderophores for iron acquisition. We demonstrate that a number of microbial siderophores and natural iron-binding compounds are able to promote the growth of iron-starved L. monocytogenes. We suggest that the ability of L. monocytogenes to use a variety of exogenous siderophores and natural catechols accounts for its ubiquitous character.

  6. Exogenous cycilc AMP and cycilc GMP influence the metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Exogenous cycilc AMP and cycilc GMP influence the metabolism of traces of tritium-labeled glycerol in rabbits. Yongfeng Liu, Linsen Zan*, Fang Wei, Dengke Liu, Yaping Xin and Wanqiang Tian. College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, Republic ...

  7. Entrainment of Goodwin’s oscillators by periodic exogenous signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proskurnikov, Anton; Cao, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    The circadian pacemakers, which have been discovered in most of living organisms, are known to be entrainable by the environmental exogenuous cues, or zeitgebers (“time givers”). If the influence of an exogenous periodic excitation is sufficiently long, the internal circadian “clock” adjusts the

  8. Alleviating effect of exogenous nitric oxide in cucumber seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study indicated that exogenous NO at 1.0 mmoll-1 SNP enhanced chilling stress tolerance. In comparison with cvZND 461, cvZND407 had higher tolerance ability to chilling stress. Key words: Antioxidative enzymes, chilling stress, cucumber, nitric oxide (NO) osmotic adjustment; reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  9. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst

    2016-10-01

    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  10. Encapsulation of ascorbic acid promotes the reduction of Maillard reaction products in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitiello, Daniele; Tsang, Catherine; Fiore, Alberto

    2016-06-15

    The presence of amino groups and carbonyls renders fortified milk with ascorbic acid particularly susceptible to the reduction of available lysine and to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), as Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine (CEL), Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML), Amadori products (APs) and off-flavors. A novel approach was proposed to control the Maillard reaction (MR) in fortified milk: ascorbic acid was encapsulated in a lipid coating and the effects were tested after a lab scale UHT treatment. Encapsulation promoted a delayed release of ascorbic acid and a reduction in the formation of MRPs. Total lysine increased up to 45% in milk with encapsulated ascorbic acid, while reductions in CML, CEL and furosine ranged from 10% to 53% compared with control samples. The effects were also investigated towards the formation of amide-AGEs (advanced glycation end products) by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that several mechanisms coincide with the MR in the presence of ascorbic acid.

  11. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (pascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    .14.17.3). The enzyme needs ascorbic acid for activity as well as copper and molecular oxygen. The present work shows that pancreatic islet cells prepared from overnight cultures of isolated islets from 5-7-day-old rats accumulate 14C-labelled ascorbic acid by a Na(+)-dependent active transport mechanism which involves....... Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...... a saturable process (estimated Km 17.6 microM). Transport was inhibited by ouabain, phloridzin, cytochalasin B, amiloride and probenecid. Glucose inhibited or stimulated uptake, depending on the length of incubation time of the cells. The uptake of dehydroascorbic acid was linearly dependent on concentration...

  13. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ΔBW or ΔWC. SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. RESULTS: We found no significant...

  14. Preparation and characterization of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Magdalena M; Jordović, Branka; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2007-01-01

    This paper is covering new, simplistic method of obtaining the system for controlled delivery of the ascorbic acid. Copolymer poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (DLPLG) nanoparticles are produced using physical method with solvent/nonsolvent systems where obtained solutions were centrifuged. The encapsulation of the ascorbic acid in the polymer matrix is performed by homogenization of water and organic phases. Particles of the DLPLG with the different content of ascorbic acid have different morphological characteristics, that is, variable degree of uniformity, agglomeration, sizes, and spherical shaping. Mean sizes of nanoparticles, which contain DLPLG/ascorbic acid in the ratio 85/150%, were between 130 to 200 nm depending on which stereological parameters are considered (maximal diameters Dmax, feret X, or feret Y). By introducing up to 15% of ascorbic acid, the spherical shape, size, and uniformity of DLPLG particles are preserved. The samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, stereological analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  15. Effect of exogenously applied chemicals on keeping qualities of cut carnations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of holding solutions containing sucrose (5% and an antisepUc (AgNO3 30 ppm, 8-HQS 200 ppm increased the vase-life and the flower diameter of cut carnation as compared to flowers placed in water. Similar effect of the solution of glucose (5% plus 8-HQS (300 ppm and CCC (300 ppm was observed. However, flowers did not benefit from the use of Flovit. Improvement in flower keeping qualities as influenced by the solutions used in the experiments was due to better plant tissue hydratation and dry matter accumulation.

  16. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  17. Ascorbic acid protects against the nephrotoxicity and apoptosis caused by colistin and affects its pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jumana M.; Chen, Gong; Hill, Prue A.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The use of colistin in the treatment of life-threatening Gram-negative infections is associated with a high rate of nephrotoxicity that is dose limiting. This study aimed to examine the nephroprotective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods Rats were treated intravenously twice daily with saline, colistin (cumulative dose of 36.5 mg/kg), a combination of ascorbic acid (50 or 200 mg/kg) and colistin, or ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) over 7 days. Colistin-induced apoptosis was examined in rats over 5 days and in vitro using rat renal proximal tubular cells NRK-52E over 24 h with and without ascorbic acid. The effect of co-administered ascorbic acid on colistin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Results The 24 h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a sensitive marker for tubular damage, was significantly lower (P ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg group. Significant histological abnormalities (P ascorbic acid, which decreased the apoptotic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) altered colistin pharmacokinetics, as the total body clearance decreased from 3.78 ± 0.36 mL/min/kg (colistin group) to 2.46 ± 0.57 mL/min/kg (P = 0.0024). Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity and tubular apoptosis. Co-administration of ascorbic acid has the potential to increase the therapeutic index of colistin. PMID:22127588

  18. Ascorbic acid insufficiency induces the severe defect on bone formation via the down-regulation of osteocalcin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won; Bae, Seyeon; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Yejin; Choi, Jiwon; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Hei Jin; Lee, Jihyuk; Choi, Jiyea; Jang, Mirim; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Chung, Sun G.; Hwang, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    The L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase gene (Gulo) encodes an essential enzyme in the synthesis of ascorbic acid from glucose. On the basis of previous findings of bone abnormalities in Gulo-/- mice under conditions of ascorbic acid insufficiency, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid insufficiency on factors related to bone metabolism in Gulo-/- mice. Four groups of mice were raised for 4 weeks under differing conditions of ascorbic acid insufficiency, namely, wild type; ascorbic acid-sufficient Gulo-/- mice, 3-week ascorbic acid-insufficient Gulo-/- mice, and 4-week ascorbic acid-insufficient Gulo-/- mice. Four weeks of ascorbic acid insufficiency resulted in significant weight loss in Gulo-/- mice. Interestingly, average plasma osteocalcin levels were significantly decreased in Gulo-/- mice after 3 weeks of ascorbic acid insufficiency. In addition, the tibia weight in ascorbic acid-sufficient Gulo-/- mice was significantly higher than that in the other three groups. Moreover, significant decreases in trabecular bone volume near to the growth plate, as well as in trabecular bone attachment to the growth plate, were evident in 3- or 4-week ascorbic acid-insufficient Gulo-/-. In summary, ascorbic acid insufficiency in Gulo-/- mice results in severe defects in normal bone formation, which are closely related to a decrease in plasma osteocalcin levels. PMID:24386598

  19. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  20. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chenju, E-mail: cliang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ya-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Jia-Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK{sub a2} of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK{sub a2} of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −4} mM{sup 1−(a} {sup +} {sup b)} h{sup −1}) × [NB]{sup a} {sup =} {sup 1.35} {sup ±} {sup 0.10}[AA]{sup b} {sup =} {sup 0.89} {sup ±} {sup 0.01}. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  1. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickton Darby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C. As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1 determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2 determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3 evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both

  2. Effects of GA3, BA, Thiamine and Ascorbic Acid on Some Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baniasadi

    2016-07-01

    . All growth promoter substances increased flower diameter. Combined application of BAwith gibberellic acid had more influence on this parameter than other treatments, and increase flower diameter about 25%. Ascorbic acid plays an important role in cell division, plasma membrane, proton pumps and enlargement cell. According to the theory of acidic growth, ascorbic acid weakens cell wall and increases cell enlargement. Among the applied treatments combination of banzyladenine, thiamine and ascorbic acid increased the number of lateral branches to 100%. Results showed that GA in all concentrations and combinations used in this experiment increased lateral branches length. Several reports in plants such as croton, hibiscus and pot marigold indicated that BA can increase the number of branches per plant. Therefore, BA is used to enhance branching and to reduce the total height of the plants. The highest fresh and dry weight were observed in plants treated with the combinations of BA, thiamine and ascorbic acid. Thiamine increased chlorophyll a content more than other substances. There was no significant difference between thiamine or thiamine combined with ascorbic acid treatment on chlorophyll b content. Thiamine in combinations with all the other treatments significantly improved carotenoids content compared to control. Chlorophyll plays a key role in plants for the absorption and utilization of light energy which used in photosynthesis. Therefore, effects of PGRs on chlorophyll biosynthesis or degradation influence directly on photosynthesis. Thiamine was reported that in some plants assist resynthesize of chlorophyll in plant without chlorophyll and increased growth and yield eventually. All the treatments significantly increased reducing sugar. Although all of the substances improved the amount of reducing sugar, the role of thiamine was more dramatic compared to other treatments. The greatest amount of reducing sugar 85.3 mg. g-1 fresh weight was observed in the

  3. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p < 0.05). In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p < 0.05). We conclude that fructose co-ingestion (0.6 g·min−1) with glucose (1.2 g·min−1) provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  4. Luminescent determination of ascorbic acid in dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malinka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the ascorbic acid (AA determination with using a complex of an Tb (III ion with ciprofloxacin (CF as a lanthanide luminescent marker. The luminescent properties of the Tb (III-CF complex in the presence of AA were studied. The excitation and luminescence spectra, triplet level of ligand, the kinetics of the luminescence decay of the Tb(III-CF complex in the presence of AA were analyzed. The excitation spectrum of the Tb (III- CF complex has broad bands with maxima at 302 and 355 nm that corresponding to the n→π* electronic transition in the absorption spectrum of ligand. The luminesce spectra demonstrate the emission transitions arising from 5D4 energy level to 7Fj multiplet ground state. The luminescence of the Tb(III-CF complex was found to be quenched by AA. It was established that the lifetime of the excited 5D4 state of the Tb (III ion decreases with AA concentration increasing up to 0,25 mg/сm3. Luminescence quenching of the Tb (III-CF complex by AA follows the Stern-Volmer relationship of AA. The Stern-Volmer constant K is 2478 dm3/mol. The biomolecular quenching rate constant kq is 1,25∙107 dm3/mol. The effect of luminescence quenching of the Tb (III-CF complex was used to developing the procedure for determining of AA in the dietetic additives «Asvitol» and «Ascorbic acid». The linear calibration plot for AA was obtained over the concentration range of 0,02 to 0,25 mg/сm3.

  5. Determination of L-ascorbic acid in Lycopersicon fruits by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Balaguer, L; Roselló, S; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Maquieira, A; Nuez, F

    2001-09-15

    This study shows an improved method for the determination of L-ascorbic acid (l-AA) in fruits of Lycopersicon by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Two backgrounds electrolytes (BGEs) have been tested: (i) 400 mM borate at pH 8.0 and 1 x 10(-2)% hexadimethrine bromide, for the separation of Eulycopersicon subgenus species; and (ii) as in BGE(i) but supplemented with 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, for the separation of species of the Eriopersicon subgenus. The present procedures were compared with two routine methods-enzymatic assay and potentiometric titration with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. While these routine methods presented some difficulties in quantifying l-AA in several Lycopersicon fruits, CZE was successfully applied in all the analyzed samples. The proposed CZE protocols give lower detection limits (<0.4 microg ml(-1)); are cheaper, quicker, and highly reproducible; and can be applied to analyze large series of samples (ca. 50 samples per day) which is utmost importance, not only in screening trials for internal quality and tomato breeding programs, but also in systematic and routine characterization of Lycopersicon fruits. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Application of tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid in cosmetic formulations: stability studies and in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G; Gianeti, Mirela D; Camargo, Flávio B; Gaspar, Lorena R

    2012-11-01

    Liposoluble vitamin C derivatives, such as tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (IPAA), are often used in dermocosmetic products due to their higher stability than vitamin C free form as well as its proposed effects in skin; however, there are no studies analyzing IPAA stability or its in vivo effects when present in dermocosmetic formulations. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate chemical stability and pre-clinical and clinical efficacy of dermocosmetic formulations containing IPAA in skin hydration and microrelief. Chemical stability of the formulations added with 1% IPAA was evaluated by heat stress during 35 days by HPLC. For pre-clinical evaluation, experimental formulations were topically applied on hairless skin mice during 5 days and animal skins were analyzed by non-invasive biophysic techniques (water content of stratum corneum, TEWL, viscoelasticity, and microrelief) and by histopathological studies. For clinical efficacy tests, the formulations were topically applied to the forearm and face of human volunteers, and 3h and 15 days after applications, the skins were evaluated by the same non-invasive techniques mentioned before. Results showed that formulations containing IPAA had medium stability and had pronounced moisturizing effects on stratum corneum and on viable epidermis. These formulations also improved skin microrelief especially in relation to skin smoothness and roughness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time of Application of Sodium Ascorbate on Bonding to Bleached Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hwa Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different application times of sodium ascorbate (SA on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached dentin. Specimens with an exposed dentin surface were divided into 3 groups according to the type of bleaching agent used: Group A, mixture of sodium perborate (SP and distilled water (DW; Group B, mixture of SP and hydrogen peroxide (HP; control group, no bleaching. Each group was classified into 10 subgroups. Subgroups IB and DB underwent immediate bonding and delayed bonding, respectively. 10% SA was applied to 3, 5, 10, and 30 minutes and 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS was measured after restoration, and the data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffé’s test. Before restoration, the dentin surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. SEM showed that most dentin surfaces were filled with crystals when SA was applied to more than 24 hours. EDS revealed peaks of calcium, carbon, oxygen, and sodium. The application of SA for 5 minutes to 48 hours or for 30 minutes to 24 hours is suggested when a mixture of SP and DW or HP is used, respectively.

  8. Time of Application of Sodium Ascorbate on Bonding to Bleached Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Seon, Eun-Mi; Choi, An-Na; Kwon, Yong-Hoon; Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-Kil

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of different application times of sodium ascorbate (SA) on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached dentin. Specimens with an exposed dentin surface were divided into 3 groups according to the type of bleaching agent used: Group A, mixture of sodium perborate (SP) and distilled water (DW); Group B, mixture of SP and hydrogen peroxide (HP); control group, no bleaching. Each group was classified into 10 subgroups. Subgroups IB and DB underwent immediate bonding and delayed bonding, respectively. 10% SA was applied to 3, 5, 10, and 30 minutes and 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured after restoration, and the data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffé's test. Before restoration, the dentin surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). SEM showed that most dentin surfaces were filled with crystals when SA was applied to more than 24 hours. EDS revealed peaks of calcium, carbon, oxygen, and sodium. The application of SA for 5 minutes to 48 hours or for 30 minutes to 24 hours is suggested when a mixture of SP and DW or HP is used, respectively.

  9. Intramolecular acyl migration and enzymatic hydrolysis of a novel monoacylated ascorbic acid derivative, 6-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Mori, Tasuku; Urushihara, Masaya; Ito, Hideyuki; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2010-08-15

    A stable ascorbic acid derivative, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), exhibits vitamin C activity in vitro and in vivo after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid. AA-2G has been approved by the Japanese Government as a quasi-drug principal ingredient in skin care and as a food additive. In order to achieve efficient action as an ascorbic acid source, a pro-vitamin C agent, on a variety of cells or tissues, we have synthesized a series of monoacyl AA-2G derivatives. Our previous studies indicate that a series of the derivatives is a readily available source of AA activity in vitro and in vivo, and suggested that intramolecular acyl migration of the derivatives might have occurred in a neutral aqueous solution. In this study, intramolecular acyl migration and enzymatic hydrolysis of a monoacyl AA-2G derivative, 6-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (6-sDode-AA-2G), were investigated. 6-sDode-AA-2G underwent an intramolecular acyl migration to yield ca. 10% of an isomer in neutral aqueous solutions, and the acyl-migrated isomer was isolated and characterized as 5-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (5-sDode-AA-2G). In some tissue homogenates from guinea pigs as well as in neutral aqueous solutions, 6-sDode-AA-2G underwent partial acyl migration to give 5-sDode-AA-2G. 6-sDode-AA-2G and the resulting 5-sDode-AA-2G were predominantly hydrolyzed with esterase to AA-2G and then with alpha-glucosidase to ascorbic acid in the tissue homogenates. The results will provide a further basis for its use as an ingredient in skin care, as an effective pharmacological agent and as a promising food additive. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

    2014-11-01

    Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Depletion of Ascorbic Acid Restricts Angiogenesis and Retards Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

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    Sucheta Telang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound iron in its reduced state. We hypothesized that dietary ascorbic acid might be required for tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, tumor growth. Here, we show that, not surprisingly, ascorbic acid is necessary for the synthesis of collagen type IV by human endothelial cells and for their effective migration and tube formation on a basement membrane matrix. Furthermore, ascorbic acid depletion in mice incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid (Gulo-/- dramatically restricts the in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. Histopathological analyses of these tumors reveal poorly formed blood vessels, extensive hemorrhagic foci, and decreased collagen and von Willebrand factor expression. Our data indicate that ascorbic acid plays an essential role in tumor angiogenesis and growth, and that restriction of ascorbic acid or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase may prove to be novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer.

  12. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Garba Ibrahim; Gregory, Ubom; Maryam, Haruna

    2004-10-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds. We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years) was found to be 2.02 +/- 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 +/- 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years). These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 +/- 0.10 mg/dL) in healthy adult males (n = 28) and females (n = 28) (p children (age range 3 to 5 years), the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 +/- 0.20 mg/dL) during infection (n = 25) than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 +/- 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9) (p ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  13. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan

    Full Text Available Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years was found to be 2.02 ± 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 ± 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years. These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 ± 0.10 mg/dL in healthy adult males (n = 28 and females (n = 28 (p < 0.05. In children (age range 3 to 5 years, the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 ± 0.20 mg/dL during infection (n = 25 than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 ± 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9 (p < 0.05. It is evident therefore that ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  14. Fluorescence probe for the convenient and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yuta; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive substances. The detection of ascorbic acid has traditionally been achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry assays. However, the development of fluorescence probes for this purpose is highly desired because they provide a much more convenient and highly sensitive technique for the detection of this material. OFF-ON-type fluorescent probes have been developed for the detection of non-fluorescent compounds. Photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer are the two main fluorescence quenching mechanisms for the detection of ascorbic acid, and several fluorescence probes have been reported based on redox-responsive metals and quantum dots. Profluorescent nitroxide compounds have also been developed as non-metal organic fluorescence probes for ascorbic acid. These nitroxide systems have a stable unpaired electron and can therefore react with ascorbic acid and a strong fluorescence quencher. Furthermore, recent synthetic advances have allowed for the synthesis of α-substituted nitroxides with varying levels of reactivity towards ascorbic acid. In this review, we have discussed the design strategies used for the preparation of fluorescent probes for ascorbic acid, with particular emphasis on profluorescent nitroxides, which are unique radical-based redox-active fluorescent probes.

  15. Effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin wrinkles and pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Mi; An, Hyo Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Chi Ho; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lim, Joo Hyuck; Choi, Joon-Hun; Song, Hyunnam; Moon, Sung Ho; Park, Young Jun; Chang, Shin-Jae; Choi, Sun Young

    2017-07-01

    Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial. Our results confirmed that the expression of type Ι collagen in dermal fibroblast cells treated with palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid (0.1-4 μg/mL) increased in a dose-dependent manner. In B16F1 cells, treatment with 20 μg/mL palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid reduced the melanin content by approximately 20% compared to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone treatment. In the clinical trial, application of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream led to an improvement in skin roughness and lightness in 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. Our data show that palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid is an effective anti-aging agent that reduces wrinkles and abnormal skin pigmentation.

  16. Ascorbic acid increases demethylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos of the pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minghui; Hur, Tai-Young; No, Jingu; Nam, Yoonseok; Kim, Hyeunkyu; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Seunghoon

    2017-07-01

    Investigated the effect and mechanism of ascorbic acid on the development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Porcine embryos were produced by SCNT and cultured in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid. Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3) in oocytes was knocked down by siRNA injection. After ascorbic acid treatment, reprogramming genes were analyzed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, relative 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content in pronucleus were detected by realtime PCR. Ascorbic acid significantly increased the development of porcine embryos produced by SCNT. After SCNT, transcript levels of reprogramming genes, Pou5f1 , Sox2 , and Klf were significantly increased in blastocysts. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced 5-methylcytosine content in pronuclear embryos compared with the control group. Knock down of TET3 in porcine oocytes significantly prevents the demethylation of somatic cell nucleus after SCNT, even if in the presence of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid enhanced the development of porcine SCNT embryos via the increased TET3 mediated demethylation of somatic nucleus.

  17. Kinetics of the thermal degradation of patulin in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinidou, S; Floros, J D; LaBorde, L F

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of the mycotoxin patulin between 25 and 85 °C without and with added ascorbic acid was studied, and the effectiveness of linear and nonlinear models for predicting reaction rates was compared. In agreement with previous reports, ascorbic acid significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the rate of patulin degradation at all temperatures studied. The data for patulin degradation in the absence of ascorbic acid were adequately modeled using a zero-order linear kinetic model. However, the predictive abilities of zero and higher-order linear models were not adequate to describe the more complex reactions that likely occurred when ascorbic acid was added. In contrast, the nonlinear Weibull model adequately described the patulin-ascorbic acid reaction throughout the temperature range studied. Zero-order rate constants and Weibull scale values for each of the respective reactions followed the Arrhenius law. Activation energies of 58.7 ± 3.9 and 29.6 ± 1.9 kJ mol⁻¹ for the reaction without and with ascorbic acid, respectively, confirmed decreased patulin stability in the presence of ascorbic acid and suggested that the mechanisms for the 2 degradation reactions were different. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  19. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe Miroslava; López-Saiz, Carmen María; Ramírez-Guerra, Hugo Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido

    2016-01-01

    In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils. PMID:27886145

  20. Exogenic controls on sulfuric acid hydrate production at the surface of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Cassidy, T.; Paranicas, C.; Shirley, J. H.; Prockter, L. M.; Kamp, L. W.

    2013-03-01

    External agents have heavily weathered the visible surface of Europa. Internal and external drivers competing to produce the surface we see include, but are not limited to: aqueous alteration of materials within the icy shell, initial emplacement of endogenic material by geologic activity, implantation of exogenic ions and neutrals from Jupiter's magnetosphere, alteration of surface chemistry by radiolysis and photolysis, impact gardening of upper surface layers, and redeposition of sputtered volatiles. Separating the influences of these processes is critical to understanding the surface and subsurface compositions at Europa. Recent investigations have applied cryogenic reflectance spectroscopy to Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observations to derive abundances of surface materials including water ice, hydrated sulfuric acid, and hydrated sulfate salts. Here we compare derived sulfuric acid hydrate (H2SO4·nH2O) abundance with weathering patterns and intensities associated with charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere. We present models of electron energy, ion energy, and sulfur ion number flux as well as the total combined electron and ion energy flux at the surface to estimate the influence of these processes on surface concentrations, as a function of location. We found that correlations exist linking both electron energy flux (r∼0.75) and sulfur ion flux (r=0.93) with the observed abundance of sulfuric acid hydrate on Europa. Sulfuric acid hydrate production on Europa appears to be limited in some regions by a reduced availability of sulfur ions, and in others by insufficient levels of electron energy. The energy delivered by sulfur and other ions has a much less significant role. Surface deposits in regions of limited exogenic processing are likely to bear closest resemblance to oceanic composition. These results will assist future efforts to separate the relative influence of endogenic and exogenic sources in establishing the

  1. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  2. Analyzing Bullwhip Effect in Supply Networks under Exogenous Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Darvish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model for analyzing and measuring the propagation of order amplifications (i.e. bullwhip effect for a single-product supply network topology considering exogenous uncertainty and linear and time-invariant inventory management policies for network entities. The stream of orders placed by each entity of the network is characterized assuming customer demand is ergodic. In fact, we propose an exact formula in order to measure the bullwhip effect in the addressed supply network topology considering the system in Markovian chain framework and presenting a matrix of network member relationships and relevant order sequences. The formula turns out using a mathematical method called frequency domain analysis. The major contribution of this paper is analyzing the bullwhip effect considering exogenous uncertainty in supply networks and using the Fourier transform in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We present a number of numerical examples to assess the analytical results accuracy in quantifying the bullwhip effect.

  3. Ascorbate-Promoted Surface Iron Cycle for Efficient Heterogeneous Fenton Alachlor Degradation with Hematite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Xiaojing; Jia, Falong; Song, Fahui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-15

    This study reports the H2O2 activation with different hematite nanocrystals and ascorbate ions for the herbicide alachlor degradation at pH 5. We found that hematite nanoplates (HNPs) exposed with {001} facets exhibited better catalytic performance than hematite nanocubes (HNCs) exposed with {012} facets, which was attributed to the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes on the hematite facets. The 3-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {001} facet favors the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes, while the 5-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {012} facet has stereo-hindrance effect, disfavoring the complex formation. The surface area normalized alachlor degradation rate constant (23.3 × 10-4 min-1 L m-2) of HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system was about 2.6 times that (9.1 × 10-4 min-1 L m-2) of HNCs-ascorbate counterpart. Meanwhile, the 89.0% of dechlorination and 30.0% of denitrification in the HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system were also significantly higher than those (60.9% and 13.1%) of the HNCs-ascorbate one. More importantly, the reductive dissolution of hematite by ascorbate was strongly coupled with the subsequent H2O2 decomposition by surface bound ferrous ions through surface iron cycle on the hematite facets in the hematite-ascorbate Fenton systems. This coupling could significantly inhibit the conversion of surface bound ferrous ions to dissolved ones, and thus account for the stability of hematite nanocrystals. This work sheds light on the internal relationship between iron geochemical cycling and contaminants degradation, and also inspires us to utilize surface iron cycle of widely existent hematite for environmental remediation.

  4. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid using a net analyte signal-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Abdolhossein; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim; Vallipour, Javad; Jafari, Samira; Shahverdizadeh, Gholam Hossein; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2009-01-01

    The net analyte preprocessing/classical least-squares (NAP/CLS) method is a simple chemometric method that has been used for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid. The obtained results indicated that the performances of the NAP/CLS and partial least-squares methods were almost identical. The net analyte signal (NAS) concept was also used to calculate multivariate analytical figures of merit, such as LOD, selectivity, and sensitivity. Wavelength selection was applied based on the concept of NAS regression, and improved the method performance in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. The method afforded recoveries in the range of 98-105%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in an Iranian soft drink.

  5. Who Benefits from Transshipment? Exogenous vs. Endogenous Wholesale Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Lingxiu Dong; Nils Rudi

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how transshipments affect manufacturers and retailers, considering both exogenous and endogenous wholesale prices. For a distribution system where a single manufacturer sells to multiple identical-cost retailers, we consider both the manufacturer being a price taker and the manufacturer being a price setter in a single-period setup under multivariate normal demand distribution. In the case of the manufacturer being a price taker, we provide several analytical results regard...

  6. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  7. Ascorbic acid synthesis and metabolism in maize are subject to complex and genotype-dependent feedback regulation during endosperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Bassie, Ludovic; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant and electron donor whose metabolism in plants is under strict feedback control. The factors that influence L-ascorbic acid accumulation in staple crops are only partially understood. One way to gain insight into the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism is to investigate the endogenous pathways in various genetic backgrounds and characterize their interactions with transgenes encoding relevant enzymes. In an initial step, we investigated the developmental profile of L-ascorbic acid accumulation in the endosperm of three diverse maize genotypes and a transgenic line expressing rice dehydroascorbate reductase, which enhances L-ascorbic acid recycling. We determined the transcript levels of all the key genes in the L-ascorbic acid metabolic pathways as well as the specific levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate. L-ascorbic acid levels were high 20 days after pollination and declined thereafter. We found significant genotype-dependent variations in the transcript levels of some genes, with particular complexity in the ascorbic acid recycling pathway. Our data will help to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism in plants, particularly the impact of genetic background on the strict regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism in endosperm cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Exogenous antioxidants—Double-edged swords in cellular redox state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.), alkoxyl radicals (RO.) and peroxyradicals (ROO.). However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects. PMID:20972369

  9. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezda V Cherdyntseva; Ivanova, Anna?A.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Evgeny Cherdyntsev; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair; Kagiya, Tsutomu V.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorb...

  10. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on some Morpho-Physiological Traits of Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farahvash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/m2.day was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/m2.day, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/m2.day, belonged to control and the

  11. Uptake of ascorbic acid by freshly isolated cells and secretory granules from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Matsumoto, T; Farver, O

    1990-01-01

    Mechanically isolated cells from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses contained 40.6 +/- 3.7 nmol mg-1 protein (mean +/- SE, n = 5) of ascorbic acid. They accumulated radioactivity time dependently, on incubation with L-[14C]ascorbic acid in ionic medium dominated by NaCl. No definite saturation...... of uptake occurred when mechanically isolated cells were incubated with increasing ascorbic acid concentrations up to 0.6 mM. But if such cells were purified on a Percoll gradient, a clear saturation of uptake could be observed. Acetylsalicylic acid reduced the uptake markedly. When cells loaded with L-[14C]ascorbic...... sodium-dependent. Phloridzin inhibited uptake. Secretory granules from pars intermedia contained 40.0 +/- 3.8 nmol mg-1 protein of ascorbic acid (mean +/- SE, n = 3) and could accumulate L-[14C]ascorbic acid rapidly in a KCl-dominated medium. The uptake was not saturable with ascorbic acid concentration...

  12. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  13. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on growth and non-specific immune responses of tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Jinee; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2008-11-01

    We report nutritional physiology and non-specific immune responses of ascorbic acid (AA) in puffer fish for the first time. This study aimed to examine the essentiality and requirements of AA in diets for the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes based on growth performance, liver AA and bone collagen concentration, and non-specific immune responses. Five casein-gelatin based semi-purified diets were formulated to contain five graded levels of l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate at 0, 40, 80, 160 and 700mg/kg (designated as AMP0, AMP40, AMP80, AMP160 and AMP700, respectively) and fed to triplicate groups of fish. After 10weeks of feeding trial, growth performances of fish (initial body weight, 35g) fed the AMP0 were significantly lower compared to that of fish fed diets supplemented with AMP. The fish fed the AMP0 diet also exhibited significantly lower hematocrit, condition factor and hepatosomatic index compared to the fish fed diets supplemented with AMP. Phagocytic activity (NBT assay) was significantly lower in fish fed the AMP0 diet than in fish fed the AMP containing diets. Plasma lysozyme activity of fish fed the AMP80 and AMP160 was significantly higher than that of fish fed the AMP0. Dietary supplementation of AMP significantly increased the liver superoxide dismutase in the fish. Myeloperoxidase activity of fish fed the AMP0 was significantly lower compared to that of fish fed the AMP containing diets. Bone collagen level tended to increase numerically and total AA concentration in liver of fish was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner by the supplementation of AMP. Therefore, tiger puffer requires exogenous ascorbic acid and the optimum dietary level could be 29mg AA/kg diet for normal growth and physiology. Dietary AA concentration over 82mg/kg could be required to enhance non-specific immune responses of the fish. However, it does not seem that the fish needs an overdose of dietary AA (>160mg/kg) for better non-specific immune responses.

  14. Function of endothelium at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before and after rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, O. (Olga)

    2011-01-01

    Function of endothelium at 43 adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before rehabilitation and at 33 healthy adolescents has been studied. Disorder of endothelial function has been established in 32 (74.4%) adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity and in 7 (21.2%) healthy adolescents. We showed the efficiency of the rehabilitation program on restoration of endothelial function at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity.

  15. Exogenous Neuritin Promotes Nerve Regeneration After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Shaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Jingling; Shan, Liya; Song, Xiaoming; Luo, Xing; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient local levels of neurotrophic factor after spinal cord injury (SCI) are the leading cause of secondary injury and limited axonal regeneration. Neuritin belongs to a family of neurotrophic factors that promote neurite outgrowth, maintain neuronal survival, and provide a favorable microenvironment for the regeneration and repair of nerve cells after injury. However, it is not known whether the exogenously applied neuritin protein has a positive effect on nerve repair after SCI. This was investigated in the present study using purified human recombinant neuritin expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris, which was tested in a rat SCI model. A recombinant neuritin concentration of 60 μg/ml induced the recovery of hind limb motor function and stimulated nerve regeneration in rats with SCI. Continuous administration of neuritin at this dose at an early stage after SCI inhibited poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) protein degradation and decreased neuronal apoptosis. In addition, during the critical postinjury period of axonal regeneration, exogenous neuritin treatment increased the expression of neurofilament 200 and growth-associated protein 43 in the damaged tissue, which was associated with the restoration of hind limb movement. These results suggest that neuritin creates an environment that promotes nerve cell survival and neurite regeneration after SCI, which contribute to nerve regeneration and the recovery of motor function.

  16. The effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on the ecdysteroid content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlar, Marek; Rothova, Olga; Salajkova, Sarka; Tarkowska, Dana; Drasar, Pavel; Kocova, Marie; Harmatha, Juraj; Hola, Dana; Kohout, Ladislav; Macek, Tomas

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show whether/how the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide can affect the content of ecdysteroids in spinach leaves. Brassinosteroids and ecdysteroids, structurally related phytosterols, show effect on a range of processes in plants. Brassinosteroids increase biomass yield in some species, photosynthesis and resistance to stress, and ecdysteroids show effect on proteins responsible for binding of CO2 or water cleavage. The mutual interaction of these sterols in plants is unclear. The UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS analyses of extracts of treated and untreated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves show that the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide does influence the ecdysteroid content in plant tissues. The response differs for the major ecdysteroids and also differs from that for the minor ones and is dependent on the developmental stage of the leaves within the same plant or the 24-epibrassinolide concentration applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anja; Lebzien, Peter; Meyer, Ulrich; Borchert, Ulrike; Bulang, Michael; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme product applied to a total mixed ration (TMR) prior to feeding on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk yield and composition. Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (598 +/- 29 kg initial live weight and 98 +/- 30 days in milk) fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulae were allocated to two treatments in a crossover design over three consecutive 28-d periods. The TMR containing 50% concentrates, 30% corn silage and 20% grass silage on dry matter (DM) basis, was mixed once daily and fed twice a day. Treatments were TMR alone (Control) or TMR with an enzyme product containing primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (9000 U endo-1,4-beta glucanase, 24000 U endo-1,3(4)-beta glucanase and 40000 U 1,4-beta xylanase per ml). The enzyme product was applied at a rate of 6.2 ml/kg TMR (DM basis). It was diluted at a rate of 1:5 with water and applied daily to the TMR. During the control period the cows received a TMR supplemented with 36 ml water/kg TMR on DM basis. Duodenal digesta flow was measured using Cr2O3 as flow marker and microbial protein in the duodenal digesta was estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). There were no significant differences in ruminal pH-values, NH3-N concentrations, total SCFA concentrations and molar proportions of SCFA. No treatment effects on microbial N flow to the duodenum and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were observed. The apparent ruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF and ADF, milk yield and composition were also not affected by the enzyme supplementation. In this study the application of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes fed to dairy cows did not show a significant effect on any parameter tested.

  18. Impact of single-dose application of TGF-β, copper peptide, stanozolol and ascorbic acid in hydrogel on midline laparatomy wound healing in a diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, Moritz A; Ziebart, Thomas; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Wellmann, Axel; Ackermann, Maximilian

    2012-08-01

    Despite numerous advances and improvements in surgical techniques the incidence of incisional hernias after laparotomy remains high. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of single application of ascorbic acid, stanozolol, a synthetic anabolic steroid, copper peptide and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on laparotomy wound healing in an incisional wound model in diabetic mice. After diabetes induction with streptozotozin in Balb-c mice, midline laparatomies were carried out. Closure of the linea alba was followed by single-dose application of the agents dissolved in a hydrogel before skin closure. The functional outcome was assessed in terms of maximum tensile strength. In addition, vessel densities, collagen contents and proliferation, were measured. The breaking strength of the skin 14 days after surgery was significantly higher in ascorbic acid (ΑΑ)-treated incisional wounds, whereas the other agents did not show a significantly better functional outcome. No significant differences were seen in vessel densities. Collagen type III contents was higher in the ΑΑ-treated animals, whereas the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was lower compared to the other groups. These data underline the positive effect of topically applied ascorbic acid in wound healing.

  19. Chemiluminometric determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations exploiting photo-activation of GSH-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M K; Ribeiro, D S M; Frigerio, C; Prior, J A V; Santos, J L M; Zagatto, E A G

    2014-11-01

    An automated multi-pumping flow system is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, relying on the ability of semiconductor nanocrystals to generate short-lived reactive species upon photo-irradiation. A photo-unit based on visible-light-emitting diodes is used to photo-excite cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots capped with glutathione, leading to the generation of radicals that react with luminol under alkaline conditions, yielding the chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid acts as a radical scavenger, preventing the oxidation of luminol, thus ensuring a concentration-dependent chemiluminescence quenching. After system optimization, a linear working range of 5.0 × 10(-7) to 5.0 × 10(-6) mol/L ascorbic acid (r = 0.9967, n = 5) was attained, with a detection limit of 3.05 × 10(-7) mol/L and a sampling rate of 200/h. The flow system was applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the reference titrimetric procedure (RD < ± 4.3%, n = 7). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. α-Tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene protect against oxidative stress but reveal no direct influence on p53 expression in rats subjected to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Górnicka, Magdalena; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Drywień, Małgorzata; Pierzynowska, Jolanta; Gronowska-Senger, Anna

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene, either applied individually or in combination, would modulate redox homeostasis and affect the regulation of genes involved in DNA repair under stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the influence of these vitamins, either supplied individually or in combination, on the plasma lipid peroxide level and the hepatic level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in rats. We also evaluated the expression of p53 and Mdm2 protein in the intestinal epithelium, as these proteins are involved in the cellular regulation of DNA damage repair. Male Wistar rats (n = 112) were supplemented with α-tocopherol (2 mg), ascorbic acid (12 mg), and β-carotene (1 mg), both individually and in combination, for 14 days; 32 control rats were treated with placebo. Half of the animals in each group (n = 8) were subjected to 15-minute treadmill running at 20 m/min to cause exercise-induced oxidative stress. A statistically significant reduction in lipid peroxide levels was observed in the plasma of rats subjected to exercise and given 2 or 3 of the antioxidants (P p53 protein expression were observed both in exercised and nonexercised animals, especially when the studied vitamins were administered in combination. Our findings suggest that α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene, when given concurrently, have primarily antioxidant effects on lipids under stress but do not significantly affect the regulation of p53 gene expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of cadmium chloride and ascorbic acid exposure on the vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cadmium chloride and ascorbic acid exposure on the vital organs of freshwater Cyprinid, Labeo rohita. Abdul Latif, Muhammad Ali, Rahila Kaoser, Rehana Iqbal, Kashif Umer, Muhammad Latif, Shazia Qadir, Furhan Iqbal ...

  2. Determination of total L-Ascorbic Acid by high performance liquid chromatography in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oveisi MR

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The total vitamin C content in human plasma is widely accepted as an indicator of the tissue status of vitamin C. A liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detector (264 nm for measuring ascorbic acid in human plasma was developed. A C18 reversed-phase column and cetrimide as an ion-pairing agent was employed. Ascorbic acid (AA was measured after reducing L-dehydroascorbic acid to L-ascorbic acid with dithiothreitol. The stability of the ascorbic acid in plasma, metaphosphoric acid and trichloroacetic acid was also evaluated. The analytical parameters, including linearity (1-60 µg/ml, accuracy (98.98%, repeatability (2.8% and reproducibility (7.2%, showed that the method is reliable for measuring the total vitamin C content in plasma.

  3. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  4. A pulse radiolysis study of the dynamics of ascorbic acid free radicals within a liposomal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo; Seike, Yumiko; Saeki, Akinori; Kozawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Fusako; Tsubaki, Motonari

    2014-10-06

    The dynamics of free-radical species in a model cellular system are examined by measuring the formation and decay of ascorbate radicals within a liposome with pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an N2O-saturated aqueous solution containing ascorbate-loaded liposome vesicles, ascorbate radicals are formed by the reaction of OH(·) radicals with ascorbate in unilamellar vesicles exclusively, irrespective of the presence of vesicle lipids. The radicals are found to decay rapidly compared with the decay kinetics in an aqueous solution. The distinct radical reaction kinetics in the vesicles and in bulk solution are characterized, and the kinetic data are analyzed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of heating conditions and ascorbic acid concentration over furan formation in starchy model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit; Fromberg, Arvid

    (frying and baking) and ascorbic acid concentration over furan occurrence in a starchy model system. Two different formulations of wheat flour dough (WF: wheat flour and WF-AA: wheat flour and ascorbic acid) were prepared with a 40 % of moisture (wb). Then, dough were cut in circle chips (40 mm...... fried chips). For the case of WF-AA chips baking produced more furan compared to the frying (e.g. 58 % higher furan in 7 minutes baked chips). For all process conditions ascorbic acid addition produced an increase in furan levels (̴17%-58% in frying and ̴74-98 % in baking). As for Maillard reactions...... in general, for all samples, an increase in furan level was observed when the moisture content decreased. Additionally, in fried products furan level was directly proportional to their oil uptake. We conclude that for the present model conditions, ascorbic acid improves the furan generation, having...

  6. Ascorbic acid inhibits human insulin aggregation and protects against amyloid induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Beg, Ayesha Zainab; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Abdelhameed, Ali S; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Protein aggregation into oligomers and fibrils are associated with many human pathophysiologies. Compounds that modulate protein aggregation and interact with preformed fibrils and convert them to less toxic species, expect to serve as promising drug candidates and aid to the drug development efforts against aggregation diseases. In present study, the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation by human insulin (HI) and the anti-amyloidogenic activity of ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated by employing various spectroscopic, imaging and computational approaches. We demonstrate that ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the fibrillation of HI in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly ascorbic acid destabilise the preformed amyloid fibrils and protects human neuroblastoma cell line (SH- SY5Y) against amyloid induced cytotoxicity. The present data signifies the role of ascorbic acid that can serve as potential molecule in preventing human insulin aggregation and associated pathophysiologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  8. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Camila Batista da; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    ... (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid) on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results...

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-Glycolide Nanoparticles Containing Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Stevanovic

    2007-01-01

    ascorbic acid in the polymer matrix is performed by homogenization of water and organic phases. Particles of the DLPLG with the different content of ascorbic acid have different morphological characteristics, that is, variable degree of uniformity, agglomeration, sizes, and spherical shaping. Mean sizes of nanoparticles, which contain DLPLG/ascorbic acid in the ratio 85/150%, were between 130 to 200 nm depending on which stereological parameters are considered (maximal diameters Dmax, feret X, or feret Y. By introducing up to 15% of ascorbic acid, the spherical shape, size, and uniformity of DLPLG particles are preserved. The samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, stereological analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  10. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Microplate differential calorimetric biosensor for ascorbic acid analysis in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, S; Nicolaï, B M; Verboven, P; Van Gerwen, P; Baeten, B; Hoflack, L; Vulsteke, V; Lammertyn, J

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we report on the development of a label-free low-volume (12.5 microL), high-throughput microplate calorimetric biosensor for fast ascorbic acid quantification in food and pharmaceutical products. The sensor is based on microplate differential calorimetry (MiDiCal) technology in which the heat generation, due to the exothermic reaction between ascorbic acid and ascorbate oxidase, is differentially monitored between two neighboring wells of an IC-built wafer. A severe discrepancy is found between expected and observed sensor readings. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these findings a mathematical model, taking into account the biochemical reactions and diffusion properties of oxygen, ascorbic acid, and ascorbate oxidase, is developed. This model shows that oxygen depletion in the microliter reaction volumes, immediately after injection of sample (ascorbic acid) into the well, causes the enzymatic reaction to slow down. Calibration experiments show that the sensor's signal is linearly correlated to the area under the output versus time profile for the ascorbic acid concentration range from 2.4 to 350 mM with a limit of detection of 0.8 mM. Validation experiments on fruit juice samples, food supplements, and a pain reliever supplemented with ascorbic acid reveal that the designed method correlates well with HPLC reference measurements. The main advantages of the presented biosensor are the low analysis cost due to the low amounts of enzyme and reagents required and the possibility to integrate the device in fully automated laboratory analysis systems for high-throughput screening and analysis.

  13. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    OpenAIRE

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan; Ubom Gregory; Haruna Maryam

    2004-01-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascor...

  14. Evidence for the involvement of opioid system in the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Morgana; Ribeiro, Camille M; Neis, Vivian B; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Rosa, Priscila B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2018-02-01

    Considering the involvement of the opioid system in major depressive disorder (MDD), mainly concerning refractory MDD, and the evidence that ascorbic acid may exert a beneficial effect for the treatment of this disorder, this study investigated the involvement of the opioid system in the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid in the tail suspension test (TST). Treatment of Swiss mice with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the reduced immobility time caused by ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. Additionally, administration of the selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), also abolished the antidepressant-like action of the same dose of ascorbic acid in the TST. We also investigated the possible relationship between the opioid system and NMDA receptors in the mechanism of action of ascorbic acid or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST. Treatment of mice with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the synergistic antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid (0.1 mg/kg. p.o.) and MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, p.o., a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) in the TST. Combined administration of ketamine and MK-801 induced a synergistic antidepressant-like action, and naloxone partially abolished this effect. Our results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid in the TST appears to be dependent on the activation of the opioid system, especially μ1-opioid receptors, which might be an indirect consequence of NMDA receptor inhibition elicited by ascorbic acid administration.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical formation by methylene blue in the presence of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, G.R.; Doherty, T.P.; Bannister, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    Using ESR we have demonstrated the formation of the ascorbate free radical from sodium ascorbate, methylene blue and light. In oxygen uptake experiments we have observed the production of hydrogen peroxide while spin trapping experiments have revealed the iron catalyzed production of the hydroxyl free radical in this system. The presence of this highly reactive radical suggests that it could be the radical that initiates free radical damage in this photodynamic system. 39 refs.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Nanoparticles Containing Ascorbic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović, Magdalena M.; Jordović, Branka; Uskoković, Dragan P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is covering new, simplistic method of obtaining the system for controlled delivery of the ascorbic acid. Copolymer poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (DLPLG) nanoparticles are produced using physical method with solvent/nonsolvent systems where obtained solutions were centrifuged. The encapsulation of the ascorbic acid in the polymer matrix is performed by homogenization of water and organic phases. Particles of the DLPLG with the different content of asco...

  17. Culturing bone marrow cells with dexamethasone and ascorbic acid improves osteogenic cell sheet structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, M; Shimizu, T; Kira, T; Onishi, T; Uchihara, Y; Imamura, T; Tanaka, Y

    2016-11-01

    To assess the structure and extracellular matrix molecule expression of osteogenic cell sheets created via culture in medium with both dexamethasone (Dex) and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) compared either Dex or AscP alone. Osteogenic cell sheets were prepared by culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells in a minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with AscP, MEM with Dex, and MEM with Dex and AscP (Dex/AscP). The cell number and messenger (m)RNA expression were assessed in vitro, and the appearance of the cell sheets was observed after mechanical retrieval using a scraper. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was then wrapped with the cell sheets from the four different groups and subcutaneously implanted into rats. After mechanical retrieval, the osteogenic cell sheets from the MEM, MEM with AscP, and MEM with Dex groups appeared to be fragmented or incomplete structures. The cell sheets cultured with Dex/AscP remained intact after mechanical retrieval, without any identifiable tears. Culture with Dex/AscP increased the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular matrix proteins and cell number compared with those of the other three groups. More bridging bone formation was observed after transplantation of the β-TCP scaffold wrapped with cell sheets cultured with Dex/AscP, than in the other groups. These results suggest that culture with Dex/AscP improves the mechanical integrity of the osteogenic cell sheets, allowing retrieval of the confluent cells in a single cell sheet structure. This method may be beneficial when applied in cases of difficult tissue reconstruction, such as nonunion, bone defects, and osteonecrosis.Cite this article: M. Akahane, T. Shimizu, T. Kira, T. Onishi, Y. Uchihara, T. Imamura, Y. Tanaka. Culturing bone marrow cells with dexamethasone and ascorbic acid improves osteogenic cell sheet structure. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:569-576. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.BJR-2016-0013.R1. © 2016 Akahane et al.

  18. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • A new method for synthesis of the BPEI-CuNCs is established. • A facile approach for Fe{sup 3+} ion sensing by fluorescence quenching is developed. • The method for Fe{sup 3+} sensing has high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5–1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe{sup 3+} permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe{sup 3+} in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%.

  19. Nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots based long-persistent chemiluminescence system for ascorbic acid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Qin; Shen, Qinpeng; Liu, Xin; Li, Wang; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2017-05-15

    High photo-intensity and sluggish flight attenuation are important to highly sensitive chemluminescence imaging. Herein, we present a copper ion catalyzed long-persistent chemiluminescent imaging system of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) for ascorbic acid detection in fruit. NGQDs as luminescent probe are fabricated, emitting out chemluminescence with the direct oxidation by H 2 O 2 . In addition, Cu 2+ ion enlarges over two order magnitudes of NGQDs CL intensity (214 times) due to its catalyzed Fenton-like reaction for H 2 O 2 decomposition, and displaying unique specificity against other metal ions. As a result, the twinkling luminescence of NGQDs is boosted and changes to hold persistent with small decay in the presence of copper ion exhibiting potential for CL imaging. As an imaging model, a visual sensor based on Cu 2+ /NGQDs/H 2 O 2 is developed for AA quantitative monitoring with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5μM (S/N=3) and applied in real AA detection in fruit. The CL imaging method demonstrated with high stability and proper sensitivity would provide a convenient and visual tool for AA determination, displaying promising candidates for imaging sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seed-mediated grown silver nanoparticles as a colorimetric sensor for detection of ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Simindokht; Mehdinia, Ali; Jabbari, Ali

    2017-06-01

    A simple and sensitive approach was demonstrated for detection of ascorbic acid (AA) based on seed-mediated growth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). According to the seeding strategy, silver ions existing in the growth solution were reduced to silver atoms on the surface of silver seeds via redox reaction between silver ions and AA. This process -led to appear an absorption band in near 420 nm owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the generated Ag NPs. This change in absorption spectra of Ag NPs caused a change in color of the mixture from colorless to yellow. It was found that the changes in absorption intensity at 420 nm have a good relationship with the concentration of AA. Also, detection of AA was achieved through the established colorimetric sensor in the range of 0.25-25 μM with detection limit of 0.054 μM. Moreover, the selectivity of the method was evaluated with considering potential interferences. The method showed high selectivity toward AA rather than potential interferences and coexisted molecules with AA. It was successfully applied for detection and determination of AA in pharmaceutical tablets and commercial lemonade.

  1. Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    1999-10-01

    Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio; Prior, Manlio; Rigoni, Anna; Zecchetto, Sara; Rulfo, Fanny; Arosio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ischemia. The tests were repeated in the same sequence 2 hour after oral administration of glucose (75 g). The subjects were randomised for administration of ascorbic acid (1 g bid) or placebo (sodium bicarbonate 1 g bid) for 10 days. After that, the tests were repeated before and after a new oral glucose load. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Macrocirculatory flux, pressure values and heart rate were unvaried throughout the study. The glucose load caused a reduction in the hyperemic peak flow with laser Doppler and plethysmography; it reduced flux recovery time and hyperemic curve area after ischemia; acetylcholine elicited a minor increase in flux with laser Doppler. The response to nitroprusside was unvaried after glucose load as compared to basal conditions. Treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the decrease in hyperemia after glucose, detected with laser Doppler and plethysmography. Ascorbic acid prevented the decreased response to acetylcholine after glucose, the response to nitroprusside was unaffected by ascorbic acid. Results after placebo were unvaried. Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Covarrubias-Pinto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS. Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Pinto, Adriana; Acuña, Aníbal Ignacio; Beltrán, Felipe Andrés; Torres-Díaz, Leandro; Castro, Maite Aintzane

    2015-11-27

    Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Effect of Supplemental Ascorbic Acid on the Aerobic Capacity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin solved in water that acts as a helper of some the enzymes in the reactions of energy metabolism. Thus, the study aims to investigate the use of supplemental ascorbic acid on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the children.Methodology: Participants of this quasi-experimental study were 18 children in Esfahan who were randomly selected and divided into 9 groups in pair (aerobic exercise group and the control group. For 10 days before the start of the main trial, the participants in the control group received placebo and the experimental group received ascorbic acid. The average aerobic capacity was measured before and after 10 days of the use of ascorbic acid. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 18.Results: Before and after 10 days of the use of ascorbic acid, the mean and standard deviation of the aerobic capacity of the experimental group were respectively 3.59± 0.38 and 4.23 ± 0.77 and of the control group were 3.7 ± 0.40 and 3.7± 0.53, respectively. Therefore, there was a significant relationship between the use of ascorbic acid and placebo in terms of aerobic capacity (p ≤ 0.5.

  7. Effect of ascorbic acid on urinary hydroxyproline of children receiving corticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakakos, D.; Ikkos, D. G.; Vlachos, P.; Ntalles, K.; Coulouris, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Oral administration of ascorbic acid, 0·5 g every 8 hours for a period of 4 days, had no effect on the urinary hydroxyproline excretion of 7 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years. When the same medication was given to 8 children aged 9 to 14 years who were receiving large doses of prednisolone (2 mg/kg per 24 hr) for a period of at least 15 days before as well as during ascorbic acid administration, a rise in the urinary hydroxyproline excretion was observed (from a mean value of 44±4·1 SE before to 67±4·6 mg/24 hr on the 4th day of ascorbic acid administration, P children 4 days after stopping ascorbic acid administration, while still on prednisolone, had returned to the level observed before ascorbic acid. It is concluded that large doses of ascorbic acid can, under acute conditions, neutralize the inhibitory action of corticosteroids on new collagen formation. PMID:4834022

  8. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Pinto, Adriana; Acuña, Aníbal Ignacio; Beltrán, Felipe Andrés; Torres-Díaz, Leandro; Castro, Maite Aintzane

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26633354

  9. Application of titanium oxide nanotube films containing gold nanoparticles for the electroanalytical determination of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem, E-mail: mg-hosseini@tabrizu.ac.ir; Faraji, Masoud; Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen

    2011-03-31

    Au/TiO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes have been prepared by galvanic deposition of gold particles on TiO{sub 2} nanotube substrates. Titanium oxide nanotubes are fabricated by anodizing titanium foil in a Dimethyl Sulfoxide electrolyte containing fluoride. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated that gold particles are homogeneously deposited on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The TiO{sub 2} layers consist of individual tubes of about 40-80 nm diameters. The electro-catalytic behavior of Au/TiO{sub 2}/Ti and flat gold electrodes for the ascorbic acid electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the flat gold electrode is not suitable for the oxidation of ascorbic acid. However, the Au/TiO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes are shown to possess catalytic activity toward the oxidation reaction. Catalytic oxidation peak current showed a linear dependence on the ascorbic acid concentration and a linear calibration curve is obtained in the concentration range of 1-5 mM of ascorbic acid. Also, determination of ascorbic acid in real samples was evaluated. The obtained results were found to be satisfactory. Finally the effects of interference on the detection of ascorbic acid were investigated.

  10. Skin tumorigenic potential of benzanthrone: prevention by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neelam; Kumar, Sandeep; Ansari, Kausar M; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-25

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO2(-)) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pKa2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r=((0.89±0.11)×10(-4) mM(1-(a+b))h(-1))×[NB](a=1.35±0.10)[AA](b=0.89±0.01). The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetics of degradation of ascorbic acid by cyclic voltammetry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grudić Veselinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the kinetics of degradation of ascorbic acid (AA at different temperatures. It has been shown that the reduction of the concentration of AA in all temperatures follow the kinetics of the first order reaction. The rate constant of the oxidation reaction increases with temperature as follows: 5x10-5; 2x10-4; 1x10-3 and 3x10-3 min-1 at temperatures of 25°C, 35°C, 65°C and 90°C, respectively. The temperature dependence of the rate constant follows Arrhenius equation, and the value of activation energy of the reaction degradation is 48.2 kJ mol-1 . The effect of storage time at a temperature of 90 °C on AA content in fresh juice of green peppers was investigated. It was shown that AA oxidation reaction in the juice is also the first order reaction, while the lower rate constant in relation to the pure AA (5x10-3 min-1 indicates the influence of other substances present in peppers.

  13. Pediatric reference intervals for lymphocyte vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Alex; DeSouza, Charmaine; Zaarour, Christian; Walsh, Warren; Chan, Man Khun; Verjee, Zulfikarali; McIntyre, Susan; Adeli, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    To establish pediatric reference intervals for lymphocyte vitamin C. This was a prospective study of 194 well children aged 0-7 years old of mixed ethnicity who had blood drawn for the purpose of this study. Blood was collected during elective surgery under general anesthesia and lymphocytes isolated and stored as frozen ascorbic acid lymphocyte lysates for later HPLC analysis by previously described methodology. Reference intervals were established according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) guidelines (C28-A3). Horn-Pesce robust method was used to estimate the 95% confidence interval and 95% reference interval. Reference intervals were independent of age or gender and shown to be 12.9-52.8 μg/10(8) cells (lymphocytes). We have defined pediatric reference ranges for lymphocyte vitamin C in healthy, fasted children at a relevant age group (0-7 years). The new reference interval can now be used to more reliably explore possible implications of variation of vitamin C levels on bleeding and other clinical signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Cain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  15. Cholestasis and endogenous opioids: liver disease and exogenous opioid pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar

    2007-01-01

    A class of endogenous opioids is upregulated in liver disease particular to cholestasis, which contributes to symptoms in liver disease such as pruritus, hypotension and encephalopathy. Symptoms associated with cholestasis are reversed or at least ameliorated by mu opioid receptor antagonists. Palliation of symptoms related to cholestatic liver disease also involves bile acid binding agents. Opioid receptor antagonists, unlike bile acid binding agents, have been reported to relieve multiple symptoms, except for pruritus, and improve liver function as demonstrated in experimental cholestasis. Exogenous opioid pharmacology is altered by liver disease. Dose reduction or prolongation of dose intervals is necessary depending on the severity of liver disease.

  16. Detection of exogenous citric acid in fruit juices by stable isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Lees, Michèle

    2005-06-29

    A new method has been developed for measuring the D/H ratio of the nonexchangeable sites of citric acid by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Pure citric acid is transformed into its calcium salt and subsequently analyzed by pyrolysis-IRMS. The citric acid isolated from authentic fruit juices (citrus, pineapple, and red fruits) systematically shows higher D/H values than its nonfruit counterpart produced by fermentation of various sugar sources. The discrimination obtained with this simplified method is similar to that obtained previously by applying site specific isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to an ester derivative of citric acid. The combination of carbon 13 and deuterium measurements of extracted citric acid is proposed as a routine method for an optimum detection of exogenous citric acid in all kinds of fruit juices.

  17. Metabolic engineering of the fungal D-galacturonate pathway for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Synthetic L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is widely used as a preservative and nutrient in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the current production method, D-glucose is converted to L-ascorbic acid via several biochemical and chemical steps. The main source of L-ascorbic acid in human nutrition is plants. Several alternative metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis are known in plants. In one of them, D-galacturonic acid is the precursor. D-Galacturonic acid is also the main monomer in pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide. Pectin is abundant in biomass and is readily available from several waste streams from fruit and sugar processing industries. In the present work, we engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger for the conversion of D-galacturonic acid to L-ascorbic acid. In the generated pathway, the native D-galacturonate reductase activity was utilized while the gene coding for the second enzyme in the fungal D-galacturonic acid pathway, an L-galactonate consuming dehydratase, was deleted. Two heterologous genes coding for enzymes from the plant L-ascorbic acid pathway--L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase from Euglena gracilis (EgALase) and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from Malpighia glabra (MgGALDH)--were introduced into the A. niger strain. Alternatively, an unspecific L-gulono-1,4-lactone lactonase (smp30) from the animal L-ascorbic acid pathway was introduced in the fungal strain instead of the plant L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase. In addition, a strain with the production pathway inducible with D-galacturonic acid was generated by using a bidirectional and D-galacturonic acid inducible promoter from the fungus. Even though, the lactonase enzyme activity was not observed in the resulting strains, they were capable of producing L-ascorbic acid from pure D-galacturonic acid or pectin-rich biomass in a consolidated bioprocess. Product titers up to 170 mg/l were achieved. In the current study, an L-ascorbic acid pathway using

  18. H2O2mediates ALA-induced glutathione and ascorbate accumulation in the perception and resistance to oxidative stress in Solanum lycopersicum at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Junheng; Du, Qingjie; Li, Jianming

    2018-02-15

    Low temperature is a crucial factor influencing plant growth and development. The chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to improve plant cold tolerance. However, the interaction between H 2 O 2 and cellular redox signaling involved in ALA-induced resistance to low temperature stress in plants remains largely unknown. Here, the roles of ALA in perceiving and regulating low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants, together with the roles of H 2 O 2 and cellular redox states, were characterized. Low concentrations (10-25 mg·L - 1 ) of ALA enhanced low temperature-induced oxidative stress tolerance of tomato seedlings. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 , which markedly increased the ratio of reduced glutathione and ascorbate (GSH and AsA), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Furthermore, gene expression of respiratory burst oxidase homolog1 and H 2 O 2 content were upregulated with ALA treatment under normal conditions. Treatment with exogenous H 2 O 2 , GSH, and AsA also induced plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures, while inhibition of GSH and AsA syntheses significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress tolerance. Meanwhile, scavenging or inhibition of H 2 O 2 production weakened, but did not eliminate, GSH- or AsA- induced tomato plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures. Appropriate concentrations of ALA alleviated the low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants via an antioxidant system. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 . The results showed that H 2 O 2 induced by exogenous ALA under normal conditions is crucial and may be the initial step for perception and signaling transmission, which then improves the ratio of GSH and AsA. GSH and AsA may then interact with H 2 O 2 signaling, resulting in enhanced antioxidant capacity

  19. Exogenous orienting of visual-spatial attention in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rodrigo; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Visual spatial orienting of attention towards exogenous cues has been one of the attentional functions considered to be spared in ADHD. Here we present a design in which 60 (30 ADHD) children, age: 10.9±1.4, were asked to covertly orient their attention to one or two (out of four) cued locations, and search for a target stimulus in one of these locations, while recording behavioral responses and EEG/ERP. In all conditions, ADHD children showed delayed reaction times and poorer behavioral performance. They also exhibited larger cue-elicited P2 but reduced CNV in the preparation stage. Larger amplitude of CNV predicted better performance in the task. Target-elicited N1 and selection negativity were also reduced in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD. Groups also differed in the early and late P3 time-windows. The present results suggest that exogenous orienting of attention could be dysfunctional in ADHD under certain conditions. This limitation is not necessarily caused by an impairment of the orienting process itself, but instead by a difficulty in maintaining the relevant information acquired during the early preparation stage through the target processing stage, when it is really needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  1. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  2. Biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging with exogenous contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Geoffrey P; Yeager, Doug; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a biomedical imaging modality that provides functional information, and, with the help of exogenous contrast agents, cellular and molecular signatures of tissue. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging assisted with exogenous contrast agents. Dyes, noble metal nanoparticles, and other constructs are contrast agents which absorb strongly in the near-infrared band of the optical spectrum and generate strong photoacoustic response. These contrast agents, which can be specifically targeted to molecules or cells, have been coupled with photoacoustic imaging for preclinical and clinical applications ranging from detection of cancer cells, sentinel lymph nodes, and micrometastasis to angiogenesis to characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Multi-functional agents have also been developed, which can carry drugs or simultaneously provide contrast in multiple imaging modalities. Furthermore, contrast agents were used to guide and monitor the therapeutic procedures. Overall, photoacoustic imaging shows significant promise in its ability to assist in diagnosis, therapy planning, and monitoring of treatment outcome for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other pathologies.

  3. Functional CD1a is stabilized by exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolova, Vania; Kistowska, Magdalena; Paoletti, Samantha; Baltariu, Gabriel M; Bausinger, Huguette; Hanau, Daniel; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2006-05-01

    Self-glycosphingolipids bind to surface CD1 molecules and are readily displaced by other CD1 ligands. This capacity to exchange antigens at the cell surface is not common to other antigen-presenting molecules and its physiological importance is unclear. Here we show that a large pool of cell-surface CD1a, but not CD1b molecules, is stabilized by exogenous lipids present in serum. Under serum deprivation CD1a molecules are altered and functionally inactive, as they are unable to present lipid antigens to T cells. Glycosphingolipids and phospholipids bind to, and restore functionality to CD1a without the contribution of newly synthesized and recycling CD1a molecules. The dependence of CD1a stability on exogenous lipids is not related to its intracellular traffic and rather to its antigen-binding pockets. These results indicate a functional dichotomy between CD1a and CD1b molecules and provide new information on how the lipid antigenic repertoire is immunologically sampled.

  4. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  5. Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits shedding of ADAM17 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowska, Monika; Stalińska, Krystyna; Mezyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wawro, Karolina; Duda, Katarzyna; Das, Sudipta; Bereta, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Both ADAM17, the secretase responsible for the shedding of ectodomains of numerous membrane proteins including TNF and its receptors, as well as nitric oxide synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase play regulatory roles in inflammation and tumor progression. We analyzed the effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on the expression and activity of ADAM17 in murine endothelial cells and a monocyte/macrophage cell line. We found that endogenous nitric oxide influenced neither ADAM17 mRNA level nor the shedding of two ADAM17 substrates, TNF and TNFR1. Exogenous NO significantly diminished the release of TNF and TNFR1 without affecting the ADAM17 transcript level. Our data seem contrary to a previous report that showed the activation of ADAM17 by nitric oxide (Zhang et al., 2000, J Biol Chem 275: 15839-15844). We discuss potential mechanisms of NO-mediated inhibition of ectodomain shedding and possible reasons of discrepancy between our results and the previous report.

  6. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a series of novel monoacylated ascorbic acid derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids, as skin antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Itaru; Tai, Akihiro; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Sasaki, Kenji; Okazaki, Shino

    2002-01-17

    A series of novel monoacylated vitamin C derivatives were chemically synthesized with a stable ascorbate derivative, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), and acid anhydrides in pyridine. Their solubility in organic phase, thermal stability, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro skin permeability was evaluated. These monoacylated derivatives were identified as 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids (6-Acyl-AA-2G) by UV spectra, elemental analyses, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The reactions afforded 6-Acyl-AA-2G in high yields (30-60%). 6-Acyl-AA-2G exhibited satisfactory stability in neutral solution comparable to that of a typical stable derivative, AA-2G, and also showed the radical scavenging activity. The lipid solubility of 6-Acyl-AA-2G was increased with increasing length of their acyl group. Increased skin permeability was superior to those of AA-2G and ascorbic acid (AsA). 6-Acyl-AA-2G that is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue esterase and/or alpha-glucosidase produces AA-2G and AsA, which is in the skin tissues. Thus, these findings indicate that the novel vitamin C derivatives presented here, 6-Acyl-AA-2G, may be effective antioxidants in skin care and medicinal use.

  8. Differential effects of 10-Hz and 40-Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on endogenous versus exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfinger, Joseph B; Parsons, Jonathan; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies implicate both alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (>30 Hz) neural oscillations in the mechanisms of selective attention. Here, participants preformed two separate visual attention tasks, one endogenous and one exogenous, while transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), at 10 Hz, 40 Hz, or sham, was applied to the right parietal lobe. Our results provide new evidence for the roles of gamma and alpha oscillations in voluntary versus involuntary shifts of attention. Gamma (40 Hz) stimulation resulted in improved disengagement from invalidly cued targets in the endogenous attention task, whereas alpha stimulation (10 Hz) had no effect on endogenous attention, but increased the exogenous cuing effect. These findings agree with previous studies suggesting that right inferior parietal regions may be especially important for the disengagement of attention, and go further to provide details about the specific type of oscillatory neural activity within that brain region that is differentially involved in endogenous versus exogenous attention. Our results also have potential implications for the plasticity and training of attention systems.

  9. Ascorbic acid for the treatment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gess, Burkhard; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Pareyson, Davide; Young, Peter

    2015-12-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) comprises a large group of different forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. The molecular basis of several CMT subtypes has been clarified during the last 20 years. Since slowly progressive muscle weakness and sensory disturbances are the main features of these syndromes, treatments aim to improve motor impairment and sensory disturbances to improve abilities. Pharmacological treatment trials in CMT are rare. This review was derived from a Cochrane review, Treatment for Charcot Marie Tooth disease, which will be updated via this review and a forthcoming title, Treatments other than ascorbic acid for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. To assess the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) treatment for CMT. On 21 September 2015, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatment for CMT. We also checked clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs of any ascorbic acid treatment for people with CMT. Where a study aimed to evaluate the treatment of general neuromuscular symptoms of people with peripheral neuropathy including CMT, we included the study if we were able to identify the effect of treatment in the CMT group. We did not include observational studies or case reports of ascorbic acid treatment in people with CMT. Two review authors (BG and JB) independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Six RCTs compared the effect of oral ascorbic acid (1 to 4 grams) and placebo treatment in CMT1A. In five trials involving adults with CMT1A, a total of 622 participants received ascorbic acid or placebo. Trials were largely at low risk of bias. There is high-quality evidence that ascorbic acid does not improve the course of CMT1A in adults as measured by the CMT neuropathy score (0 to 36 scale) at 12 months (mean difference (MD) -0.37; 95

  10. Ascorbic acid attenuates endothelial permeability triggered by cell-free hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Jamie L; Bastarache, Julie A; Shaver, Ciara M; Fessel, Joshua P; Dikalov, Sergey I; May, James M; Ware, Lorraine B

    2018-01-01

    Increased endothelial permeability is central to shock and organ dysfunction in sepsis but therapeutics targeted to known mediators of increased endothelial permeability have been unsuccessful in patient studies. We previously reported that cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is elevated in the majority of patients with sepsis and is associated with organ dysfunction, poor clinical outcomes and elevated markers of oxidant injury. Others have shown that Vitamin C (ascorbate) may have endothelial protective effects in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of CFH, as seen in the circulation of patients with sepsis, disrupt endothelial barrier integrity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were grown to confluence and treated with CFH with or without ascorbate. Monolayer permeability was measured by Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) or transfer of 14C-inulin. Viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion. Intracellular ascorbate was measured by HPLC. CFH increased permeability in a dose- and time-dependent manner with 1 mg/ml of CFH increasing inulin transfer by 50% without affecting cell viability. CFH (1 mg/ml) also caused a dramatic reduction in intracellular ascorbate in the same time frame (1.4 mM without CFH, 0.23 mM 18 h after 1 mg/ml CFH, p < 0.05). Pre-treatment of HUVECs with ascorbate attenuated CFH induced permeability. CFH increases endothelial permeability in part through depletion of intracellular ascorbate. Supplementation of ascorbate can attenuate increases in permeability mediated by CFH suggesting a possible therapeutic approach in sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma Ascorbic Acid, A Priori Diet Quality Score, and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, Myron D

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other's predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and white adults (43% black, mean age 35 years) initially hypertension-free in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (study year 10, 1995-1996). Plasma ascorbic acid was assessed at year 10 and the diet quality score at year 7. Eight-hundred-and-forty cases of hypertension were documented between years 10 and 25. After multiple adjustments, each 12-point (1 SD) higher diet quality score at year 7 related to mean 3.7 μmol/L (95% CI 2.9 to 4.6) higher plasma ascorbic acid at year 10. In separate multiple-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio of hypertension per 19.6-μmol/L (1 SD) higher ascorbic acid was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.92) and per 12-points higher diet score 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.94). These hazard ratios changed little with mutual adjustment of ascorbic acid and diet quality score for each other, or when adjusted for anthropometric variables, diabetes, and systolic blood pressure at year 10. Intake of dietary vitamin C and several food groups high in vitamin C content were inversely related to hypertension, whereas supplemental vitamin C was not. In conclusion, plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score independently predict hypertension. This suggests that hypertension risk is reduced by improving overall diet quality and/or vitamin C status. The inverse association seen for dietary but not for supplemental vitamin C suggests that vitamin C status is preferably improved by eating foods rich in vitamin C, in addition to not smoking and other dietary habits that prevent ascorbic acid from depletion.

  12. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies.

  13. Functional genetic variants of glutathione S-transferase protect against serum ascorbic acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Leah E; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2009-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are detoxifying enzymes that contribute to the glutathione-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) antioxidant cycle. The objective was to determine whether GST genotypes modify the association between dietary vitamin C and serum ascorbic acid. Nonsmoking men and women (n = 905) between 20 and 29 y of age were participants in the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected to determine serum ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC and to genotype for deletion polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 and an Ile105Val substitution in GSTP1. A 196-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to estimate vitamin C intake. A gene-diet interaction on serum ascorbic acid was observed for GSTM1 (P = 0.04) and GSTT1 (P = 0.01) but not for GSTP1 (P = 0.83). The odds ratio (95% CI) for serum ascorbic acid deficiency (Allowance of vitamin C compared with those who did. The corresponding odds ratios (95% CIs) were 2.17 (1.10, 4.28) and 12.28 (4.26, 33.42), respectively, for individuals with the GSTT1*1/*1 +*1/*0 (functional) and GSTT1*0/*0 (null) genotypes and 2.29 (0.96, 5.45) and 4.03 (2.01, 8.09), respectively, for the GSTM1*1/*1+GSTM1*1/*0 and GSTM1*0/*0 genotypes. The recommended intake of vitamin C protects against serum ascorbic acid deficiency, regardless of genotype. Individuals with GST null genotypes had an increased risk of deficiency if they did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin C, which suggests that the GST enzymes protect against serum ascorbic acid deficiency when dietary vitamin C is insufficient.

  14. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  15. Exogenous Application of Growth Enhancers Mitigate Water Stress in Wheat by Antioxidant Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid eNawaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TThe present study was conducted to investigate the response of two wheat cultivars (AARI-11 and Millat-11 to a foliar application of four growth enhancers which include: {H2O (water, MLE30 (moringa leaf extract, KCl (potassium chloride and BAP (benzyl-amino purine}, within the six irrigation water-regimes which are applied at the various critical growth stages such as crown root initiation (CRI, tillering (T, booting (B and heading (H. Irrigation water-regimes include: CRI+T+B, CRI+T, CRI+B, T+B, T+H and control (CRI+T+B+H. The growth enhancers i.e. H2O, MLE30 (1:30, KCl (2% and BAP (50 mg L-1 were applied @ 500 L ha-1 at tillering and heading stages. The results demonstrated some increased quantities of both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, phenol antioxidants in leaves of AARI-11 when MLE30 was applied under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Similar results were also observed in the case of leaf chlorophyll a & b and K+ contents in both cultivars under control, T+B and CRI+T+B irrigation water regimes. AARI-11 produced the highest biological and grain yield, due to the application of MLE30 and BAP under control, CRI+T+B, T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. However, KCl lagged behind among the treatments set for both cultivars under all the irrigation water-regimes. Foliar spray of MLE30 remained prominent growth enhancer and stresses mitigating agent under water deficit conditions particularly under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Moreover, economic analysis indicated that the foliar application of MLE30 is a cost effective and environment friendly strategy for the maximum yield and income.

  16. Applied Macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains a course in applied macroeconomics. Macroeconomic theory is applied to real world cases. Students are expected to compute model results with the help of a spreadsheet program. To that end the book also contains descriptions of the spreadsheet applications used, such as linear

  17. Sodium ascorbate induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines by interfering with iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, Roberta; Zuccari, Guendalina; Orienti, Isabella; Mangraviti, Salvatore; Montaldo, Paolo G

    2007-08-30

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an extra-cranial solid tumour of childhood. In spite of the good clinical response to first-line therapy, complete eradication of NB cells is rarely achieved. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed to eradicate surviving NB cells and prevent relapse. Sodium ascorbate has been recently reported to induce apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells through down-regulation of the transferrin receptor, CD71. Since NB and melanoma share the same embryologic neuroectodermal origin, we used different human NB cell lines to assess whether the same findings occurred. We could observe dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis in all NB cell lines. Sodium ascorbate decreased the expression of CD71 and caused cell death within 24 h. An increase in the global and specific caspase activity took place, as well as an early loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, intracellular iron was significantly decreased after exposure to sodium ascorbate. Apoptotic markers were reverted when the cells were pretreated with the iron donor ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), further confirming that iron depletion is responsible for the ascorbate-induced cell death in NB cells. Sodium ascorbate is highly toxic to neuroblastoma cell lines and the specific mechanism of vitamin C-induced apoptosis is due to a perturbation of intracellular iron levels ensuing TfR-downregulation.

  18. Sodium Ascorbate induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines by interfering with iron uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orienti Isabella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB is an extra-cranial solid tumour of childhood. In spite of the good clinical response to first-line therapy, complete eradication of NB cells is rarely achieved. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed to eradicate surviving NB cells and prevent relapse. Sodium ascorbate has been recently reported to induce apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells through down-regulation of the transferrin receptor, CD71. Since NB and melanoma share the same embryologic neuroectodermal origin, we used different human NB cell lines to assess whether the same findings occurred. Results We could observe dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis in all NB cell lines. Sodium ascorbate decreased the expression of CD71 and caused cell death within 24 h. An increase in the global and specific caspase activity took place, as well as an early loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, intracellular iron was significantly decreased after exposure to sodium ascorbate. Apoptotic markers were reverted when the cells were pretreated with the iron donor ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, further confirming that iron depletion is responsible for the ascorbate-induced cell death in NB cells. Conclusion Sodium ascorbate is highly toxic to neuroblastoma cell lines and the specific mechanism of vitamin C-induced apoptosis is due to a perturbation of intracellular iron levels ensuing TfR-downregulation.

  19. Further investigations on the role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models after UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Rolf; Huschka, Christoph; Wohlrab, Wolfgang; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2005-08-01

    This study is the continuation of our research into vitamin C and its possible effects on human skin after topical administration. The effects of ascorbic acid, iron ions and UV irradiation on stratum corneum lipid models were investigated. The lipid models used were: a simple system (linolenic acid dispersion), a complex system (liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and linolenic acid) and complex systems with additionally incorporated ceramides (types III and IV). The lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. A human adult low-calcium high-temperature (HaCaT) keratinocytes cell culture was used as a second in-vitro model. The amount of intracellular peroxides was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity using the dihydrorhodamine 123 assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the influence of ascorbic acid and iron ions on the signal intensity of 5-doxylstearic acid during UV exposure. Ascorbic acid showed prooxidative properties in the thiobarbituric acid assay whereas cell protection was measured in the HaCaT keratinocytes experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations revealed different extents of free radical production generated by iron ions, ascorbic acid and UV irradiation. In evaluating the results from this study new aspects of the mechanism of lipid damage caused by these three factors were suggested, transcending the simple redox behaviour of ascorbic acid.

  20. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...

  1. Luminescence quenching of porous silicon nanoparticles in presence of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferrara, Vera; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Rametta, Gabriella; Di Francia, Girolamo [ENEA Research Centre, Portici (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    In this work, the effect of ascorbic acid on luminescence of porous silicon nanoparticles is studied. Porous nanoparticles with a multi-sized distribution are produced from a porous silicon free standing film and filtered through a 450 nm membrane. The highly luminescent and water-soluble nanoparticles are dispersed in deionized water. The stability of photoluminescence signal and the dimensions of porous silicon nanoparticles are characterized before adding ascorbic acid into the porous nanoparticles solution. The increasing of photoluminescence, before stabilization, has been correlated to oxidation of nanoparticles in water, evaluated by the technique of Attenuated Total Reflection. Once the nanoparticle photoluminescence signal is stabilized, ascorbic acid is loaded into the solution and its presence and real absorption onto the porous silicon nanoparticles are evaluated from their emission quenching. The quenching of photoluminescence is studied with different concentrations of ascorbic acid by Stern-Volmer plot for confirming the quenching law. This study shows that luminescence quenching of porous nanoparticles could be used for determining the presence of ascorbic acid in a solution. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. On weak exogeneity of the student's t and elliptical linear regression models

    OpenAIRE

    Jiro Hodoshima

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies weak exogeneity of conditioning variables for the inference of a subset of parameters of the conditional student's t and elliptical linear regression models considered by Spanos (1994). Weak exogeneity of the conditioning variables is shown to hold for the inference of regression parameters of the conditional student's t and elliptical linear regression models. A new definition of weak exogeneity is given which utilizes block-diagonality of the conditional information matri...

  3. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Eijking, Eric

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogenous surfactant administration has been accepted as a valuable treatment for this syndrome. Nevertheless, many questions on exogenous surfactant treatment remain unanswered. It has been observed that...

  4. Synergistic effects of sodium 
ascorbate and acetone to restore compromised bond strength 
after enamel bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Manafi, Safa; Cehreli, Zafer C

    To evaluate the effect of a new experimental solution containing sodium ascorbate (SA) and acetone on reversing compromised bonding to enamel immediately after bleaching. The buccal surface of intact, extracted human premolars (n = 60) was bleached. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 6  groups according to the type of pretreatment applied prior to adhesive procedures: 10% SA in acetone-water solution applied for 1 and 5 min (groups 1 and 2, respectively); aqueous solution of 10% SA applied for 10 min (group 3); 100% acetone applied for 10 min (group 4); no pretreatment (negative control; group 5). An additional group (positive control; group 6) comprised unbleached teeth (n = 12). Two composite microcylinders were bonded on each specimen for evaluation of microshear bond strength (MBS) and failure modes. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc and chi-square tests at P = 0.05. Groups 1 and 2 yielded similar MBS values to groups 4 and 6 (positive control). The mean MBS of groups 3 and 5 (negative control) were similar, and significantly lower than that of the positive control group. The application of 10% SA in an acetone-water solution prior to bonding procedures can restore compromised enamel bond strength to its unbleached state within a clinically acceptable time of 1 min.

  5. Simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in orange, blueberry and kiwi juice, by a telemetric system coupled with a fullerene- or nanotubes-modified ascorbate subtractive biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Antonio; Spissu, Ylenia; Fadda, Angela; Azara, Emanuela; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Daniele; Schirra, Mario; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2015-05-15

    Four fullerenes- or nanotubes-modified graphite sensor-biosensor systems (SBs), coupled with a dual-channel telemetric device, based on an ascorbate oxidase (AOx) biosensor, were developed for on line simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and antioxidant capacity in blueberry, kiwi and orange juice. Fullerene C60 (FC60), fullerene C70 (FC70), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCN) increased the sensitivity of graphite toward AA and phenols 1.2, 1.5, 5.1 and 5.1 times respectively. Fullerenes combined with AOx improved the selectivity toward AA more than nanotubes, being able to hold a higher number of AOx molecules on the biosensor surface. The SBs work at an applied potential of +500 mV, in a concentration range between the LOD and 20 μM, with a response time of two minutes. The LOD is 0.10, 0.13, 0.20 and 0.22 μM for SBs modified with FC60, FC70, SWCN and MWCN respectively. Biosensors register lower AA currents than the sensors due to the enzyme capability to oxidize AA before it reaches the transductor surface. Phenols currents registered by sensors and biosensors did not differ. Based on the difference between sensor and biosensor recorded currents a AA selectivity index was developed as an indicator of specificity toward AA and of the capacity to distinguish between AA and phenols contribution to the antioxidant capacity. This value is almost zero for fullerene-modified SBs, 0.13 and 0.22 for SWCN- and MWCN-modified SBs respectively. The results of juices analysis performed with SBs were in accordance with reference methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizer J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery.

  7. Contact Process with Exogenous Infection and the Scaled SIS Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, June

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of contagion in networks depends on the graph topology. This paper is concerned with studying the time-asymptotic behavior of the extended contact processes on static, undirected, finite-size networks. This is a contact process with nonzero exogenous infection rate (also known as the {\\epsilon}-SIS, {\\epsilon} susceptible-infected-susceptible, model [1]). The only known analytical characterization of the equilibrium distribution of this process is for complete networks. For large networks with arbitrary topology, it is infeasible to numerically solve for the equilibrium distribution since it requires solving the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem of a matrix that is exponential in N , the size of the network. We show that, for a certain range of the network process parameters, the equilibrium distribution of the extended contact process on arbitrary, finite-size networks is well approximated by the equilibrium distribution of the scaled SIS process, which we derived in closed-form in prior work. We co...

  8. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  9. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  10. Electrocatalytic oxidation and voltammetric determination of ciprofloxacin employing poly(alizarin red)/graphene composite film in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Wei, Youli; Ding, Yaping, E-mail: wdingyp@sina.com

    2014-07-04

    Graphical abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on PAR/EGR/GCE via a cooperation of the potentiostatic technique and cyclic voltammetry was first fabricated for the determination of CPFX with satisfied detecting result of real samples. - Highlights: • PAR/EGR composite film was prepared for the first time. • The sensor can be applied to determinate CPFX in the presence of AA, UA and DA. • The sensor indicated the feasibility in drug samples and biological media. - Abstract: A glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(alizarin red)/electrodeposited graphene (PAR/EGR) composite film was prepared and applied to detect ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in the presence of ascorbic, uric acid and dopamine. The morphology and interface property of PAR/EGR films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrocatalytic oxidation of CPFX on AR/EGR was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The linearity ranged from 4 × 10{sup −8} to 1.2 × 10{sup −4} M with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.01 μM. The modified electrode could be applied to the individual determination of CPFX as well as the simultaneous determination of CPFX, ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine. This method proved to be a simple, selective and rapid way to determine CPFX in pharmaceutical preparation and biological media.

  11. Evaluation of photosynthetic electrons derivation by exogenous redox mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longatte, Guillaume; Fu, Han-Yi; Buriez, Olivier; Labbé, Eric; Wollman, Francis-André; Amatore, Christian; Rappaport, Fabrice; Guille-Collignon, Manon; Lemaître, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the complex process that occurs in plants or algae by which the energy from the sun is converted into an electrochemical potential that drives the assimilation of carbon dioxide and the synthesis of carbohydrates. Quinones belong to a family of species commonly found in key processes of the Living, like photosynthesis or respiration, in which they act as electron transporters. This makes this class of molecules a popular candidate for biofuel cell and bioenergy applications insofar as they can be used as cargo to ship electrons to an electrode immersed in the cellular suspension. Nevertheless, such electron carriers are mostly selected empirically. This is why we report on a method involving fluorescence measurements to estimate the ability of seven different quinones to accept photosynthetic electrons downstream of photosystem II, the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. To this aim we use a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, impaired in electron downstream of photosystem II and assess the ability of quinones to restore electron flow by fluorescence. In this work, we defined and extracted a "derivation parameter" D that indicates the derivation efficiency of the exogenous quinones investigated. D then allows electing 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone and p-phenylbenzoquinone as good candidates. More particularly, our investigations suggested that other key parameters like the partition of quinones between different cellular compartments and their propensity to saturate these various compartments should also be taken into account in the process of selecting exogenous quinones for the purpose of deriving photoelectrons from intact algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagi, Ahmad; Johansson, Helene; Zemack, Helen; Salipalli, Sandeep; Mörk, Lisa-Mari; Kannisto, Kristina; Jorns, Carl; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Stokkeland, Knut; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Jonigk, Danny; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Nowak, Greg; Ellis, Ewa C S

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys) A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT) expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM) treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539)-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml) reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  13. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Karadagi

    Full Text Available The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  14. Behavioural dissociation between exogenous and endogenous temporal orienting of attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rohenkohl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the current study we compared the effects of temporal orienting of attention based on predictions carried by the intrinsic temporal structure of events (rhythm and by instructive symbolic cues; and tested the degree of cognitive, strategic control that could be exerted over each type of temporal expectation. The experiments tested whether the distinction between exogenous and endogenous orienting made in spatial attention may extend to the temporal domain. TASK DESIGN AND MAIN RESULTS: In this task, a ball moved across the screen in discrete steps and disappeared temporarily under an occluding band. Participants were required to make a perceptual discrimination on the target upon its reappearance. The regularity of the speed (rhythmic cue or colour (symbolic cue of the moving stimulus could predict the exact time at which a target would reappear after a brief occlusion (valid trials or provide no temporal information (neutral trials. The predictive nature of rhythmic and symbolic cues was manipulated factorially in a symmetrical and orthogonal fashion. To test for the effects of strategic control over temporal orienting based on rhythmic or symbolic cues, participants were instructed either to "attend-to-speed" (rhythm or "attend-to-colour". Our results indicated that both rhythmic and symbolic (colour cues speeded reaction times in an independent fashion. However, whilst the rhythmic cueing effects were impervious to instruction, the effects of symbolic cues were contingent on the instruction to attend to colour. FINAL CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results provide evidence for the existence of qualitatively separable types of temporal orienting of attention, akin to exogenous and endogenous mechanisms.

  15. Disulfide bonds regulate binding of exogenous ligand to human cytoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Taku; Nose, Azusa; Kukino, Kaori; Sawai, Hitomi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Uno, Tadayuki

    2014-06-01

    Cytoglobin (Cgb) was discovered a decade ago and is a fourth member of the group of hexacoordinated globin-folded proteins. Although some crystal structures have been reported and several functions have been proposed for Cgb, its physiological role remains uncertain. In this study, we measured cyanide binding to the ferric state of the wild-type (WT) Cgb, and found that the binding consisted of multiple steps. These results indicated that Cgb may be comprised of several forms, and the presence of monomers, dimers, and tetramers was subsequently confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Remarkably, each species contained two distinguishable forms, and, in the monomer, analyses of alternative cysteine states suggested the presence of an intramolecular disulfide bond (monomer SS form) and a structure with unpaired thiol groups (monomer SH form). These confirmed that forms were separated by gel-exclusion chromatography, and that the cyanide binding of the separated fractions was again measured; they showed different affinities for cyanide, with the monomer fraction showing the highest affinity. In addition, the ferrous state in each fraction showed distinct carbon monoxide (CO)-binding properties, and the affinities for cyanide and CO suggested a linear correlation. Furthermore, we also prepared several variants involving the two cysteine residues. The C38S and C83S variants showed a binding affinity for cyanide similar to the value for the monomer SH form, and hence the fraction with the highest affinity for exogenous ligands was designated as a monomer SS form. We concluded that polymerization could be a mechanism that triggers the exertion of various physiological functions of this protein and that an appropriate disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues was critical for regulating the binding affinity of Cgb, which can act as a ROS scavenger, for exogenous ligands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  17. GA(3) enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA by modulating auxin transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijun; Zhu, Changhua; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2015-03-01

    We used auxin-signalling mutants, auxin transport mutants, and auxin-related marker lines to show that exogenously applied GA enhances auxin-induced root inhibition by affecting auxin signalling and transport. Variation in root elongation is valuable when studying the interactions of phytohormones. Auxins influence the biosynthesis and signalling of gibberellins (GAs), but the influence of GAs on auxins in root elongation is poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GA3 on Arabidopsis root elongation in the presence of auxin. Root elongation was inhibited in roots treated with both IAA and GA3, compared to IAA alone, and the effect was dose dependent. Further experiments showed that GA3 could modulate auxin signalling based on root elongation in auxin-signalling mutants and the expression of auxin-responsive reporters. The GA3-enhanced inhibition of root elongation observed in the wild type was not found in the auxin-signalling mutants tir1-1 and axr1-3. GA3 increased DR5::GUS expression in the root meristem and elongation zones, and IAA2::GUS in the columella. The DR5rev::GFP signal was enhanced in columella cells of the root caps and in the elongation zone in GA3-treated seedling roots. A reduction was observed in the stele of PAC-treated roots. We also examined the effect of GA3 on auxin transport. The enhanced responsiveness caused by GA3 was not observed in the auxin influx mutant aux1-7 or the efflux mutant eir1-1. Additional molecular data demonstrated that GA3 could promote auxin transport via AUX1 and PIN proteins. However, GA3-induced PIN gene expression did not fully explain GA-enhanced PIN protein accumulation. These results suggest that GA3 is involved in auxin-mediated primary root elongation by modulating auxin signalling and transport, and thus enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA.

  18. The fate of exogenous iodine in pot soil cultivated with vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chun-lai; Weng, Huan-xin; Yan, Ai-lan; Islam, Ejaz-ul

    2009-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to explore a more effective approach to enhancing vegetable uptake of soil iodine, with the ultimate goal of using agricultural fortification as a measure to prevent iodine deficiency disorders in local communities. Two types of iodine fertilizers were added separately to pot soil samples at various dosages. The fortified soil in each of the flower pots was seeded with one of four test crops (pakchoi, celery, pepper, and radish) in an effort to examine the effect of vegetable cultivation. The fate and residual levels of the exogenous iodine in the fortified soil samples were then monitored and quantified. The data showed that the soil iodine contents decreased with time (and hence with plant growth as well). At the second cutting, iodine from the inorganic form (KI) as the exogenous source was reduced to approximately 50% (41.6-61.0%) of the applied dose, whereas that in soil fortified with the seaweed fertilizer was down to approximately 60% (53.9-71.5%). The abilities of the edible portion of the four vegetables in accumulating the soil iodine were as follows: pakchoi > celery > radish > pepper. On the whole, iodine residues were found less in soil cultivated with vegetables. Vegetable cultivation appeared to have enhanced the soil content of the water-soluble form of iodine somewhat, especially in soil fortified with the inorganic forms. There also appeared to be a significant negative correlation between the residual iodine and its dissolution rate in soil. Overall, the results of the present study pointed toward the direction that the seaweed fertilizer tends to be a (more) preferred source of agricultural fortification in promoting human iodine nutrition.

  19. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo–/– mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell EJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth J Campbell,1 Margreet CM Vissers,2 Gabi U Dachs1 1Mackenzie Cancer Research Group, 2Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo–/– mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2 in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo–/– mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this

  20. Zinc ascorbate has superoxide dismutase-like activity and in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iinuma K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiro Iinuma, Isami TsuboiBML General Laboratory, Kawagoe, Saitama, JapanBackground: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease, and its pathogenesis is multifactorial.Objective: We examined whether the ascorbic acid derivative zinc ascorbate has superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activity. SOD is an enzyme that controls reactive oxygen species production. In addition, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of zinc ascorbate against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli was tested either alone or in combination with a variety of antimicrobial agents; their fractional inhibitory concentration index was determined using checkerboard tests.Methods: The SOD-like activity was measured in comparison with other ascorbic acid derivatives (ascorbic acid, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and sodium ascorbyl phosphate and zinc. The antimicrobial susceptibility of twelve strains each of S. aureus and E. coli isolated from patients with dermatological infections was tested, in comparison to a type strain of S. aureus and E. coli.Results: Zinc ascorbate had significant (P < 0.001 SOD-like activity compared with other ascorbic acid derivatives and zinc. Moreover, it showed antimicrobial activity against a type strain of S. aureus and E. coli, and its concentration (0.064% and 0.128% for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively was sufficiently lower than the normal dose (5% of other ascorbic acid derivatives. Furthermore, combinations of zinc ascorbate with clindamycin, erythromycin, and imipenem against S. aureus (average fractional inhibitory concentration, 0.59–0.90, and with imipenem against E. coli (average fractional inhibitory concentration, 0.64 isolated from patients with dermatological infections showed an additive effect.Conclusions: Our results provide novel evidence that zinc ascorbate may be effective for acne treatment.Keywords: superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial

  1. Ascorbate uptake by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells: substrate specificity and sensitivity to transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S J; Kulaga, A; Jaworski, E M; Wilson, J X

    1991-06-01

    Ascorbate (reduced vitamin C) is required for bone formation. We have shown previously that both the osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8 and primary cultures of rat calvarial cells possess a saturable, Na(+)-dependent uptake system for L-ascorbate (J Membr Biol 111:83-91, 1989). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the specificity of this transport system for organic anions and its sensitivity to transport inhibitors. Initial rates of ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating ROS 17/2.8 cells with [L-14C]ascorbate at 37 degrees C. Uptake of [L-14C]ascorbate (5 microM) was inhibited 98 +/- 1% by coincubation with unlabeled L-ascorbate (3 mM) and 48 +/- 4% by salicylate (3 mM), but it was not affected by 3 mM formate, lactate, pyruvate, gluconate, oxalate, malonate, or succinate. Uptake of the radiolabeled vitamin also was not affected by acute (1 minute) exposure of the cells to the Na+ transport inhibitors amiloride and ouabain or the glucose transport inhibitor cytochalasin B. In contrast, anion transport inhibitors rapidly (less than 1 minute) and reversibly blocked [L-14C]ascorbate uptake. In order of potency, these drugs were 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) approximately equal to sulfinpyrazone greater than furosemide approximately equal to 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS). These findings indicate that the ascorbate transporter is relatively specific for the ascorbate anion, since other organic anions (with the exception of salicylate) did not compete with ascorbate for uptake. Rapid and reversible inhibition by the impermeant antagonists DIDS and SITS suggests that they interact directly with the ascorbate transporter, consistent with location of the transport system in the plasma membrane.

  2. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  3. Novel cosmetic patches for wrinkle improvement: retinyl retinoate- and ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Yang, H; Kim, H; Jung, H; Jung, H

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate wrinkle improvement and safety of a novel cosmetic dissolving microneedle patches loaded with two active compounds with different hydrophilicities, namely ascorbic acid and retinyl retinoate. Clinical studies were performed on 24 Korean women for 12 weeks. Patients in group A were treated with retinyl retinoate-loaded dissolving microneedle patches on the left eye crow's feet area, and patients in group B were treated with ascorbic acidloaded patches on the right eye crow's feet area twice daily. Wrinkle improvement was evaluated by skin Visiometer SV 600. Both the retinyl retinoate- and ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patches demonstrated statistically significant differences in all Visiometer R-values (P cosmetic patches. These novel patches can be used efficiently in cosmetics given their patient usability, safety and effectiveness in wrinkle improvement.

  4. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  5. Potential use of ascorbic acid-based surfactants as skin penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, S D; Maletto, B; Lo Nostro, P; Manzo, R H; Pistoresi-Palencia, M C; Allemandi, D A

    2006-08-01

    6-O-Ascorbic acid alkanoates (ASCn) are amphiphilic molecules having physical-chemical properties that depend on the alkyl chain length. The derivatives of low molecular weight (n CMT), ASCn aqueous suspensions turn into either micellar solutions or gel phases, depending on the length of the hydrophobic chain. On cooling, coagels are produced, which possess a lamellar structure that exhibit sharp X-ray diffraction patterns and optical birefringence. The semisolid consistency of such coagels is an interesting property to formulate dermatological pharmaceutical dosage forms able to solubilize and stabilize different drugs. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the enhancing permeation effect of ASCn with different chain lengths and to correlate permeability changes with histological effects. With this purpose, ASCn coagels containing anthralin (antipsoriasic drug) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, hydrophobic fluorescent marker) were assayed on rat skin (ex vivo) and mice skin (in vivo), respectively. Also, histological studies were performed aimed at detecting some possible side effects of ASCn. No inflammatory cellular response was observed in the skin when ASCn coagels were applied, suggesting non-irritating properties. Light microscopy indicated slight disruption and fragmentation of stratum corneum. The penetration of ASCn through rat skin epidermis was very fast and quantitatively significant. The permeation of anthralin was significantly increased when the drug was vehiculized in ASCn coagels, compared to other pharmaceutical systems. The results indicated that ASC12 seems to have the highest enhancing effect on FITC permeation. ASC12 appears to be the compound that possesses the highest capacity to enhance the penetration of the drugs. Furthermore, it has the highest permeation of the serie.

  6. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on tryptophan functionalized graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qianwen; He, Zhifang; He, Qian; Luo, Ai; Yan, Kaiwang; Zhang, Dongxia [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: Luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhou, Xibin, E-mail: zhouxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Trp-GR was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method. • The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. • Trp-GR/GCE showed excellent potential for the determination of AA, DA and UA. • The proposed method was applied for the analysis of AA, DA and UA in real samples. - Abstract: A new type of tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (Trp-GR) was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method via π–π conjugate action between graphene (GR) and tryptophan (Trp) molecule. The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. The surface morphology of Trp-GR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of Trp-GR. The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA–DA, DA–UA and UA–AA was about 182 mV, 125 mV and 307 mV, which allowed simultaneously determining AA, DA, and UA. Differential pulse voltammetery (DPV) was used for the determination of AA, DA, and UA in their mixture. Under optimum conditions, the linear response ranges for the determination of AA, DA, and UA were 0.2–12.9 mM, 0.5–110 μM, and 10–1000 μM, with the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.09 μM, 0.29 μM and 1.24 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the modified electrode was investigated for real sample analysis.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid using copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in beverages and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Kubilay; Sözgen, Kevser; Tütem, Esma; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Apak, Reşat

    2005-03-15

    The proposed method for ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) (AA) determination is based on the oxidation of AA to dehydroascorbic acid with a Cu(II)-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine (Nc)) reagent in ammonium acetate-containing medium at pH 7, where the absorbance of the formed bis(Nc)-copper(I) chelate is measured at 450nm. This chelate was formed immediately and the apparent molar absorptivity for AA was found to be 1.60 x 10(4)dm(3)mol(-1)cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed between 8.0 x 10(-6) and 8.0 x 10(-5)M concentration range. The relative standard deviation for 90mug AA was 3%. The Cu(II)-Nc reagent is a milder and therefore more selective oxidant than the conventional Fe(III)-1,10-phenanthroline (phen) reagent used for the same assay. This feature makes the proposed method superior for real samples such as fruit juices containing weak reductants such as citrate, oxalate and tartarate that otherwise produce positive errors in the Fe(III)-phen method when equilibrium is achieved. The developed method was applied to a number of commercial fruit juices, pharmaceutical preparations containing Vitamin C, and red wine. The meta-bisulfite content of wine was removed with an anion exchanger at pH 3 prior to analysis, and a difference extractive-spectrophotometric method of AA assay in wine was developed so as to suppress the interferences caused by wine anthocyanins and polyphenols. The findings of the developed method for fruit juices and pharmaceuticals were also statistically compared with those of HPLC so as to establish it as a reliable novel method.

  8. A novel nanocomposites sensor for epinephrine detection in the presence of uric acids and ascorbic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, LanZhou, 730070 (China); Li Yaya; Du Jie; Zhou Xibin; Xue Zhonghua; Liu Xiuhui; Wang Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, LanZhou, 730070 (China)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {center_dot} A novel PPy/AuNPs/SWCNTs nanomaterials biosensor was prepared to the selective determination of EP. {center_dot} The methods we employed to prepare PPy/AuNPs/SWCNTs nanomaterials are extremely simple. {center_dot} The PPy/AuNPs/SWCNTs nanocomposites biosensor we got from the results of experiments can totally eliminate the interference from AA and distinguish EP from UA. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposites film of conducting polymers including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), polypyrrole (PPy) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified electrode has been applied in voltammetric sensors to detect epinephrine (EP) sensitively when ascorbic acids (AA) and uric acids (UA) exist. The nanocomposites film of conducting polymers which show an excellent electrocatalystic activity for the oxidation of EP and UA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The catalytic peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) increased linearly with increasing EP concentrations in the range of 4.0 x 10{sup -9}-1.0 x 10{sup -7} M with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} M (S/N = 3), respectively. The results showed that the nanocomposites of conducting polymers can selectively determine EP in the coexistence of a large amount of UA and AA. In addition, the sensor exhibited excellent sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The PPy/AuNPs/SWCNTs nanocomposites film can also be satisfactorily used for detecting EP in epinephrine hydrochloride injection when contain AA and UA, which also shows good recovery for determination of EP in some biological fluids.

  9. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbate (Asc plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo, which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII. Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0, which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  10. Factors that affect leaf extracellular ascorbic acid content and redox status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O.; Fiscus, E.L. [North Carolina State Univ., United States dept. og Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ascorbic acid content and redox status were compared in ozone-tolerant (Provider) and ozone-sensitive (S156) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in pots for 24 days under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions in open-top field chambers and then maintained as CF controls (29 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (71 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone). Following a 10-day treatment, mature leaves of the same age were harvested early in the morning (06:00-08:00 h) or in the afternoon (13:00-15:00 h) for analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Vacuum infiltration methods were used to separate leaf AA into apoplast and symplast fractions. The total ascorbate content [AA + DHA] of leaf tissue averaged 28% higher in Provider relative to S156, and Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain [AA + DHA] content under ozone stress. Apoplast [AA + DHA] content was 2-fold higher in tolerant Provider (360 nmol g{sup 1} FW maximum) relative to sensitive S156 (160 nmol g1 FW maximum) regardless of sampling period or treatment, supporting the hypothesis that extracellular AA is a factor in ozone tolerance. Apoplast [AA + DHA] levels were significantly higher in the afternoon than early morning for both genotypes, evidence for short-term regulation of extracellular ascorbate content. Total leaf ascorbate was primarily reduced with AA/[AA + DHA] ratios of 0.81-0.90. In contrast, apoplast AA/[AA + DHA] ratios were 0.01-0.60 and depended on genotype and ozone treatment. Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain extracellular AA/[AA + DHA] ratios under ozone stress, suggesting that ozone tolerance is associated with apoplast ascorbate redox status. (au)

  11. Release of endogenous ascorbic acid preserves extracellular dopamine in the mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, M J; Cunningham, J R; Matthews, K L

    1999-11-01

    To investigate whether the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide (NO) on dopamine release from the retina is due to chemical oxidation of dopamine in the extracellular medium rather than to an inhibitory effect on dopamine release from retinal neurons. Dopamine was incubated in Krebs bicarbonate medium and its rate of chemical degradation measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of NO donors and antioxidants on dopamine were assessed by comparing dopamine degradation in the presence and absence of drug. The effects of NO donors on the K-evoked release of [3H]dopamine were measured from isolated superfused rabbit retinas. The release of ascorbic acid from the isolated rat retina and from an eyecup preparation in anesthetized rabbits was measured by HPLC. After 10 minutes' incubation in Krebs bicarbonate medium, the dopamine concentration decreased by 20%. This decline increased to 80% in the presence of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The increased rate of dopamine degradation was abolished if retina was incubated in the medium and then removed before the incubation of dopamine. The protective effect of preincubation with tissue was lost in the presence of ascorbate oxidase suggesting the release of ascorbic acid. HPLC analysis confirmed a substantial release of ascorbic acid from both rabbit and rat retinas. The K-evoked release of [3H]dopamine from the rabbit retina was inhibited by SNP. NO can rapidly, oxidize dopamine in physiological medium, but in the presence of retina, sufficient endogenous antioxidants (mainly ascorbate) are released to prevent this chemical reaction. Thus, the inhibitory action of NO on dopamine release results from an action on retinal neurons. Ascorbate release in the retina may have an important physiological role in prolonging the life of dopamine, which often has to diffuse long distances from axons in the inner plexiform layer to receptors in other retinal layers.

  12. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  13. The comparison of techniques and methods for L-ascorbic acid determination in the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Biljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential vitamin for human nutrition; with the L-ascorbic acid (AA being the active form of vitamin C. Hence, determination of the L-ascorbic acid in the natural and processed foods is very important. In the past, plenty of methods based on the reversible redox reaction of AA oxidation/DHA reduction were developed. Because of L-ascorbic acid instability in aqueous solutions, it is useful to analyze various types of extraction. The aim of this study is to compare three different methods and three different extractants for the L-ascorbic acid determination. Fruits (kiwi, lemon, orange, and grapefruit were purchased from a local market. The L-ascorbic acid in these four samples was determined by the three different methods: the AOAC, the HPLC method with three different types of extractions, and the colorimetric method using ascorbate-oxidase. For the HPLC measurements, one part of the fruits was extracted with distilled water, the second with potassium hydrogen phosphate, and the third with 3% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA in 8% acetic acid. The HPLC measurements of each sample were repeated three times, the AOAC titration was repeated five times, and in the calorimetric method three measurements were performed. The results were statistically evaluated related to sample basis. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the results for all three methods of extraction for all samples, except for the grapefruit sample where no significant difference was observed between the results obtained after the buffer extraction (E2 and the metaphosphoric acid in acetic acid extraction (E3. Discriminative analysis for the HPLC determinations proves that there is a clear difference and defined border between the samples in relation to the methods of extraction during the HPLC determination.

  14. Synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticle clusters and their application in ascorbic acid detection by SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholula-Díaz, Jorge L; Lomelí-Marroquín, Diana; Pramanick, Bidhan; Nieto-Argüello, Alfonso; Cantú-Castillo, Luis A; Hwang, Hyundoo

    2018-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has an essential role in the human body mainly due to its antioxidant function. In this work, metallic silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids were used in SERS experiments to detect ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. The AgNPs were synthesized by a green method using potato starch as reducing and stabilizing agent, and water as the solvent. The optical properties of the yellowish as-synthesized silver colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, in which besides a typical band at 410 nm related to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the silver nanoparticles, a shoulder band around 500 nm, due to silver nanoparticle cluster formation, is presented when relatively higher concentrations of starch are used in the synthesis. These starch-capped silver nanoparticles show an intrinsic Raman peak at 1386 cm -1 assigned to deformation modes of the starch structure. The increase of the intensity of the SERS peak at 1386 cm -1 with an increase in the concentration of the ascorbic acid is related to a decrease of the gap between dimers and trimers of the silver nanoparticle clusters produced by the presence of ascorbic acid in the colloid. The limit of detection of this technique for ascorbic acid is 0.02 mM with a measurement concentration range of 0.02-10 mM, which is relevant for the application of this method for detecting ascorbic acid in biological specimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of air pollution and other factors on ascorbic acid content of blueberries and lingonberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.; Karhu, M.

    1986-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) were collected on rural and urban forest sites in Finland during the yield periods 1983 and 1984. A major part of the berry material was frozen immediately and analyzed after a shorter or longer storage period. The aim of the study was to simulate the normal use of forest berries and to study the effects of site pollution and other factors on the ascorbic acid content of berries. The ascorbic acid content of blueberries varied from 2.7 mg/100 g frozen berries to 9.9 mg/100 g in 1983 and from 5.0 mg/100 g to 10.9 mg/100 g in 1984. The corresponding values for lingonberries were 5.5 to 13.0 mg in 1983 and 7.3 to 14.1 mg in 1984. The lowest values of the ascorbic acid content of blueberries were obtained for longstored, urban, southern Finnish samples. The corresponding lowest values of lingonberries were obtained for berry samples picked later from industrial sites. The urban and industrial sites, compared to nearby rural ones, had relative mean values for the ascorbic acid content varying from 74% to 112% in blueberries and from 89% to 109% in lingonberries. In urban blue berry sites, the berries generally had a somewhat lower ascorbic acid content during both of the yield periods. Significantly lower values of the ascorbic acid content of blueberries were measured on the urban site in 1984 compared with the rural site during the whole yield period. In blueberries, the effect of freezing was to cause a clear drop in the AA-content level from the fresh value, although after freezing the level remained quite constant.

  16. [Nickel exposure to A549 cell damage and L-ascorbic acid interference effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Wang, Yue; Dan, Han; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Wenhan; Pan, Yulin; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-05-01

    Studying different concentrations of nickel smelting smoke subjects of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) carcinogenic effects, discusses the influence of L-ascorbic acid protection. The A549 cells were divided into experimental and L-ascorbic acid in the intervention group. Plus exposure group concentration of nickel refining dusts were formulated 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml suspension, the intervention group on the basis of the added exposure group containing L-ascorbic acid (100 mmol/L), contact 24 h. Detection of cell viability by MTT assay. When the test substance concentration select 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml experiment for internal Flou-3 fluorescent probe to detect cell Ca²⁺ concentration, within DCFH-DA detect intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) content, real-time quantitative PCR (real time, in the RT-PCR) was used to detect cell HIF-1α gene expression. With the increase of concentration, subjects increased cell growth inhibition rate, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration increases, ROS content increased, HIF-1α gene expression increased, differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). After L-ascorbic acid intervention treatment, the results of the intervention group were lower than that of the experimental group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05), so L-ascorbic acid can effectively protect the nickel exposure damage to cells. With subjects following exposure to nickel concentration increased, its effect on A549 cell damage increases, L-ascorbic acid cell damage caused by nickel has certain protective effect.

  17. Evaluating ascorbate oxidase as a plant defense against leaf-chewing insects using transgenic poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jaros, Adam; Yip, Lynn; Tran, Lan; Kanellis, Angelos K; Constabel, C Peter

    2008-10-01

    Ascorbate is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plants and animals, and it is an essential nutrient for most insect herbivores. Therefore, ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been proposed to function as a plant defense that decreases the availability of ascorbate to insects. This hypothesis was tested by producing transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba; Salicaceae) with 14- to 37-fold higher foliar AO activities than control (wild type) leaves and feeding these leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) caterpillars and Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) grasshoppers. To examine potential mechanisms of activity of AO in these insects, ascorbyl radical and/or ascorbate levels were measured in gut contents. No significant changes in ascorbyl radical or ascorbate levels were found in the midgut contents of L. dispar larvae that ingested the leaves of the AO-overexpressing genotypes compared to the control genotype, and no significant decreases in ascorbate levels were found in the foregut or midgut contents of M. sanguinipes. Treatment of control leaves with commercial AO also produced no changes in the midgut biochemistry of L. dispar larvae, as measured by levels of ascorbyl radicals. Likewise, no increase in oxidative stress was observed in L. dispar that consumed tannin-treated AO-overexpressing leaves compared with tannin-treated control genotype leaves. Performance experiments were carried out on first- and fourth-instar L. dispar larvae on leaf disks and on third instars feeding on intact leaves on trees. In no case was a significant difference found in the contrast between the control and three AO-overexpressing genotypes for relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, or nutritional indices. We conclude that elevated levels of AO in poplar are unlikely to serve as a defense against herbivores such as L. dispar or M. sanguinipes and that the low oxygen levels commonly found in the guts of caterpillars and

  18. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Rats

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    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After presbycusis, noise-induced hearing loss is the second most common cause of acquired hearing loss. Numerous studies have shown that high-intensity noise exposure increases free radical species; therefore, use of antioxidants to detoxify the free radicals can prevent cellular damage in the cochlea. We studied the potential hearing protective effect of different doses of ascorbic acid administered prior to noise exposure in rats.   Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups: groups A, B, and C received 1250, 250, and 50 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid, respectively, and group D acted as the control group. After 14 days of ascorbic acid administration, the rats were exposed to noise (105 dB sound pressure level for 2 h. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE were recorded prior to starting the ascorbic acid as baseline and 1 h after the noise exposure.   Results: The amplitude decrease was 14.99 dB for group A, 16.11 dB for group B, 28.82 dB for group C, and 29.91 dB for the control group. Moderate and high doses of ascorbic acid significantly reduced the transient threshold shift in the rats.   Conclusion:  The results of present study support the concept of cochlea protection by antioxidant agents. This dose-dependent protective effect was shown through the use of ascorbic acid treatment prior to noise exposure.

  19. Ascorbic acid augments colony spreading by reducing biofilm formation of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Mirani, Zulfiqar; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Siddiqui, Anila; Khan, Fouzia; Aziz, Mubashir; Naz, Shagufta; Ahmed, Ayaz; Khan, Seema Ismat

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen, well known for its resistance and versatile lifestyle. Under unfavourable conditions, it adapts biofilm mode of growth. For staphylococcal biofilm formation, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a pre-requisite, which is regulated by ica operon-encoded enzymes. This study was designed to know the impact of ascorbic acid on biofilm formation and colony spreading processes of S. aureus and MRSA. The isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) used in present study, were recovered from different food samples. Various selective and differential media were used for identification and confirmation of S. aureus . Agar dilution method was used for determination of oxacillin and ascorbic acid resistance level. MRSA isolates were re-confirmed by E-test and by amplification of mecA gene. Tube methods and Congo-Red agar were used to study biofilm formation processes. Gene expression studies were carried on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed the presence of mecA gene belonging to SCC mecA type IV along with agr type II in the isolates. In vitro studies showed the sub-inhibitory concentration of oxacillin induced biofilm production. However, addition of sub-inhibitory dose of ascorbic acid was found to inhibit EPS production, biofilm formation and augment colony spreading on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and augmentation of colony spreading observed with ascorbic acid alone or in combination with oxacillin. Moreover, gene expression studies showed that ascorbic acid increases agr expression and decreases icaA gene expression. The present study concluded that ascorbic acid inhibits biofilm formation, promotes colony spreading and increases agr gene expression in MRSA.

  20. Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus

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    BISSELL, MINA J; HATIE, CARROLL; FARSON, DEBORAH A.; SCHWARZ, RICHARD I.; SOO, WHAI-JEN

    1980-04-01

    Ascorbic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.