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Sample records for exogenous estrogen administration

  1. Pulmonary embolism due to exogenous estrogen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Caner; Carus, Murat; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a relatively common clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism, which develops in relation to acute pulmonary arterial occlusion mostly caused by thrombi of the lower limbs. 29year old female admitted to emergency department with pulmonary thromboembolism due to an ingestion of 17 Diana 35 pills (2 mg cyproterone acetate and 0.035mg ethinyl estradiol) in a suicide attempt without any previously known predisposing factors. After thrombolytic therapy, the patient was discharged with oral warfarin treatment. We know that exogenous estrogen increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in therapeutic use. It should be kept in mind that even single ingestion of a single high-dose exogenous estrogen intake may induce pulmonary thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Endometrial caspase 1 and interleukin-18 expression during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of porcine pregnancy and response to early exogenous estrogen administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Daniel R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role for endometrial secretion of cytokines during the establishment of pregnancy in a number of mammals is well established. The current study determined endometrial expression of caspase 1 (CASP1 and interleukin-18 (IL18 during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following early estrogen administration, which induces conceptus loss during early development in pigs. Methods Gilts were hysterectomized on either D 0, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle, or D 10, 12, 15 or 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of endometrial CASP1 mRNA was unaffected by day of the estrous cycle, however there was a 6 and 10-fold increase in expression on D 15 and 18 of pregnancy. Endometrial expression of IL18 mRNA increased 5-fold between D 10 to 18 in cyclic and pregnant gilts. Total recoverable IL18 in uterine flushings was greater in pregnant compared to cyclic gilts on D 15 and 18. In the second experiment, mated gilts were treated with either corn oil (CO or estrogen (E on D 9 and 10 and hysterectomized on either D 10, 12, 13, 15 or 17 of pregnancy. The current study localizes the presence of CASP1 to the epithelial layer of the endometrium for the first time. Further, a day × treatment interaction was detected for endometrial CASP1 mRNA and protein abundance as E stimulated an earlier increase on D 13 compared to CO gilts. Although IL18 mRNA expression remained unaltered from the E treatment, protein abundance was significantly attenuated on D 15 and 18 in response to E treatment. Conclusions Endometrial expression of CASP1 and IL18 is associated with establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Alteration of CASP1 and IL18 following premature exposure of the uterus to estrogen during early pregnancy may contribute to conceptus loss between Days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.

  3. Immunosuppression Following Exposure to Exogenous Estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    and laboratory animals aad has been associated with endo- metrial cancer , breast cancer , and vaginal adenocarcinoma (McLachlan, 1980). In mice, DES...demonstrate binding affinity for the estrogen receptor are the flavones genistin, mirestrol, and the fluorescent coumestrol. The mycotoxin zearalanone (P...inhibition assay, Cancer Treatment Rep., 62:1807-1816. Eroschenko, V. P. and R. D. Palmiter (19?0), Estrogenicity of kepone in birds and mammals. In

  4. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  5. Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    in some Western countries, including the USA and Canada. The Joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) expert committee on food additives (JECFA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered, in 1988, that the residues found in meat from treated animals were......There has been increasing concern about the impact of environmental compounds with hormone-like action on human development and reproductive health over the past decades. An alternative but neglected source of hormone action that may be considered in this connection is hormone residues in meat from...... husbandry animals treated with sex steroid hormones for growth promotion. Treatment of cattle with naturally occurring or synthetic sex hormones may enhance lean muscle growth and improve feed efficiency and is therefore a very cost effective procedure for cattle producers who have used it for decades...

  6. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels....

  7. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ... reported to delay gonadal development in rodent populations (Zucker et. al. 1980 ... in vitro on spermatozoa collected from adult Wistar rats. (Gwayi and Bernard, 2002). Melatonin ...

  8. Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.

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    Starkman, Monica N

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the neuropsychiatric presentations elicited by spontaneous hypercortisolism and exogenous supraphysiologic glucocorticoids. Patients with Cushing disease and syndrome develop a depressive syndrome: irritable and depressed mood, decreased libido, disrupted sleep and cognitive decrements. Exogenous short-term glucocorticoid administration may elicit a hypomanic syndrome with mood, sleep and cognitive disruptions. Treatment options are discussed. Brain imaging and neuropsychological studies indicate elevated cortisol and other glucocorticoids are especially deleterious to hippocampus and frontal lobe. The research findings also shed light on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in conditions that have substantial subgroups exhibiting elevated and dysregulated cortisol: aging, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys...... to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  10. A case of a laboratory animal feed with high estrogenic activity and its impact on in vivo responses to exogenously administered estrogens.

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    Boettger-Tong, H; Murthy, L; Chiappetta, C; Kirkland, J L; Goodwin, B; Adlercreutz, H; Stancel, G M; Mäkelä, S

    1998-01-01

    We recently noted that immature rats failed to exhibit a normal uterine response to exogenously administered estradiol as assessed by both biochemical (induction of gene expression) and morphological (altered uterine and vaginal histology and size) end points. An initial analysis suggested that this was due to a high degree of estrogenization from a dietary source which was producing a near maximal uterotrophic response prior to hormone treatment. Subsequent chemical analysis indicated that the feed in question contained high amounts of two well-known phytoestrogens, genistein (210 mg/kg) and daidzen (14 mg/kg), and the lot of feed in question produced a large uterotrophic effect when fed to immature ovariectomized rats. These findings illustrate that, despite increased awareness of phytoestrogens, some batches of animal feed contain very high amounts of estrogenic components which have marked effects on in vivo end points of hormone action. These observations have important implications for both basic research and screening methods that utilize in vivo approaches. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9637793

  11. Benzodiazepine Administration Induces Exogenic Psychosis: A Case of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alexander; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with psychiatric symptoms (anxiety, panic reactions, rage, and disorientation) was brought to the pediatric clinic by his father. Purposeful administration by his mother of benzodiazepine, a prescription drug available in the household, was suspected as responsible for the psychotic symptoms. (DB)

  12. Modulation of estrogen receptor α levels by endogenous and exogenous ligands

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    P. La Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ERα is a ligand-activated transcription factor, member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Regulation of ERα levels is intrinsically required for its transcriptional activity and thus for the modulation of the physiological actions of the cognate hormone 17β-estradiol (E2. Indeed, ERα exogenous ligands that target this molecular circuitry are used as drugs in clinical practice. Interestingly, some natural and synthetic molecules, which human beings are commonly exposed to, interfere with the endocrine system and operate through ERα by selectively modifying its signalling. In addition, these molecules may also modulate ERα cellular content. Here, we report the recent advances in our understanding of how exogenous ERα ligands impact on receptor levels and change the physiological E2-dipendent modulation of specific cellular function.

  13. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa tr...

  14. The effect of estrogen administration during early pregnancy upon the survival of single implanted pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarasaki, T; Enya, S; Otsu, Y

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the influence of exogenous estrogen on embryo survival after transfer into prepubertal gilts in which estrus had been induced. In the first experiment, estrus was induced in prepubertal gilts by the administration of 1,000 IU of eCG and 750 IU of hCG every 72 h. Several blastocysts were recovered on d 6 (d 0 is the day of hCG administration), and 1 embryo was transferred to the tip of 1 side of the uterine horn on d 6 (Control). In treated groups, after embryo transfer, 5 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) was administered on d 11 (EB5mg-1) or d 11, d 13, and d 15 (EB5mg-3) or d 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 (EB5mg-5) or 20 mg of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) was administered on d 11 (EDP20mg-1) or d 11 and d 14 (EDP20mg-2). Autopsy examinations were performed on d 53 to 60. Although nontreated gilts did not become pregnant, gilts in each of the estradiol-treated groups became pregnant. The greatest pregnancy rate (77.8%, 7/9) was obtained with EDP20mg-2 (EDP20mg-2 > control: P piglet died from dystocia, and 1 suffered from deformity involving double-breasted hooves and died 6 d after birth. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in survival rate on d 30 of pregnancy and weaning (50%, 6/12). Body weight at birth and at weaning did not differ from that reported in previous studies. In conclusion, this study showed that EDP5mg-2 treatment during early pregnancy leads to full-term development of a single embryo.

  15. The neuroendocrine response of luteinizing hormone to estrogen administration in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual subjects.

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    Gooren, L

    1986-09-01

    The neuroendocrine response of LH to estrogen administration may be related to sexual dimorphism of the brain, and therefore, homosexual and especially transsexual individuals may differ from heterosexual individuals in their responses. This study failed to find such differences among groups of female heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transsexuals. Specifically, after single dose estrogen administration, all subjects had an initial decline in serum LH levels, followed by a brisk rise of equal magnitude. Among males, the type of response was less uniform. After an initial fall in serum LH levels, the individual responses varied. In 12 of 23 male homosexuals, 10 of 15 male heterosexuals, and all 6 genetic male transsexuals studied, serum LH levels remained below pretreatment levels. In the remaining 11 male homosexuals and 5 of the heterosexuals, serum LH levels increased to values exceeding those before treatment, resembling the response found in the 3 groups of women. Those homosexual and heterosexual men with a rise in serum LH levels to above pretreatment values also had the greatest fall in testosterone levels after estrogen administration, while these same men had the lowest testosterone response to hCG stimulation. I conclude from these results that 1) the similarity of LH responses to estrogen administration in all groups of women studied does not support a theory of brain androgenization as a factor in the establishment of gender identity of sexual orientation; and 2) individual differences in men in the type of LH response to estrogen administration can be satisfactorily explained by endocrine factors, such as Leydig cell function, and need not be related to gender identity, sexual orientation, or other possible causes.

  16. Fluorescence and inmunohistological detection of estrogen receptors in dog testis and epidydimis after oral coumestrol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector; Perez-Rivero, Juan Jose; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; Perez-Martinez, Mario; Garcia-Suarez, Maria-Dolores

    2008-12-01

    Estrogens are well recognized as important hormones in male reproduction and act as ligands to alpha and beta estrogen receptors. Both estrogen receptors could interact with estrogen-mimicking compounds such as the fluorescent phytoestrogen coumestrol, which acts both in an agonist or antagonist fashion. To investigate the presence of Coumestrol-Estrogen Receptor complexes by fluorescence in testis and epididymis, its effect in the ER expression by immunostain in the same tissues and the effect of this binding in the testis histological characteristics. Adult healthy and sexually active dogs were assigned to either the experimental or control group .Coumestrol impregnated dog biscuits were given to each animal from the experimental group once a week for a 4 week period. The control group received a biscuit with no Coumestrol, also once a week and for the same period. Testis morphology, ER immunodetection, and coumestrol-receptor binding were evaluated. The experiment was done in the facilities of the Mexico City canine shelter. Animals were caged individually with food and water ad libitum and having at least two daily hours for exercise. Morphological alterations in testis after oral administration of coumestrol were detected. The main alterations include decreased germinal epithelium in tubule, and the loss of a continuous proliferation and differentiation gamete layer. Fluorescence signals in testis interstitial Leydig cells and epididymus indicating ER-coumestrol complexes were detected at the same points to those Immunohystochemically detected ER. Coumestrol administration induces testis alterations and coumestrol-ER complexes can be co-localized by binding-enhanced fluorescence and immunoprecipitation.

  17. Manageable cytotoxicity of nanocapsules immobilizing D-amino acid oxidase via exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug

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    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yingchun; Fu, Jingke

    2014-02-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), which could catalyze generation of hydrogen peroxide with strong oxidbility and cytotoxicity, has become of interest as a biocatalyst for therapeutic treatments. Herein we report that amino-functional hollow mesoporous silica with large pore size (10.27 nm) and positively charged surface effectively immobilize DAO with negative charge. The adsorption, activity and stability of DAO are demonstrated to depend mainly on the amino-functionalization of surface. Significant cancer cell killing effect is observed when the cells are treated by the nanocapsules entrapping DAO together with D-alanine, showing distinct dose-dependency on concentration of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine. Nevertheless, the toxicity is completely neutralized by the addition of catalase, and anti-tumor effect is not observed when either the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine is applied alone. The results indicate that cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO could be managed by exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug to tumor tissue, due to the stereoselectivity of DAO and the scarcity of its substrates in mammalian organisms. Thus, the method might be exploited as a potential treatment for cancer therapy.

  18. Reference gene selection for qPCR in mussel, Mytilus edulis, during gametogenesis and exogenous estrogen exposure.

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    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Ciocan, Corina M; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a normalization method for real-time PCR data by analyzing the most stably expressed control genes in mussel (Mytilus edulis) reproductive tissue. To facilitate this, six candidate genes, including several commonly used in the literature, were investigated in mussels at different stages of gametogenesis and following experimental exposure to a model estrogen (17b-estradiol). GeNorm and NormFinder softwares were employed to assess the stability of the reference genes. Our results demonstrate that the most stable reference genes are not the same in mussels at different stages of gametogenesis and in experimentally E2-exposed mussels. Interestingly, HEL (helicase) and ACT (actin) mRNA expression levels were most affected by the stage of gametogenesis and yet, in molluscan studies, ACT is possibly the most frequently used reference gene. We demonstrate that the experimental results are highly dependent on the reference gene chosen and that statistically significant contrasting differences between sample groups are present or absent depending on the reference gene employed.

  19. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

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    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  20. Ultrastructure of the uterus in an ovariectomized gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) after administration of exogenous estradiol.

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    Girling, J E; Guillette, L J; Cree, A

    2000-01-01

    The uterus of an oviparous gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus, was analysed after ovariectomized females underwent a period of treatment (up to 14 days) with exogenous estradiol. Analysis focused on the uterine mucosa, which is made up of an epithelial layer and an underlying lamina propria containing the shell glands. These tissues are thought to be responsible for secretion of the eggshell components and were thus chosen for analysis using transmission electron microscopy. In ovariectomized females, the epithelial layer was low and cuboidal with minimal/no differentiation or secretory activity. Treatment with exogenous estradiol resulted in a significant increase in cell height associated with gradual differentiation of the epithelium. Development of non-ciliated cells included production of secretory granules (low electron density) at the apical cell surface. The shell glands showed less obvious changes over the course of treatment. Shell glands contained two cell types: dark cells with darkly staining nuclei and organelles, and light cells with very indistinct nuclei and organelles, except for prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes. This study provides results consistent with published light microscopy studies for other reptiles and additionally provides ultrastructural details of reptilian uterine development not previously available.

  1. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Miao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  2. Up-regulation of hepatic receptor for growth hormone in the flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) after oral administration with exogenous GH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Bao; Xu, Yong-Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-06-01

    The iodination efficiency of salmon GH(sGH) was 38.82%, using a modification of the chloramine-T method. The specific activity of the125I-sGH was about 40 μCi/μg protein. The results of binding assay showed a single class of high affinity and low-capacity binding site in flounder liver. Long-term administration with exogenous GH can induce the up-regulation of hepatic GH receptor in total binding capacity though there was no significant difference in capacity of free binding sites of livers from control and experimental fish, this result also indicated that the liver from experimental fish, compared to that from control fish, had more occupied binding sites.

  3. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to inappropriate oral administration of topical exogenous steroids presenting with hypercalcaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Rahila Sarwar; Flynn, Michael D

    2012-06-21

    A 59-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with malaise, fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. He had history of long-standing roseate psoriasis treated with topical clobetasol propionate (dermovate). On admission, he had significant postural hypotension, and hypercalcaemia. Endocrinological investigation revealed hypercalcaemia, a serum cortisol of <30 nmol/l, a flat short synacthen test and undetectable adrenocorticotropic hormone. He was treated with hydrocortisone. The abrupt withdrawal of the topical steroids by the patient precipitated the addisonian crisis. Further enquiry documented inappropriate oral administration of clobetasol for more than 10 years in addition to prescribed topical usage.

  4. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  5. Attenuation of the blood pressure response to exogenous angiotensin I after oral administration of benazepril to healthy adult horses.

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    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Rapoport, G; Brown, S A; Coleman, A E

    2017-05-01

    Benazepril has been shown to inhibit circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in horses but the optimal dosage is unknown. To determine the lowest tested dose of benazepril that results in ≥75% attenuation in the response of arterial blood pressure (BP) to exogenous angiotensin I (ANG-I) administration. Prospective experimental study. A total of 5 healthy horses were instrumented for the direct measurement of BP. Each horse received 4 intragastric doses of benazepril (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg bwt) with a washout period of 7 days between doses. Prior to and 2, 12 and 24 h after benazepril administration, each horse received intravenous (i.v.) boluses of ANG-I at 20, 60 and 200 ng/kg. Attenuation of the systolic arterial pressure (SBP) response to ANG-I and serum ACE activity were quantified and expressed as percentage of inhibition. There was a significant effect of benazepril dose (P = 0.004) and time (P = 0.004) on the percentage of inhibition of the systolic pressor response to ANG-I. Regardless of benazepril dose, the percentage of inhibition was significantly greater 2 h after administration of benazepril compared with 12 and 24 h. At an ANG-I dose of 20 ng/kg, the percentage of inhibition after administration of benazepril at 1 mg/kg bwt (46.6 ± 18.9%) was significantly greater than that achieved after 0.5 mg/kg bwt (19 ± 14%) but not significantly different from that achieved at higher doses of benazepril. Benazepril doses ≥1 mg/kg bwt resulted in serum ACE inhibition of at least 90%. Small sample size and resulting low statistical power. Attenuation of the rise in SBP in response to ANG-I after administration of benazepril is modest in horses despite adequate serum ACE inhibition. A dose of 1 mg/kg bwt would be recommended for future investigations of benazepril for the management of cardiovascular diseases in horses. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Short term changes in melatonin and cortisol serum levels after a single administration of estrogen to menopausal women.

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    Kerdelhué, Bernard; Andrews, Mason C; Zhao, Yueqin; Scholler, Robert; Jones, Howard W

    2006-10-01

    It has been well-documented that serum melatonin levels are insensitive to estrous or menstrual ovarian steroid variations in the female rat or the human. However, a negative coupling has been already demonstrated between the nocturnal serum melatonin peak and serum E2 concentration during the late premenopausal period in the woman. The objection of the present study was designed to determine if diurnal serum melatonin values can be also lowered by a single administration of estrogen. We performed a detailed analysis of variations of serum estradiol, LH, FSH, melatonin and cortisol after one single I.M. injection of 2 mg of a conjugated estrogen, delestrogen (estradiol valerate) in 0.1 ml of oil. A 15 ml blood collection was done at 8:00 a.m. before the injection, and at 8:30 a.m., 9:00 a.m., 10:00 a.m., 12:00 noon, and 4:00 p.m. 17beta-estradiol, LH and FSH were determined by microparticle enzyme immunoassays kits. Melatonin determination was made using a RIA kit and cortisol was assayed by a RIA method. A significant rise in serum 17beta-estradiol was already seen by one hour after the injection of estradiol valerate. Then, an almost linear increase was observed up to at last eight hours after the injection of estradiol valerate. A significant decrease in serum LH was not seen before four hours after the injection of estradiol valerate. Overall, there was a trend toward a decline in serum melatonin and cortisol concentration. The decreasing trend of cortisol serum level was tested as significant over time (pmelatonin. Overall, these results show that after menopause an acute administration of estrogen during the early diurnal period of the day leads to a significant rapid decrease in cortisol serum values, but to only a partial non significant decrease in melatonin serum values.

  7. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

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    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  8. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  9. Exogenous Kisspeptin Administration as a Probe of GnRH Neuronal Function in Patients With Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Lippincott, Margaret F.; Butler, James P.; Sidhoum, Valerie F.; Li, Cindy X.; Plummer, Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) results from defective synthesis, secretion, or action of GnRH. Kisspeptin is a potent stimulus for GnRH secretion. Objective: We probed the functional capacity of the GnRH neuronal network in patients with IHH. Participants: Eleven subjects with congenital IHH (9 men and 2 women) and one male subject who underwent reversal of IHH were studied. Six of the twelve subjects had an identified genetic cause of their IHH: KAL1 (n = 1), FGFR1 (n = 3), PROKR2 (n = 1), GNRHR (n = 1). Intervention: Subjects underwent q10 min blood sampling to measure GnRH-induced LH secretion at baseline and in response to intravenous boluses of kisspeptin (0.24 nmol/kg) and GnRH (75 ng/kg) both pre- and post-six days of treatment with exogenous GnRH (25 ng/kg sc every 2 h). Results: All subjects with abiding IHH failed to demonstrate a GnRH-induced LH response to exogenous kisspeptin. In contrast, the subject who achieved reversal of his hypogonadotropism demonstrated a robust response to kisspeptin. Conclusions: The functional capacity of the GnRH neuronal network in IHH patients is impaired, as evidenced by their inability to respond to the same dose of kisspeptin that effects a robust GnRH-induced LH response in healthy men and luteal-phase women. This impairment is observed across a range of genotypes, suggesting that it reflects a fundamental property of GnRH neuronal networks that have not been properly engaged during pubertal development. In contrast, a patient who had experienced reversal of his hypogonadotropism responded to exogenous kisspeptin. PMID:25226293

  10. The predictive performances of equations used to estimate unbound phenytoin concentrations in a medical ICU population and the impact of exogenous albumin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Labdhi; MacLaren, Robert

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the predictive performances of four equations (Sheiner-Tozer [ST], Kane-modified ST, Anderson-modified ST, and Cheng-modified ST) used to estimate free phenytoin concentrations in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and assessed the impact of exogenously administered albumin. Thirty MICU subjects receiving phenytoin were retrospectively evaluated. Predictive performances were assessed by mean absolute error (MAE), mean prediction error (MPE), and root mean squared error (RMSE); linear regression of predicted vs. actual unbound concentrations; and Bland-Altman plots. Parameters were further delineated by recent exogenous albumin administration. The measured unbound phenytoin concentration was 2.14±0.84μg/mL for all 90 levels, 1.89±0.92μg/mL for the 58 levels without albumin, and 2.58±0.83μg/mL (pequations. The ST equation over-predicted unbound concentrations whereas all other equations under-estimated unbound concentrations. All equations possessed bias and lacked precision. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated greatest bias with the ST equation. Albumin administration introduced additional bias, limited precision, reduced R 2 values, and completely negated the performances of the ST and Kane-modified ST equations. Estimating unbound concentrations with equations in the MICU population is discouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction in bone resorption by exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 administration requires an intact gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalck, Ida B; Jeppesen, Palle B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    -intake. Subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment has been shown to reduce bone resorption in postmenopausal women. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of exogenous GLP-2 to reduce bone resorption in patients with jejunostomy or ileostomy and to elucidate whether an intact gastrointestinal tract...... and the ability to secrete GLP-2 are required for meal-induced inhibition of bone resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen control subjects, 13 colectomized patients with an ileostomy and 12 colectomized patients with a jejunostomy (remnant small bowel 89 +/- 53 cm) were given: a) a subcutaneous injection......) compared with baseline values. Patients with an ileostomy had a preserved endogenous postprandial GLP-2 secretion, which was absent in patients with a jejunostomy. Consumption of a meal reduced s-CTX in all groups but significantly less so in the jejunostomy group. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in bone...

  12. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF EXOGENOUS LACTASE IN TABLETS FOR PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH LACTOSE INTOLERANCE DUE TO PRIMARY HYPOLACTASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando de Magalhães FRANCESCONI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary hypolactasia is a common condition where a reduced lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa is present. The presence of abdominal symptoms due to poor absorption of lactose, which are present in some cases, is a characteristic of lactose intolerance. , Objective Evaluate the efficacy of a product containing exogenous lactase in tablet form compared to a reference product with proven effectiveness in patients with lactose intolerance. Methods Multicentre, randomized, parallel group, single-blind, comparative non-inferiority study. One hundred twenty-nine (129 adult lactose intolerance patients with hydrogen breath test results consistent with a diagnosis of hypolactasia were randomly assigned to receive the experimental product (Perlatte(r - Eurofarma Laboratórios S.A. or the reference product (Lactaid(r - McNeilNutritionals, USA orally (one tablet, three times per day for 42 consecutive days. Results Data from 128 patients who actually received the studied treatments were analysed (66 were treated with the experimental product and 62 with the reference product. The two groups presented with similar baseline clinical and demographic data. Mean exhaled hydrogen concentration tested at 90 minutes after the last treatment (Day 42 was significantly lower in the experimental product treated group (17±18 ppm versus 34±47 ppm in the per protocol population. The difference between the means of the two groups was -17 ppm (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -31.03; -3.17. The upper limit of the 95% CI did not exceed the a priori non-inferiority limit (7.5 ppm. Secondary efficacy analyses confirmed that the treatments were similar (per protocol and intention to treat population. The tolerability was excellent in both groups, and there were no reports of serious adverse events related to the study treatment. Conclusion The experimental product was non-inferior to the reference product, indicating that it was an effective

  13. Metabolic coronary-flow regulation and exogenous nitric oxide in human coronary artery disease: assessment by intravenous administration of nitroglycerin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, J. E.; van Wezel, H. B.; Porsius, M.; Vergroesen, I.; Spaan, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of intravenous administration of the nitric oxide--donor substance nitroglycerin (NTG) on metabolic coronary-flow regulation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 12 patients with stable CAD, we measured coronary sinus blood flow and myocardial oxygen

  14. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-07-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. To evaluate this hypothesis, the effects of chronic testosterone administration in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol supplementation were examined in this study. Chronic testosterone administration decreased BW, FI, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and adipocyte size in OVX rats, whereas it increased BW, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. In addition, chronic testosterone administration increased hypothalamic CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it did not alter CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats, indicating that conversion of testosterone to estrogens in the hypothalamus may be activated in testosterone-administered OVX rats. Furthermore, chronic testosterone administration decreased hypothalamic TNF-α mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it increased hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels in visceral and subcutaneous WAT and liver were not changed by chronic testosterone administration in both groups. These data indicate that the effects of chronic testosterone administration on BW, FI, WAT weight, and adipocyte size were changed by estradiol treatment in female rats. Testosterone has facilitative effects on BW gain, FI, and adiposity under the estradiol-supplemented condition, whereas it has inhibitory effects in the non-supplemented condition. Differences in the responses of hypothalamic factors, such as aromatase and inflammatory cytokines, to testosterone might underlie these opposite effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ibba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A, while mean peak H2 levels (74.95 ppm versus 7.85, P<0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B were still positive, with the H2 level 20 ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7 ppm versus 66.64, P<0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60 ppm. All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability.

  16. Exogenous ochronosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Brogeras, M; Sánchez-Viera, M

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of a 70-year-old woman who had been using a skin-lightening cream containing hydroquinone for a previous diagnosis of melasma. She presented a hyperpigmentation predominantly on her cheeks and eyebrows. The biopsy showed deposition of yellow-brown globules in the dermis. A diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis was made. An attempt of treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been initiated recently.

  17. Comparison of the impact of vaginal and oral administration of combined hormonal contraceptives on hepatic proteins sensitive to estrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitruk-Ware, R.L.; Menard, J.; Rad, M.; Burggraaf, J.; Kam, M.L.de; Tokay, B.A.; Sivin, I.; Kluft, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of a new combined hormonal contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) delivering the nonandrogenic progestin Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on several key estrogen-sensitive hepatic proteins that may be markers for the risk of arterial or venous disease events

  18. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Van Sinderen

    Full Text Available The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2 treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin 6 (IL6. Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  19. Chemical profiling with HPLC-FTMS of exogenous and endogenous chemicals susceptible to the administration of chotosan in an animal model of type 2 diabetes-induced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yimin; Li, Feng; Inada, Chikako; Tanaka, Ken; Watanabe, Shiro; Fujiwara, Hironori; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2015-02-01

    In our previous study, the daily administration of chotosan (CTS), a Kampo formula consisting of Uncaria and other 10 different crude drugs, ameliorated cognitive deficits in several animal models of dementia including type 2 diabetic db/db mice in a similar manner to tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The present study investigated the metabonomics of CTS in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetes model, and m/m mice, a non-diabetes control strain, to identify the exogenous and endogenous chemicals susceptible to the administration of CTS using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an orbitrap hybrid Fourier transform mass spectrometer. The results obtained revealed that the systemic administration of CTS for 20 days led to the distribution of Uncalia plant-derived alkaloids such as rhynchophylline, hirsuteine, and corynoxeine in the plasma and brains of db/db and m/m mice and induced alterations in four major metabolic pathways; i.e., (1) purine, (2) tryptophan, (3) cysteine and methionine, (4) glycerophospholipids in db/db mice. Moreover, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels in the plasma and brain were significantly higher in CTS-treated db/db mice than in vehicle-treated control animals. The results of the in vitro experiment using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures demonstrated that GPC (10-30 μM), as well as tacrine, protected hippocampal cells from N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in a manner that was reversible with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, whereas GPC had no effect on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Our results demonstrated that some CTS constituents with neuropharmacological activity were distributed in the plasma and brain tissue following the systemic administration of CTS and may subsequently have affected some metabolic pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism and cognitive function in db/db mice. Moreover, the present metabonomic analysis suggested that GPC is a putative

  20. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; ... consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the symptoms ...

  1. Estrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eGFR) Estrogen/Progesterone Receptor Status Estrogens Ethanol Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (ENA) Panel Factor V Leiden Mutation ... and Acute Coronary Syndrome Heart Disease Hemochromatosis Hemoglobin Abnormalities Hepatitis HIV Infection and AIDS Huntington Disease Hypertension ...

  2. Effects of Chronic Estrogen Administration in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (VMH) on Fat and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z; Liu, J; Veldhuis-Vlug, A G; Su, Y; Foppen, E; van der Eerden, B C J; Koedam, M; Bravenboer, N; Kalsbeek, A.; Boelen, A; Fliers, E; Bisschop, P H

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the

  3. [One-year follow-up of women treated with transdermal administration of estrogen for post-castration and climacteric syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, L; Matĕchová, E

    1992-12-01

    Having gained preliminary knowledge in a selected group of 64 patients treated for three months by a transcutaneous form of estrogen therapy (Estraderm TTS) for postcastration and climacteric syndromes, the authors report in this paper on the results of a one-year follow-up of a series of 42 patients treated by ETTS 25 and 50 for the same diagnoses. Administration of ETTS makes it possible to take advantage of the therapeutic transdermal system for the transfer of 17 beta-estradiol directly into the blood stream. Estradiol in a daily dose of 25, 50 or 100 microgrammes is deposited in ethanol gel as a reservoir in a special sticking tape. From there it is absorbed across a microsporous membrane by molecular diffusion into the subcapillary plexus at a constant speed till an equilibration of the diffusion gradient between skin and the system is attained. For the aim of this study is to evaluate both the recession of the subjective as well as objective complaints in patients suffering from postcastration and climacteric syndromes and the reflection of the treatment in the blood levels of gonadotropins, estrogens, gestagens and cortisol and likewise the vaginal hormonal cytology. Both the systemic and local side-effects of treatment are subject to a careful study. On the basis of a comprehensive statistical study of these changes in every patient as well as in the whole series in the course of one year the authors reach the conclusion that the ETTS administration strikingly improves the subjective as well as objective complaints of the patients, and, in agreement with the literary data, objectively influences the laboratory results concerning especially the circulating levels of gonadotropins and of estradiol. In conclusion, the authors comment on the favourable contribution of this form of treatment to gynaecological practice in the therapy of postcastration, climacteric and estrogen-losing syndromes. A special modification of the record was prepared for this study

  4. Effects of co-administration of estrogen and androgen on induction of sex reversal in the medaka Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokuni; Iwamatsu, Takashi; Shibata, Yasushi; Ishihara, Michio; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    To investigate how estrogen and androgen affect each other in inducing sex reversal in the medaka, O. Iatipes, 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) were co-administered by a convenient method for hormonal treatment, in which freshly fertilized eggs were immersed for 24 h in saline containing either or both of the two sex steroids in different concentrations and/or ratios. The minimal concentrations of E2 and MDHT sufficient to induce the maximal rate of sex reversal from male to female and from female to male were 500 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml, respectively, both of which were referred to as the most efficacious dose (MED), and each equivalent for the inducing potency in sex reversal. E2 and MDHT, when simultaneously administered at MED, greatly suppressed each other to induce each corresponding sex reversal. Thus, the present experimental results indicate that E2 and DMHT are antagonists that induce corresponding sex reversal, and suggest that genotypic sex in the medaka might be modified through an unknown factor of common affinity to both sex steroids, by which the pathway of differentiation of either sex could be switched at the early stages of development far before gonadal sex differentiation.

  5. Mitochondria: Target organelles for estrogen action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chmielewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens belong to a group of sex hormones, which have been shown to act in multidirectional way. Estrogenic effects are mediated by two types of intracellular receptors: estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2. There are two basic mechanisms of estrogen action: 1 classical-genomic, in which the ligand-receptor complex acts as a transcriptional factor and 2 a nongenomic one, which is still not fully understood, but has been seen to lead to distinct biological effects, depending on tissue and ligand type. It is postulated that nongenomic effects may be associated with membrane signaling and the presence of classical nuclear receptors within the cell membrane. Estrogens act in a multidirectional way also within cell organelles. It is assumed that there is a mechanism which manages the migration of ESR into the mitochondrial membrane, wherein the exogenous estrogen affect the morphology of mitochondria. Estrogen, through its receptor, can directly modulate mitochondrial gene expression. Moreover, by regulating the level of reactive oxygen species, estrogens affect the biology of mitochondria. The considerations presented in this paper indicate the pleiotropic effects of estrogens, which represent a multidirectional pathway of signal transduction.

  6. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Murakami

    activation due to exogenous estrogen treatment, and thereby results in different effects on maternal behavior.

  7. Exogenous iron redistribution between brain and spleen after the administration of the 57Fe3O4 ferrofluid into the ventricle of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasov, Raul; Polikarpov, Dmitry; Cherepanov, Valery; Chuev, Michael; Mischenko, Ilya; Loginiva, Nadezhda; Loseva, Elena; Nikitin, Maxim; Panchenko, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Iron clearance pathways after the injection of 57Fe3O4-based dextran-stabilized ferrofluid into the brain ventricles were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and histologically. The nanoparticles appeared in spleen tissues within 3 h after transcranial injection. We separated and independently estimated concentrations of iron encapsulated in nanoparticles and iron encapsulated in proteins in the all rat organs. It was found that the dextran coated initial nanoparticles of the ferrofluid disintegrated in the brain into separate superparamagnetic nanoparticles within a week after the injection.The nanoparticles completely exited from the brain in a few weeks. The exogenous iron appeared in the spleen in 3 h after the injection and remained in the spleen for more than month. The appearance of additional component in Mössbauer spectra of spleen samples revealed a fundamental difference in the mechanisms of processing of iron nanoparticles in this organ, which was also confirmed by histological examination.

  8. Aromatase expression increases the survival and malignancy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya De Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, local estrogen produced by adipose stromal cells in the breast is believed to support estrogen receptor alpha (ERα positive breast cancer cell survival and growth. This raises the question of how the ERα positive metastatic breast cancer cells survive after they enter blood and lymph circulation, where estrogen level is very low in postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the aromatase expression increased when ERα positive breast cancer cells were cultured in suspension. Furthermore, treatment with the aromatase substrate, testosterone, inhibited suspension culture-induced apoptosis whereas an aromatase inhibitor attenuated the effect of testosterone suggesting that suspended circulating ERα positive breast cancer cells may up-regulate intracrine estrogen activity for survival. Consistent with this notion, a moderate level of ectopic aromatase expression rendered a non-tumorigenic ERα positive breast cancer cell line not only tumorigenic but also metastatic in female nude mice without exogenous estrogen supplementation. The increased malignant phenotype was confirmed to be due to aromatase expression as the growth of orthotopic tumors regressed with systemic administration of an aromatase inhibitor. Thus, our study provides experimental evidence that aromatase plays an important role in the survival of metastatic ERα breast cancer cells by suppressing anoikis.

  9. The Different Effects Of Endogenous And Exogenous Sex Hormones On Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shafiee Sabet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sexual dimorphism is seen in ischemic stroke. Women have lower stroke incidence than men until an advanced age, when the epidemiology of ischemic stroke shifts and incidence rises dramatically in women. This could indicate the role of sex hormones in pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effects of endogenous and exogenAous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the male and female brain. Methods: We conducted a vast review to analyze possible associations between exposure to endogenous and exogenous female and male steroid hormones and the risks of cerebrovascular diseases. This association is discussed in the context of the effects of sex hormone levels on the progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular tone, and various risk factors including patient's lipid profile, arterial blood pressure and diabetes. Their therapeutic potentials is also reviewed. Results: There is a debate on the role of androgens. A large array of data testifies in favor of a variety of neuroprotective androgen effects in men mostly, but in many cases in women as well. Testosterone supplementation in low to normal levels in hypogonadal men has mostly been shown to benefit the subjects receiving it, but administration in supraphysiological doses however, along with anabolic steroid abuse, seems to adversely affect both the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in men. Its effects in women have yet to be researched in depth. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, hormone therapy to postmenopausal females increases the risk and severity of ischemic stroke. Moreover, while estrogen treatment is neuroprotective in younger females, estrogen paradoxically increases

  10. Administration of exogenous erythropoietin beta affects lipid peroxidation and serum paraoxonase-1 activity and concentration in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillach, Judit; Martínez-Vea, Albert; Marcas, Luis; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Ferré, Natàlia; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2007-04-01

    1. Patients with advanced chronic renal disease and anaemia have decreased serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and an increased degree of oxidative stress compared with normal subjects. The present study investigated the effects of treatment of anaemia with exogenous recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) beta and iron on levels of antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), as well as on serum PON1 activity and concentration, in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease. 2. Forty-nine patients with chronic renal failure and haemoglobin (Hb) < 11 g/dL were treated over a period of 6 months with EPObeta (80-120 U/kg per week, s.c.) and variable doses of iron. Selected biochemical variables were determined before and after treatment. 3. Treatment with EPObeta and iron was associated with a significant increase in mean (+/-SD) blood Hb concentration compared with pretreatment values (12.8 +/- 1.5 vs 9.9 +/- 0.6 g/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The average dose of EPObeta was 6160 +/- 3000 U/week. After 6 months of treatment, compared with pretreatment values, the median levels (95% confidence intervals) of antibodies against ox-LDL were decreased (17.5 (10.6-24.4) vs 24.8 (11.5-38.1) U/mL, respectively; P < 0.001), serum PON1 activity was slightly but significantly increased (123.6 (76.1-343.6) vs 101.0 (50.0-332.5) U/L, respectively; P = 0.016) and the concentration of PON1 was significantly decreased (37.3 (11.8-76.2) vs 46.7 (24.6-98.0) mg/L, respectively; P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides or cholesterol fraction concentrations before and after treatment. 4. We suggest that EPObeta and iron treatment of anaemia promotes significant changes in serum PON1 activity and concentration and has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease.

  11. A high dose of short term exogenous D-galactose administration in young male rats produces symptoms simulating the natural aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Liaquat, Laraib; Shahzad, Sidrah; Sadir, Sadia; Madiha, Syeda; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira

    2015-03-01

    D-Galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated senescence has been used to develop an aging model for brain. Previously, long term administration of a wide range of doses has been used for this purpose. In the present study we investigate whether short term administration of a high dose of D-gal in rats induces significant signs and symptoms similar to natural aging. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with D-gal at a dose of 300 mg/ml/kg for one week. Behavioral analysis for depression and anxiety like symptoms were monitored by forced swim test (FST) and light/dark transition (LDT) test. Assessment of memory was done using the Morris water maze (MWM), passive avoidance test (PAT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Biochemical analysis was done for estimation of antioxidant enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Determination of brain biogenic amines was performed by HPLC-EC. Short term administration of D-gal significantly altered behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical responses in rats. D-Gal injected rats exhibited depressogenic and anxiogenic behaviors while memory was also significantly impaired in these rats. Brain lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased while catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased. Increased activity of acetylcholinesterase was also exhibited by D-gal injected rats while brain biogenic amines were significantly decreased. Food intake and growth rate were however comparable in both groups. Together the behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical impairments following the high dose of D-gal suggest that symptoms similar to natural aging may be developed in rats in as early as one week. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

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    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  13. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  14. Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peiran; Read, Cai; Kuc, Rhoda E; Buonincontri, Guido; Southwood, Mark; Torella, Rubben; Upton, Paul D; Crosby, Alexi; Sawiak, Stephen J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Glen, Robert C; Morrell, Nicholas W; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2017-03-21

    Elabela/toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G-protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin. Our aim was to investigate the receptor pharmacology, expression pattern, and in vivo function of ELA peptides in the adult cardiovascular system, to seek evidence for alteration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in which apelin signaling is downregulated, and to demonstrate attenuation of PAH severity with exogenous administration of ELA in a rat model. In silico docking analysis, competition binding experiments, and downstream assays were used to characterize ELA receptor binding in human heart and signaling in cells expressing the apelin receptor. ELA expression in human cardiovascular tissues and plasma was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, dual-labeling immunofluorescent staining, and immunoassays. Acute cardiac effects of ELA-32 and [Pyr1]apelin-13 were assessed by MRI and cardiac catheterization in anesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary human and rat tissues from PAH patients and monocrotaline- and Sugen/hypoxia-exposed rats were used to show changes in ELA expression in PAH. The effect of ELA treatment on cardiopulmonary remodeling in PAH was investigated in the monocrotaline rat model. ELA competed for binding of apelin in human heart with overlap for the 2 peptides indicated by in silico modeling. ELA activated G-protein- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways. We detected ELA expression in human vascular endothelium and plasma. Comparable to apelin, ELA increased cardiac contractility, ejection fraction, and cardiac output and elicited vasodilatation in rat in vivo. ELA expression was reduced in cardiopulmonary tissues from PAH patients and PAH rat models, respectively. ELA treatment significantly attenuated elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling in

  15. Non-feminizing estrogens: a novel neuroprotective therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Ashley B; Gatson, Joshua W; Simpkins, James W; Reed, Miranda N

    2014-05-25

    While the conflict between basic science evidence for estrogen neuroprotection and the lack of effectiveness in clinical trials is only now being resolved, it is clear that strategies for estrogen neuroprotection that avoid activation of ERs have the potential for clinical application. Herein we review the evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies that describe high potency neuroprotection with non-feminizing estrogens. We have characterized many of the essential chemical features of non-feminizing estrogens that eliminate or reduce ER binding while maintaining or enhancing neuroprotection. Additionally, we provide evidence that these non-feminizing estrogens have efficacy in protecting the brain from AD neuropathology and traumatic brain injury. In conclusion, it appears that the non-feminizing estrogen strategy for neuroprotection is a viable option to achieve the beneficial neuroprotective effects of estrogens while eliminating the toxic off-target effects of chronic estrogen administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cet imposant volume constitue un registre des cours magistraux tenus par l’auteur à l’École supérieure allemande des sciences administratives de Spire, enrichis des résultats de travaux scientifiques menés principalement à l'Institut Allemand de Recherche en Administration Publique (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung Speyer, FÖV). Il s’agit donc d’une entreprise au long cours, destinée à apporter un nouvel éclairage (quasi ?) exhaustif sur l’administration publique : son ...

  17. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Incident Aging Macula Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, S.S.; Vingerling, J.R.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Duijn, C.M. van; Pols, H.A.P.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. It has been suggested that early menopause increases the risk of aging-macula disorder (AMD), the major cause of incurable blindness with a dry and wet late subtype, and that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens reduces this risk. This study was undertaken to

  19. Mössbauer study of exogenous iron redistribution between the brain and the liver after administration of 57Fe3O4 ferrofluid in the ventricle of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, Dmitry; Gabbasov, Raul; Cherepanov, Valery; Loginova, Natalia; Loseva, Elena; Nikitin, Maxim; Yurenia, Anton; Panchenko, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    Iron clearance pathways after the injection of 57Fe3O4-based ferrofluid into the brain ventricles were studied histologically and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the dextran coated initial nanobeads of the ferrofluid disintegrated in the brain into separate superparamagnetic nanoparticles within a week after the injection. The exogenous iron completely exited all ventricular cavities of the brain within a week after the injection but remained in the white matter for months. Kupffer cells with the exogenous iron appeared in the rat liver 2 hours after the injection. Their concentration reached its maximum on the third day and dropped to zero within a week. The exogenous iron appeared in the spleen a week after the injection and remained in the spleen for months.

  20. Mössbauer study of exogenous iron redistribution between the brain and the liver after administration of {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ferrofluid in the ventricle of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polikarpov, Dmitry, E-mail: polikarpov.imp@gmail.com [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I.Pirogov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gabbasov, Raul; Cherepanov, Valery [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Loginova, Natalia; Loseva, Elena [Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikitin, Maxim [Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yurenia, Anton; Panchenko, Vladislav [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Iron clearance pathways after the injection of {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based ferrofluid into the brain ventricles were studied histologically and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the dextran coated initial nanobeads of the ferrofluid disintegrated in the brain into separate superparamagnetic nanoparticles within a week after the injection. The exogenous iron completely exited all ventricular cavities of the brain within a week after the injection but remained in the white matter for months. Kupffer cells with the exogenous iron appeared in the rat liver 2 hours after the injection. Their concentration reached its maximum on the third day and dropped to zero within a week. The exogenous iron appeared in the spleen a week after the injection and remained in the spleen for months.

  1. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  2. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  3. Role of exogenous female hormones in altering the risk of benign and malignant neoplasms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D B

    1978-11-01

    The epidemiological and clinical evidence for various forms of exogenous estrogens altering the risk of neoplasms of the female genital system, breast, and liver are reviewed and evaluated. It is virtually certain that in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol can cause clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina and cervix. There is strong evidence that various estrogens given for treatment of menopausal symptoms can cause endometrial carcinoma and that sequential oral contraceptives probably also do so. Oral contraceptives very probably reduce the risk of both cystic disease and fibroadenoma of the breast and increase the risk of liver cell adenomas. Studies to date do not provide consistent and convincing evidence that any form of exogenous estrogen alters the risk of cancers of the breast or ovary or that oral contraceptives alter the risk of cervical neoplasia or focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, although recent reports suggest that continued vigilance is warranted. Specific topics requiring further epidemiological investigation are suggested.

  4. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases serum levels of androgens and estrogens but does not enhance short-term memory in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Paul; Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2012-11-05

    The current study examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on short-term memory. This experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design to explore the effects of a four week regimen of 50 mg oral DHEA on performance on the digit span, verbal span, and modified Sternberg (Oberauer) tasks. The results demonstrate that the current regimen of drug administration significantly increases serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone and substantially alters the patterns of correlations among the serum levels of these hormones. Despite this substantial change in the hormonal milieu, DHEA administration produced no beneficial effects on cognitive performance in the digit span, verbal span, or modified Sternberg paradigm tasks. Ancillary analyses of the relation between hormone levels and cognitive performance demonstrated a strong positive correlation between DHEA levels and performance on digit span forward/backward and verbal span forward in the placebo drug condition, but not in the DHEA condition. We interpret the juxtaposition of the null results of DHEA administration and the correlation of DHEA levels and performance in the placebo condition to indicate that the referenced correlations arise because a third variable (i.e., age) is associated with both performance and DHEA levels. Additional analyses supported this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolism of ethynyl estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, E D; Goldzieher, J W

    1977-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolic conversion of the ethynylated estrogens are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the comparative pharmacokinetics of ethynyl-estradiol in different populations of women. Similarly, the variability of ethynyl-estradiol and mestranol metabolism in humans resulting from presentation of radio-labeled steroid and purification of the metabolic products is presented and discussed. The concepts of estrogen hepatotoxicity are reviewed with respect to the known phenomenon of estrogen oxidative metabolism and covalent binding. Recent evidence for the metabolic removal of the 17alpha-ethynyl group is discussed, and its relationship to estrogen hepatoxicity is considered and related to the covalent binding phenomenon.

  6. Self-renewal and phenotypic conversion are the main physiological responses of macrophages to the endogenous estrogen surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Giovanna; Braga, Daniele; Renzi, Tiziana A; Villa, Alessandro; Bolego, Chiara; D'Avila, Francesca; Barlassina, Cristina; Maggi, Adriana; Locati, Massimo; Vegeto, Elisabetta

    2017-03-20

    Beyond the physiology of reproduction, estrogen controls the homeostasis of several tissues. Although macrophages play a key role in tissue remodeling, the interplay with estrogen is still ill defined. Using a transcriptomic approach we first obtained a comprehensive list of genes that are differentially expressed in peritoneal macrophages in response to physiological levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) injected in intact female mice. Our data also showed the dynamic nature of the macrophage response to E2 and pointed to specific biological programs induced by the hormone, with cell proliferation, immune response and wound healing being the most prominent functional categories. Indeed, the exogenous administration of E2 and, more importantly, the endogenous hormonal surge proved to support macrophage proliferation in vivo, as shown by cell cycle gene expression, BrdU incorporation and cell number. Furthermore, E2 promoted an anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving macrophage phenotype, which converged on the induction of genes related to macrophage alternative activation and on IL-10 expression in vivo. Hormone action was maintained in an experimental model of peritoneal inflammation based on zymosan injection. These findings highlight a direct effect of estrogen on macrophage expansion and phenotypic adaptation in homeostatic conditions and suggest a role for this interplay in inflammatory pathologies.

  7. Dietary administration of δ- and γ-tocopherol inhibits tumorigenesis in the animal model of estrogen receptor-positive, but not HER-2 breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Amanda K; So, Jae Young; Burgess, Brenda; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Reuhl, Kenneth; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Guangxun; Lee, Mao-Jung; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2012-11-01

    Tocopherol, a member of the vitamin E family, consists of four forms designated as α, β, γ, and δ. Several large cancer prevention studies with α-tocopherol have reported no beneficial results, but recent laboratory studies have suggested that δ- and γ-tocopherol may be more effective. In two different animal models of breast cancer, the chemopreventive activities of individual tocopherols were assessed using diets containing 0.3% of tocopherol (α-, δ-, or γ-) or 0.3% of a γ-tocopherol rich mixture (γ-TmT). Although administration of tocopherols did not prevent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-driven tumorigenesis, δ- and γ-tocopherols inhibited hormone-dependent mammary tumorigenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-treated female Sprague-Dawley rats. NMU-treated rats showed an average tumor burden of 10.6 ± 0.8 g in the control group at 11 weeks, whereas dietary administration of δ- and γ-tocopherols significantly decreased tumor burden to 7.2 ± 0.8 g (P < 0.01) and 7.1 ± 0.7 g (P < 0.01), respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also reduced in δ- and γ-tocopherol treatment groups by 42% (P < 0.001) and 32% (P < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, α-tocopherol did not decrease tumor burden or multiplicity. In mammary tumors, the protein levels of proapoptotic markers (BAX, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP) were increased, whereas antiapoptotic markers (Bcl-2, XIAP) were inhibited by δ-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and γ-TmT. Furthermore, markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, PKCα), survival (PPAR-γ, PTEN, phospho-Akt), and cell cycle (p53, p21) were affected by δ- and γ-tocopherols. Both δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, seem to be promising agents for the prevention of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  8. Dietary administration of δ- and γ-tocopherol inhibits tumorigenesis in the animal model of estrogen-receptor positive, but not HER-2 breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Amanda K.; So, Jae Young; Burgess, Brenda; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Reuhl, Kenneth; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Guangxun; Lee, Mao-Jung; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Yang, Chung S.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2012-01-01

    Tocopherol, a member of the vitamin E family, consists of four forms designated as α, β, γ, and δ. Several large cancer prevention studies with α-tocopherol have reported no beneficial results, but recent laboratory studies have suggested that δ- and γ-tocopherol may be more effective. In two different animal models of breast cancer, the chemopreventive activities of individual tocopherols were assessed using diets containing 0.3% of tocopherol (α-, δ- or γ-) or 0.3% of a γ-tocopherol rich mixture (γ-TmT). While administration of tocopherols did not prevent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-driven tumorigenesis, δ- and γ-tocopherols inhibited hormone-dependent mammary tumorigenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-treated female Sprague Dawley rats. NMU-treated rats showed an average tumor burden of 10.6 ± 0.8 g in the control group at 11 weeks, whereas dietary administration of δ- and γ-tocopherols significantly decreased tumor burden to 7.2 ± 0.8 g (p<0.01) and 7.1 ± 0.7 g (p<0.01), respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also reduced in δ- and γ-tocopherol treatment groups by 42% (p<0.001) and 32% (p<0.01), respectively. In contrast, α-tocopherol did not decrease tumor burden or multiplicity. In mammary tumors, the protein levels of pro-apoptotic markers (BAX, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-PARP) were increased, while anti-apoptotic markers (Bcl2, XIAP) were inhibited by δ-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and γ-TmT. Furthermore, markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, PKC α), survival (PPARγ, PTEN, phospho-Akt) and cell cycle (p53, p21) were affected by δ- and γ-tocopherols. Both δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, appear to be promising agents for the prevention of hormone-dependent breast cancer. PMID:22964476

  9. Exogenous iron redistribution between brain and spleen after the administration of the {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ferrofluid into the ventricle of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, Raul, E-mail: gabbasov_rr@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, Dmitry [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Cherepanov, Valery [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chuev, Michael; Mischenko, Ilya [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Loginiva, Nadezhda; Loseva, Elena [Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikitin, Maxim [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Panchenko, Vladislav [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Iron clearance pathways after the injection of {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based dextran-stabilized ferrofluid into the brain ventricles were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and histologically. The nanoparticles appeared in spleen tissues within 3 h after transcranial injection. We separated and independently estimated concentrations of iron encapsulated in nanoparticles and iron encapsulated in proteins in the all rat organs. It was found that the dextran coated initial nanoparticles of the ferrofluid disintegrated in the brain into separate superparamagnetic nanoparticles within a week after the injection.The nanoparticles completely exited from the brain in a few weeks. The exogenous iron appeared in the spleen in 3 h after the injection and remained in the spleen for more than month. The appearance of additional component in Mössbauer spectra of spleen samples revealed a fundamental difference in the mechanisms of processing of iron nanoparticles in this organ, which was also confirmed by histological examination.

  10. The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorga, Andrea; Cunningham, Christine M; Moazeni, Shayan; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Umar, Soban; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2017-10-24

    Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions. This review summarizes the protective role of E2 and its receptors in the cardiovascular system and discusses its underlying mechanisms with an emphasis on oxidative stress, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and vascular function. This review also presents the sexual dimorphic role of ERs in modulating E2 action in cardiovascular disease. The controversies surrounding the clinical use of exogenous E2 as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease in women due to the possible risks of thrombotic events, cancers, and arrhythmia are also discussed. Endogenous local E2 biosynthesis from the conversion of testosterone to E2 via aromatase enzyme offers a novel therapeutic paradigm. Targeting specific ERs in the cardiovascular system may result in novel and possibly safer therapeutic options for cardiovascular protection.

  11. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lykholat, O.A.; Grigoryuk, I.P.; Lykholat, T.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions...

  12. Vaginal estrogens for the treatment of dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael L

    2011-03-01

    Vaginal atrophy, which is associated with vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and pain, is estimated to affect up to 40% of postmenopausal women. Estrogens play a key role in maintaining vaginal health; women with low serum estradiol are more likely to experience vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and reduced sexual activity compared with women who have higher estradiol levels. The purpose of this review is to assess the prevalence and impact of dyspareunia, a symptom of vaginal atrophy, on the health of postmenopausal women and to evaluate treatment options using vaginal estrogens (U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved). Relevant published literature was identified by searching Index Medicus using the PubMed online database. The search terms dyspareunia, vaginal estrogen, vaginal hormone therapy, vaginal atrophy, and atrophic vaginitis were the focus of the literature review. Current treatment guidelines for vaginal atrophy recommend the use of minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogens, along with non-hormonal lubricants or moisturizers, coupled with maintenance of sexual activity. Vaginal estrogen therapy has been shown to provide improvement in the signs and symptoms of vaginal or vulvar atrophy. Vaginal tablets, rings, and creams are indicated for the treatment of vaginal atrophy, and the FDA has recently approved a low-dose regimen of conjugated estrogens cream to treat moderate-to-severe postmenopausal dyspareunia. The use of low-dose vaginal estrogens has been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of vaginal atrophy without causing significant proliferation of the endometrial lining, and no significant differences have been seen among vaginal preparations in terms of endometrial safety. Women should be informed of the potential benefits and risks of the treatment options available, and with the help of their healthcare provider, choose an intervention that is most suitable to their individual needs and circumstances. © 2010

  13. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Eijking, Eric

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogenous surfactant administration has been accepted as a valuable treatment for this syndrome. Nevertheless, many questions on exogenous surfactant treatment remain unanswered. It has been observed that...

  14. [Estrogens and vascular thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmou, A

    1982-09-01

    The incidence of thromboses among young women has increased with widespread use of oral contraceptives (OCs) due to the significant thromboembolic risk of estrogen. Estrogens intervene at the vascular, platelet, and plasma levels as a function of hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle, increasing the aggregability of the platelets and thrombocytes, accelerating the formation of clots, and decreasing the amount of antithrombin III. Estrogens are used in medicine to treat breast and prostate cancers and in gynecology to treat dysmenorrhea, during the menopause, and in contraception. Smoking, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are contraindicators to estrogen use. Thrombosis refers to blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or thrombus. Before estrogens are prescribed, a history of phlebitis, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or significant varicosities should be ruled out. A history of venous thrombosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, breast nodules, serious liver condition, allergies to progesterone, and some ocular diseases of vascular origin definitively rule out treatment with estrogens. A family history of infarct, embolism, diabetes, cancer, or vascular accidents at a young age signals a need for greater patient surveillance. All patients receiving estrogens should be carefully observed for signs of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypercoagulability, or diabetes. Nurses have a role to play in carefully eliciting the patient's history of smoking, personal and family medical problems, and previous and current laboratory results, as well as in informing the patients of the risks and possible side effects of OCs, especially for those who smoke. Nurses should educate patients receiving estrogens, especially those with histories of circulatory problems, to avoid standing in 1 position for prolonged periods, avoid heat which is a vasodilator, avoid obesity, excercise regularly, wear appropriate footgear, and follow other good health

  15. Spatial and temporal evaluations of estrogenic activity in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Yun, Luo-Jia; Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of estrogenic activities in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China. Tap water samples were monthly collected from the three sampling sites with different distances of distribution network from the plant during April 2010-March 2011: Min (less than 0.1km), Mid (approximately 4km) and Max (approximately 8km). Estrogenic activities of solid phase-extracted tap waters were measured by using recombinant yeast assay incorporated with and without exogenous metabolic activation system (rat liver S9 fractions) and expressed as 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity in tap water ranged from 151.4 to 1395.6pg EEQ/L and 35.2 to 1511pg EEQ/L, respectively. Average pro-estrogenic activity (680.3pg EEQ/L) was significantly higher than estrogenic activity (412.8pg EEQ/L) throughout the whole year. The pro-estrogenic activity significantly increased with the extending of distribution network, and was also statistically correlated with water temperature and pH. However, pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity was not altered across four seasons. Our results suggest that the pro-estrogenic and estrogenic chemicals are present in tap water served by the water plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deleterious effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on mesenchymal stem cell VEGF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rinki; Herring, Christine M; Markel, Troy A; Crisostomo, Paul R; Wang, Meijing; Weil, Brent; Lahm, Tim; Meldrum, Daniel R

    2008-05-01

    Modulating the paracrine effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may be important for the treatment of ischemic myocardial tissue. In this regard, endogenous estrogen may enhance BMSC vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. However, little information exists regarding the effect of testosterone on stem cell function. We hypothesized that 1) endogenous or exogenous estrogen will enhance stem cell production of VEGF and 2) endogenous or exogenous testosterone will inhibit BMSC VEGF production. BMSCs were collected from adult male, female, castrated male, and ovariectomized female rats. One hundred thousand cells were incubated with testosterone (1, 10, or 100 nM) or estrogen (0.15, 1.5, or 15 nM) for 48 h. Cell supernatants were collected, and VEGF was measured by ELISA. BMSCs harvested from castrated males, normal females, and ovariectomized females produced more VEGF compared with normal males. Castration was associated with the highest level (1,018 +/- 98.26 pg/ml) of VEGF production by BMSCs, which was significantly more than that produced by BMSCs harvested from normal male and normal female animals. Exogenous testosterone significantly reduced VEGF production in BMSCs harvested from ovariectomized females in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous estrogen did not alter BMSC VEGF production. These findings suggest that testosterone may work on BMSCs to decrease protective growth factor production and that effective removal of testosterone's deleterious effects via castration may prove to be beneficial in terms of protective factor production. By manipulating the mechanisms that BMSCs use to produce growth factors, we may be able to engineer stem cells to produce maximum growth factors during therapeutic use.

  17. Exogenous Testosterone Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... source of energy for the mammalian brain. The mechanism of action of steroid hormones on target organ cells, and the role of testosterone as a performance enhancing drug are discussed. Keywords: Exogenous testosterone, Protein, Glucose, Gluconeogenesis, Hypoproteinemic rat. Animal Research International Vol.

  18. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, Jennifer B., E-mail: j.gadd@niwa.co.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: tremblayl@landcareresearch.co.n [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln, 7640 (New Zealand); Northcott, Grant L., E-mail: grant.northcott@plantandfood.co.n [Plant and Food Research, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17alpha-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l{sup -1}), followed by estrone (100 ng l{sup -1}) and 17beta-estradiol (24 ng l{sup -1}). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17alpha-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17beta-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l{sup -1}). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l{sup -1} 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17alpha-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17beta-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17alpha-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  19. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms associated with incident aging macula disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that early menopause increases the risk of aging-macula disorder (AMD), the major cause of incurable blindness with a dry and wet late subtype, and that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens reduces this risk. This study was undertaken to investigate

  20. BMPR2 expression is suppressed by signaling through the estrogen receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Eric D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in multiple organ systems have shown cross-talk between signaling through the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2 and estrogen pathways. In humans, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH has a female predominance, and is associated with decreased BMPR2 expression. The goal of this study was to determine if estrogens suppress BMPR2 expression. Methods A variety of techniques were utilized across several model platforms to evaluate the relationship between estrogens and BMPR2 gene expression. We used quantitative RT-PCR, gel mobility shift, and luciferase activity assays in human samples, live mice, and cell culture. Results BMPR2 expression is reduced in lymphocytes from female patients compared with male patients, and in whole lungs from female mice compared with male mice. There is an evolutionarily conserved estrogen receptor binding site in the BMPR2 promoter, which binds estrogen receptor by gel-shift assay. Increased exogenous estrogen decreases BMPR2 expression in cell culture, particularly when induced to proliferate. Transfection of increasing quantities of estrogen receptor alpha correlates strongly with decreasing expression of BMPR2. Conclusions BMPR2 gene expression is reduced in females compared to males in live humans and in mice, likely through direct estrogen receptor alpha binding to the BMPR2 promoter. This reduced BMPR2 expression may contribute to the increased prevalence of PAH in females.

  1. The pharmacognosy of Humulus lupulus L. (hops) with an emphasis on estrogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, L R; Pauli, G F; Farnsworth, N R

    2006-01-01

    As the population ages, there is an ever-increasing need for therapeutic agents that can be used safely and efficaciously to manage symptoms related to postmenopausal estrogen deficiency. Endogenous estrogens, e.g., 17beta-estradiol, of exogenous mammalian origin, e.g., horses, have long been used to manage such symptoms. There are more than 20 different classes of phytochemicals that have demonstrated affinity for human estrogen receptors in vitro. Some studies on exogenous estrogenic substances of botanical origin (phytoestrogens), such as standardized formulations of plant extracts with in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity from soy (Glycine max Merill.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), suggest clinical efficacy. Few clinical data for phytoestrogens other than isoflavonoids are available. In an exhaustive review of the literature through 2003, only two clinical trials were identified that were designed to evaluate the effect of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on symptoms related to menopause. Folkloric, chemical, and biological literature relating primarily to the use of hops for their estrogenic activity, and two human clinical trials, are reviewed.

  2. The 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Exhibits an Age-Dependent Increase in Anti-Ceramide IgG and Exogenous Administration of Ceramide Further Increases Anti-Ceramide Titers and Amyloid Plaque Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Michael B; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Wang, Guanghu; Zhu, Gu; He, Qian; Kong, Ji Na; Bieberich, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that 5XFAD Alzheimer's disease model mice develop an age-dependent increase in antibodies against ceramide, suggesting involvement of autoimmunity against ceramide in Alzheimer's disease pathology. To test this, we increased serum anti-ceramide IgG (2-fold) by ceramide administration and analyzed amyloid plaque formation in 5XFAD mice. There were no differences in soluble or total amyloid-β levels. However, females receiving ceramide had increased plaque burden (number, area, and size) compared to controls. Ceramide-treated mice showed an increase of serum exosomes (up to 3-fold using Alix as marker), suggesting that systemic anti-ceramide IgG and exosome levels are correlated with enhanced plaque formation.

  3. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Lykholat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions defined high sensitivity to exogenous estrogen-like compounds. Presents results on the effects of nutritional estrogens on metabolic processes in animals of different ages testify to the potential health risks of consumer products that may be contaminated with endogenous hormones. Despite the steady growth of agricultural production, development of agro-industrial pollution drugs like compounds of food is very likely. This phenomenon is of concern and requires increased control of both the responsible organizations and public associations that will enable to avoid the negative effects of dietary factors on the population health. Particular attention should be paid to the safety and quality of children's food, because this population is extremely sensitive to the influence of previously alimentary factors.

  4. Contemporary alternatives to plant estrogens for menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stacie E; Studee, Laura

    2006-11-01

    Every year, millions of women begin the peri-menopause and may experience a number of symptoms related to this transition. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements (BDS) for relief. This paper reviews the literature on alternatives to plant estrogens for relief of menopausal symptoms. The MEDLINE database was searched for clinical trials of non-estrogenic plant extracts for menopausal symptoms. To be included, studies had to include peri- or postmenopausal women as subjects. All clinical trials (randomized-controlled trials, open trials, and comparison group studies) were included for this review. Black cohosh appears to be one of the most effective botanicals for relief of vasomotor symptoms, while St. John's wort can improve mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Many other botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. A growing body of evidence suggests that some botanicals and dietary supplements could result in improved clinical outcomes. Health care providers should discuss these issues with their patients so they can assist them in managing these alternative therapies through an evidence-based approach.

  5. Interstrain Differences in the Development of Pyometra after Estrogen Treatment of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossia, Lisa Jane; Roberts, Christopher Sean; Lopez, Jennifer T; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the unanticipated development of pyometra in Brown Norway rats after treatment with estrogen. Sprague Dawley and Brown Norway rats were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to treatment groups (subcutaneous implantation of either a capsule containing 20 mg 17β-estradiol or an empty capsule, as a control). After irradiation of only the right eye, the rats were followed for several months in an attempt to determine the effects of estrogen on radiation cataractogenesis and investigate potential strain differences in this phenomenon. However, all Brown Norway rats that received estradiol treatment developed pyometra, whereas none the Sprague Dawley or control Brown Norway rats did. This case demonstrates the potential adverse effects of exogenous estrogen therapy, which are strain-specific in the rat. Caution should be taken when designing estrogen-related experiments involving Brown Norway rats and other potentially sensitive strains. PMID:19807973

  6. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst

    2016-10-01

    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  7. Combined action of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists in two-hybrid recombinant yeast in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Li, Na; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonistic chemicals in aquatic environments are believed to influence the binding of both endogenous and exogenous estrogens to ERs in aquatic organisms. Although the combined effects of estrogenic compounds have attracted much scientific concern, little work has been done on the influence of such antiestrogens on the biological effects of estrogens. This study focused on how the presence of different amounts of antagonists affects the results of ER agonist activity tests. To achieve this, three questions were stated and answered in sequence. A two-hybrid recombinant yeast assay mediated by ER was adopted, providing a single mode of action and single target of action for this study. Mixtures created by an ER agonist and three antagonists following the fixed-ratio principle were assessed. The concentration of 17β-estradiol causing maximum induction was set as the fixed dose of estrogen in the antagonist activity test (question 1). When the two classes of chemicals coexisted, antiestrogens, which as a whole behaved according to the concentration addition model (question 2), decreased the response of estrogen and compressed the concentration-response curves along the y-axis in the agonist activity test (question 3). This may cause the estradiol equivalent to be underestimated and potentially mask the action of estrogenic effects in toxicity evaluation of environmental samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  9. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  10. Effect of conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen administration on thyroid gland histomorphology of the rat Os efeitos dos estrogênios conjugados equinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da glândula tireóide de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Bittencourt de Araujo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the conjugated equine estrogens and tamoxifen on the morphology of thyroid gland in ovariectomized (OVx rats. METHODS: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, clinically used as estrogen therapy, is a complex formulation containing multiple estrogens that decrease menopausal symptoms. Thirty ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: GI, vehicle (propylene glycol; GII, CEE 200 µg/kg per day; and GIII, tamoxifen 1 mg/kg per day. Another group of 10 rats with intact ovaries (GIV was included, treated with the vehicle, and sacrificed during estrous. All animals were treated by gavage for 50 days, after which they were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected, and the thyroid was removed for morphological analysis and PCNA evaluation through immunohistochemical study. RESULTS: The thyroid follicular cell height was increased in animals treated with CEE (14.90 ± 0.20 µm, with TAM (14.90 ± 0.10 µm, and in rats with intact ovaries (15.10 ± 0.50 µm in comparison to that of the vehicle group (9.90 ± 0.20 µm (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação dos estrogênios conjugados eqüinos e do tamoxifeno na histomorfologia da tireóide de ratas. MÉTODO: Estrogênios conjugados eqüinos são ministrados clinicamente como terapia estrogênica e contêm formulação complexa com muitos tipos de estrogênios que diminuem os sintomas da pós-menopausa. Trinta ratas adultas ooforectomizadas foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos: GI - veículo (propilenoglicol; GII - ECE 200 µg/Kg por dia; e GIII - TAM 1 mg/Kg por dia. Acrescentou-se ainda um grupo de 10 animais com os ovários intactos e tratados com veículo (GIV. Todos os animais foram tratados por gavagem durante 50 dias consecutivos, ao final foram coletadas amostras do sangue e a tireóide removida e processada para análise morfológica e imunohistoquímico para avaliar o PCNA. RESULTADOS: A maior altura das c

  11. ESTROGEN IN THE LIMBIC SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Gert J.; Litwack, G

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that function as the primary female sex hormone. Estrogens not only have an important role in the regulation of the estrous or menstrual cycle but also control, for example, bone formation, the cardiovascular system, and cognitive functions. Estradiol (E2),

  12. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological investigation of its effects on fibre degradation in ruminants. ... There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. ... Keywords: Fibre digestion, histology, in vitro digestion ...

  13. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  14. Hypothalamic regulation of metabolism : Role of thyroid hormone and estrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone and estrogen both play an essential role in energy metabolism. The current thesis investigated the possible central effects of these hormones in the control of energy metabolism by administrating triiodothyronine (T3), estradiol (E2) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in

  15. Long-term consequences of estrogens administered in midlife on female cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jill M; Witty, Christine F; Rodgers, Shaefali P

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Many of the biochemical, structural, and functional changes that occur as the female brain ages are influenced by changes in levels of estrogens. Administration of estrogens begun during a critical window near menopause is hypothesized to prevent or delay age-associated cognitive decline. However, due to potential health risks women often limit use of estrogen therapy to a few years to treat menopausal symptoms. The long-term consequences for the brain of short-term use of estrogens are unknown. Interestingly, there are preliminary data to suggest that short-term use of estrogens during the menopausal transition may afford long-term cognitive benefits to women as they age. Thus, there is the intriguing possibility that short-term estrogen therapy may provide lasting benefits to the brain and cognition. The focus of the current review is an examination of the long-term impact for cognition of midlife use of estrogens. We review data from our lab and others indicating that the ability of midlife estrogens to impact estrogen receptors in the hippocampus may contribute to its ability to exert lasting impacts on cognition in aging females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  17. Interaction of putative estrogens and the estrogen receptor system in Leydig cells in the BALB/c mouse testis resulting in the initiation of DNA synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juriansz, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous administration of estrogens for 7-9 months, both steroidal and nonsteroidal, to male BALB/c mice, leads to the formation of testicular Leydig cell tumors. Three days following the subcutaneous implantation of a pellet of estrogen in cholesterol, there is a peak in the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into the DNA of the interstitial cells. These effects are hypothesized to be mediated by the estrogen receptor system in the Leydig cell. Common experimental techniques for the measurement of hormone binding, such as dextran coated charcoal treatment, proved to be impossible to employ in this system, therefore a procedure was developed using hydroxyapatite to obtain binding data. The cytosolic estrogen receptor was found to have a dissociation constant for estradiol-17..beta.. of 6.5 x 10/sup -8/ M, while that of the nuclear estrogen receptor was 1.25 x 10/sup -8/ M. Competition assays were utilized to determine the cytosolic estrogen receptor's affinity for nonsteroidal estrogens, steroidal estrogens, and triphenylethylene.

  18. Exogenous and endogenous corticosterone alter feather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRochers, David W; Reed, J Michael; Awerman, Jessica; Kluge, Jonathan A; Wilkinson, Julia; van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Aman, Joseph; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids affect feather replacement in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) after approximately 56% of flight feathers were removed. We hypothesized that corticosterone would retard feather regrowth and decrease feather quality. After feather regrowth began, birds were treated with exogenous corticosterone or sham implants, or endogenous corticosterone by applying psychological or physical (food restriction) stressors. Exogenous corticosterone had no impact on feather length and vane area, but rectrices were lighter than controls. Exogenous corticosterone also decreased inter-barb distance for all feathers and increased barbule number for secondaries and rectrices. Although exogenous corticosterone had no affect on rachis tensile strength and stiffness, barbicel hooking strength was reduced. Finally, exogenous corticosterone did not alter the ability of Bacillus licheniformis to degrade feathers or affect the number of feathers that failed to regrow. In contrast, endogenous corticosterone via food restriction resulted in greater inter-barb distances in primaries and secondaries, and acute and chronic stress resulted in greater inter-barb distances in rectrices. Food-restricted birds had significantly fewer barbules in primaries than chronic stress birds and weaker feathers compared to controls. We conclude that, although exogenous and endogenous corticosterone had slightly different effects, some flight feathers grown in the presence of high circulating corticosterone are lighter, potentially weaker, and with altered feather micro-structure.

  19. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  20. Correlation between insulin-induced estrogen receptor methylation and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jia; Weitian, Zhong; Peng, Cai; Yan, Peng; Bo, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Yun, Bai; Xukai, Wang

    2016-11-10

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been recently recognized as an important cause of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have also found that expression of the estrogen receptor is closely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. This study investigate the effects of insulin and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in atherosclerosis. Double knockout ApoE/Lepr mice were given intraperitoneal injections of insulin, and their aortae were harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with insulin or infected with a lentivirus encoding exogenous ER-α, and changes in gene expression were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The methylation levels of the ER-α gene were tested using bisulfite sequencing PCR, and flow cytometry and EdU assay were used to measure VSMCs proliferation. Our results showed that insulin can induce the formation of atherosclerosis. Gene expression analysis revealed that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases and inhibits ER-α expression, while 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine can inhibit this effect of insulin. Bisulfite sequencing PCR analysis showed that methylation of the ER-α second exon region increased in VSMCs treated with insulin. The results also showed that ER-α can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggest that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases, induces methylation of ER-α second exon region and decreases the expression of ER-α, thereby interfering with estrogen regulation of VSMCs proliferation, resulting in atherosclerosis.

  1. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  2. Sex differences in opioid analgesia and addiction: interactions among opioid receptors and estrogen receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely used as the pain reliever and also notorious for being addictive drugs. Sex differences in the opioid analgesia and addiction have been reported and investigated in human subjects and animal models. Yet, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences between males and females is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the literature describing the sex differences in analgesic responses and addiction liabilities to clinically relevant opioids. The reported interactions among opioids, estrogens, opioid receptors, and estrogen receptors are also evaluated. We postulate that the sex differences partly originated from the crosstalk among the estrogen and opioid receptors when stimulated by the exogenous opioids, possibly through common secondary messengers and the downstream gene transcriptional regulators. PMID:24010861

  3. Reduced responsiveness of kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback associated with age-related disappearance of LH surge in middle-age female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hisanori; Seki, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Chatani, Fumio; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Age-related disappearance of the LH surge is one of major biomarkers of reproductive aging in female rats. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are proposed as the critical regulator of the preovulatory LH surge in response to estrogenic positive feedback. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons in the disappearance of the LH surge in middle-age rats. Middle-age rats exhibiting persistent estrus (M-PE) did not show an LH surge although neither Kiss1 mRNA nor peptide in the AVPV was differentially expressed when compared to young rats exhibiting normal estrous cycles (YN). M-PE released LH in response to exogenous kisspeptin in a similar dose-dependent manner as YN, suggesting that their GnRH neurons still maintained responsiveness to kisspeptin. To investigate the estrogenic positive feedback effect on kisspeptin neurons in the AVPV, rats were ovariectomized and supplemented with estradiol (OVX+E2). We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Kiss1 mRNA and cFos, respectively, and found that M-PE exhibited a significantly lower percentage of Kiss1 mRNA positive neurons with cFos immunoreactivity, although the total number of kisspeptin neurons was not different from that in cyclic rats. Furthermore, OVX+E2 M-PE did not show the surge-like LH release under high estradiol administration while YN did. Thus our current study suggests that the reduced responsiveness of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback presumably results in the decrease in kisspeptin secretion from neurons and eventually causes the age-related disappearance of the LH surge in middle age female rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor regulates embryonic heart rate in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Shannon N; Edwards, Hailey E; Souder, Jaclyn Paige; Ryan, Kevin J; Cui, Xiangqin; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2017-10-24

    Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), ligand-dependent transcription factors that play crucial roles in sex differentiation, tumor growth and cardiovascular physiology. Estrogens also activate the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), however the function of GPER in vivo is less well understood. Here we find that GPER is required for normal heart rate in zebrafish embryos. Acute exposure to estrogens increased heart rate in wildtype and in ERα and ERβ mutant embryos but not in GPER mutants. GPER mutant embryos exhibited reduced basal heart rate, while heart rate was normal in ERα and ERβ mutants. We detected gper transcript in discrete regions of the brain and pituitary but not in the heart, suggesting that GPER acts centrally to regulate heart rate. In the pituitary, we observed gper expression in cells that regulate levels of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), a hormone known to increase heart rate. Compared to wild type, GPER mutants had reduced levels of T3 and estrogens, suggesting pituitary abnormalities. Exposure to exogenous T3, but not estradiol, rescued the reduced heart rate phenotype in gper mutant embryos, demonstrating that T3 acts downstream of GPER to regulate heart rate. Using genetic and mass spectrometry approaches, we find that GPER regulates maternal estrogen levels, which are required for normal embryonic heart rate. Our results demonstrate that estradiol plays a previously unappreciated role in the acute modulation of heart rate during zebrafish embryonic development and suggest that GPER regulates embryonic heart rate by altering maternal estrogen levels and embryonic T3 levels.

  5. Estetrol, a Fetal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Acts on the Vagina of Mice through Nuclear Estrogen Receptor α Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Thibaut; Valera, Marie-Cecile; Fontaine, Coralie; Buscato, Melissa; Lenfant, Francoise; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Tremollieres, Florence; Soulie, Michel; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Game, Xavier; Arnal, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-01

    The genitourinary syndrome of menopause has a negative impact on quality of life of postmenopausal women. The treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy includes administration of estrogens. However, oral estrogen treatment is controversial because of its potential risks on venous thrombosis and breast cancer. Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver and initially considered as a weak estrogen. However, E4 was recently evaluated in phase 1 to 2 clinical studies and found to act as an oral contraceptive in combination with a progestin, without increasing the level of coagulation factors. We recently showed that E4 stimulates uterine epithelial proliferation through nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α, but failed to elicit endothelial responses. Herein, we first evaluated the morphological and functional impacts of E4 on the vagina of ovariectomized mice, and we determined the molecular mechanism mediating these effects. Vaginal epithelial proliferation and lubrication after stimulation were found to increase after E4 chronic treatment. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that these E4 effects on the vagina are mediated by nuclear ERα activation. Altogether, we demonstrate that the selective activation of nuclear ERα is both necessary and sufficient to elicit functional and structural effects on the vagina, and therefore E4 appears promising as a therapeutic option to improve vulvovaginal atrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of exogenous estrogen in initiation of estrus and induction of an LH surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among cattle the LH surge that causes ovulation occurs shortly after the onset of a spontaneous estrus. In addition an injection of 100 'g of GnRH can induce an LH surge capable of inducing ovulation. We hypothesized that different preovulatory estradiol profiles would result in different ovulator...

  7. Designer interface peptide grafts target estrogen receptor alpha dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S. [Laboratory of Computational Biophysics & Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, MS 39174 (United States); Asare, B.K. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Biswas, P.K., E-mail: pbiswas@tougaloo.edu [Laboratory of Computational Biophysics & Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, MS 39174 (United States); Rajnarayanan, R.V., E-mail: rajendra@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2016-09-09

    The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), triggered by its cognate ligand estrogen, regulates a variety of cellular signaling events. ERα is expressed in 70% of breast cancers and is a widely validated target for anti-breast cancer drug discovery. Administration of anti-estrogen to block estrogen receptor activation is still a viable anti-breast cancer treatment option but anti-estrogen resistance has been a significant bottle-neck. Dimerization of estrogen receptor is required for ER activation. Blocking ERα dimerization is therefore a complementary and alternative strategy to combat anti-estrogen resistance. Dimer interface peptide “I-box” derived from ER residues 503–518 specifically blocks ER dimerization. Recently using a comprehensive molecular simulation we studied the interaction dynamics of ERα LBDs in a homo-dimer. Based on this study, we identified three interface recognition peptide motifs LDKITDT (ERα residues 479–485), LQQQHQRLAQ (residues 497–506), and LSHIRHMSNK (residues 511–520) and reported the suitability of using LQQQHQRLAQ (ER 497–506) as a template to design inhibitors of ERα dimerization. Stability and self-aggregation of peptide based therapeutics poses a significant bottle-neck to proceed further. In this study utilizing peptide grafted to preserve their pharmacophoric recognition motif and assessed their stability and potential to block ERα mediated activity in silico and in vitro. The Grafted peptides blocked ERα mediated cell proliferation and viability of breast cancer cells but did not alter their apoptotic fate. We believe the structural clues identified in this study can be used to identify novel peptidometics and small molecules that specifically target ER dimer interface generating a new breed of anti-cancer agents. - Highlights: • Designer peptide grafts retain core molecular recognition motif during MD simulations. • Designer peptide grafts with Poly-ALA helix form stable

  8. Are estrogen-related drugs new alternatives for the management of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Ping; Tian, Fa-Ming; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Wen-Ya; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Liu

    2016-06-28

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease involving multiple physiopathological mechanisms. The increased prevalence of OA after menopause and the presence of estrogen receptors in joint tissues suggest that estrogen could help prevent development of OA. This review summarizes OA research with a focus on the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Preclinical studies and clinical trials of estrogen therapy have reported inconsistent results. However, almost all studies assessing SERM treatment have obtained more consistent and favorable effects in OA with a relatively safety and tolerability profiles. At present, some SERMs including raloxifene and bazedoxifene have been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. In summary, estrogen-related agents may exert both a direct effect on subchondral bone and direct and/or indirect effects upon the surrounding tissues, including the articular cartilage, synovium, and muscle, to name a few. Estrogen and SERMs may be particularly favorable for postmenopausal patients with early-stage OA or osteoporotic OA, a phenotype defined by reduced bone mineral density related to high remodeling in subchondral bone. At present, no single drug exists that can prevent OA progression. Although estrogen-related drugs provide insight into the continued work in the field of OA drug administration, further research is required before SERMs can become therapeutic alternatives for OA treatment.

  9. Estrogenic contamination by manure fertilizer in organic farming: a case study with the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, worldwide organic farming has grown exponentially; as a consequence, the use of animal manure as a soil fertility source has become the principal agricultural choice. However, the use of manure as fertilizer can increase the amount of steroid hormone metabolites in the soil. In southern Italy, lacertidae lizards are the most abundant vertebrate group in agroecosystems and have been identified as potential model species for ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this study was to understand if the manure applied in organic farming has estrogen-like effects in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult male lizards were captured in two organic agricultural fields (manure-treated sites) and in an uncultivated field (control site). Lizards from the two organic farms displayed hepatic biosynthetic alterations typical of an estrogenic contamination; hepatocytes contained both vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha transcripts and proteins, detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The same cells did not show cadmium, lead and metallothionein accumulation, indicative of the lack of inorganic contamination. These findings suggest that exogenous estrogens, arising from the use of manure, could affect the welfare of wild animals and animal breeding, leading to bioaccumulation of estrogens in food chain, with possible risk for human consumers. For this reason, organic farming should implement the use of sustainable practices such as crop rotation to preserve the soil biological activity, rather than organic manure as fertilizer.

  10. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizer J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery.

  11. Role of Peers in Student Academic Achievement in Exogenously Formed University Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androushchak, Gregory; Poldin, Oleg; Yudkevich, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the influence of classmates' ability characteristics on student achievement in exogenously formed university student groups. The study uses administrative data on undergraduate students at a large selective university in Russia. The presence of high-ability classmates has a significant positive effect on individual grades in key…

  12. Sex differences and estrogen regulation of BDNF gene expression, but not propeptide content, in the developing hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kight, Katherine E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in adult brain function are frequently determined developmentally through the actions of steroid hormones during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal life. In rodents, various cellular end points of the developing brain are affected by estradiol that is derived from the aromatization of circulating testosterone and/or synthesized within the brain. We have previously described a sex difference in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats that is modulated by estradiol. In this report, we examined a potential downstream regulator of the effects of estradiol on hippocampal cell proliferation by measuring gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) in male and female neonatal rats in response to estradiol. Males had higher baseline BDNF gene expression in dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the hippocampus compared with females. Neonatal administration of exogenous estradiol resulted in opposite effects on BDNF expression in these areas of the neonatal hippocampus, such that BDNF transcripts increased in CA1 but decreased in dentate. Blocking endogenous estradiol signaling by antagonizing estrogen receptors decreased BDNF expression in the dentate of males, but not females, and had no effect in CA1. Interestingly, this sex difference and response to estradiol was not mirrored by translational output, as no differences in BDNF precursor peptide were observed. The sex- and region-specific effects of estradiol on BDNF expression in the neonatal hippocampus suggest a complex functional relationship between these pleiotropic factors in regulating developmental neurogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Anti-aging effect of estrogen on telomerase activity in ovariectomised rats--animal model for menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Jiaping; Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Yuanwei; Deng, Miao; Tang, Shanshan; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Zhifen

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of exogenous estrogen on telomerase activity in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-three 12-week-old female rats were divided into three groups: the ovariectomized-Treated group (Treated, n = 11), the ovariectomized control group (OVX, n = 11) and the Sham-operated group (Sham, n = 11). The rats in the Treated group were given 0.21 mg/kg estradiol valerate intragastric administration while other two groups were given the amount of physiological saline daily. All of the animals were euthanized 12 weeks after treatment, and abdominal aortic blood samples were taken to assess the level of estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Telomerase activity and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mRNA expression in the heart, liver, brain tissues of all rats were measured by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared to the OVX and Sham group, telomerase activity and TERT mRNA levels were significantly increased in the heart, liver and brain tissues of rats in the Treated group (p anti-aging.

  14. Hypothalamic regulation of metabolism: Role of thyroid hormone and estrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone and estrogen both play an essential role in energy metabolism. The current thesis investigated the possible central effects of these hormones in the control of energy metabolism by administrating triiodothyronine (T3), estradiol (E2) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in distinct hypothalamic nuclei. We evaluated various aspects of metabolic alterations including glucose and lipid metabolism, food intake, body weight, body temperature, locomotor activity, energy expenditu...

  15. Managing Agricultural Indigenous And Exogenous Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Agricultural Indigenous And Exogenous Knowledge Through Information And Communication Technologies For Poverty Reduction In Tanzania. ... Access to, and use of, ICTs provides new and faster ways of delivering and accessing information and knowledge that may improve productivity in a wide range of ...

  16. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    2013-07-08

    Jul 8, 2013 ... Abstract. There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. Four forages, treated with EFE, were evaluated in vitro and histologically, in an attempt to determine the effect of EFE on tissue degradation. Weeping love ...

  17. Effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on micropropagation and microtuberization from nodal cuttings of Manihot esculenta was studied. Direct and indirect organogeneses were established from these explants. When nodal cuttings were cultured in the presence of 0.01 to 0.1 mg.L-1 of BAP or NAA there was ...

  18. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathway mediated by the generation and redox Cycling of reactive oxygen species through the metabolic effects of estrogen .... therapy. Several studies including the European. Organization for Research and Treatment of. Cancer ÇEORTC) trial,19 the ATAC (Arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination) adjuvant breast.

  19. Estrogen exposure, obesity and thyroid disease in women with severe pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Lori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe pulmonary hypertension is a lethal group of disorders which preferentially afflicts women. It appears that in recent years the patient profile has shifted towards older, obese, and postmenopausal women, suggesting that endocrine factors may be important. Several studies have revealed an increased prevalence of thyroid disease in these patients, but no studies have evaluated for a coexistence of endocrine factors. In particular, no studies have attempted to evaluate for concurrent thyroid disease, obesity and long-term estrogen exposure in patients. 88 patients attending the Pulmonary Hypertension Association 8th International meeting completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. Information was collected regarding reproductive history, height, weight, and previous diagnosis of thyroid disease. 46% met criteria for obesity. 41% reported a diagnosis of thyroid disease. 81% of women reported prior use of hormone therapy. 70% reported greater than 10 years of exogenous hormone use. 74% of female patients reported two or more of potentially disease modifying endocrine factors (obesity, thyroid disease or estrogen therapy. The coexistent high prevalence in our cohort of exogenous estrogen exposure, thyroid disease and obesity suggests that an interaction of multiple endocrine factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and may represent epigenetic modifiers in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  20. Studies using the estrogen receptor alpha knockout uterus demonstrate that implantation but not decidualization-associated signaling is estrogen dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis Hewitt, Sylvia; Goulding, Eugenia H; Eddy, E M; Korach, Kenneth S

    2002-10-01

    Ovarian hormonal signaling is essential for proper functioning of the uterus in the establishment of pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that decidualization, a stromal transformation that occurs in response to embryo implantation, can be elicited in the uterus of estrogen receptor alpha knockout (alphaERKO) mice in the absence of the estrogen dependence normally seen in wild-type (WT) mice for this response. While the alphaERKO stromal compartment demonstrated the necessary decidual response, embryo implantation is a process initiated in the epithelial layer, a uterine component that lacks estrogen responsiveness in the alphaERKO. To determine if the alphaERKO uterus would be competent for implantation, donor embryos were transferred into the uterine lumen of WT and alphaERKO females that had been ovariectomized and treated with exogenous estradiol and progesterone to mimic early pregnancy. No implantation occurred in the alphaERKO, while implantation sites containing live embryos were seen in similarly treated WT uteri, indicating that functional estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for implantation. Previous observations of estrogen-independent decidualization in the alphaERKO prompted investigation of the mechanism leading to estrogen independence of this process. The disruption of progesterone receptor (PR), Hoxa10, Cox2, or LIF in transgenic mice results in the loss of decidualization response. Therefore, the expression of these genes was studied in WT and alphaERKO uteri by comparing expression following vehicle, progesterone alone (P), or estradiol priming followed by progesterone with nidatory estradiol (E+Pe) and by comparing expression following the above hormonal manipulations in addition to luminal infusion of oil used previously as decidualization-initiating stimulus. The whole-uterus level of PR and Hoxa10 mRNAs did not vary; however, the PR protein was induced in the stroma 24 h after oil infusion. Interestingly, in the WT, this

  1. Identification of reproduction-specific genes associated with maturation and estrogen exposure in a marine bivalve Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M Ciocan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is established that vertebrate-like steroids, particularly estrogens (estradiol, estrone and androgens (testosterone, are present in various tissues of molluscs, it is still unclear what role these play in reproductive endocrinology in such organisms. This is despite the significant commercial shellfishery interest in several bivalve species and their decline. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using suppression subtraction hybridisation of mussel gonad samples at two stages (early and mature of gametogenesis and (in parallel following controlled laboratory estrogen exposure, we isolate several differentially regulated genes including testis-specific kinases, vitelline lysin and envelope sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The differentially expressed mRNAs isolated provide evidence that mussels may be impacted by exogenous estrogen exposure.

  2. Unique roles of estrogen-dependent Pten control in epithelial cell homeostasis of mouse vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, S; Sato, M; Sudo, T; Yamada, G; Iguchi, T

    2015-02-19

    Numerous studies support a role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) as a tumor suppressor gene that controls epithelial cell homeostasis to prevent tumor formation. Mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. We analyzed vaginal epithelium-specific Pten conditional knockout (CKO) mice to provide new insights into Pten/phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt function. The vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized (OVX) mice (control) was composed of 1-2 layers of cuboidal cells, whereas OVX CKO mice exhibited epithelial hyperplasia in the suprabasal cells with increased cell mass and mucin production. This is possibly due to misactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Intriguingly, estrogen administration to OVX Pten CKO mice induced stratification and keratinized differentiation in the vaginal epithelium, as in estrogen-treated controls. We found that Pten is exclusively expressed in the suprabasal cells in the absence of estrogens, whereas estrogen administration induced Pten expression in the basal cells. This suggests that Pten acts to prevent excessive cell proliferation as in the case of other squamous tissues. Thus, Pten exhibits a dual role on the control of vaginal homeostasis, depending on whether estrogens are present or absent. Our results provide new insights into how Pten functions in tissue homeostasis.

  3. Effects of Exogenous Surfactants on the Parameters of Blood Gas Composition in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effects of the surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf on pulmonary oxygenizing properties in preterm neonatal infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The studies were performed in 81 preterm neonates with severe RDS. For the therapy of RDS, the exogenous surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf were used in 52 and 29 children with RDS, respectively. The similarity of infants from both groups was statistically confirmed. Blood gas composition and artificial ventilation parameters were examined. Results. The administration of the exogenous surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf normalized blood gas composition, enhanced alveolar ventilation, and improved pulmonary ventilation-perfusion relationships. The exogenous surfactants permit the performance of artificial ventilation when the values are close to the physiological ones. There were no significant differences in the effects on the surfactants on gas exchange parameters. Key words: respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant, artificial ventilation, mean airway pressure, blood gas composition.

  4. Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress to explain the different longevity between genders: protective effect of estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, J; Sastre, J; Pallardó, F V; Gambini, J; Borrás, C

    2006-12-01

    Females live longer than males. Work from our laboratory has shown that this may be due to the up-regulation of longevity-associated genes by estrogens. Estrogens bind to the estrogen receptors and subsequently activate the mitogen activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B signalling pathways, resulting in an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Estrogen administration, however, has serious undesirable effects and of course, cannot be administered to males because of its powerful feminizing effects. Thus, we tested the effect of genistein, a phytoestrogen of high nutritional importance whose structure is similar to estradiol, on the regulation of the expression of antioxidant, longevity-related genes and consequently on oxidant levels in mammary gland tumour cells in culture. Phytoestrogens mimic the protective effect of oestradiol using the same signalling pathway. The critical importance of up-regulating antioxidant genes, by hormonal and dietary manipulations, to increase longevity is discussed.

  5. Dangguijakyak-san ameliorates memory deficits in ovariectomized mice by upregulating hippocampal estrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Namkwon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Hocheol; Oh, Myung Sook

    2017-11-25

    Dangguijakyak-san (DJS) is an herbal formulation that has been clinically applicable for treating postmenopausal symptoms and neurological disorders. It is reported that hippocampal estrogen attenuates memory impairment via neuroprotection and synaptogenesis. However, the effect of DJS on hippocampal estrogen synthesis remains unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of DJS and its neuroprotective mechanism against memory impairment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, with respect to hippocampal estrogen stimulation. Cell cultures were prepared from the hippocampi of 18-day-old embryos from timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. The hippocampi were dissected, collected, dissociated, and plated in 60-mm dishes. The cells were treated with DJS for 48 h and the supernatant was collected to determine estrogen levels. Female ICR mice (8-weeks-old) were housed for 1 week and ovariectomy was performed to remove the influence of ovary-synthesized estrogens. Following a 2-week post-surgical recovery period, the mice were administrated with DJS (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or 17β-estradiol (200 μg/kg/day, i.p.) once daily for 21 days. Hippocampal and serum estrogen levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Memory behavioral tests, western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of DJS in this model. DJS treatment promoted estrogen synthesis in primary hippocampal cells and the hippocampus of OVX mice, resulting in the amelioration of OVX-induced memory impairment. Hippocampal estrogen stimulated by DJS treatment contributed to the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein and synaptic protein in OVX mice. DJS may attenuate memory deficits in postmenopausal women via hippocampal estrogen synthesis.

  6. The Role of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Breast Cancer: From Tamoxifen to Raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The link between hormones and breast cancer growth and development has been recognized for more than a century. Estrogen stimulates the proliferation of breast epithelial cells, and both endogenous and exogenous estrogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Classically, estrogen action at target sites around the body is mediated through related but distinct estrogen receptors (ERs, designated ERα and ERβ, to alter gene expression. This accumulating understanding of the mechanism of action of estrogen led ultimately to the design of antiestrogenic agents that work by virtue of their interaction with the ER; these drugs have come to be known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs. Tamoxifen, a SERM, emerged as the first antiestrogenic agent that is clinically applicable to breast cancer. Tamoxifen became the “gold standard” and established the principles of tumor targeting and identified the appropriate treatment strategy to aid survivorship in breast cancer patients, with enhancement of disease-free survival and a 50% decrease in recurrences observed in ER-positive patients 15 years after diagnosis. However, because of the many adverse events in the use of tamoxifen, some of which have contributed to significant morbidity and mortality, drug modification which has resulted in fewer incidences of adverse events without compromising the therapeutic effect for breast cancer prevention may face an easier road to acceptance. Raloxifene may be a better alternative, since evidence from large clinical trials showed that raloxifene not only decreases the incidence of osteoporosis and related fractures, but also offers benefits for breast cancer prevention. The results from the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR trial showed the superiority of raloxifene over tamoxifen, not only for the equal efficacy in the prevention of invasive breast cancer but also for the fewer serious adverse events. Taken together

  7. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  8. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  9. Estrogen turns down "the AIRE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Pearl; Su, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic alterations are known drivers of autoimmune disease; however, there is a much higher incidence of autoimmunity in women, implicating sex-specific factors in disease development. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene contributes to the maintenance of central tolerance, and complete loss of AIRE function results in the development of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. In this issue of the JCI, Dragin and colleagues demonstrate that AIRE expression is downregulated in females as the result of estrogen-mediated alterations at the AIRE promoter. The association between estrogen and reduction of AIRE may at least partially account for the elevated incidence of autoimmune disease in women and has potential implications for sex hormone therapy.

  10. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  11. Estrogen and the brain: does estrogen treatment improve cognitive function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Eef

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we describe potential reasons for the discrepancies between data from basic sciences and observational studies and those of large treatment studies investigating the association between brain function and sex steroids. Observational studies which often showed positive associations between hormone use and cognition can be affected by 'recall bias' and 'healthy user bias', while outcomes of treatment studies were hypothesized to be modified by age at treatment, age at or type of menopause, health status, addition of a progestogen or type of estrogen treatment. However, meta-analyses of data from treatment studies negate many of these hypotheses showing at best mainly short-term (up to 6 months) positive effects of estrogen treatment on cognition regardless of age. This positive effect may reverse, particularly in older women with prolonged hormone treatment, which was predominantly seen after addition of progestogen. Medroxyprogesterone acetate seemed to have worse effects on cognition than other types of progestogen in these long-term studies. Estradiol with or without a progestogen was three times more likely to have positive effects on cognition than conjugated equine estrogens. However, two-thirds of studies showed no associations at all which may be an underestimate given the possibility of publication bias. We briefly review alternative treatments, such as testosterone and soy-derived supplements, but currently insufficient data are available for conclusive comments. Women who have undergone surgical menopause or who undergo natural menopause before age 47 may benefit most from hormone treatment and a special case may need to be made for this group. Long-term safety studies for this group are urgently needed. 2013 © The Author(s).

  12. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... levels among CPR users in a laboratory experiment. We also observe no differences between weak external regulations and no regulations, after controlling for a potential confound. However, when we add communication to our endogenous treatment, we observe significant behavioral differences between...

  13. Glutamic acid ameliorates estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal-like symptoms in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Hee-Yun; Yang, Woong Mo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Some amino acids are considered alternative therapies for improving menopausal symptoms. Glutamic acid (GA), which is abundant in meats, fish, and protein-rich plant foods, is known to be a neurotransmitter or precursor of γ-aminobutyric acid. Although it is unclear if GA functions in menopausal symptoms, we hypothesized that GA would attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms. The objective to test our hypothesis was to examine an estrogenic effect of GA in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, and ER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that administration with GA to mice suppressed body weight gain and vaginal atrophy when compared with the OVX mice. A microcomputed tomographic analysis of the trabecular bone showed increases in bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density as well as a significant decrease in total porosity of the OVX mice treated with GA. In addition, GA increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and estrogen compared with the OVX mice. Furthermore, GA induced proliferation and increased ER-β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, estrogen response element (ERE) activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GA also increased proliferation, Ki-67 mRNA expression, ER-β mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Estrogen response element activity increased by GA was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist. Taken together, our data demonstrated that GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bromine-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSombre, E.R.; Mease, R.C.; Hughes, A.; Harper, P.V.; DeJesus, O.T.; Friedman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17..cap alpha..- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE/sub 2/, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide bromine-80m, prepared by the (p,n) reaction with /sup 80/Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the bromine-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE/sub 2/ showed higher tissue to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE/sub 2/ were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of (/sup 80m/Br)BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Circulating Hepcidin-25 Is Reduced by Endogenous Estrogen in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lehtihet

    Full Text Available Hepcidin reduces iron absorption by binding to the intestinal iron transporter ferroportin, thereby causing its degradation. Although short-term administration of testosterone or growth hormone (GH has been reported to decrease circulating hepcidin levels, little is known about how hepcidin is influenced in human endocrine conditions associated with anemia.We used a sensitive and specific dual-monoclonal antibody sandwich immunoassay to measure hepcidin-25 in patients (a during initiation of in vitro fertilization when endogenous estrogens were elevated vs. suppressed, (b with GH deficiency before and after 12 months substitution treatment, (c with hyperthyroidism before and after normalization, and (d with hyperprolactinemia before and after six months of treatment with a dopamine agonist.In response to a marked stimulation of endogenous estrogen production, median hepcidin levels decreased from 4.85 to 1.43 ng/mL (p < 0.01. Hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, or GH substitution to GH-deficient patients did not influence serum hepcidin-25 levels.In humans, gonadotropin-stimulated endogenous estrogen markedly decreases circulating hepcidin-25 levels. No clear and stable correlation between iron biomarkers and hepcidin-25 was seen before or after treatment of hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone deficiency.

  16. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  17. Estrogen induces glomerulosclerosis in analbuminemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; van Goor, H; Koomans, HA

    Progression of chronic renal disease: is usually more rapid in males, both In humans and in experimental animals. Estrogen-replacement studies indicate that this may be related to the beneficial effects of estrogen on the lipoprotein profile. However, in hyperlipidemic analbuminemic rats (NAR),

  18. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensler, J M; Silverman, B L; Sanghavi, J; Goolsby, C; Speck, G; Brizio-Molteni, L; Molteni, A

    2000-10-01

    The etiology of gynecomastia is unknown. There seems to be no increased incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia; however, patients with Klinefelter syndrome exhibit an increased incidence of malignancy. The authors reviewed the results of 34 patients with gynecomastia diagnosed in adolescence who, following initial evaluation, had a mastectomy. The estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed in these patients. Three of the patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. These three patients exhibited elevated amounts of estrogen and progesterone receptors. None of the patients who were not diagnosed with this syndrome demonstrated significant elevation of their estrogen or progesterone receptors. The presence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with Klinefelter syndrome provides a potential mechanism by which these patients may develop breast neoplasms. The absence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia may serve to clarify why these patients' disease rarely degenerates into malignancy.

  19. Sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for stage C prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Yuichi; Kawai, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamauchi, Tamio; Aizawa, Taku (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1993-03-01

    Twenty of 34 stage C cases have been treated by sequential estrogen and radiation in our hospital between 1980 and 1989 and half of them had actually been done staging operation. An average age was 69.3. Tumor differentiations were distributed well in 5 cases, moderately in 5 and poorly in 9. The other unknown differentiation case was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Previously administered estrogens were diethylstilbestrol diphosphate in 15 cases and others in 5. Total doses of 70 Gy in 35 fractions were sequentially delivered to the prostate, involving if necessary the seminal vesicles over a seven-week period by bilateral 120deg pendel using linear accelerator. Radiation field was sized from 6 x 6 to 8 x 8 cm. Estrogens have been continuously administered following radiation in 11 cases. Therapeutic effects upon the prostate were evaluated by digital rectal palpation. Improvement rate and atrophy rate of the primary lesion were 94.4% and 50% respectively. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases and 3 of them recurred within 3 years after initiation of the treatment. Recurred sites were in primary lesion in 2 cases and in bone in two. Five year non-recurrence rate was 81% by Kaplan Meier's method. One of 3 who discontinued hormone administration during or immediately after radiotherapy had local recurrence after 65 months and the other 2 cases died of gastric cancer and unknown cause. Causes of 6 dead cases were one prostate cancer, one gastric cancer, one heart failure, one pneumonia and 2 unknown. The cancer death rate was 25% (1/4 cases). Five year cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier's method was 59.0%. Our results support the view that the sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for the pathological stage C patients of the prostate cancer may be as preferable as radiation alone for the treatment of stage B prostate cancer. (J.P.N.).

  20. Cardioprotective Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Are Mediated by Heme Oxygenase in Estrogen-Deficient Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Posa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens and raloxifene (RAL have beneficial effects on certain cardiovascular indices in postmenopausal women characterized by estrogen deficiency. Heme oxygenase (HO activity is increased by 17β-estradiol (E2 and RAL in estrogen-deficient rat resulting in vasorelaxation mediated by carbon monoxide. We determined the expressions of HO in cardiac and aortic tissues after ovariectomy (OVX and subsequent RAL or E2 treatment. We investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition of HO enzyme on the arginine vasopressin- (AVP- induced blood pressure in vivo, the epinephrine- and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo, and the myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity. When compared with intact females, OVX decreased the HO-1 and HO-2 expression, aggravated the electrocardiogram signs of heart ischemia and the blood pressure response to AVP, and increased the cardiac MPO. E2 and RAL are largely protected against these negative impacts induced by OVX. The pharmacological inhibition of HO in E2- or RAL-treated OVX animals, however, restored the cardiovascular status close to that observed in nontreated OVX animals. The decreased expression of HO enzymes and the changes in blood pressure ischemia susceptibility and inflammatory state in OVX rat can be reverted by the administration of E2 or RAL partly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles.

  1. The future of exogenous surfactant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Notter, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Since the identification of surfactant deficiency as the putative cause of the infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Avery and Mead in 1959, our understanding of the role of pulmonary surfactant in respiratory physiology and the pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) has advanced substantially. Surfactant replacement has become routine for the prevention and treatment of infant RDS and other causes of neonatal lung injury. The role of surfactant in lung injury beyond the neonatal period, however, has proven more complex. Relative surfactant deficiency, dysfunction, and inhibition all contribute to the disturbed physiology seen in ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Consequently, exogenous surfactant, while a plausible therapy, has proven to be less effective in ALI/ARDS than in RDS, where simple deficiency is causative. This failure may relate to a number of factors, among them inadequacy of pharmaceutical surfactants, insufficient dosing or drug delivery, poor drug distribution, or simply an inability of the drug to substantially impact the underlying pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Both animal and human studies suggest that direct types of ALI (eg, aspiration, pneumonia) may be more responsive to surfactant therapy than indirect lung injury (eg, sepsis, pancreatitis). Animal studies are needed, however, to further clarify aspects of drug composition, timing, delivery, and dosing before additional human trials are pursued, as the results of human trials to date have been inconsistent and largely disappointing. Further study and perhaps the development of more robust pharmaceutical surfactants offer promise that exogenous surfactant will find a place in our armamentarium of treatment of ALI/ARDS in the future. 2011 Daedalus Enterprises

  2. Acute Pathophysiological Effects of Intratracheal Instillation of Budesonide and Exogenous Surfactant in a Neonatal Surfactant-depleted Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yang

    2010-08-01

    Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of surfactant or surfactant plus budesonide can improve oxygenation and pulmonary histologic outcome in neonatal surfactant-depleted lungs. The additional use of budesonide does not disturb the function of the exogenous surfactant. Intratracheal administration of a corticosteroid combined with surfactant may be an effective method for alleviating local pulmonary inflammation in severe RDS.

  3. Ozonation of estrogenic chemicals in biologically treated sewage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    for removal of 17 estrogenic chemicals. The estrogenic compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. The obtained values of Electrical Energy per Order (EEOs) for the treatment of the estrogens were in the range 0.14–1.1 kWh/m3 corresponding to 1.7–14 g O3/m3...

  4. Exogenous NAD+ decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-li; Wang, Yi-xiao; Zhao, Pei-quan; Wang, Zhao-yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD+ administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD+ administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD+ against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD+ administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD+ administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  5. Exogenous NAD(+) decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-Li; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-05-31

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD(+) administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD(+) administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD(+) against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD(+) administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD(+) administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD.

  6. Estrogen Modulates ubc9 Expression and Synaptic Redistribution in the Brain of APP/PS1 Mice and Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Jie; Liu, Lu; Hu, Xiao-Tong; He, Ling; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Estrogen exerts multiple actions in the brain and is an important neuroprotective factor in a number of neuronal disorders. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies demonstrate that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (ubc9) has an integral role in synaptic plasticity and may contribute to the pathology of neuronal disorders. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on ubc9 and in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Ubc9 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice with enhanced SUMOylation. Systemic estrogen administration led to reduced ubc9 expression in ovariectomized APP/PS1 mice and reduced SUMOylation. The inhibition of ubc9 expression by estrogen was found to be dose-dependent in cultured neurons. However, estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 did not block the inhibition of ubc9 expression by estrogen. Furthermore, the reduced expression of ubc9 was not mediated by ERα or ERβ agonists alone or in combination, but by the membrane-impermeable ER agonist E2-bovine serum albumin. The activation of the G protein-coupled ER mediated the inhibition of ubc9 expression of estrogen. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, rather than an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, blocked the inhibition of ubc9 by estrogen. Estrogen treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, which suggests that activation of the PI3K pathway by estrogen is required for ubc9 regulation. Further, ubc9 interacted with the synaptic proteins post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and synaptophysin. Estrogen decreased the interaction of ubc9 with post-synaptic PSD95, but increased the interaction of ubc9 with pre-synaptic synaptophysin. These results suggest that a membrane-bound ER might mediate the estrogen inhibition of ubc9 in cortical neurons, where PI3K plays an important role. We also show that ubc9 can interact with synaptic proteins, which are subject to estrogen regulation.

  7. The effects of exogenous proline and osmotic stress on morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For evaluation of growth parameters of strawberry callus under osmotic stress and exogenous proline, embryonic calli were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing four sucrose (osmotic stress) treatments including 3, 6, 9 and 12% and various concentrations of exogenous Lproline (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 ...

  8. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-02

    Aug 2, 2012 ... exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. ... Exogenous stress; in vivo NMR; metabolomic; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; STOCSY .... Proton decoupled 13C-NMR spectra of yeast medium during fermentation: (a) representative spectra at the beginning and (b) at the end ...

  9. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  10. RESPON TERAPI ESTROGEN PADA PENDERITA STOMATITIS AFTOSA REKUREN DI MASA MENJELANG MENOPAUSE (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Priandini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS symptoms usually painful and sometimes incapacitating. This condition is severed by recurrent characteristic and many efforts are conducted to encounter these things, but the results are still not satisfying. The etiology of RAS is still uncertain, however it is suggested that there is a correlation between the occurrence of RAS in women in their menstruation and premenompause period where there is noted decrease of estrogen. This article reports a case of RAS in a 50 year old woman who have suffered RAS for a year and become more severe in relation to the menstrual cycle especially pre menopause period. After estrogen administration the lesion is healed. This case brings attention to the clinicians, that it is important to know the estrogen level of RAS patients who are in premenopause period so they will receive an appropriate therapy.

  11. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Byers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a progressive and potentially fatal disease that affects women of all ages. Like all progressive diseases, early and reliable diagnosis is the key for successful treatment and annihilation. Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. We also review a few promising cytoskeleton targets for ER alpha negative breast cancer.

  12. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  13. Estrogen prevents norepinephrine alpha-2a receptor reversal of stress-induced working memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Rebecca M; Bender, Genevieve; Arnsten, A F T

    2009-09-01

    Understanding effects of estrogen on the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) may help to elucidate the increased prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in women of ovarian cycling age. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized (OVX) young rats amplifies the detrimental effects of stress on working memory (a PFC-mediated task), but the mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be identified. In male rats, stimulation of norepinephrine alpha-2 adrenoceptors protects working memory from stress-induced impairments. However, this effect has not been studied in females, and has not been examined for sensitivity to estrogen. The current study asked whether OVX females with estrogen replacement (OVX+Est) and without replacement (OVX+Veh) responded differently to stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors after administration of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, a pharmacological stressor. The alpha-2 agonist, guanfacine, protected working memory from the impairing effects of FG7142 in OVX+Veh, but not in OVX+Est rats. Western Blot analysis for alpha-2 receptors was performed on PFC tissue from each group, but no changes in expression were found, indicating that the behavioral effects observed were likely not due to changes in receptor expression. These findings point to possible mechanisms by which estrogen may enhance the stress response, and hold implications for the gender discrepancy in the prevalence of stress-related mental illness.

  14. The insulinotropic effect of exogenous GLP-1 is not affected by acute vagotomy in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Hansen, Marie; Christensen, Louise Wulff

    2016-01-01

    signalling of GLP-1 would best be pursued using enteral stimuli to provide high subepithelial levels of endogenous GLP-1. Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) is secreted from the gut in response to luminal stimuli and stimulates insulin secretion glucose dependently. Due to rapid enzymatic degradation of GLP-1...... the vagal trunks were severed in 4/6 groups (vagal trunks were left intact in 2/6 groups), whereupon all infusions were repeated. We found no effect of vagotomy on insulin or glucagon secretion during administration of exogenous GLP-1 in any experiment. We speculate that the effect of exogenous GLP-1...... by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a signalling pathway involving activation of intestinal vagal afferents has been proposed. We conducted two series of experiments in α-chloralose-anaesthetized pigs. Protocol I: pigs (n = 14) were allocated for either intravenous(iv) or intra-arterial(mesenteric) GLP-1...

  15. Estrogen Levels in the three Trimesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into three trimester periods , as a means to simplify reference to ... In the normal non-pregnant female, estrogens are secreted in ... Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin ...

  16. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  17. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  18. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    ), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher......Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1...

  19. Estrogens, Genetic Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okobia, Michael N; Bunker, Clareann H; Kuller, Lewis; Ferrell, Robert E; Anyanwu, Stanley N; Ezeome, Emmanuel R; Uche, Emmanuel E

    2004-01-01

    ... cancer in Nigerian women. A case-control study is being undertaken to investigate the exposure level to estrogen and its metabolites in these women by examining the genotype frequencies of the genes encoding aromatase...

  20. Estrogen May Influence Women's Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167353.html Estrogen May Influence Women's Depression Risk Early menstruation, more frequent periods seem to ... reproductive years may have a lower risk of depression, a new study finds. Previous research has suggested ...

  1. [Exogenous tooth discoloration in children: black stains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, D; Chabane-Lemboub, A; Le Gall, M

    2011-12-01

    Black-stains are a coloring frequently met in pediatric dentistry. They can be medically diagnosed as 1-mm borders or unfinished lines formed by a dark exogenous substance which follows the gingival festoon of bet coronary (in cervical third of the crown) temporary teeth and permanent, or they can appear in like points or dark spots. They are caused by bacteria anaerobic chromogenous. The dominant responsible species are actinomyces. Blacks-stains are ferrous depots, formed following a chemical interaction on the surface of the tooth between sulphide of hydrogen (under the effect of the anaerobic bacteria which are producing hydrogen) and the iron contained in the saliva (by a healthy diet) or that released by red blood corpuscles (in case of bloody gums). Black-stains are a shape of characteristic dental plaque by its flora with trend to calcify. It contains an insoluble iron salt with a content raised in calcium and in inorganic phosphor. The coloring Black-stain is a mild pathology and has no incidence on the vitality of the tooth. Certainly these spots are unsightly. The dental surgeon in current practice can deprive them. The pediatrician plays a leading role in the diagnosis and advice to parents and patients affected by these stains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Exogenous surfactant therapy: new synthetic surfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze-Masmonteil, Th

    2008-06-01

    There are numerous pulmonary conditions in which qualitative or quantitative anomalies of the surfactant system have been demonstrated. In premature newborns with immature lungs, a functional deficit in surfactant is the main physiopathologic mechanism of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since the landmark pilot study of Fujiwara, published more than 20 years ago, the efficacy of exogenous surfactant for the treatment of neonatal RDS has been established by numerous controlled studies and meta-analyses. Enlightened by a growing insight into both the structure and function of the different surfactant components, a new generation of synthetic surfactants has been developed. Various complementary approaches have confirmed the fundamental role of the two hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C, in the surfactant system, thus opening the way to the design of analogues, either by chemical synthesis or expression in a prokaryotic system. An example of these peptide-containing synthetic surfactant preparations, lucinactant (Surfaxin), has been recently tested in comparison to a synthetic surfactant that does not contain protein as well as to animal derived surfactant preparations. Major clinical outcomes between lucinactant and animal-derived surfactant preparations were fund similar in two randomized controlled trials, opening the way to a new generation of synthetic surfactants in the near future.

  3. Steroid-Functionalized Titanocenes: Docking Studies with Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα is a transcription factor that is activated by hormones, with 17β-estradiol being its most active agonist endogenous ligand. ERα is also activated or inactivated by exogenous ligands. ER is overexpressed in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and one of the treatments for this type of cancer is the use of an ER antagonist to halt cell proliferation. We have previously reported four steroid-functionalized titanocenes: pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, trans-androsterone, and androsterone. These steroids have hormonal activity as well as moderate antiproliferative activity, thus these steroids could act as vectors for the titanocene dichloride to target hormone-dependent cancers. Also, these steroids could increase the antiproliferative activity of the resulting titanocenes based on synergism. In order to elucidate which factors contribute to the enhanced antiproliferative activity of these steroid-functionalized titanocenes, we performed docking studies between ERα and the titanocenes and the steroids. The binding affinities and type of bonding interactions of the steroid-functionalized titanocenes with ERα are herein discussed.

  4. The relationship between estrogen, estrogen receptors and periodontal disease in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Laurence F; Freeman, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    The literature supports the fact that estrogen plays an important role in skeletal maintenance and remodeling. Estrogen, acting through estrogen receptors in the cells of the periodontal ligament, has a regulatory interaction on bone dynamics through a complex set of basic multicellular units (BMUs). Deficiency of estrogen results in an increased number of BMUs and enhanced bone turnover. The impact of the changes in estrogen deficiency on bone dynamics is primarily mediated through osteoclasts, with greater interdiction of estrogen's actions on trabecular bone than on cortical bone. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature for evidence to support an association between estrogen and periodontal disease in adult women, as well as bone mineral density, and to help clarify the mechanism of action. We found in our review of all pertinent databases, including Cochrane, that there are few peer-reviewed clinical studies that examine the relationship between estrogen deficiency and periodontal disease, and bone mineral density (BMD) and periodontal disease. Thus, future research is needed to investigate these associations so that at-risk patients can be identified earlier to avoid functional and esthetic sequellae of periodontal disease.

  5. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure...... of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation...... of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a modified-release estrogen tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamra, Rupinder; Kaercher, Uwe; Oleary, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    To determine steady-state plasma concentrations and the pharmacokinetic profile of the essential components of synthetic conjugated estrogens, B (SCE-B), particularly total estrone and delta8,9-dehydroestrone (DHE), after oral administration of a modified-released tablet. A randomized, multiple-dose, pharmacokinetic study of 28 healthy, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to receive two SCE-B 0.3-mg tablets or one 1.25-mg tablet daily for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained before and after dosing at designated times. Total (conjugated and free) and unconjugated estrogens, namely estrone, equilin, and delta8,9-DHE, were determined, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Steady-state plasma levels of total estrone and total delta8,9-DHE measured on day 14 over a 24-hour period showed minor fluctuations and a similar time to maximum concentration (Tmax): mean Tmax of total estrone = 7.94 and 8.36 hours for 0.3-mg and 1.25-mg tablets, respectively; mean Tmax of total delta8,9-DHE = 7.08 and 8.36 hours for 0.3-mg and 1.25-mg tablets, respectively. Consistency in pharmacokinetic parameters was seen between the two doses of SCE-B. SCE-B 0.3-mg and SCE-B 1.25-mg tablets achieved consistent pharmacokinetic parameters and steady-state levels when administered to healthy postmenopausal women. Achieving smooth, predictable levels of component estrogens may result in more consistent relief of menopausal symptoms.

  7. Investigations on the estrogenic activity of the metallohormone cadmium in the rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Nicola; Kluxen, Felix M. [German Sports University Cologne, Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, Koeln (Germany); IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Diel, Patrick [German Sports University Cologne, Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, Koeln (Germany); Wittsiepe, Juergen; Wilhelm, Michael [Ruhr-University Bochum, Department of Hygiene, Social- and Environmental Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Degen, Gisela H. [IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal and an important environmental pollutant, is now also regarded as potential endocrine disruptor. Its estrogenic effects have been examined so far just in classical target tissues, e.g. uterus, and mostly upon intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CdCl{sub 2}. Yet, estrogen receptors are also expressed in the gut, and food is the main source of cadmium intake in the general population. Therefore, possible estrogenic effects were now investigated in the intestine of ovariectomized Wistar rats after oral short- and long-term administration of CdCl{sub 2} (0.05-4 mg/kg bw on 3 days by gavage and 0.4-9 mg/kg bw for 4 weeks in drinking water) or upon i.p. injection (0.00005-2 mg CdCl{sub 2}/kg bw), and compared to steroid estrogen (estradiol or ethinylestradiol) treated groups. Analysis of Cd in kidneys and small intestine by atomic absorption spectrometry showed dose-dependent increases in tissue levels with rather high Cd concentrations in the gut, both after oral and i.p. administration. Expression of metallothionein (MT1a), a typical metal response parameter, was clearly induced in kidney and small intestine of several CdCl{sub 2} treated groups, but also notably increased by steroid estrogens. Levels of estrogen-regulated genes, i.e. pS2/TFF1, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and estrogen receptor {alpha} and {beta} (ER {alpha}/{beta}) were studied as parameters of hormonal activity: The intestinal mRNA expression of pS2/TFF1 was significantly decreased in the estrogen reference groups, but also after single i.p. injection and oral long-term administration of CdCl{sub 2}. In contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of the VDR were unaffected by long-term administration of Cd via drinking water. We detected expression of ER{beta}, but not ER{alpha} in the small intestine of OVX rats. ER{beta} mRNA and protein expression were significantly down-regulated by Cd, similar to the ethinylestradiol reference group. The mRNA expression and

  8. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet environmental ...

  9. Effects of exogenous polyamines and inhibitors of polyamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) or three exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were added into a modified HLM-1 maturation medium inoculated with embryogenic tissues. Medium responses were ...

  10. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  11. Exogenous phosphatidylcholine supplementation retrieve aluminum-induced toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaga, Asmaa Fahmy

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the ameliorative potential of exogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) against aluminum-induced toxicity in male albino rats. Four groups of rats were used for this study (N = 8): group I served as the control, group II (PC treated) received L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg yolk-derived) 100 mg/kg bwt/day orally, group III (aluminum treated) received aluminum chloride 100 mg/kg bwt/day orally, and group VI (aluminum + PC treated) received similar oral dose of aluminum and PC (100 mg/kg bwt/day). Treatment was continued for 8 weeks. Results revealed that aluminum chloride treatment leading to a significant elevation in serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, serum cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6), and brain content of acetylcholine, as well as a significant reduction in serum-reduced glutathione, serum testosterone, and brain content of acetylcholinesterase. Moreover, aluminum administration caused significant histopathological alteration in liver, kidney, brain, testes, and epididymis. Co-treatment with exogenous PC resulted in significant improvement in intensity of histopathologic lesions, serum parameters, testosterone level, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative/antioxidative status. However, it does not affect the brain content of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. Conclusively, treatment with exogenous PC can retrieve the adverse effect of aluminum toxicities through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Critical role of exogenous nitric oxide in ROCK activity in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Maruhashi

    Full Text Available Rho-associated kinase (ROCK signaling pathway has been shown to mediate various cellular functions including cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, apoptosis, and contraction, all of which may be involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO is well known to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect, whereas the exogenous NO-mediated cardiovascular effect still remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous NO on ROCK activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs in vitro and in vivo.VSMCs migration was evaluated using a modified Boyden chamber assay. ROCK activities were measured by Western blot analysis in murine and human VSMCs and aorta of mice treated with or without angiotensin II (Ang II and/or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor.Co-treatment with SNP inhibited the Ang II-induced cell migration and increases in ROCK activity in murine and human VSMCs. Similarly, the increased ROCK activity 2 weeks after Ang II infusion in the mouse aorta was substantially inhibited by subcutaneous injection of SNP.These findings suggest that administration of exogenous NO can inhibit ROCK activity in VSMCs in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Intratumoral levels of estrogens in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, M A; van de Ven, J; Maitimu-Smeele, I; Donker, G H; de Jong, P C; Daroszewski, J; Szymczak, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer tissue is an endocrine organ and particularly the estrogen biosynthetic properties of this tissue have been well studied. The concentration of estradiol in breast cancer tissue from postmenopausal patients is considerably higher than that in the circulation and appears to depend largely on local production. Androgenic precursor steroids are abundantly present, but estrogen storage pools like fatty acid derivatives appear to be less important than initially thought. New, potent and highly specific aromatase inhibitors effectively inhibit peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens (Cancer Res. 53: 4563, 1993) as well as intratumour aromatase, median aromatase activity being 89% lower in the tissue from patients pretreated with aromatase inhibitor 7 days prior to surgery (P < 0.001). Also the intratissue concentrations of estrogens were decreased (64% and 80% reduction, respectively for estrone and estradiol; P = 0.001 and <0.05; Cancer Res. 57: 2109, 1997). These results illustrate that intratissue estrogen biosynthesis is effectively inhibited by the new generation of aromatase inhibitors. The pathophysiological consequences of this finding are currently under study.

  14. Estrogenicity of glabridin in Ishikawa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Su Wei Poh

    Full Text Available Glabridin is an isoflavan from licorice root, which is a common component of herbal remedies used for treatment of menopausal symptoms. Past studies have shown that glabridin resulted in favorable outcome similar to 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, suggesting a possible role as an estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. This study aims to evaluate the estrogenic effect of glabridin in an in-vitro endometrial cell line -Ishikawa cells via alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay and ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator assay. Its effect on cell proliferation was also evaluated using Thiazoyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results showed that glabridin activated the ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator complex and displayed a dose-dependent increase in estrogenic activity supporting its use as an ERT. However, glabridin also induced an increase in cell proliferation. When glabridin was treated together with 17β-E2, synergistic estrogenic effect was observed with a slight decrease in cell proliferation as compared to treatment by 17β-E2 alone. This suggest that the combination might be better suited for providing high estrogenic effects with lower incidences of endometrial cancer that is associated with 17β-E2.

  15. Resistance and barriers to local estrogen therapy in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Krychman, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Vaginal atrophy results from a decrease in circulating estrogen and is experienced by approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. Its symptoms affect multiple dimensions of genitopelvic health, sexuality, and overall quality of life. Nonhormonal over-the-counter treatments may provide temporary symptom relief, but the condition is progressive, and hormonal treatment may be warranted. The study aims to review the literature and discuss the impact of atrophic vaginitis and various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy for atrophic vaginitis. This article also aims to provide a greater awareness of the condition and the difficulties in communicating effectively with patients, and to provide strategies to help healthcare professionals acquire effective communication skills to initiate a candid dialogue with patients who may be suffering in silence and may benefit from therapy. This review was based on peer-reviewed publications on the topic of atrophic vaginitis and local estrogen therapy identified from key word searches of PubMed, in addition to landmark studies/surveys and treatment guidelines/recommendations on menopause available in the literature and on the Internet. The main outcomes are the impact of atrophic vaginitis and the various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy. Minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogen therapy enables administration of estrogen doses much lower than systemic doses used for vasomotor symptoms. Local therapy is also the first-line pharmacologic treatment recommended by the North American Menopause and International Menopause Societies. Despite treatment options, the sensitive nature of the condition and embarrassment may prohibit or limit many women from openly discussing symptoms with healthcare professionals. Many are hesitant to initiate hormonal treatment because of safety concerns. Healthcare professionals should

  16. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  17. Estrogen receptor affinity chromatography: a new method for characterization of novel estrogenic disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guodong; Xue, Jinling; Li, Man; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2014-06-01

    To identify the unknown estrogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination extract, an effective method based on affinity chromatography with immobilized human recombinant estrogen receptor α (ERα) was developed, which has an advantage in targeting different potential estrogenic compounds from mixed sample simultaneously by comparing their relative binding activities to ER. The new method worked well for six known environmental estrogens. To further test the validity of this method for unknown chemicals, six DBPs of diethylstilbestrol (DES) with relatively strong ER binding affinity after chlorination were isolated and identified. It was found that except for 2-chloro-DES which showed 1.36 times stronger binding affinity than DES, most of the by-products bound to ER much more weakly than DES. All these seven by-products induced a dose-dependent transcriptional activation in two-hybrid-yeast assays. Z,Z-dienestrol (DE) and 2-chloro-DES, which exhibiting the weakest and the strongest binding affinity, were further tested for their transcriptional potential as 0.00243 and 0.014 compared to DES, respectively. However, they were still potential harmful environmental estrogenic disruptors as their estrogenic activities were much stronger than that of bisphenol A (BPA). These results demonstrated that the new method can help to screen unknown estrogenic compounds from mixture more efficiently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljenedil, Sumayah; Hegele, Robert A; Genest, Jacques; Awan, Zuhier

    Estrogen, whether therapeutic or physiologic, can cause hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis is a rare complication. We report 2 women who developed estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis. The first patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia associated with in vitro fertilization cycles. Marked reduction in her triglyceride was achieved with dietary restrictions and fibrate. The second patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia during her pregnancies. She was noncompliant with the treatment; therefore, her triglyceride remained high after delivery. In both patients, no hypertriglyceridemia-associated genes mutations were identified, although the second patient had strong polygenic susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia. Estrogen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition. Screening in high-risk patients is crucial to prevent subsequent complications. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  20. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Ingrid; Ibn Hadj Hassine, Aziza; Haj Hamouda, Yosra; Mnif, Wissem; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; De Waard, Michel; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textile wastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured using the Yeast Estrogen Screen bioassay (YES) that evaluates estrogen receptor binding-dependent transcriptional and translational activities. The estrogenic potencies of the dyes and wastewater samples were evaluated by dose-response curves and compared to the dose-response curve of 17β-estradiol (E2), the reference compound. The dose-dependent anti-estrogenic activities of the dyes and wastewater samples were normalized to the known antagonistic effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on the induction of the lac Z reporter gene by E2. About half azo textile dyes have anti-estrogenic activity with the most active being Blue HFRL. Most azo dyes however have no or weak estrogenic activity. E2/dye or E2/waste water ER competitive binding assays show activity of Blue HFRL, benzopurpurine 4B, Everzol Navy Blue FBN, direct red 89 BNL 200% and waste water samples indicating a mechanism of action common to E2. Our results indicate that several textile dyes are potential endocrine disrupting agents. The presence of some of these dyes in textile industry wastewater may thus impact the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors and their effects in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serock, Michelle R; Wells, Amanda K; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of estrogen in improving vascular function and reducing vascular injury. However, clinical trials including HERS I, HERS II, WHI and WISDOM have demonstrated minimal beneficial vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in postmenopausal women with CVD. The discrepancies between the experimental findings and clinical data may be related to the vascular estrogen receptors (ER), the type, route of administration, or dosage of MHT, and subject's age. Vascular ERs mediate both genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and extracellular matrix (ECM). Postmenopausal changes in vascular ER structure, polymorphisms, amount, subcellular location, affinity or signaling could modify their responsiveness to estrogen and thereby the outcome of MHT. Recent investigations and patents have been centered on developing new ER modulators and alternatives for the traditional natural and synthetic forms of MHT which carry the risk of invasive breast cancer and venous thromoboembolism. Phytoestrogens may have similar effects as traditional MHT and have not demonstrated harmful side effects. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and tamoxifen have also been tested. ER agonists that selectively target ERalpha, ERbeta and perhaps GPR30 may modify specific vascular signaling pathways. Also, the dose, route of administration, and timing of MHT are integral to optimizing the beneficial effects and minimizing the side effects of MHT. Progesterone, testosterone and modulators of their specific receptors may also affect the overall vascular effects of MHT in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

  2. Estrogenic activity of flavonoids in mice. The importance of estrogen receptor distribution, metabolism and bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke; Hossaini, A.; Svendsen, Gitte W.

    2000-01-01

    The in vivo estrogenic potential of the flavonoids apigenin, kaempferol, genistein and equol was investigated in immature female mice. Genistein and equol, administered by gavage for 4 consecutive days [post-natal day (PND) 17-20, 100 mg/kg body weight], was found to significantly increase uterine...... or lower potency. Bioavailability, metabolism, the ability to alter ER alpha distribution in the uterus and the estrogenic potential of parent compound and metabolites may thus contribute to the differences in in vivo estrogenicity of dietary flavonoids....

  3. The Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex (Bazedoxifene/Conjugated Estrogens for the Treatment of Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC pairs conjugated estrogens (CE with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM, bazedoxifene acetate (BZA. A 2-year treatment with the TSEC improved vasomotor symptoms, quality of life, and vaginal atrophy in healthy postmenopausal women. In addition, the TSEC prevented vertebral and hip bone loss without increasing mammographic density, breast tenderness, the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. Finally, the BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg dose did not increase the risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Based on these findings, the TSEC can be considered as a first-line treatment for symptomatic postmenopausal women.

  4. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Neuroprotection from Brain Injury by Novel Estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Cholst I, McEwen B, Amador R, Zabriskie J. Observations in a preliminary open trial of estradiol therapy for senile dementia -Alzheimer’s type...system- senile dementia (Alzheimer’s type). J Steroid Biochem 1989;34:521-25. 6. Ohkura T, Isse K, Akazawa K, Hamamoto M, Yaoi Y, Hagino N. Low-dose estro...Postmenopausal estrogen use and Parkinson’s disease with Neuronal effects of estrogens with weak ER agonist ac- and without dementia . Neurology 50:1141-1143

  6. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...

  7. Estrogen Maintains Skeletal Muscle in Septic Rats Associated with Altering Hypothalamic Inflammation and Neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenyan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Minhua; Shi, Jialing; Shen, Juanhong; Gao, Tao; Xi, Fengchan; Yu, Wenkui

    2017-03-01

    Muscle wasting is one of the main contributors to the worse outcomes in sepsis. Whether estrogen could alleviate muscle wasting induced by sepsis remains unclear. This study was designed to test the effect of estrogen on muscle wasting and its relationship with central alteration in sepsis. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, sepsis group, and estrogen treated sepsis group. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) or saline, followed by subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours later, all animals were killed and their hypothalamus and skeletal muscles were harvested for analysis. Muscle wasting markers, hypothalamic neuropeptides, and hypothalamic inflammatory markers were measured. As a result, lipopolysaccharide administration caused a significant increase in muscle wasting, hypothalamic inflammation, and anorexigenic neuropeptides (POMC and CART) gene expression, and a significant decrease in orexigenic neuropeptides (AgRP and NPY) gene expression. Administration of estrogen signifcantl attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle wasting (body weight and extensor digitorum longus loss [52 and 62 %], tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine release [17 and 22 %], muscle ring fnger 1 [MuRF-1; 65 %], and muscle atrophy F-box [MAFbx] gene expression), hypothalamic inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor-α and interlukin-1β [69 and 70%]) as well as alteration of POMC, CART and AgRP (61, 37, and 1008 %) expression.In conclusion, estrogen could alleviate sepsis-induced muscle wasting and it was associated with reducing hypothalamic inflammation and alteration of hypothalamic neuropeptides. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) Distribution requirements. (1) For estrogen drug...) Exemptions. This section does not apply to estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives. Labeling requirements...

  9. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  10. Estrogen activates rapid signaling in the brain: role of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, A J; Dorsa, D M

    2006-01-01

    The aging process is known to coincide with a decline in circulating sex hormone levels in both men and women. Due to an increase in the average lifespan, a growing number of post-menopausal women are now receiving hormone therapy for extended periods of time. Recent findings of the Women's Health Initiative, however, have called into question the benefits of long-term hormone therapy for treating symptoms of menopause. The results of this study are still being evaluated, but it is clear that a better understanding of the molecular effects of estradiol is needed in order to develop new estrogenic compounds that activate specific mechanisms but lack adverse side effects. Traditionally, the effects of estradiol treatment have been ascribed to changes in gene expression, namely transcription at estrogen response elements. This review focuses on emerging information that estradiol can also activate a repertoire of membrane-initiated signaling pathways and that these rapid signaling events lead to functional changes at the cellular level. The various types of cells in the brain can respond differently to estradiol treatment based on the signaling properties of the cell, as well as which receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and/or estrogen receptor beta, is expressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the estradiol-induced activation of membrane-initiated signaling pathways occurs in a cell-type specific manner and can differentially influence how the cells respond to various insults.

  11. Effect of combining in vitro estrogenicity data with kinetic characteristics of estrogenic compounds on the invivo predictive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, A.; Brand, W.; Murk, A.J.; Wezel, van A.P.; Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of increasing the utility of in vitro assays for toxicological risk assessment, a method was developed to calculate in vivo estrogenic potencies from in vitro estrogenic potencies of compounds by taking into account systemic availability. In vitro estrogenic potencies of three

  12. Food-associated estrogenic compounds induce estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase gene expression in transgenic male mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, ter M.G.R.; Zawadzka, E.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Saag, van der P.T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims at clarifying to what extent seven food-associated compounds, shown before to be estrogenic in vitro, can induce estrogenic effects in male mice with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase (luc) reporter gene system. The luc induction was determined in different tissues

  13. Estrogenicity of food-associated estrogenic compounds in the fetuses of female transgenic mice upon oral and IP maternal exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, ter M.G.R.; Zawadzka, E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent seven food-associated in vitro estrogenic compounds can induce estrogenic effects in the fetuses of pregnant female mice with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase (luc) reporter gene system. The luc-induction was determined either 8 h after

  14. Food-associated estrogenic compounds induce estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase gene expression in transgenic male mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Veld, M.G.R.; Zawadzka, E.; van den Berg, J.H.J.; van der Saag, P.T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims at clarifying to what extent seven food-associated compounds, shown before to be estrogenic in vitro, can induce estrogenic effects in male mice with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase (luc) reporter gene system. The luc induction was determined in different tissues

  15. Validation and application of a robust yeast estrogen bioassay for the screening of estrogenic activity in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Bor, G.; Heskamp, H.H.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Previously we described the construction and properties of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor ¿ (hER¿) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP), the latter in response to estrogens. In the present study this yeast estrogen assay was validated as a

  16. Rapid metabolism of exogenous angiotensin II by catecholaminergic neuronal cells in culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Urmi; Seravalli, Javier; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Adamec, Jiri; Case, Adam J; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts on central neurons to increase neuronal firing and induce sympathoexcitation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. Numerous studies have examined the precise AngII-induced intraneuronal signaling mechanism in an attempt to identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. Considering the technical challenges in studying specific intraneuronal signaling pathways in vivo, especially in the cardiovascular control brain regions, most studies have relied on neuronal cell culture models. However, there are numerous limitations in using cell culture models to study AngII intraneuronal signaling, including the lack of evidence indicating the stability of AngII in culture media. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured levels of AngII and its metabolites, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang-1-7, in neuronal cell culture media after administration of exogenous AngII (100 nmol/L) to a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons). AngII levels rapidly declined in the media, returning to near baseline levels within 3 h of administration. Additionally, levels of Ang III and Ang-1-7 acutely increased, while levels of Ang IV remained unchanged. Replenishing the media with exogenous AngII every 3 h for 24 h resulted in a consistent and significant increase in AngII levels for the duration of the treatment period. These data indicate that AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media, and replenishing the media at least every 3 h is needed to sustain chronically elevated levels. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. The effects of exogenous ghrelin on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in lean and obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Yumiko; Hiraishi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone possessing a variety of physiological and pharmacological actions. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous ghrelin on chemically induced colitis in genetically predisposed lean (TSNO) and obese (TSOD) mice after different schedule of administration. To induce colitis, animals were given drinking water containing 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5 days. The TSOD and TSNO mice received daily intraperitoneal injections with saline...

  18. Effect of high intratesticular estrogen on global gene expression and testicular cell number in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zuping

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the testis has highlighted the important role of estrogens in regulating spermatogenesis. There is a wealth of information on the deleterious effects of fetal and neonatal exposure of estrogens and xenoestrogens in the testis, including spermiation failure and germ cell apoptosis. However, very little is known about gene transcripts affected by exogenous estradiol exposure in the testis. The objective of the present study was to unveil global gene expression profiles and testicular cell number changes in rats after estradiol treatment. Methods 17beta-estradiol was administered to adult male rats at a dose of 100 micrograms/kg body weight in saline daily for 10 days; male rats receiving only saline were used as controls. Microarray analysis was performed to examine global gene expression profiles with or without estradiol treatment. Real time RT-PCR was conducted to verify the microarray data. In silico promoter and estrogen responsive elements (EREs analysis was carried out for the differentially expressed genes in response to estradiol. Quantitation of testicular cell number based on ploidy was also performed using flow cytometry in rats with or without estradiol treatment. Results We found that 221 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs were differentially expressed in rat testes treated with estradiol compared to the control; the microarray data were confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that a number of the differentially expressed genes are involved in androgen and xenobiotic metabolism, maintenance of cell cytoskeleton, endocytosis, and germ cell apoptosis. A total of 33 up-regulated genes and 67 down-regulated genes showed the presence of EREs. Flow cytometry showed that estradiol induced a significant decrease in 2n cells (somatic and germ cells and 4n cells (pachytene spermatocytes and a marked increase in the number of

  19. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in t...

  20. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty

  1. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    hormones. Panico and colleagues (27) reported more elevated levels of estrogen and progesterones in the morning hours. The good correlation between...16 27 Panico S, Pisani P, Muti P, Recchione C, Covelleri A, Totis A, Berrino F. Diurinal variation of testosterone and estradiol: a source of bias in

  2. Aging, estrogen loss and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison R Lee

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a key element in many cardiovascular diseases. Both estrogen loss, caused by menopause, and aging have inflammatory consequences. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs are anti-inflammatory molecules synthesized by various cytochrome P450 (Cyp enzymes from arachidonic acid. EETs are in the third (Cytochrome P450 pathway of arachindonic acid metabolism, others being cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. We hypothesized that aging and estrogen loss would reduce levels of anti-inflammatory EETs. Adult (6 mo and aged (22 mo ovariectomized rats with (OP and without (Ovx 17-∃-estradiol replacement were used in this study. Mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of EETs and their metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs. Levels of Cyp2C2, Cyp2C6, and Cyp2J2, the principal Cyps responsible for EETs synthesis, as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, which metabolizes EETS to DHETs, were determined via western blot. Overall Cyp levels decreased with age, though Cyp2C6 increased in the liver. sEH was increased in the kidney with estrogen replacement. Despite protein changes, no differences were measured in plasma or aortic tissue levels of EETs. However, plasma 14,15 DHET was increased in aged Ovx, and 5,6 DHET in adult OP. In conclusion neither aging nor estrogen loss decreased the anti-inflammatory EETs in the cardiovascular system.

  3. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current clinical practice employs the use of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as biomarkers to appropriately select patients that would benefit from targeted therapy against these major molecular pathways of the disease. This study aims at ...

  4. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C.; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G.; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J.; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tiano, Joseph P.; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate

  5. Rams with poor feed efficiency are highly responsive to an exogenous adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, S A; Cummins, L J; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2008-04-01

    An animal's response to a stressor is to increase metabolic rate, and thus energy consumption through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Changes to energy use by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that less efficient sheep are more responsive to exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropin hormone. This was done by firstly determining the appropriate dose (0.4, 1.6 or 6.4microg/kg LW) and peak serum cortisol response time (45min) to exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropin hormone in a pilot study (n=3 sheep). Following this, adrenocorticotropin hormone (2.0microg/kg LW) stimulated cortisol levels were measured in a larger group of sheep (n=50) of known feed efficiency (feed conversion ratio and residual feed intake values). Less efficient sheep (more positive residual feed intake values) were found to have a greater (Presidual feed intake, is significantly related to an animal's stress response. These findings have important implications for understanding the physiological mechanisms underpinning efficiency of energy use, and may be useful in successfully identifying animals which are superior in terms of feed efficiency.

  6. Exogenous testosterone decreases men's personal distance in a social threat context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Radke, Sina; Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group). Each participant performed a computerized stop-distance task before (T1) and 3.5h after (T2) treatment, during which they indicated how closely they would approach a human, animal or virtual character with varying emotional expression. Men's PD towards humans and animals varied as a function of their emotional expression. In the testosterone group, a pre-post comparison indicated that the administration of 50mg testosterone was associated with a small but significant reduction of men's PD towards aggressive individuals. Men in the placebo group did not change the initially chosen PD after placebo application independent of the condition. However comparing the testosterone and placebo group after testosterone administration did not reveal significant differences. While the behavioral effect was small and only observed as within-group effect it was repeatedly and selectively shown for men's PD choices towards an angry woman, angry man and angry dog in the testosterone group. In line with the literature, our findings in young men support the influential role of exogenous testosterone on male's approach behavior during social confrontations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  8. Estrogen-gut microbiome axis: Physiological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James M; Al-Nakkash, Layla; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2017-09-01

    Low levels of gonadal circulating estrogen observed in post-menopausal women can adversely impact a diverse range of physiological factors, with clinical implications for brain cognition, gut health, the female reproductive tract and other aspects of women's health. One of the principal regulators of circulating estrogens is the gut microbiome. This review aims to shed light on the role of the gut microbiota in estrogen-modulated disease. The gut microbiota regulates estrogens through secretion of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme that deconjugates estrogens into their active forms. When this process is impaired through dysbiosis of gut microbiota, characterized by lower microbial diversity, the decrease in deconjugation results in a reduction of circulating estrogens. The alteration in circulating estrogens may contribute to the development of conditions discussed herein: obesity, metabolic syndrome, cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, fertility, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive function. The bi-directional relationship between the metabolic profile (including estrogen levels) and gut microbiota in estrogen-driven disease will also be discussed. Promising therapeutic interventions manipulating the gut microbiome and the metabolic profile of estrogen-driven disease, such as bariatric surgery and metformin, will be detailed. Modulation of the microbiome composition subsequently impacts the metabolic profile, and vice versa, and has been shown to alleviate many of the estrogen-modulated disease states. Last, we highlight promising research interventions in the field, such as dietary therapeutics, and discuss areas that provide exciting unexplored topics of study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estrogens and male reproduction: a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carreau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids; among them estrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase. The aromatase is encoded by a single gene (cyp19 in humans which contains 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In rats, the aromatase activity is mainly located in Sertoli cells of immature rats and then in Leydig cells of adult rats. We have demonstrated that germ cells represent an important source of estrogens: the amount of P450arom transcript is 3-fold higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to gonocytes or round spermatids; conversely, aromatase activity is more intense in haploid cells. Male germ cells of mice, bank voles, bears, and monkeys express aromatase. In humans, we have shown the presence of a biologically active aromatase and of estrogen receptors (alpha and ß in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells in addition to Leydig cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the amount of P450arom transcripts is 30% lower in immotile than in motile spermatozoa. Alterations of spermatogenesis in terms of number and motility of spermatozoa have been described in men genetically deficient in aromatase. These last observations, together with our data showing a significant decrease of aromatase in immotile spermatozoa, suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Thus, taking into account the widespread localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors in testicular cells, it is obvious that, besides gonadotrophins and androgens, estrogens produced locally should be considered to be physiologically relevant hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

  10. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  11. Insolvency administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the role of an insolvency administrator in insolvency proceedings. It focuses not only on general duties of insolvency administrators in insolvency proceedings, but it also deals with prerequisites necessary to meet in order to be eligible for the function of an insolvency administrator. The thesis presents various types of insolvency administrators, the appointment procedure and changes to the appointment of an insolvency administrator, the possibility to recall, expel a...

  12. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and estrogen receptor signaling synergistically promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    Full Text Available Osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs are initiated and regulated by a cascade of signaling events. Either Wnt/β-catenin or estrogen signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating skeletal development and maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigate the potential crosstalk and synergy of these two signaling pathways in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. We find that the activation of estrogen receptor (ER signaling by estradiol (E2 or exogenously expressed ERα in MPCs synergistically enhances Wnt3A-induced early and late osteogenic markers, as well as matrix mineralization. The E2 or ERα-mediated synergy can be effectively blocked by ERα antagonist tamoxifen. E2 stimulation can enhance endochondral ossification of Wnt3A-transduced mouse fetal limb explants. Furthermore, exogenously expressed ERα significantly enhances the maturity and mineralization of Wnt3A-induced subcutaneous and intramuscular ectopic bone formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that E2 does not exert any detectable effect on β-catenin/Tcf reporter activity. However, ERα expression is up-regulated within the first 48h in AdWnt3A-transduced MPCs, whereas ERβ expression is significantly inhibited within 24h. Moreover, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens aromatase is modulated by Wnt3A in a biphasic manner, up-regulated at 24h but reduced after 48h. Our results demonstrate that, while ER signaling acts synergistically with Wnt3A in promoting osteogenic differentiation, Wnt3A may crosstalk with ER signaling by up-regulating ERα expression and down-regulating ERβ expression in MPCs. Thus, the signaling crosstalk and synergy between these two pathways should be further explored as a potential therapeutic approach to combating bone and skeletal disorders, such as fracture healing and osteoporosis.

  13. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  14. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER− breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. PMID:24482576

  15. Complex patterns of synchrony in networks undergoing exogenous drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jack; Zochowski, Michal

    2007-03-01

    It has been established that various exogenous oscillatory drives modulate neural activity (and potentially information processing) in the brain. We explore the effect of an exogenous drive on the spatio-temporal pattern formation of a network of coupled non-identical R"ossler oscillators. We investigate the formation and properties of the phase locked states, dependent on the network properties as well as those of the external drive. We have found that such drive has a complex effect on the pattern formation in the network, depending on the coupling strength between the oscillators, drive strength as well as its frequency relative to the oscillators.

  16. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...

  17. Oophorectomy, menopause, estrogen treatment, and cognitive aging: clinical evidence for a window of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Shuster, Lynne T.

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of estrogen have been demonstrated consistently in cellular and animal studies but the evidence in women remains conflicted. We explored the window of opportunity hypothesis in relation to cognitive aging and dementia. In particular, we reviewed existing literature, reanalyzed some of our data, and combined results graphically. Current evidence suggests that estrogen may have beneficial, neutral, or detrimental effects on the brain depending on age at the time of treatment, type of menopause (natural versus medically or surgically induced), or stage of menopause. The comparison of women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy with referent women provided evidence for a sizeable neuroprotective effect of estrogen before age 50 years. Several case-control studies and cohort studies also showed neuroprotective effects in women who received estrogen treatment (ET) in the early postmenopausal stage (most commonly at ages 50–60 years). The majority of women in those observational studies had undergone natural menopause and were treated for the relief of menopausal symptoms. However, recent clinical trials by the Women’s Health Initiative showed that women who initiated ET alone or in combination with a progestin in the late postmenopausal stage (ages 65–79 years) experienced an increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline regardless of the type of menopause. The current conflicting data can be explained by the window of opportunity hypothesis suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of estrogen depend on age at the time of administration, type of menopause, and stage of menopause. Therefore, women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of menopause or women who experienced premature or early natural menopause should be considered for hormonal treatment until approximately age 51 years. PMID:20965156

  18. Estrogens protect male mice from obesity complications and influence glucocorticoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, R S; Walker, B R; Seckl, J R; Hadoke, P W F; Drake, A J

    2015-10-01

    Although the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men, they are somewhat protected from the associated cardiometabolic consequences. The increase in cardiovascular disease risk seen after the menopause suggests a role for estrogens. There is also growing evidence for the importance of estrogen on body fat and metabolism in males. We hypothesized that that estrogen administration would ameliorate the adverse effects of obesity on metabolic parameters in males. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were fed control or obesogenic (DIO) diets from 5 weeks of age until adulthood. Glucose tolerance testing was performed at 13 weeks of age. Mice were killed at 15 weeks of age and liver and adipose tissue were collected for analysis of gene expression. A second cohort of male mice underwent the same experimental design with the addition of estradiol pellet implantation or sham surgery at 6 weeks. DIO males had greater mesenteric adipose deposition and more severe increases in plasma glucose, insulin and lipids than females. Treatment of males with estradiol from 6 weeks of age prevented DIO-induced increases in adipose tissue mass and alterations in glucose-insulin homeostasis. We also identified sex differences in the transcript levels and activity of hepatic and adipose glucocorticoid metabolizing enzymes. Estrogen treatment feminized the pattern of DIO-induced changes in glucocorticoid metabolism, rendering males similar to females. Thus, DIO induces sex-specific changes in glucose-insulin homeostasis, which are ameliorated in males treated with estrogen, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in metabolism. Given that altered peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism has been observed in rodent and human obesity, our results also suggest that sexually dimorphic expression and activity of glucocorticoid metabolizing enzymes may have a role in the differential metabolic responses to obesity in males and females.

  19. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  20. Estrogen increases the severity of anaphylaxis in female mice through enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hox, Valerie; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Gilfillan, Alasdair M; Metcalfe, Dean D; Olivera, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anaphylaxis is more common in adult women compared with adult men, although the mechanistic basis for this sex bias is not well understood. We sought to document sex-dependent differences in a mouse model of anaphylaxis and explore the role of female sex hormones and the mechanisms responsible. Passive systemic anaphylaxis was induced in female and male mice by using histamine, as well as IgE or IgG receptor aggregation. Anaphylaxis was assessed by monitoring body temperature, release of mast cell mediators and/or hematocrit, and lung weight as a measure of vascular permeability. A combination of ovariectomy, estrogen receptor antagonism, and estrogen administration techniques were used to establish estrogen involvement. Anaphylactic responses were more pronounced in female than male mice. The enhanced severity of anaphylaxis in female mice was eliminated after pretreatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist or ovariectomy but restored after administration of estradiol in ovariectomized mice, demonstrating that the sex-specific differences are due to the female steroid estradiol. Estrogen did not affect mast cell responsiveness or anaphylaxis onset. Instead, it increased tissue expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Blockage of NOS activity with the inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester or genetic eNOS deficiency abolished the sex-related differences. Our study defines a contribution of estrogen through its regulation of eNOS expression and nitric oxide production to vascular hyperpermeability and intensified anaphylactic responses in female mice, providing additional mechanistic insights into risk factors and possible implications for clinical management in the further exploration of human anaphylaxis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lizcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogen receptors regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in women. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause are not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation, and its control by the central nervous systemn and the possible role of estrogen-like compounds and endocrine disruptors chemicals are discussed. Finally, the interaction between the decrease in estrogen secretion and the prevalence of obesity in menopausal women is examined. We will consider if the absence of estrogens have a significant effect of obesity in menopausal women.

  2. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Fernando; Guzmán, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogen receptors regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in women. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause are not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation, and its control by the central nervous systemn and the possible role of estrogen-like compounds and endocrine disruptors chemicals are discussed. Finally, the interaction between the decrease in estrogen secretion and the prevalence of obesity in menopausal women is examined. We will consider if the absence of estrogens have a significant effect of obesity in menopausal women.

  3. Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora goats 1,2. T.D.A. Forbes,* D.R. Tolleson and C.M. .... or pulsatile LH secretion may cause infertility (Randel, 1990;. Short et ai., 1990). The combination of poor ..... Bioi. Reprod. 29, 11. RANDEL, R.D., 1990. Nutrition and postpartum rebreeding in cattle. J. Anim.

  4. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine whether inoculating a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet ...

  5. Effects of whey, molasses and exogenous enzymes on the ensiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the effects of whey, molasses and exogenous enzymes on fermentation, aerobic stability and nutrient composition of ensiled maize cobs. Five treatments were ensiled in 1.5 L anaerobic glass jars over 32 days, namely i) control (maize cobs without additives (CON); ii) maize cobs with ...

  6. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  7. Enhanced antioxidant defense after exogenous application of Ca 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both of these nutrients play an important role in ameliorating drought stress in crop plants. This experiment was designed to study whether exogenous application of Ca2+ and K+ before the drought could enhance the potential of plants to survive under limiting water conditions. Brassica napus L. cv Bulbul-98 seedlings ...

  8. Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female Angora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 JournalPaper TA30056,Texas Agric. Exp. 5ta. 2 This research is a contribution to Western Regional Research. ProjectW-112, ReproductivePerformancein DomesticRuminants. Dailey, 1982), and heifers (Hardin & Randel, 1983) given exogenous GnRH, and to alter progesterone production by bovine corpora lutea in vitro ...

  9. The Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Sperm Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Sperm Characteristics of West African Dwarf Goat Bucks. ... As a result, melatonin had a positive effect on reproductive status of WADG as shown by significant higher testicular development, testosterone and sperm quality. However the effect of melatonin was more pronounced in the ...

  10. Effect of exogenous gibberellic acid on germination, seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exogenous application of gibberellin increased germination percentage and improved length and fresh weight of roots and shoots under salt treatment. It also increased both acid phosphatase and phytase activities in roots under this constraint. The application of gibberellic acid compensated for the negative effect of ...

  11. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  12. Utilization of exogenous siderophores and natural catechols by Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, N.; Coulanges, V; Andre, P.; Vidon, D J

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes does not produce siderophores for iron acquisition. We demonstrate that a number of microbial siderophores and natural iron-binding compounds are able to promote the growth of iron-starved L. monocytogenes. We suggest that the ability of L. monocytogenes to use a variety of exogenous siderophores and natural catechols accounts for its ubiquitous character.

  13. Exogenous cycilc AMP and cycilc GMP influence the metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Exogenous cycilc AMP and cycilc GMP influence the metabolism of traces of tritium-labeled glycerol in rabbits. Yongfeng Liu, Linsen Zan*, Fang Wei, Dengke Liu, Yaping Xin and Wanqiang Tian. College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, Republic ...

  14. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we applied this approach to evaluate the effects of increasing concentration of exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. We show that the STOCSY analysis correctly identifies the different types of correlations among the enriched metabolites involved in the fermentation, ...

  15. Effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid on proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, during the exogenously applied SA to salt stress, proline metabolism was significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied between the SA and salt stress, leading to the maintenance of the turgor by accumulating higher levels of free proline accumulation in C. recutita, supporting its protection from salt ...

  16. Entrainment of Goodwin’s oscillators by periodic exogenous signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proskurnikov, Anton; Cao, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    The circadian pacemakers, which have been discovered in most of living organisms, are known to be entrainable by the environmental exogenuous cues, or zeitgebers (“time givers”). If the influence of an exogenous periodic excitation is sufficiently long, the internal circadian “clock” adjusts the

  17. Alleviating effect of exogenous nitric oxide in cucumber seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study indicated that exogenous NO at 1.0 mmoll-1 SNP enhanced chilling stress tolerance. In comparison with cvZND 461, cvZND407 had higher tolerance ability to chilling stress. Key words: Antioxidative enzymes, chilling stress, cucumber, nitric oxide (NO) osmotic adjustment; reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  18. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  19. Space administration

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  20. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; ERα), not ESR2 (ERβ), modulates estrogen-induced sex reversal in the American alligator, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Bernhard, Melissa C; Katsu, Yoshinao; Zhu, Jianguo; Bryan, Teresa A; Doheny, Brenna M; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-05-01

    All crocodilians and many turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination where the temperature of the incubated egg, during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP), determines the sex of the offspring. Estrogens play a critical role in sex determination in crocodilians and turtles, as it likely does in most nonmammalian vertebrates. Indeed, administration of estrogens during the TSP induces male to female sex reversal at a male-producing temperature (MPT). However, it is not clear how estrogens override the influence of temperature during sex determination in these species. Most vertebrates have 2 forms of nuclear estrogen receptor (ESR): ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ). However, there is no direct evidence concerning which ESR is involved in sex determination, because a specific agonist or antagonist for each ESR has not been tested in nonmammalian species. We identified specific pharmaceutical agonists for each ESR using an in vitro transactivation assay employing American alligator ESR1 and ESR2; these were 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY 200070), respectively. Alligator eggs were exposed to PPT or WAY 200070 at a MPT just before the TSP, and their sex was examined at the last stage of embryonic development. Estradiol-17β and PPT, but not WAY 200070, induced sex reversal at a MPT. PPT-exposed embryos exposed to the highest dose (5.0 μg/g egg weight) exhibited enlargement and advanced differentiation of the Müllerian duct. These results indicate that ESR1 is likely the principal ESR involved in sex reversal as well as embryonic Müllerian duct survival and growth in American alligators.

  1. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  2. Can estrogens promote hypertension during systemic lupus erythematosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Pont, Marcia; Ryan, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    SLE is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that predominantly affects young women. Based on this observation, it has been speculated that sex steroids, particularly estrogens, contribute to SLE disease progression. Young women with SLE are at an increased risk for the development of hypertension yet the reasons for this are unclear. One potential mechanism for the increased risk of hypertension during SLE is the chronic inflammation caused by immune complex mediated tissue injury. Estrogens are known to have an immunomodulatory role that can lead to the production of characteristic autoantibodies important for immune complex formation. Therefore, it is conceivable that during SLE estrogens contribute to tissue injury, increased inflammation and hypertension. This brief review discusses the increased risk for hypertension during SLE, the role of estrogens in immune system function, evidence for estrogens in SLE, and a possible link between estrogens and SLE hypertension. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It appears that the female reproductive events and hormonal treatments may impact the course of bipolar disorder in women. In particular, childbirth is known to be associated with onset of affective episodes in women with bipolar disorder. During the female reproductive events the sex...... hormones, e.g. estrogen, are fluctuating and particularly postpartum there is a steep fall in the levels of serum estrogen. The role of estrogen in women with bipolar disorder is, however, not fully understood. AIM: The main objective of this review is to evaluate the possible relation between serum...... estrogen levels and women with bipolar disorder including studies of the anti manic effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. METHOD: A systematically literature search on PubMed was conducted: two studies regarding the connection between serum estrogen levels and women with bipolar...

  4. Endogenous and Exogenous Equol Are Antiestrogenic in Reproductive Tissues of Apolipoprotein E-Null Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Fitriya N.; Wood, Charles E.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Franke, Adrian A.; Golden, Deborah L.; Adams, Michael R.; Cline, J. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Equol is an isoflavone (IF) metabolite produced by intestinal microbiota in a subset of people consuming dietary soy. Equol producers may show different responses to soy foods and phenotypes related to cancer risk. Here, we assessed the effects of soy IF, endogenous microbial equol production, and dietary racemic equol in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment using gnotobiotic apoE-null mice (n = 9–11/group/sex). At age 3–6 wk, equol-producing microbiota were introduced to one-half of the colony (n = 122). At age 6 wk, mice were randomized to receive a diet that contained 1 of 3 protein sources: casein and lactalbumin, alcohol-washed soy protein (low IF), and intact soy protein (high IF), with total IF amounts of 0, 42, and 566 mg/kg diet, respectively. One-half of each diet group also received racemic equol (291 mg/kg diet). After 16 wk of dietary treatment, serum isoflavonoid profiles varied with sex, soy IF amount, and intestinal microbiota status. There were no treatment effects on tissues of male mice. In females, reproductive tissue phenotypes differed by equol-producing ability (i.e., microbiota status) but not dietary equol or IF content. Equol producers had lower uterine weight, vaginal epithelial thickness, total uterine area, endometrial area, and endometrial luminal epithelial height compared with nonproducers (P chi-square = 0.03). Exogenous equol reduced expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and the proliferation marker Ki67 (P equol, only PGR was reduced (P equol diminishes estrogen-dependent tissue responses in apoE-null mice. PMID:22933749

  5. Endogenous and exogenous equol are antiestrogenic in reproductive tissues of apolipoprotein e-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Fitriya N; Wood, Charles E; Lampe, Johanna W; Hullar, Meredith A J; Franke, Adrian A; Golden, Deborah L; Adams, Michael R; Cline, J Mark

    2012-10-01

    Equol is an isoflavone (IF) metabolite produced by intestinal microbiota in a subset of people consuming dietary soy. Equol producers may show different responses to soy foods and phenotypes related to cancer risk. Here, we assessed the effects of soy IF, endogenous microbial equol production, and dietary racemic equol in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment using gnotobiotic apoE-null mice (n = 9-11/group/sex). At age 3-6 wk, equol-producing microbiota were introduced to one-half of the colony (n = 122). At age 6 wk, mice were randomized to receive a diet that contained 1 of 3 protein sources: casein and lactalbumin, alcohol-washed soy protein (low IF), and intact soy protein (high IF), with total IF amounts of 0, 42, and 566 mg/kg diet, respectively. One-half of each diet group also received racemic equol (291 mg/kg diet). After 16 wk of dietary treatment, serum isoflavonoid profiles varied with sex, soy IF amount, and intestinal microbiota status. There were no treatment effects on tissues of male mice. In females, reproductive tissue phenotypes differed by equol-producing ability (i.e., microbiota status) but not dietary equol or IF content. Equol producers had lower uterine weight, vaginal epithelial thickness, total uterine area, endometrial area, and endometrial luminal epithelial height compared with nonproducers (P chi-square = 0.03). Exogenous equol reduced expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and the proliferation marker Ki67 (P equol, only PGR was reduced (P equol diminishes estrogen-dependent tissue responses in apoE-null mice.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Melatonin in Acute Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Infection-Induced Inflammation and Associated Behavioral Response in Mice After Exposure to Short Photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Adhikary, Rana; Nandi, Ajeya; Sultana, Sahin

    2016-12-01

    The administration of melatonin during acute bacterial infection was evaluated in this study. Mice pre-exposed to normal photoperiodic (NP), short photoperiodic (SP), and long photoperiodic (LP) day lengths were infected separately with live Staphylococcus aureus (5 × 10 6 cells/ml) or Escherichia coli (2.5 × 10 7 colony-forming units/ml) and treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight). Behavioral studies were performed before bacterial infection and after melatonin administration. In mice pre-exposed to SP, exogenous melatonin administration resulted in better clearance of bacteria from blood and behavioral improvement. Reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activities were increased, with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation content and catalase activities in the liver, brain, and spleen after exogenous melatonin administration. The overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6 during acute bacterial infection in mice exposed to different photoperiods was probably regulated by the administration of exogenous melatonin, by reducing neutrophil recruitment to spleen, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in hypothalamus, and C-reactive protein in the serum, and was also associated with improved behavioral response. Photoperiodic variations in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers might be correlated to serum melatonin and corticosterone levels. This study suggests that the administration of melatonin during SP exposure is protective in infection-induced inflammation than NP and LP exposure.

  7. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D; Nagler, James J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17β to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ERα subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17β, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17α-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the α subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exogenous Neuritin Promotes Nerve Regeneration After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Shaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Jingling; Shan, Liya; Song, Xiaoming; Luo, Xing; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient local levels of neurotrophic factor after spinal cord injury (SCI) are the leading cause of secondary injury and limited axonal regeneration. Neuritin belongs to a family of neurotrophic factors that promote neurite outgrowth, maintain neuronal survival, and provide a favorable microenvironment for the regeneration and repair of nerve cells after injury. However, it is not known whether the exogenously applied neuritin protein has a positive effect on nerve repair after SCI. This was investigated in the present study using purified human recombinant neuritin expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris, which was tested in a rat SCI model. A recombinant neuritin concentration of 60 μg/ml induced the recovery of hind limb motor function and stimulated nerve regeneration in rats with SCI. Continuous administration of neuritin at this dose at an early stage after SCI inhibited poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) protein degradation and decreased neuronal apoptosis. In addition, during the critical postinjury period of axonal regeneration, exogenous neuritin treatment increased the expression of neurofilament 200 and growth-associated protein 43 in the damaged tissue, which was associated with the restoration of hind limb movement. These results suggest that neuritin creates an environment that promotes nerve cell survival and neurite regeneration after SCI, which contribute to nerve regeneration and the recovery of motor function.

  9. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant.

  10. Selectivity of natural, synthetic and environmental estrogens for zebrafish estrogen receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Caroline [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay [Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale U896, Institut Régional de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, 34298 Montpellier (France); Pakdel, Farzad [Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Brion, François; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim [Unité Écotoxicologie In Vitro et In Vivo, INERIS, Parc ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Cavaillès, Vincent [Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale U896, Institut Régional de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, 34298 Montpellier (France); Bourguet, William [U1054, Centre de Biochimie Structurale, CNRS UMR5048, Université Montpellier 1 et 2, 34290 Montpellier (France); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14183 Huddinge (Sweden); and others

    2014-10-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental estrogens. As most of these estrogens have only been tested on human estrogen receptors (ERs), it is necessary to measure their effects on zebrafish ERs. In humans there are two distinct nuclear ERs (hERα and hERβ), whereas the zebrafish genome encodes three ERs, zfERα and two zfERβs (zfERβ1 and zfERβ2). In this study, we established HeLa-based reporter cell lines stably expressing each of the three zfERs. We first reported that estrogens more efficiently activate the zfERs at 28 °C as compared to 37 °C, thus reflecting the physiological temperature of zebrafish in wildlife. We then showed significant differences in the ability of agonist and antagonist estrogens to modulate activation of the three zfER isotypes in comparison to hERs. Environmental compounds (bisphenol A, alkylphenols, mycoestrogens) which are hER panagonists and hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zfERα as compared to zfERβs. Among hERα selective synthetic agonists, PPT did not activate zfERα while 16α-LE2 was the most zfERα selective compound. Altogether, these results confirm that all hER ligands control in a similar manner the transcriptional activity of zfERs although significant differences in selectivity were observed among subtypes. The zfER subtype selective ligands that we identified thus represent new valuable tools to dissect the physiological roles of the different zfERs. Finally, our work also points out that care has to be taken in transposing the results obtained using the zebrafish as a model for human physiopathology. - Highlights: • Zebrafish is increasingly used to study the effects of estrogens. • We assessed the activity of pharmaceutical and environmental estrogens on zfERs. • Environmental estrogens displayed greater potency for zfERα compared to zfERβs. • hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zf

  11. Estrogen receptor mRNA in mineralized tissues of rainbow trout: calcium mobilization by estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; Lehane, D B; Pakdel, F; Valotaire, Y; Graham, R; Russell, R G; Henderson, I W

    1997-07-07

    RT-PCR was undertaken on total RNA extracts from bone and scales of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The rainbow trout estrogen receptor (ER)-specific primers used amplified a single product of expected size from each tissue which, using Southern blotting, strongly hybridized with a 32P-labelled rtER probe under stringent conditions. These data provide the first in vivo evidence of ER mRNA in bone and scale tissues of rainbow trout and suggest that the effects of estrogen observed in this study (increased bone mineral and decreased scale mineral contents, respectively) may be mediated directly through ER.

  12. Estrogen signaling in the proliferative endometrium: implications in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira da Costa e Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

  13. Insights from the Study of Animals Lacking Functional Estrogen Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korach, Kenneth S.

    1994-12-01

    Estrogen hormones produce physiological actions within a variety of target sites in the body and during development by activating a specific receptor protein. Hormone responsiveness for the estrogen receptor protein was investigated at different stages of development with the use of gene knockout techniques because no natural genetic mutants have been described. A mutant mouse line without a functional estrogen receptor was created and is being used to assess estrogen responsiveness. Both sexes of these mutant animals are infertile and show a variety of phenotypic changes, some of which are associated with the gonads, mammary glands, reproductive tracts, and skeletal tissues.

  14. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p < 0.05). In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p < 0.05). We conclude that fructose co-ingestion (0.6 g·min−1) with glucose (1.2 g·min−1) provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  15. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  16. Progesterone receptor-B enhances estrogen responsiveness of breast cancer cells via scaffolding PELP1- and estrogen receptor-containing transcription complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A R; Gaviglio, A L; Knutson, T P; Ostrander, J H; D'Assoro, A B; Ravindranathan, P; Peng, Y; Raj, G V; Yee, D; Lange, C A

    2015-01-22

    Progesterone and estrogen are important drivers of breast cancer proliferation. Herein, we probed estrogen receptor-α (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) cross-talk in breast cancer models. Stable expression of PR-B in PR-low/ER+ MCF7 cells increased cellular sensitivity to estradiol and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), as measured in growth assays performed in the absence of exogenous progestin; similar results were obtained in PR-null/ER+ T47D cells stably expressing PR-B. Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that unliganded PR-B induced robust expression of a subset of estradiol-responsive ER target genes, including cathepsin-D (CTSD). Estradiol-treated MCF7 cells stably expressing PR-B exhibited enhanced ER Ser167 phosphorylation and recruitment of ER, PR and the proline-, glutamate- and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) to an estrogen response element in the CTSD distal promoter; this complex co-immunoprecipitated with IGF1 receptor (IGFR1) in whole-cell lysates. Importantly, ER/PR/PELP1 complexes were also detected in human breast cancer samples. Inhibition of IGF1R or phosphoinositide 3-kinase blocked PR-B-dependent CTSD mRNA upregulation in response to estradiol. Similarly, inhibition of IGF1R or PR significantly reduced ER recruitment to the CTSD promoter. Stable knockdown of endogenous PR or onapristone treatment of multiple unmodified breast cancer cell lines blocked estradiol-mediated CTSD induction, inhibited growth in soft agar and partially restored tamoxifen sensitivity of resistant cells. Further, combination treatment of breast cancer cells with both onapristone and IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 was more effective than either agent alone. In summary, unliganded PR-B enhanced proliferative responses to estradiol and IGF1 via scaffolding of ER-α/PELP1/IGF1R-containing complexes. Our data provide a strong rationale for targeting PR in combination with ER and IGF1R in patients with luminal breast cancer.

  17. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  18. Analyzing Bullwhip Effect in Supply Networks under Exogenous Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Darvish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model for analyzing and measuring the propagation of order amplifications (i.e. bullwhip effect for a single-product supply network topology considering exogenous uncertainty and linear and time-invariant inventory management policies for network entities. The stream of orders placed by each entity of the network is characterized assuming customer demand is ergodic. In fact, we propose an exact formula in order to measure the bullwhip effect in the addressed supply network topology considering the system in Markovian chain framework and presenting a matrix of network member relationships and relevant order sequences. The formula turns out using a mathematical method called frequency domain analysis. The major contribution of this paper is analyzing the bullwhip effect considering exogenous uncertainty in supply networks and using the Fourier transform in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We present a number of numerical examples to assess the analytical results accuracy in quantifying the bullwhip effect.

  19. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Estrogens and cognition: Friends or foes?: An evaluation of the opposing effects of estrogens on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Donna L; Pisani, Samantha L

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estrogens are becoming well known for their robust enhancement on cognition particularly for learning and memory that relies upon functioning of the hippocampus and related neural systems. What is also emerging is that estrogen modulation of cognition is not uniform, at times enhancing yet at other times impairing learning. This review explores the bidirectional effects of estrogens on learning from a multiple memory systems view, focusing on the hippocampus and striatum, whereby modulation by estrogens sorts according to task attributes and neural systems engaged during cognition. We highlight our findings showing that the ability to solve hippocampus-sensitive tasks typically improves under relatively high estrogen status while the ability to solve striatum-sensitive tasks degrades with estrogen exposures. Though constrained by dose and timing of exposure, these opposing enhancements and impairments of cognition can be observed following treatments with different estrogenic compounds including the hormone estradiol, the isoflavone genistein found in soybeans, and agonists that are selective for specific estrogen receptors, suggesting that activation of a single receptor type is sufficient to produce the observed shifts in learning strategies. Using this multi-dimensional framework will allow us to extend our thinking of the relationship between estrogens and cognition to other brain regions and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Who Benefits from Transshipment? Exogenous vs. Endogenous Wholesale Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Lingxiu Dong; Nils Rudi

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how transshipments affect manufacturers and retailers, considering both exogenous and endogenous wholesale prices. For a distribution system where a single manufacturer sells to multiple identical-cost retailers, we consider both the manufacturer being a price taker and the manufacturer being a price setter in a single-period setup under multivariate normal demand distribution. In the case of the manufacturer being a price taker, we provide several analytical results regard...

  2. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  3. The role of allelic variation in estrogen receptor genes and major depression in the Nurses Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K; Agnew-Blais, J; Roberts, A L; Hamilton, A; De Vivo, I; Ranu, H; Koenen, K

    2015-12-01

    The role of exogenous and endogenous sex hormones in the etiology of depression remains elusive, in part because sex hormone variation is often correlated with behaviors, life stage changes, and other factors that may influence depression. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) are known to regulate gene expression and estrogen response in areas of the brain associated with major depression and are unlikely to be correlated with exogenous factors that may influence depression. We examined whether functional polymorphisms in these genes are associated with lifetime major depression and chronic major depression among a sample of women from the Nurses' Health Study II (N = 2527). DSM-IV depressive disorder symptoms were assessed by structured interview in 2007. Genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from blood using Taq-man. Women with the AA alleles of ESR2 RS4986938 had the higher prevalence of lifetime major depression than women with other allele frequencies (36.7 % for those with AA versus 28.5 % with GA and 29.1 % with GG, p = 0.02) and chronic major depression (14.7 % for those with AA versus 9.3 % with GA and 9.1 % with GG, p = 0.01). History of post-menopausal hormone (PMH) use modified the association of ESR1 polymorphism RS2234693 with any lifetime depression; specifically, those with the TT allele had the highest risk of lifetime depression among PMH users, and the lowest risk of depression among non-PMH users (p value for interaction = 0.02). Further, carriers of the AA alleles in ESR1 polymorphism RS9340799 had increased prevalence of lifetime major depression only among lifetime PMH users (p = 0.007). Our findings support the hypothesis that estrogen receptor polymorphisms influence risk for major depression; the role of estrogen receptors and other sex steroid-related genetic factors may provide unique insights into etiology.

  4. Migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depends on the availability of exogenous lipids and cholesterol esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalis, Caryl J; Uchida, Aki; Buhman, Kimberly K; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2011-12-01

    We previously described a lipid-accumulating phenotype of estrogen receptor negative (ER(-)) breast cancer cells exemplified by the MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cell lines. These cells had more lipid droplets, a higher uptake of oleic acid and LDL, a higher ratio of cholesteryl ester (CE) to triacylglycerol (TAG), and higher expression of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) as compared to ER(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. LDL stimulated proliferation of ER-cells only, and proliferation was reduced by inhibition of ACAT. We hypothesized that storage of exogenous lipids would confer an energetic advantage. We tested this by depriving cells of exogenous lipids and measuring chemotactic migration, an energy-intensive behavior. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown for 48 h in medium with either 5% FBS or 5% lipoprotein-depleted (LD) FBS. Growth in LD medium resulted in visibly reduced lipid droplets and an 85% decrease in cell migration. Addition of LDL to the LD medium dose-dependently restored the ability to migrate in an ACAT-sensitive manner. LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA was 12-fold higher in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to nontumorigenic ER-MCF-10A breast epithelial cells grown in LD medium. Addition of LDL to the LD medium reduced LDLR mRNA levels in MCF-10A cells only. We asked if ACAT1 activity was associated with the expression of the LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. LDLR mRNA in MDA-MB-231 cells was substantially reduced by inhibition of ACAT, demonstrating that high ACAT1 activity permitted higher LDLR expression. This data substantiates the association of lipid accumulation with aggressive behavior in an ER-breast cancer cell line.

  5. Exposure to exogenous enkephalins disrupts reproductive development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk, methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk, and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans.

  6. Severe Hypernatremia Caused by Acute Exogenous Salt Intake Combined with Primary Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Park, Su Min; Park, Jong Man; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Song, Sang Heon

    2016-12-01

    This report describes a case of severe hypernatremia with a serum sodium concentration of 188.1mmol/L caused by exogenous salt intake. A 26-year-old man diagnosed with Crohn's disease 5 years previously visited our clinic due to generalized edema and personality changes, with aggressive behavior. He had compulsively consumed salts, ingesting approximately 154 g of salt over the last 4 days. Despite careful fluid management that included not only hypotonic fluid therapy for 8 hours but also hypertonic saline administration, his serum sodium level decreased sharply at 40.6 mmol/L; however, it returned to normal within 72-hour of treatment without any neurological deficits. Primary hypothyroidism was also diagnosed. He was discharged after 9 days from admission, with a stable serum sodium level. We have described the possibility of successful treatment in a patient with hypernatremia caused by acute salt intoxication without sustained hypotonic fluid therapy.

  7. Emerging Estrogenic Pollutants in the Aquatic Environment and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Sylvain; Charlier, Thierry D.; Pakdel, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    The number and amount of man-made chemicals present in the aquatic environment has increased considerably over the past 50 years. Among these contaminants, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) represent a significant proportion. This family of compounds interferes with normal hormonal processes through multiple molecular pathways. They represent a potential risk for human and wildlife as they are suspected to be involved in the development of diseases including, but not limited to, reprotoxicity, metabolic disorders, and cancers. More precisely, several studies have suggested that the increase of breast cancers in industrialized countries is linked to exposure to EDCs, particularly estrogen-like compounds. Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are the two main transducers of estrogen action and therefore important targets for these estrogen-like endocrine disrupters. More than 70% of human breast cancers are ERα-positive and estrogen-dependent, and their development and growth are not only influenced by endogenous estrogens but also likely by environmental estrogen-like endocrine disrupters. It is, therefore, of major importance to characterize the potential estrogenic activity from contaminated surface water and identify the molecules responsible for the hormonal effects. This information will help us understand how environmental contaminants can potentially impact the development of breast cancer and allow us to fix a maximal limit to the concentration of estrogen-like compounds that should be found in the environment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of emerging estrogen-like compounds in the environment, sum up studies demonstrating their direct or indirect interactions with ERs, and link their presence to the development of breast cancer. Finally, we emphasize the use of in vitro and in vivo methods based on the zebrafish model to identify and characterize environmental estrogens. PMID:28914763

  8. Effects of estrogen in preventing neuronal insulin resistance in hippocampus of obese rats are different between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2011-11-07

    The effects of estrogen on the prevention of impaired insulin-induced long-term depression in the hippocampus and neuronal insulin signaling caused by high-fat diet (HF) were studied in male and female rats. Both male and female rats were fed with a normal diet (ND; 19.7% energy from fat) or a high-fat diet (HF; 59.3% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. Then, rats were divided into four subgroups: ND, ND+E, HF and HF+E. The subgroups with+E were given 50 μg/kg estrogen subcutaneously once a day for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood and brain samples were collected to determine the peripheral insulin resistance and neuronal insulin resistance, respectively. Both male and female rats fed with HF developed peripheral insulin resistance as indicated by increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin and HOMA index. Estrogen administration decreased those parameters, indicating improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, in both male and female HF rats. HF diet consumption also caused impaired insulin-induced long-term depression in hippocampus and impaired neuronal insulin receptor function and signaling, indicating neuronal insulin resistance, in both male and female rats. Estrogen treatment could attenuate these neuronal impairments only in HF female rats. The activation of the estrogen pathway could preserve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissue in both male and female rats. In neuronal tissue, however, the benefit of estrogen could be found only in female rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous antioxidants—Double-edged swords in cellular redox state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.), alkoxyl radicals (RO.) and peroxyradicals (ROO.). However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects. PMID:20972369

  10. Circulação extracorpórea por membrana (ECMO em recém-nascido com insuficiência respiratória por síndrome de aspiração meconial: efeitos da administração de surfactante exógeno Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in a neonate with respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration syndrome: Effect of the administration of exogenous surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Maksoud-Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar a evolução clínica de recém-nascido portador de insuficiência respiratória grave neonatal secundária à Sindrome de Aspiração Meconial tratado por Circulação Extracorpórea por Membrana, ou, conforme o termo consagrado em língua inglesa, ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, o efeito do uso de surfactante exógeno neste caso e os custos do procedimento. MÉTODOS: Descrição de um caso de Síndrome de Aspiração Meconial, tratado na UCINE (Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcantara, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: O suporte extracorpóreo teve a duração de 5 dias, sem complicações clínicas ou mecânicas. Surfactante exógeno de origem porcina foi administrado no 4o dia, após o quê observamos uma melhora significativa na complacência pulmonar. O recém-nascido pôde então ser rapidamente decanulado. Os custos do tratamento foram compatíveis com a realidade nacional em relação a um recém-nascido criticamente enfermo. CONCLUSÕES: a ECMO é indicada em casos de insuficiência respiratória neonatal que não respondam a outros tratamentos existentes. Deve ser disponível em Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo (UTIs neonatais de hospitais terciários e ser empregada conforme critérios bem estabelecidos. A utilização de surfactante exógeno aparentemente antecipou a retirada da ECMO e, portanto, deve ser considerada em casos semelhantes. Os custos do tratamento justificam a organização de Equipes de ECMO nessas UTIs.OBJECTIVES: to present the clinical outcome of a newborn with severe respiratory distress secondary to meconium aspiration syndrome and treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; and to present the effect of the use of exogenous surfactant in this case and the cost of the procedure. METHODS: Case report of a newborn with meconium aspiration syndrome and treated at the neonatal ICU of the

  11. Factor XII mutations, estrogen-dependent inherited angioedema, and related conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binkley, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical and genetic features of the conditions known as estrogen-dependent inherited angioedema, estrogen-associated angioedema, hereditary angioedema with normal C-1 inhibitor, type...

  12. The in vivo estrogenic and in vitro anti-estrogenic activity of permethrin and bifenthrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M.; He, Guochun; Smalling, Kelly L.; Denison, Michael S.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroids are highly toxic to fish at parts per billion or parts per trillion concentrations. Their intended mechanism is prolonged sodium channel opening, but recent studies reveal that pyrethroids such as permethrin and bifenthrin also have endocrine activity. Additionally, metabolites may have greater endocrine activity than parent compounds. We evaluated the in vivo concentration-dependent ability of bifenthrin and permethrin to induce choriogenin (an estrogen-responsive protein) in Menidia beryllina, a fish species known to reside in pyrethroid contaminated aquatic habitats. We then compared the in vivo response to an in vitro assay: CALUX (Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression). Juvenile Menidia beryllina exposed to bifenthrin (1, 10, 100 ng/L), permethrin (0.1, 1, 10 µg/L), and ethinylestradiol (1, 10, 50 ng/L) had significantly higher ng/mL choriogenin (Chg) measured in whole body homogenate than controls. While Chg expression in fish exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE2) exhibited a traditional sigmoidal concentration-response, curves fit to Chg expressed in fish exposed to pyrethroids suggest a unimodal response, decreasing slightly as concentration increases. While the in vivo response indicated that bifenthrin and permethrin or their metabolites act as estrogen agonists, the CALUX assay demonstrated estrogen antagonism by the pyrethroids. Our results, supported by evidence from previous studies, suggest that bifenthrin and permethrin, and/or their metabolites, appear to act as estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in vivo, and that the unmetabolized pyrethroids, particularly bifenthrin, act as an ER antagonists in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:23007834

  13. Selective estrogen receptor down-regulator and selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially regulate lactotroph proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kansra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha, even in absence of estrogen (E2, plays a critical role in lactotroph homeostasis. The anti-estrogen ICI 182780 (ICI, but not tamoxifen or raloxifene, rapidly promoted the degradation of ERalpha, and inhibited cell proliferation. However, all three ER antagonists suppressed PRL release, suggesting that receptor occupation is sufficient to inhibit prl gene expression whereas receptor degradation is required to suppress lactotroph proliferation. In this study our objective was to determine whether ERalpha degradation versus occupation, differentially modulates the biological outcome of anti-estrogens.Using the rat lactotroph cell line, GH3 cells, we report that ICI induced proteosome mediated degradation of ERalpha. In contrast, an ERalpha specific antagonist, MPP, that does not promote degradation of ERalpha, did not inhibit cell proliferation. Further, ICI, but not MPP, abolished anchorage independent growth of GH3 cells. Yet, both ICI and MPP were equally effective in suppressing prl expression and release, as well as ERE-mediated transcriptional activity.Taken together, our results demonstrate that in lactotrophs, ERalpha degradation results in decreased cell proliferation, whereas ERalpha occupation by an antagonist that does not promote degradation of ERalpha is sufficient to inhibit prl expression.

  14. Exogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 induces modest leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Steven M; Andonegui, Graciela; Bonder, Claudine S; Liu, Lixin

    2008-06-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12), a CXC chemokine, has been found to be involved in inflammation models in vivo and in cell adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether exogenous SDF-1 induces leukocyte recruitment in mice. After systemic administration of SDF-1alpha, expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin and VCAM-1 in mice was measured using a quantitative dual-radiolabeled Ab assay and leukocyte recruitment in various tissues was evaluated using intravital microscopy. The effect of local SDF-1alpha on leukocyte recruitment was also determined in cremaster muscle and compared with the effect of the cytokine TNFalpha and the CXC chemokine keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC; CXCL1). Systemic administration of SDF-1alpha (10 microg, 4-5 h) induced upregulation of P-selectin, but not VCAM-1, in most tissues in mice. It caused modest leukocyte recruitment responses in microvasculature of cremaster muscle, intestine, and brain, i.e., an increase in flux of rolling leukocytes in cremaster muscle and intestines, leukocyte adhesion in all three tissues, and emigration in cremaster muscle. Local treatment with SDF-1alpha (1 microg, 4-5 h) reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased leukocyte adhesion and emigration in cremasteric venules, but the responses were much less profound than those elicited by KC or TNFalpha. SDF-1alpha-induced recruitment was dependent on endothelial P-selectin, but not P-selectin on platelets. We conclude that the exogenous SDF-1alpha enhances leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and induces modest and endothelial P-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment.

  15. Function of endothelium at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before and after rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, O. (Olga)

    2011-01-01

    Function of endothelium at 43 adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before rehabilitation and at 33 healthy adolescents has been studied. Disorder of endothelial function has been established in 32 (74.4%) adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity and in 7 (21.2%) healthy adolescents. We showed the efficiency of the rehabilitation program on restoration of endothelial function at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity.

  16. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  17. [Amenorrhea following the administration of oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertrudis Diez, M A

    1984-04-01

    It is estimated that about 2.2% of women experience amenorrhea and anovulatory cycles after discontinuing use of oral contraceptives (OCs), although exact figures are lacking due to differences of definition and problems of diagnosis. Several possible mechanisms to explain the occurrence of postpill amenorrhea have been suggested, including endometrial atrophy and fibrosis, changes in the ovaries similar to those found in Stein-Levanthal syndrome, hypothalamic disorder, late menarche, irregular cycles, and periods of amenorrhea before or during OC use. Previous pregnancies, duration of pill use, and formulation utilized are apparently not related to occurrence of post-pill amenorrhea. Clinical diagnosis requires detection of ovulation by means of basal body temperature, cervical mucus changes, and vaginal smears. If amenorrhea persists after administration of a progestagen to induce bleeding, more complete examinations must be done to exclude pituitary tumor, Cushing's syndrome, thyroid problems, and possible precocious menopause or anorexia nervosa. X-rays, administration of thyroid or suprarenal hormones, gonadotropins, or estrogens, an endometrial biopsy, or laparoscopy may be necessary. Generally all test values are normal except that levels of estrogens, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are usually reduced. Treatment of post-pill amenorrhea can take various forms. About 5% of cases appear to resolve spontaneouusly; efforts should therefore be made to detect ovulation through basal body temperature, cervical mucus and vaginal smears. Corticosteroids including prednisone and dexametasone may administrered, or if estrogen levels are low and the patient fails to respond to progestagens with withdrawal bleeding, clomiphene may be used. Human menopausal gonadotropin or human chorionic gonadotropin can be in patients with low estrogen levels who do not respond to clomiphene. Ergocriptine derivatives may be used in cases with associated

  18. Estrogen Replacement Regulates Vaginal Innervations in Ovariectomized Adult Virgin Rats: A Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our previous Gräfenberg spot findings confirmed that the distal-third areas of the anterior vaginal wall bore a significantly greater number of nerves and sexual hormone may have certain degree of influence on these significant differences. However, the role of estrogen in vaginal innervations remains controversial. Methods. To investigate whether hormonal-neural interactions occur in the vagina, sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham-operated, ovariectomy, and 4 treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, vaginal biopsies were prepared with hematoxylin and eosin and PGP9.5 using immunohistochemistry. Results. The density of small nerve fibers was significantly higher in the distal-half areas of intact vaginal walls than the proximal-half areas (P=0.001. In contrast, the overall PGP 9.5-ir fiber innervation density was significantly decreased in the OVX rats subjected to surgical menopause. Sustained estrogen administration for 2 weeks resulted in nerve fiber proliferation, with values reaching normal levels in the low-dose estradiol valerate group. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that systemic hormonal therapy with low-dose estradiol valerate is effective and safe for treating deficient vaginal innervation caused by low level of estrogen activity in menopausal women and may aid studies to identify an optimal estradiol dose to provide relief from vaginal discomfort.

  19. Antiosteoclastic Activity of Milk Thistle Extract after Ovariectomy to Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Lye Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  20. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Julia S; Hankinson, Susan E; Caporaso, Neil E; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee, and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways, and ratios by intake categories, and P values for tests of linear trend. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; Ptrend = 0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (Ptrend = 0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; Ptrend = 0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1-3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend = 0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.01). Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Dietary Estrogens Act through Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Processes and Show No Antiestrogenicity in Cultured Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela; Davis; Tally; Korkman; Salo; Vihko; Santti; Korach

    1994-06-01

    Dietary estrogens are believed to exert their estrogenic or antiestrogenic (chemopreventive) action in estrogen responsive cells by interacting with the estrogen receptor (ER). The present study was undertaken to evaluate a direct role of ER in estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities of three dietary estrogens (coumestrol, genistein and zearalenone). HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with an expression vector for ER and an estrogen-responsive reporter gene construct. Coumestrol, genistein, and zearalenone all increased the activity of the reporter gene, only in the presence of the ER, and the activation was blocked with the ER antagonist ICI 164,384, demonstrating an ER-specific, agonist response. In addition, in MCF-7 cells, coumestrol and zearalenone increased the expression of the estrogen-responsive pS2 gene. Coumestrol and genistein inhibited the purified estrogen-specific 17ß-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase enzyme and the conversion of estrone to 17ß-estradiol in T-47D cells, which contain this enzyme. However, they did not inhibit the estrone-induced proliferation of T-47D cells. In conclusion, coumestrol, genistein, and zearalenone are all potent estrogens in vitro, and they act through ER mediated mechanism. Our findings give no evidence to support the idea that these compounds act as antiestrogens through competition for the binding sites of ER or by inhibition of the conversion of estrone to 17ß-estradiol in breast cancer cells, since this effect was nullified by their agonist action on cell proliferation. Therefore, their suggested chemopreventive action in estrogen-related cancers must be mediated through other mechanisms.

  3. Estrogen-dependent changes in estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression in middle-aged female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoko; Yuri, Kazunari

    2014-01-16

    During aging, estrogen production and circulating levels of estrogen are markedly decreased in females. Although several differences exist in the process of reproductive aging between women and female rats, the results of many studies suggest that the female rat, especially the middle-aged or aged ovariectomized female, is an important animal model of hormone loss in women. In target tissues including the brain, the actions of estrogen are mediated mainly via the alpha and beta subtypes of the estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-β). Estrogen treatment is known to change the expression of ER-α mRNA and protein in specific regions of the brain in middle-aged female rodents. In contrast, we do not know if estrogen regulates the expression of ER-β in the brain at this stage of life. In the present study, we performed in situ hybridization on brain sections of ovariectomized and estrogen-treated middle-aged female rats to reveal the effects of estrogen on the expression of ER-β throughout the brain. Our results showed that estrogen treatment decreased the number of ER-β mRNA-positive cells in the mitral cell and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb, central amygdaloid nucleus, medial geniculate nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and reticular part of the substantia nigra. As compared to the results of previous studies of young females, our data revealed that the regions in which expression of ER-β mRNA expression is affected by estrogen differ in middle age. These results suggest that the effects of estrogen on ER-β expression change with age. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fate of estrogens in biological treatment of concentrated black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Feminisation of male fish is for a large part due to compounds entering surface waters via wastewater. For domestic wastewater, two natural estrogens, estrone and 17-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen, constituent of the contraceptive pill, are mainly responsible for this effect. These compounds

  5. Estrogen-related and other disease diagnoses preceding Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latourelle, Jeanne C; Dybdal, Merete; Destefano, Anita L

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen exposure has been associated with the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as many other disorders, and yet the mechanisms underlying these relations are often unknown. While it is likely that estrogen exposure modifies the risk of various diseases through many different...

  6. Toxicogenomics-based in vitro alternatives for estrogenicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Testing chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting potential, including interference with estrogen receptor signaling, is an important aspect to assess the safety of currently used and newly developed chemicals. The standard test for disruption of normal estrogen function is the in vivo uterotrophic

  7. Phytoestrogenic property of Labisia pumila for use as an estrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is still unknown. This is because the pathways which are affected by LP or the cross-talk with other estrogenic pathways are still unknown. Perhaps in future, these are areas in which research on LP could be focused on. Key words: Labisia pumila, Kacip Fatimah, traditional medicine, estrogen replacement therapy.

  8. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  9. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): new alternatives for osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, L; Villalvilla, A; Largo, R; Herrero-Beaumont, G; Roman-Blas, J A

    2014-04-01

    The dramatic rise in the prevalence rate of osteoarthritis (OA) after the menopause and the presence of estrogen receptors in joint tissues suggest that estrogen may help protect against the development of OA. Trials of estrogen therapy have produced inconclusive results, however, partly because of flaws in study design and partly because of the complexity of the mechanisms underlying estrogen's effects on joint tissues. Initial studies of the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have reported beneficial effects in OA. These agents may exert both a direct effect upon joint cartilage and indirect effects on subchondral bone, synovium, muscle, tendons and ligaments. SERMs may be particularly beneficial for postmenopausal patients with osteoporotic OA, a phenotype defined by decreased bone density, associated with high remodeling in subchondral bone. More research is needed, though, before SERMs can become a therapeutic option for OA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KBERG: KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Suisheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Tan, Sin Lam

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen has a profound impact on human physiology affecting transcription of numerous genes. To decipher functional characteristics of estrogen responsive genes, we developed KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes (KBERG). Genes in KBERG were derived from Estrogen Responsive Gene Database...... (ERGDB) and were analyzed from multiple aspects. We explored the possible transcription regulation mechanism by capturing highly conserved promoter motifs across orthologous genes, using promoter regions that cover the range of [-1200, +500] relative to the transcription start sites. The motif detection......-friendly system that provides links to other relevant resources such as ERGDB, UniGene, Entrez Gene, HomoloGene, GO, eVOC and GenBank, and thus offers a platform for functional exploration and potential annotation of genes responsive to estrogen. KBERG database can be accessed at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/kberg....

  11. Long-term use of estrogens: benefit or risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Pietrzak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens are widely used in hormone replacement therapy, gynecology, urogynecology and rarely in dermatology. Non-therapeutic use of estrogens is very widespread. Estrogens are used as contraceptives, which cause a lot of serious side effects. A common clinical problem is skin hyperpigmentation (melasma, occurring mainly in women who take contraceptives with high doses of estrogens. But low doses of estrogens may also cause skin side effects. The mechanism of melasma development is very complicated and not fully understood. It is very likely that UV radiation and genetic background can affect melasma development. Effective therapy should lead to prevention or alleviation of relapses. Treatment should also reduce the area of lesions and improve the appearance of skin. There is no effective and universal pattern of treatment, in which only one substance or method is used. A combination of different methods is used to optimize the therapy. An important role is attributed to prevention, especially protection from UV radiation.

  12. Regioselective deuterium labeling of estrone and catechol estrogen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Douglas E; Ritonya, Justin; Jakopovic, Scott; Maloley-Lewis, Brittney

    2014-12-01

    Increased exposure to estrogens and estrogen metabolites is linked with increased rates of breast, ovarian and other human cancers. Metabolism of estrogen can led to formation of electrophilic o-quinones capable of binding to DNA. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of estrogen-induced DNA damage, estrone and catechol estrogens derived from estrone, have been regioselectively labeled with deuterium at the 1-position. Estrone-1-d, estrone-1,2,4-d3, 4-hydroxyestrone-1-d and 2-hydroxyestrone-1-d have been synthesized with or without deuteriums at the 16-position. The key labeling step involves deuterated trifluoroacetic acid exchange catalyzed by t-butyl alcohol. This economical, straightforward labeling technique makes available a range of estrone compounds containing deuterium at the 1-position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells or Estrogen may be Beneficial in Treating Heatstroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsien Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This current review summarized animal models of heatstroke experimentation that promote our current knowledge of therapeutic effects on cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation with human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs or estrogen in the setting of heatstroke. Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that HUCBCs provide a promising new therapeutic method against neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury as well as blood disease. More recently, we have also demonstrated that postor pretreatment by HUCBCs may resuscitate heatstroke rats with by reducing circulatory shock, and cerebral nitric oxide overload and ischemic injury. Moreover, CD34+ cells sorted from HUCBCs may improve survival by attenuating inflammatory, coagulopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction during experimental heatstroke. Many researchers indicated pro(e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (e.g. interleukin-10 [IL-10] cytokines in the peripheral blood stream correlate with severity of circulatory shock, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, and neuronal damage occurring in heatstroke. It has been shown that intravenous administration of CD34+ cells can secrete therapeutic molecules, such as neurotrophic factors, and attenuate systemic inflammatory reactions by decreasing serum TNF-α but increasing IL-10 during heatstroke. Another line of evidence has suggested that estrogen influences the severity of injury associated with cerebrovascular shock. Recently, we also successfully demonstrated estrogen resuscitated heatstroke rats by ameliorating systemic inflammation. Conclusively, HUCBCs or estrogen may be employed as a beneficial therapeutic strategy in prevention and repair of cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation during heatstroke.

  14. Window Of Opportunity: Estrogen As A Treatment For Ischemic Stroke✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotection research in the last 2 decades has witnessed a growing interest in the functions of estrogens as neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective action of estrogens has been well demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. However, the major conducted clinical trials so far have raised concern for the protective effect of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The discrepancy could be partly due to the mistranslation between the experimental stroke research and clinical trials. While predominant experimental studies tested the protective action of estrogens on ischemic stroke using acute treatment paradigm, the clinical trials have mainly focused on the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the primary and secondary stroke prevention which has not been adequately addressed in the experimental stroke study. Although the major conducted clinical trials have indicated that estrogen replacement therapy has an adverse effect and raise concern for long term estrogen replacement therapy for stroke prevention, these are not appropriate for assessing the potential effects of acute estrogen treatment on stroke protection. The well established action of estrogen in the neurovascular unit and its potential interaction with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) makes it a candidate for the combined therapy with rtPA for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke. On the other hand, the “critical period” and newly emerged “biomarkers window” hypotheses have indicated that many clinical relevant factors have been underestimated in the experimental ischemic stroke research. The development and application of ischemic stroke models that replicate the clinical condition is essential for further evaluation of acute estrogen treatment on ischemic stroke which might provide critical information for future clinical trials. PMID:23340160

  15. Androgens and estrogens in skeletal sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Laurent

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an endocrine tissue expressing androgen and estrogen receptors as well as steroid metabolizing enzymes. The bioactivity of circulating sex steroids is modulated by sex hormone-binding globulin and local conversion in bone tissue, for example, from testosterone (T to estradiol (E2 by aromatase, or to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-reductase enzymes. Our understanding of the structural basis for gender differences in bone strength has advanced considerably over recent years due to increasing use of (high resolution peripheral computed tomography. These microarchitectural insights form the basis to understand sex steroid influences on male peak bone mass and turnover in cortical vs trabecular bone. Recent studies using Cre/LoxP technology have further refi ned our mechanistic insights from global knockout mice into the direct contributions of sex steroids and their respective nuclear receptors in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and other cells to male osteoporosis. At the same time, these studies have reinforced the notion that androgen and estrogen defi ciency have both direct and pleiotropic effects via interaction with, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1, inflammation, oxidative stress, central nervous system control of bone metabolism, adaptation to mechanical loading, etc., This review will summarize recent advances on these issues in the fi eld of sex steroid actions in male bone homeostasis.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of estrogen-dependent memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal memory formation is highly regulated by post-translational histone modifications and DNA methylation. Accordingly, these epigenetic processes play a major role in the effects of modulatory factors, such as sex steroid hormones, on hippocampal memory. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the ability of the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition memory in ovariectomized female mice requires ERK-dependent histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Although these data provide valuable insight into the chromatin modifications that mediate the memory-enhancing effects of E2, epigenetic regulation of gene expression is enormously complex. Therefore, more research is needed to fully understand how E2 and other hormones employ epigenetic alterations to shape behavior. This review discusses the epigenetic alterations shown thus far to regulate hippocampal memory, briefly reviews the effects of E2 on hippocampal function, and describes in detail our work on epigenetic regulation of estrogenic memory enhancement. PMID:24878494

  17. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  18. The relationship between estrogen, estrogen receptors and periodontal disease in adult women: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Laurence F; Freeman, Katherine

    2014-04-01

    The literature supports the fact that estrogen plays an important role in skeletal maintenance and remodeling. Estrogen, acting through estrogen receptors in the cells of the periodontal ligament, has a regulatory interaction on bone dynamics through a complex set of basic multicellular units (BMUs). Deficiency of estrogen results in an increased number of BMUs and enhanced bone turnover. The impact of the changes in estrogen deficiency on bone dynamics is primarily mediated through osteoclasts, with greater interdiction of estrogen's actions on trabecular bone than on cortical bone. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature for evidence to support an association between estrogen and periodontal disease in adult women, as well as bone mineral density, and to help clarify the mechanism of action. We found in our review of all pertinent databases, including Cochrane, that there are few peer-reviewed clinical studies that examine the relationship between estrogen deficiency and periodontal disease, and bone mineral density (BMD) and periodontal disease. Thus, future research is needed to investigate these associations so that at-risk patients can be identified earlier to avoid functional and esthetic sequellae of periodontal disease.

  19. Bioassay of estrogenic compounds in transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying a recombinant human estrogen receptor gene and a GFP reporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Hideaki; Chua, Nam-Hai; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying a recombinant human estrogen receptor gene and a green fluorescent protein reporter gene were used to bioassay estrogenic compounds. We constructed four recombinant human estrogen receptor genes by combining the DNA-binding domain of LexA, a synthetic nuclear localization signal, a ligand-binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, and a transactivation domain of VP16 in different orders; the XEV plants were the most sensitive, and were able to detect 0.001 ng ml(-1) of 17ss-estradiol (E(2)). The transgenic plants absorbed E(2) and 4-nonylphenol present in the nutrient solution, whereas most of the other compounds seemed to be retained in, or on, the roots. Estrone, methoxychlor, bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol in the medium were clearly detected by RT-PCR and PCR of the genomic DNA. The transgenic Arabidopsis XEV plants thus have potential for the bioassay of estrogenic compounds.

  20. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats. Copyright © 2015

  1. Tissue distribution and elimination of estrogenic and anti-inflammatory catechol metabolites from sesaminol triglucoside in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Kuo-Ching; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2010-07-14

    Sesaminol triglucoside (STG) is the main sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) lignan. Like many other plant lignans, STG can be converted to the mammalian lignans by intestinal microbiota. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the distribution of STG metabolite in rats, and the effects of STG and its metabolite on in vitro inflammation and estrogenic activities. STG was metabolized via intestinal microflora to a biologically active catechol moiety which would then be absorbed into the body in rats. After oral administration of STG to Sprague-Dawley rats, the concentrations of major STG metabolites in rectum, cecum, colon, and small intestines are higher than those in liver, lung, kidney, and heart. Its concentration in brain is low but detectable. The present study demonstrates that STG may be metabolized to form the catechol metabolites first by intestinal microflora and then incorporated via intestine absorption into the cardiovascular system and transported to other tissues. Results showed that the catechol metabolites were found to be able to penetrate the tail end of intestines (large intestine) and go through urinary excretion. STG metabolites significantly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The estrogenic activities of STG metabolites were also established by ligand-dependent transcriptional activation through estrogen receptors. This study clearly shows that STG has anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activities via metabolism of intestinal microflora.

  2. Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Opuntia ficus indica as a Tissue- and Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung Ha; Jeong, Hyesoo; Zhou, Wenmei; Liu, Xiyuan; Kim, Soolin; Jang, Chang Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Sohn, Johann; Park, Hye-Jin; Sung, Na-Hye; Hong, Cheol Yi; Chang, Minsun

    2016-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with potential for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to relieve peri/postmenopausal symptoms. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the SERM properties of the extract of Korean-grown Opuntia ficus-indica (KOFI). The KOFI extract induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven transcription in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines and the expression of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells. The flavonoid content of different KOFI preparations affected ERE-luciferase activities, implying that the flavonoid composition likely mediated the estrogenic activities in cells. Oral administration of KOFI decreased the weight gain and levels of both serum glucose and triglyceride in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Finally, KOFI had an inhibitory effect on the 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of the endometrial epithelium in OVX rats. Our data demonstrate that KOFI exhibited SERM activity with no uterotrophic side effects. Therefore, KOFI alone or in combination with other botanical supplements, vitamins, or minerals may be an effective and safe alternative active ingredient to HRTs, for the management of postmenopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Estrogen in Cardiovascular Disease during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. Methods PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. Findings The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against

  4. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Cain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  5. Determination of estrogen receptor {beta}-mediated estrogenic potencies of hydroxylated PCBS by a yeast two-hybrid assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, H.; Kumate, M.; Nakaoka, H.; Yonekura, S. [Daiichi Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nishikawa, J.; Nishihara, T. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Several environmental phenolic chemicals such as Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A (BPA) have been previously shown to possess estrogenic properties. In the previous paper, we have investigated the estrogenic activity of a series of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) by a yeast two-hybrid assay (estrogen receptor{alpha} (ER{alpha}) -TIF2), in which the expression of estrogenic activity is based on the interaction of chemicals with ER{alpha}, and demonstrated that 4'-OH-CB30 and 4'-OH-CB61 are more estrogenic than BPA, one of the environmental estrogens. We have showed that one chlorine substitution adjacent to 4-OH at 3- or 5-position significantly reduces the ER{alpha}-mediated estrogenic activity of 4-OH-PCBs. Thus, 4'-OH-CB25 and 4-OH-CB56 showed a very weak estrogenicity. We have also showed that 4-OH-PCBs with two chlorine substitutions adjacent to 4-OH at 3- and 5-position such as 4'-OH-CB79 (hydroxylated metabolite of CB77) and persistent 4-OH-PCBs retained in human blood (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146 and 4-OH-CB187) have no ER{alpha}-mediated estrogenic activity. ER is known to have two subtypes, namely ER{alpha} and ER{beta} and it is reported that ligand, some agonist and antagonist have a different binding affinity for ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. However, there is limited information on ER{beta}-mediated endocrine disrupting potency. In this study, we examined the ER{beta}-mediated estrogenic activity of a series of OH-PCBs, including environmentally relevant 4-OH-PCBs by a yeast two-hybrid assay (ER{beta}-TIF2).

  6. Cholestasis and endogenous opioids: liver disease and exogenous opioid pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar

    2007-01-01

    A class of endogenous opioids is upregulated in liver disease particular to cholestasis, which contributes to symptoms in liver disease such as pruritus, hypotension and encephalopathy. Symptoms associated with cholestasis are reversed or at least ameliorated by mu opioid receptor antagonists. Palliation of symptoms related to cholestatic liver disease also involves bile acid binding agents. Opioid receptor antagonists, unlike bile acid binding agents, have been reported to relieve multiple symptoms, except for pruritus, and improve liver function as demonstrated in experimental cholestasis. Exogenous opioid pharmacology is altered by liver disease. Dose reduction or prolongation of dose intervals is necessary depending on the severity of liver disease.

  7. Medical contraindications to estrogen and contraceptive use among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Colleen P; Zhao, Xinhua; Sileanu, Florentina E; Mor, Maria K; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-10-27

    Women veterans have high rates of medical comorbidities and may be particularly vulnerable to adverse health outcomes associated with unintended pregnancy. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of medical contraindications to estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraception among women veterans of reproductive age and to evaluate the relationship between contraindications and contraceptive use. This was a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, telephone-based survey with a national sample of 2302 female veterans, aged 18-45 years, who use the Veterans Administration Healthcare System for primary care. This analysis included women at risk of unintended pregnancy, defined as heterosexually active and not pregnant or trying to conceive and with no history of hysterectomy or infertility. Seven contraindications to combined hormonal contraception were identified using survey data or medical diagnosis codes: hypertension; coronary artery disease; active migraine in women older than 35 years or migraine with aura; smoking in women older than 35 years; and a history of thromboembolism, stroke, or breast cancer. Outcomes were current use of combined hormonal contraception and contraceptive method type (combined hormonal contraception, and other prescription methods, nonprescription methods or no method). Multivariable logistic and multinomial regression were used to assess the relationship between contraindications and combined hormonal contraception use and method type, respectively. Among 1169 women veterans at risk of unintended pregnancy, 339 (29%) had at least 1 contraindication to combined hormonal contraception. The most prevalent conditions were hypertension (14.9%) and migraine (8.7%). In adjusted analyses, women with contraindications were less likely than women without contraindications to report use of combined hormonal contraception (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54, 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.79). Relative to use of combined

  8. Inhibition of local estrogen synthesis in the hippocampus impairs hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jennifer J; Szinte, Julia S; Starrett, Joseph R; Krentzel, Amanda A; Fortress, Ashley M; Remage-Healey, Luke; Frick, Karyn M

    2016-07-01

    The potent estrogen 17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a critical role in mediating hippocampal function, yet the precise mechanisms through which E2 enhances hippocampal memory remain unclear. In young adult female rodents, the beneficial effects of E2 on memory are generally attributed to ovarian-synthesized E2. However, E2 is also synthesized in the adult brain in numerous species, where it regulates synaptic plasticity and is synthesized in response to experiences such as exposure to females or conspecific song. Although de novo E2 synthesis has been demonstrated in rodent hippocampal cultures, little is known about the functional role of local E2 synthesis in mediating hippocampal memory function. Therefore, the present study examined the role of hippocampal E2 synthesis in hippocampal memory consolidation. Using bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusions of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, we first found that blockade of dorsal hippocampal E2 synthesis impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We next found that elevated levels of E2 in the dorsal hippocampus observed 30min after object training were blocked by dorsal hippocampal infusion of letrozole, suggesting that behavioral experience increases acute and local E2 synthesis. Finally, aromatase inhibition did not prevent exogenous E2 from enhancing hippocampal memory consolidation, indicating that hippocampal E2 synthesis is not necessary for exogenous E2 to enhance hippocampal memory. Combined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampally-synthesized E2 is necessary for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation in rodents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced expression of the molluscan estrogen receptor (ER) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Vinh University, 182 Le Duan St., Vinh City, Nghe An (Viet Nam); MacFarlane, Geoff R. [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kong, Richard Yuen Chong [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); O’Connor, Wayne A. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Taylors Beach, NSW 2316 (Australia); Yu, Richard Man Kit, E-mail: Richard.Yu@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • This is the first report on the putative promoter sequence of a molluscan ER gene. • The gene promoter contains putative binding sites for direct and indirect interaction with ER. • E2 upregulates ER gene expression in the ovary in vitro and in vivo. • E2-induced gene expression may require a novel ligand-dependent receptor. • The ER proximal promoter is hypomethylated regardless of gene expression levels. - Abstract: In vertebrates, estrogens and estrogen mimicking chemicals modulate gene expression mainly through a genomic pathway mediated by the estrogen receptors (ERs). Although the existence of an ER orthologue in the mollusc genome has been known for some time, its role in estrogen signalling has yet to be deciphered. This is largely due to its constitutive (ligand-independent) activation and a limited mechanistic understanding of its regulation. To fill this knowledge gap, we cloned and characterised an ER cDNA (sgER) and the 5′-flanking region of the gene from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata. The sgER cDNA is predicted to encode a 477-amino acid protein that contains a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD) typically conserved among both vertebrate and invertebrate ERs. A comparison of the sgER LBD sequence with those of other ligand-dependent ERs revealed that the sgER LBD is variable at several conserved residues known to be critical for ligand binding and receptor activation. Ligand binding assays using fluorescent-labelled E2 and purified sgER protein confirmed that sgER is devoid of estrogen binding. In silico analysis of the sgER 5′-flanking sequence indicated the presence of three putative estrogen responsive element (ERE) half-sites and several putative sites for ER-interacting transcription factors, suggesting that the sgER promoter may be autoregulated by its own gene product. sgER mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in adult oyster tissues, with the highest expression found in the ovary

  10. 21 CFR 862.1270 - Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1270 Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. (a) Identification. As estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system is a device intended to measure total estrogens in plasma, serum, and...

  11. Estrogen and the central control of body fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2009-05-25

    Body fluid volume and electrolyte concentration are maintained at optimal levels by complex behavioral and physiological mechanisms that are integrated and coordinated by the central nervous system. From initial studies of estrogen effects on salt and water intake in the 1970s and later investigations of the role of estrogen in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine function, it has become increasingly clear that body fluid volume and osmotic regulation are affected by estrogen. In the early 1990s, estrogen receptors were identified throughout the central nervous system, in areas including circumventricular organs that detect humoral signals associated with body fluid challenges, and hypothalamic and hindbrain nuclei involved in behavioral, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular responses to body fluid challenges. Taken together, the body of evidence amassed from more than 40 years of investigations suggests that the central actions of estrogen influence body fluid regulation and, more specifically, compensatory responses to perturbations of osmotic or volume balance in two interrelated ways. Estrogen alter the detection of signals by the central nervous system and, at the same time, act within central pathways to modify neurotransmitter systems that mediate specific responses to osmotic or volume challenges. This review focuses on the central actions of estrogen in influencing the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral processes that subserve body fluid regulation.

  12. High salivary estrogen and risk of developing pregnancy gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Sorsa, Timo; Pajukanta, Riitta; Könönen, Eija

    2013-09-01

    Estrogen regulates the cellular functions of several tissues that may disturb the host response against bacteria. The present aim is to evaluate the contribution of estrogen to the severity of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. Salivary estrogen levels from 30 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females were related to their periodontal health parameters, including visible plaque index (VPI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) from six sites per tooth. The pregnant group was examined three times during pregnancy and twice during postpartum, and the non-pregnant group was examined three times, once per subsequent month. Salivary estrogen levels increased significantly during the second (P high estrogen and high VPI levels had the highest frequency of pregnancy gingivitis. During the second and third trimesters, simultaneously enhanced estrogen levels and VPI scores brought an additional risk of developing gingivitis compared with a high VPI score alone. The present findings suggest that, during pregnancy, the estrogen level determines the magnitude of gingival inflammation developed against microbial plaque at the gingival margin.

  13. Estrogens mediate cardiac hypertrophy in a stimulus-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Christopher D; Harvey, Pamela A; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of cardiac hypertrophy, an established risk factor for heart failure, is generally lower in women compared with men, but this advantage is lost after menopause. Although it is widely believed that estrogens are cardioprotective, there are contradictory reports, including increased cardiac events in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens and enhanced cardiac protection from ischemic injury in female mice without estrogens. We exposed aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which produce no estrogens, to both pathologic and physiologic stimuli. This model allows an investigation into the effects of a complete, chronic lack of estrogens in male and female hearts. At baseline, female ArKO mice had normal-sized hearts but decreased cardiac function and paradoxically increased phosphorylation of many progrowth kinases. When challenged with the pathological stimulus, isoproterenol, ArKO females developed 2-fold more hypertrophy than wild-type females. In contrast, exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy was unaffected by the absence of estrogens in either sex, although running performance was blunted in ArKO females. Thus, loss of estrogen signaling in females, but not males, impairs cardiac function and sensitizes the heart to pathological insults through up-regulation of multiple hypertrophic pathways. These findings provide insight into the apparent loss of cardioprotection after menopause and suggest that caution is warranted in the long-term use of aromatase inhibitors in the setting of breast cancer prevention.

  14. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions. PMID:26812056

  15. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Seeger

    Full Text Available Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα or β (hERβ. Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions.

  16. Webb Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Prahl, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    I’ve built an Internet based administration front-end for the company Allt I Brand in Jamjö. Allt I Brand’s main goals are maintenance and sale of fire preventive equipment. This front-end is programmed mostly in PHP, connected to a MySQL database. Because both Allt I Brand’s main page and my administration front-end use the same database and the database is designed to virtually fit any type of company, the result is both dynamic and powerful. The front-end design is made to make it easy to ...

  17. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  18. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  19. Functional adaptation in female rats: the role of estrogen signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah J Sample

    Full Text Available Sex steroids have direct effects on the skeleton. Estrogen acts on the skeleton via the classical genomic estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, a membrane ER, and the non-genomic G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER. GPER is distributed throughout the nervous system, but little is known about its effects on bone. In male rats, adaptation to loading is neuronally regulated, but this has not been studied in females.We used the rat ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in ovariectomized (OVX female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with a placebo, estrogen (17β-estradiol, or G-1, a GPER-specific agonist. Fourteen days after OVX, rats underwent unilateral cyclic loading of the right ulna; half of the rats in each group had brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA of the loaded limb before loading. Ten days after loading, serum estrogen concentrations, dorsal root ganglion (DRG gene expression of ERα, ERβ, GPER, CGRPα, TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and load-induced skeletal responses were quantified. We hypothesized that estrogen and G-1 treatment would influence skeletal responses to cyclic loading through a neuronal mechanism. We found that estrogen suppresses periosteal bone formation in female rats. This physiological effect is not GPER-mediated. We also found that absolute mechanosensitivity in female rats was decreased, when compared with male rats. Blocking of adaptive bone formation by BPA in Placebo OVX females was reduced.Estrogen acts to decrease periosteal bone formation in female rats in vivo. This effect is not GPER-mediated. Gender differences in absolute bone mechanosensitivity exist in young Sprague-Dawley rats with reduced mechanosensitivity in females, although underlying bone formation rate associated with growth likely influences this observation. In contrast to female and male rats, central neuronal signals had a diminished effect on adaptive bone formation in estrogen-deficient female rats.

  20. Estrogen modulates osteogenic activity and estrogen receptor mRNA in mesenchymal stem cells of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F-P; Hu, C-H; Wang, K-C

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether estrogen regulates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) activity in bone marrow from osteoporotic postmenopausal women. MSCs were collected from bone marrows which were aspirated simultaneously during iliac bone graft procedures in spine fusion surgery in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. We investigated proliferation, differentiation, osteogenic activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) α and β mRNA expression of primary culture MSCs isolated from four osteoporotic postmenopausal women, treated in vitro with or without 17β-estradiol. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, interleukin-6, ERα and ERβ mRNA was evaluated. The expression of ALP and osteocalcin mRNA was detected during the cultures of MSCs and was observed to increase up to day 20. As compared with MSCs not treated with estradiol, a significant increase in DNA content, ERα mRNA, and ALP mRNA expression was observed in cultures with estradiol. The mRNA expression of osteocalcin and interleukin-6 was significantly lower in MSCs treated with estradiol than those without estradiol. There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression of ERβ between MSCs cultured with and without estradiol. In the proper environment, MSCs from osteoporotic women can differentiate into osteoblasts and estrogen enhances the osteogenic activity possibly via ERα activity.

  1. Biomarker Genes for Detecting Estrogenic Activity of Endocrine Disruptors via Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (EDs are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. Since several EDs have a structure similar to that of endogenous steroid hormones such as estrogens, they intend to have an affinity for steroid hormone receptors and alter hormone-mediated metabolism by binding to these receptors. EDs are therefore a global concern and assays should be developed to efficiently determine whether these compounds are detrimental to biological systems. Diverse experimental methods may help determine the endocrine disrupting potential of EDs and evaluate the adverse effects of a single and/or combination of these reagents. Currently, biomarkers have been employed to objectively measure EDs potency and understand the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are required to develop ideal screening methods and biomarkers to determine EDs potency at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this review, we describe the biomarkers for estrogenicity of EDs identified both in vitro and in vivo, and introduce a biomarker, cabindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, that may be used to assess estrogenic activity of EDs.

  2. Exogenous orienting of visual-spatial attention in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rodrigo; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Visual spatial orienting of attention towards exogenous cues has been one of the attentional functions considered to be spared in ADHD. Here we present a design in which 60 (30 ADHD) children, age: 10.9±1.4, were asked to covertly orient their attention to one or two (out of four) cued locations, and search for a target stimulus in one of these locations, while recording behavioral responses and EEG/ERP. In all conditions, ADHD children showed delayed reaction times and poorer behavioral performance. They also exhibited larger cue-elicited P2 but reduced CNV in the preparation stage. Larger amplitude of CNV predicted better performance in the task. Target-elicited N1 and selection negativity were also reduced in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD. Groups also differed in the early and late P3 time-windows. The present results suggest that exogenous orienting of attention could be dysfunctional in ADHD under certain conditions. This limitation is not necessarily caused by an impairment of the orienting process itself, but instead by a difficulty in maintaining the relevant information acquired during the early preparation stage through the target processing stage, when it is really needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  4. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  5. Biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging with exogenous contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Geoffrey P; Yeager, Doug; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a biomedical imaging modality that provides functional information, and, with the help of exogenous contrast agents, cellular and molecular signatures of tissue. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging assisted with exogenous contrast agents. Dyes, noble metal nanoparticles, and other constructs are contrast agents which absorb strongly in the near-infrared band of the optical spectrum and generate strong photoacoustic response. These contrast agents, which can be specifically targeted to molecules or cells, have been coupled with photoacoustic imaging for preclinical and clinical applications ranging from detection of cancer cells, sentinel lymph nodes, and micrometastasis to angiogenesis to characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Multi-functional agents have also been developed, which can carry drugs or simultaneously provide contrast in multiple imaging modalities. Furthermore, contrast agents were used to guide and monitor the therapeutic procedures. Overall, photoacoustic imaging shows significant promise in its ability to assist in diagnosis, therapy planning, and monitoring of treatment outcome for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other pathologies.

  6. Functional CD1a is stabilized by exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolova, Vania; Kistowska, Magdalena; Paoletti, Samantha; Baltariu, Gabriel M; Bausinger, Huguette; Hanau, Daniel; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2006-05-01

    Self-glycosphingolipids bind to surface CD1 molecules and are readily displaced by other CD1 ligands. This capacity to exchange antigens at the cell surface is not common to other antigen-presenting molecules and its physiological importance is unclear. Here we show that a large pool of cell-surface CD1a, but not CD1b molecules, is stabilized by exogenous lipids present in serum. Under serum deprivation CD1a molecules are altered and functionally inactive, as they are unable to present lipid antigens to T cells. Glycosphingolipids and phospholipids bind to, and restore functionality to CD1a without the contribution of newly synthesized and recycling CD1a molecules. The dependence of CD1a stability on exogenous lipids is not related to its intracellular traffic and rather to its antigen-binding pockets. These results indicate a functional dichotomy between CD1a and CD1b molecules and provide new information on how the lipid antigenic repertoire is immunologically sampled.

  7. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  8. Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits shedding of ADAM17 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowska, Monika; Stalińska, Krystyna; Mezyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wawro, Karolina; Duda, Katarzyna; Das, Sudipta; Bereta, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Both ADAM17, the secretase responsible for the shedding of ectodomains of numerous membrane proteins including TNF and its receptors, as well as nitric oxide synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase play regulatory roles in inflammation and tumor progression. We analyzed the effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on the expression and activity of ADAM17 in murine endothelial cells and a monocyte/macrophage cell line. We found that endogenous nitric oxide influenced neither ADAM17 mRNA level nor the shedding of two ADAM17 substrates, TNF and TNFR1. Exogenous NO significantly diminished the release of TNF and TNFR1 without affecting the ADAM17 transcript level. Our data seem contrary to a previous report that showed the activation of ADAM17 by nitric oxide (Zhang et al., 2000, J Biol Chem 275: 15839-15844). We discuss potential mechanisms of NO-mediated inhibition of ectodomain shedding and possible reasons of discrepancy between our results and the previous report.

  9. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  10. Risk of Hyponatremia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated with Exogenous Vasopressin Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Nancy; Yu, Jessica; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Mahmoud, Sherif Hanafy

    2017-04-01

    Vasopressin is one of the vasopressors used to augment blood pressure in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with clinically significant vasospasm. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the administration of vasopressin to a population of SAH patients was an independent predictor of developing hyponatremia. A retrospective review on the health records of 106 patients admitted to the University of Alberta Hospital Neurosciences ICU, Edmonton AB, Canada, with SAH from June 2013 to December 2015 was conducted. Serum sodium changes in patients receiving vasoactive drugs were compared. In addition, independent predictors for hyponatremia (Na < 135 mmol/L) were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Patients treated with vasopressin in addition to other vasoactive drugs had significantly higher sodium changes compared to those treated with other vasoactive drugs (-4.7 ± 6 vs -0.1 ± 2.4 mmol/L, respectively, p value 0.001). Hyponatremia occurred in 14 patients (70 %) treated with vasopressin, 10 patients (44 %) treated with vasoactive drugs other than vasopressin (p value 0.081), and 24 patients (38 %) who did not receive any vasoactive drug (p value 0.013). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, when adjusting for disease severity, age, sex, aneurysm location, and treatment, vasopressin was associated with hyponatremia (OR 3.58, 95 % CI, 1.02-12.5, p value 0.046). The results of the present study suggest that hyponatremia may be more common in SAH patients treated with exogenous vasopressin compared to those who did not receive it. Serum sodium should be monitored closely when vasopressin is being used in the SAH population. Further studies are needed to confirm the effect of exogenous vasopressin on serum sodium levels in SAH populations.

  11. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  12. Alternatives to estrogen to manage hot flushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Hot flushes are probably the most common symptom resulting in medical consultation in relation to the menopause and, when severe, they can affect quite dramatically women's quality of life. Hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy (HRT) is the most effective treatment for this symptom and in the ideal setting of clinical trials, under optimal selection of patients and compliance, it reduces hot flushes by about 70-80%. Recently, however, a series of 'scares' has had large resonance in the lay press about possible adverse effects of HRT. These have undermined both doctors' and women's confidence in the use of these compounds. This has been witnessed by the recent fall in HRT sales. A number of compounds, both pharmacological and herbal in origin, have been used for the treatment of neurovegetative symptoms in menopausal women. The present article critically reviews evidence of the efficacy of some of the most commonly used compounds and assesses their effect in relation to that of HRT.

  13. Computational method for discovery of estrogen responsive genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Suisheng; Tan, Sin Lam; Ramadoss, Suresh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    of human genes are functionally well characterized. It is still unclear how many and which human genes respond to estrogen treatment. We propose a simple, economic, yet effective computational method to predict a subclass of estrogen responsive genes. Our method relies on the similarity of ERE frames...... across different promoters in the human genome. Matching ERE frames of a test set of 60 known estrogen responsive genes to the collection of over 18,000 human promoters, we obtained 604 candidate genes. Evaluating our result by comparison with the published microarray data and literature, we found...

  14. [Local estrogen therapy--clinical implications--2012 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot-Kierepa, Marta; Bartuzi, Aleksandra; Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Rechberger, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    With increasing longevity in Poland, women can now expect to live around 40% of their lives after menopause, and there is a growing desire for older women to preserve their vitality sexual function and quality of life. The most common urogenital symptoms associated with menopause are dryness, followed by irritation or itching, and discharge, with a substantial number of post-menopausal women also being affected by dysuria. These symptoms are the result of vaginal atrophy which is in turn caused by reduced transudation through the vaginal epithelium and reduced cervical gland secretions resulting from post-menopausal estrogen depletion. Vaginal atrophy generally occurs 4-5 years after the last menstrual period and progressively increases in prevalence in the subsequent years. Importantly vaginal atrophy is strongly associated with sexual dysfunction, and lower urinary tract symptoms, such as frequency urgency nocturia and dysuria, as well as incontinence and recurrent infection are reported more frequently in the presence of vaginal atrophy Those symptoms, apart from being bothersome for the patients also negatively impact their quality of life. Consequently before irreversible changes occur, early detection and treatment of vaginal atrophy should be implemented. Estrogen therapy is the most commonly prescribed treatment. Estrogens restore the cytology pH and vascularity of the vagina, resulting in symptom resolution for the majority of treated women. Because vaginal atrophy symptoms tend to occur later than vasomotor symptoms, many women do not necessarily require or wish to take systemic estrogen treatment if their symptoms are restricted to the urogenital tract. Vaginal estrogen products deliver estrogen locally to vaginal tissues with little or no systemic absorption and provide an effective alternative to systemic estrogen therapy for these women. Various vaginal estrogen preparations such as conjugated equine estrogens, estradiol and estriol vaginal creams, a

  15. Exogenous leptin protects rat models of sodium taurocholate‑induced severe acute pancreatitis through endocrinal and immunological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiyu; Lu, Qin; Yin, Chenghong; Xiao, Hongli; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Qu; Yang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common non‑bacterial disease compromising pancreatic tissues. Adipocyte‑derived leptin is closely associated with the severity and clinical outcome of pancreatitis. The potential protective effects of exogenous leptin administration on a rat model of severe AP (SAP) remain to be elucidated, and were examined in the present study. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sham operation group (SO), SAP model group (SAP) and leptin group (LEP). Each group was divided into three sub‑groups by observation time (24, 48 and 72 h). The SAP models were prepared by retrograde injection of 6% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic‑bile duct. Following model establishment, exogenous leptin was intraperitoneally injected into mice at 50 mg/kg in the LEP group. Subsequently, serum amylase, lipase and glucose levels at particular time‑points were analyzed using a fully‑automatic biochemical analyzer, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑10 were detected using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological changes in pancreatic tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the pancreatic expression of the long form of the leptin receptor (OB‑Rb) was detected and evaluated using Nest‑polymerase chain reaction analysis. The mortality rates of the model rats were compared between the groups. Following the administration of exogenous leptin, the serum level of amylase in the LEP group was significantly decreased at 48 h, compared with that in the SAP group, with serum lipase levels decreased at 48 and 72 h, and blood glucose levels decreased at 72 h. Regarding the serum inflammatory factors, the level of TNF‑α in the LEP group was significantly lower, compared with that in the SAP group at 24 h; whereas no significant difference was observed in the serum level of IL‑10 between the two groups. Regarding the pathological changes in the pancreas, the tissues in the LEP

  16. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. Engineering Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  18. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  19. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  20. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L) can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L), alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  1. Estrogen Treatment Impairs Cognitive Performance following Psychosocial Stress and Monoamine Depletion in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K.; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause, and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Methods Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. Results E2-treated compared to placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared to placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared to placebo-treated women after but not before the TSST, though the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning were not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifest before the TSST or at baseline. Conclusions These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in

  2. Estrogen treatment impairs cognitive performance after psychosocial stress and monoamine depletion in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul A; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol (E2) administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17beta-E2 (1 mg/d for 1 mo, then 2 mg/d for 2 mo). At the end of the 3-month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. E2-treated compared with placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared with placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared with placebo-treated women after, but not before, the TSST, although the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning was not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifested before the TSST or at baseline. These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in postmenopausal women may be more complex than

  3. Evaluation of on-site wastewater treatment technology to remove estrogens, nonylphenols, and estrogenic activity from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Benjamin D; Weinberg, Howard S

    2010-04-15

    A series of five on-site wastewater treatment systems were monitored for the removal of steroid estrogens, nonylphenols, and total estrogenic activity through several stages of pretreatment including aerobic and anaerobic sand filters. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the ability of traditional septic systems and different types of pretreatment add-ons to remove nonylphenols (NPs) and the steroid estrogens estrone (E1), 17beta- estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17alpha- ethinylestradiol (EE2) from the final effluent prior to discharge into the environment and (2) to examine the ability of each system and each stage of treatment within the system to remove total estrogenic activity as measured by a yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. YES data and instrumental data are compared in the context of analyte recovery and estradiol equivalents. Results indicate excellent removal of NPs and total estrogenic activity to near or below detection limits when multiple stages of pretreatment including aerobic sand filters are used. However, only moderate removal of the steroid estrogens was observed through the anaerobic sand filters.

  4. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  5. Endogenous and Exogenous Substances Influencing the Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Geçgelen Cesur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces. Recent studies have focused on the effects of systemic or local applications of medications and the intake of dietary supplements as well as the mechanical forces. Factors affecting the orthodontic tooth movement are parathyroid hormone, thyroid hormones, estrogen, vitamin D3, eicosanoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, paracetamol, corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, cholesterol drugs, anticonvulsants, oral contraceptives, alcohol and nicotine use, nitric oxide, and fluoride. These medications have an important effect on the rate of tooth movement and treatment time. NSAIDs decrease tooth movement, but paracetamol has no effect. Parathyroid and thyroxin hormones increase tooth movement. Bisphosphonates have a strong inhibitory effect. Vitamin D3 stimulates tooth movement and dietary calcium seems to reduce it. It is important to discuss with patients about the consumption of these substances during orthodontic treatment.

  6. Are estrogen-related drugs new alternatives for the management of osteoarthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Ya-Ping; Tian, Fa-Ming; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Wen-Ya; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease involving multiple physiopathological mechanisms. The increased prevalence of OA after menopause and the presence of estrogen receptors in joint tissues suggest that estrogen could help prevent development of OA. This review summarizes OA research with a focus on the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Preclinical studies and clinical trials of estrogen therapy have reported inconsistent results. However...

  7. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    unbalanced, leading to formation of higher levels of catechol estrogen quinones , which react with DNA to form adducts. A low ratio indicates that a...polymorphisms and risk of hormonal cancers. The estrogen quinone resulting from CYP1B1 activity may proceed to adduct formation in the presence of...person’s estrogen metabolism is balanced, and formation of estrogen-DNA adducts is relatively low. Figure 1. Ratios of depurinating estrogen-DNA

  8. Ginsenoside Rd promotes non-amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid precursor protein processing by regulating phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Hu, Gengyao; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Tao; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Juanfang

    2017-01-01

    Previous study demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rd. (GS-Rd) could improve cognitive and memory function in animal model of Alzheimer's disease. This study was aimed to investigate whether GS-Rd could improve non-amyloidogenic pathway by activating estrogen receptor (ER). 10mg/kg GS-Rd in ovariectomy (OVX)+GS-Rd group and equivalent volume of saline in sham operated group and OVX group were administrated intraperitoneally for two months, respectively. The Morris Water Maze was used to examine cognitive function of rats, with sAPPα and Aβ levels in the hippocampi measured. The culture medium of HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells were incubated with GS-Rd, ER antagonist ICI182.780, MAPK inhibitor PD98059, or PI3Kinhibitor LY294002, respectively. sAPPα levels was measured, and expression of α-secretase, sAPPα, β-secretase, Aβ, phosphorylation form of AKT (p-AKT), total AKT, p-ERK, total ERK, p-ERα, total ERα, p-ERβ and total ERβ were examined by Western blot to explore the estrogenic-like activity of GS-Rd. GS-Rd attenuate cognitive and memory impairment, increased levels of sAPPα and reduced extracellular Aβ of OVX rats. In HT22, GS-Rd could upregulate sAPPα level, which can be inhibited by inhibitor of MAPK and PI3K pathway. In addition, inhibitor of estrogen receptor prevented GS-Rd triggered release of sAPPα and activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways. GS-Rd could increase expression of α-secretase and sAPPα, while decrease expression of β-secretase and Aβ. Besides, GS-Rd promoted phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha at Ser118 residue. Our findings show that GS-Rd enhances learning and memory function of OVX rats by activating estrogen-like activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation alters lung compliance and tissue association of exogenous surfactant in preterm newborn rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Kajsa; Bouhafs, Rabea K L; Jarstrand, Connie; Curstedt, Tore; Blennow, Mats; Robertson, Bengt

    2005-05-01

    In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant administration followed by immediate extubation to spontaneous breathing with nasal continuous positive airway pressure reduces the need for mechanical ventilation. With this treatment approach, repeated doses of surfactant are rarely indicated. We used a rabbit model to test the hypothesis that exogenous surfactant therapy followed by spontaneous breathing results in a more sustained initial treatment response compared with treatment followed by mechanical ventilation. Preterm rabbits (gestational age 28.5 d) were treated with pharyngeal deposition of 200 mg/kg radiolabeled surfactant (14C-Curosurf) and randomized to 4 h of spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation or to a control group, killed immediately after surfactant administration. With pharyngeal deposition, 46 +/- 10% (mean +/- SEM) of the administered surfactant reached the lungs. The dynamic lung-thorax compliance was higher in spontaneously breathing compared with mechanically ventilated animals (median, 9.9 and 0.75 ml x cm H2O(-1) x kg(-1), respectively; p mechanically ventilated animals (p mechanically ventilated animals. We conclude that the initial lung tissue association of exogenous surfactant is impaired by mechanical ventilation. This is associated with a reduction of dynamic compliance and evidence of increased surfactant inactivation.

  10. Studies on estrogenic activities of food additives with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and mechanism of estrogenicity by BHA and OPP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okubo, Tomoko; Kano, Itsu

    2003-01-01

    Estrogenic activities of more than 90 chemicals including food additives, foodstuffs of plant origin, and some chemicals, which could be orally ingested, were examined by assaying estrogen receptor (ER...

  11. Phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind to the rat uterine estrogen receptor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branham, William S; Dial, Stacey L; Moland, Carrie L; Hass, Bruce S; Blair, Robert M; Fang, Hong; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Perkins, Roger G; Sheehan, Daniel M

    2002-01-01

    Consumption of phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in food products or as dietary supplements is of interest because of both the potential beneficial and adverse effects of these compounds in estrogen...

  12. Role of estrogen receptor‐α on food demand elasticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    ... lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α...

  13. Role of estrogen receptor-α on food demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on food intake under free-feeding conditions, yet the effects of estrogens on food-maintained operant responding have been studied to a much lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α, knockout of subtype β, and their wild type controls. The mice responded in a closed economy, and the price of food was increased by increasing the fixed-ratio response requirement every four sessions. Overall, we found that mice with the knockout of receptor subtype α had the most elastic demand functions. Therefore, under these conditions, estrogens increased food seeking via activation of the receptor subtype α. The results were inconsistent with those reported by previous studies that employed free-feeding conditions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Weak estrogenic transcriptional activities of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGNARD ELISE; Bremer, Susanne; LAPENNA SILVIA

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the European Commission has restricted the use of Bisphenol A in plastic infant feeding bottles. In a response to this restriction, Bisphenol S is now often used as a component of plastic substitutes for the production of babybottles. One of the major concerns leading to the restriction of Bisphenol A was its weak estrogenic activity. By using two highly standardised transactivation assays, we could demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S i...

  15. Is there an estrogenic component in the metabolic syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Starcke, S.; Vollmer, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major upcoming concerns leading to health related problems in the industrialized societies is the metabolic syndrome which is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, raised fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. The focus of this review is on a potential estrogenic linkage between the metabolic mechanisms involved into the development of this disease cluster and specific estrogen related regulatory pattern. The candidate molecules for this link are insulin and insulin-lik...

  16. Estrogens and Coronary Artery Disease: New Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M R; Barton, M

    2016-01-01

    In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system. Here, we discuss the role of estrogen receptors in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and review natural and synthetic ligands of estrogen receptors as well as their effects in physiology, on cardiovascular risk factors, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Data from preclinical and clinical studies using nonselective compounds activating GPER, which include selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen or raloxifene, selective estrogen receptor downregulators such as Faslodex™ (fulvestrant/ICI 182,780), vitamin B3 (niacin), green tea catechins, and soy flavonoids such as genistein or resveratrol, strongly suggest that activation of GPER may afford therapeutic benefit for primary and secondary prevention in patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease. Evidence from preclinical studies suggest similar efficacy profiles for selective small molecule GPER agonists such as G-1 which are devoid of uterotrophic activity. Further clinical research in this area is warranted to provide opportunities for future cardiovascular drug development. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health. At the same time, literary data support that anovulatory infertility is a very strong risk for breast cancer in young women either with or without obesity. In the majority of premenopausal women, obesity associated insulin resistance is moderate and may be counteracted by their preserved circulatory estrogen level. Consequently, it is not obesity but rather the still sufficient estrogen-level, which may be protective against breast cancer in young adult females. In obese older women, never using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the breast cancer risk is high, which is associated with their continuous estrogen loss and increasing insulin-resistance. By contrast, obese postmenopausal women using HRT, have a decreased risk for breast cancer as the protective effect of estrogen-substitution may counteract to their obesity associated systemic alterations. The revealed inverse correlation between circulatory estrogen-level and breast cancer risk in obese women should advance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and promotes primary prevention measures. New patents recommend various methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity

  18. On weak exogeneity of the student's t and elliptical linear regression models

    OpenAIRE

    Jiro Hodoshima

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies weak exogeneity of conditioning variables for the inference of a subset of parameters of the conditional student's t and elliptical linear regression models considered by Spanos (1994). Weak exogeneity of the conditioning variables is shown to hold for the inference of regression parameters of the conditional student's t and elliptical linear regression models. A new definition of weak exogeneity is given which utilizes block-diagonality of the conditional information matri...

  19. Contact Process with Exogenous Infection and the Scaled SIS Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, June

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of contagion in networks depends on the graph topology. This paper is concerned with studying the time-asymptotic behavior of the extended contact processes on static, undirected, finite-size networks. This is a contact process with nonzero exogenous infection rate (also known as the {\\epsilon}-SIS, {\\epsilon} susceptible-infected-susceptible, model [1]). The only known analytical characterization of the equilibrium distribution of this process is for complete networks. For large networks with arbitrary topology, it is infeasible to numerically solve for the equilibrium distribution since it requires solving the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem of a matrix that is exponential in N , the size of the network. We show that, for a certain range of the network process parameters, the equilibrium distribution of the extended contact process on arbitrary, finite-size networks is well approximated by the equilibrium distribution of the scaled SIS process, which we derived in closed-form in prior work. We co...

  20. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  1. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi Sh.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Epulides Fissurata (EF are common proliferative and denture- induced lesions of the oral cavity with a predilection for female. This suggests a possible role for sex steroid hormones in the development and progression of these lesions. Purpose: The objective of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of epulis fissuratum of the oral cavity for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression in epithelial, stromal, inflammatory and endothelial cells populations. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 samples of formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded epulis fissuratums including marginal mucosal tissues in 4 cases as a control group, were immuno-histochemically evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors protein expression. Result: In 10 cases, estrogen receptor positivity was found within the epithelium and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was present in 7 cases. Stromal cells exhibited estrogen and progesterone receptor immunostaining in many cases but only few cases showed expression of these receptors in the inflammatory and endothelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were also detected in some cases containing salivary glands tissue. Conclusion: Although chronic irritation may be the initiating factor for the occurence of epulis fissuratum, some of the cells in the lesion, could be potential targets for estrogen and progestrone hormones.

  2. Estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids: Pathways, functions and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2017-11-15

    Terpenes are made of the isoprene unit (C 5 ), and along with their derivatives, terpenoids, they are widely distributed in plants as active ingredients involved in anti-inflammation, anti-carcinogenesis and neuroprotection. Estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids are an important category of phytoestrogens and have been used as traditional medicines. The comprehensive list of estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids includes hemi-, mono-, sesqui-, di-, tri-, tetra- and polyterpenes, their derivatives, and meroterpenes, along with the signaling pathways and cellular functions on which their estrogenicity is exerted. Signaling pathways are further classified as bidirectional or unidirectional, the latter being further divided into two types depending upon the presence of both ligands, or the absence of one or both ligands. Although estrogenic activity of terpenes and terpenoids was evaluated by ligand-binding assays, yeast two-hybrid assays, reporter-gene assays, transcription assays, protein assays, cell assays and animal testing, the mechanism of estrogenic activity is still not fully understood. Applications of estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids are categorized into cancer treatment and prevention, cardioprotection, endocrine toxicity/reproductive dysfunction, food/supplement/traditional medicine, immunology/inflammation, menopausal syndromes and neuroprotection, where their benefits are discussed based on their availability, stability and variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estrogen modulates mesenchyme-epidermis interactions in the adult nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Jung; Oh, Ji Won; Spandau, Dan F; Tholpady, Sunil; Diaz, Jesus; Schroeder, Laura J; Offutt, Carlos D; Glick, Adam B; Plikus, Maksim V; Koyama, Sachiko; Foley, John

    2017-04-15

    Maintenance of specialized epidermis requires signals from the underlying mesenchyme; however, the specific pathways involved remain to be identified. By recombining cells from the ventral skin of the K14-PTHrP transgenic mice [which overexpress parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in their developing epidermis and mammary glands] with those from wild type, we show that transgenic stroma is sufficient to reprogram wild-type keratinocytes into nipple-like epidermis. To identify candidate nipple-specific signaling factors, we compared gene expression signatures of sorted Pdgfrα-positive ventral K14-PTHrP and wild-type fibroblasts, identifying differentially expressed transcripts that are involved in WNT, HGF, TGFβ, IGF, BMP, FGF and estrogen signaling. Considering that some of the growth factor pathways are targets for estrogen regulation, we examined the upstream role of this hormone in maintaining the nipple. Ablation of estrogen signaling through ovariectomy produced nipples with abnormally thin epidermis, and we identified TGFβ as a negatively regulated target of estrogen signaling. Estrogen treatment represses Tgfβ1 at the transcript and protein levels in K14-PTHrP fibroblasts in vitro, while ovariectomy increases Tgfb1 levels in K14-PTHrP ventral skin. Moreover, ectopic delivery of Tgfβ1 protein into nipple connective tissue reduced epidermal proliferation. Taken together, these results show that specialized nipple epidermis is maintained by estrogen-induced repression of TGFβ signaling in the local fibroblasts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of photosynthetic electrons derivation by exogenous redox mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longatte, Guillaume; Fu, Han-Yi; Buriez, Olivier; Labbé, Eric; Wollman, Francis-André; Amatore, Christian; Rappaport, Fabrice; Guille-Collignon, Manon; Lemaître, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the complex process that occurs in plants or algae by which the energy from the sun is converted into an electrochemical potential that drives the assimilation of carbon dioxide and the synthesis of carbohydrates. Quinones belong to a family of species commonly found in key processes of the Living, like photosynthesis or respiration, in which they act as electron transporters. This makes this class of molecules a popular candidate for biofuel cell and bioenergy applications insofar as they can be used as cargo to ship electrons to an electrode immersed in the cellular suspension. Nevertheless, such electron carriers are mostly selected empirically. This is why we report on a method involving fluorescence measurements to estimate the ability of seven different quinones to accept photosynthetic electrons downstream of photosystem II, the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. To this aim we use a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, impaired in electron downstream of photosystem II and assess the ability of quinones to restore electron flow by fluorescence. In this work, we defined and extracted a "derivation parameter" D that indicates the derivation efficiency of the exogenous quinones investigated. D then allows electing 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone and p-phenylbenzoquinone as good candidates. More particularly, our investigations suggested that other key parameters like the partition of quinones between different cellular compartments and their propensity to saturate these various compartments should also be taken into account in the process of selecting exogenous quinones for the purpose of deriving photoelectrons from intact algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagi, Ahmad; Johansson, Helene; Zemack, Helen; Salipalli, Sandeep; Mörk, Lisa-Mari; Kannisto, Kristina; Jorns, Carl; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Stokkeland, Knut; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Jonigk, Danny; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Nowak, Greg; Ellis, Ewa C S

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys) A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT) expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM) treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539)-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml) reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  6. Exogenous alpha 1-antitrypsin down-regulates SERPINA1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Karadagi

    Full Text Available The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues. In addition, SERPINA1 mRNA was assessed in lung tissues from PiZZ emphysema patients with and without A1AT therapy, and in adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC isolated from healthy PiMM donors. In a dose-dependent manner purified A1AT lowered SERPINA1 expression in hepatocytes. This latter effect was more prominent in hepatocytes stimulated with OSM. Although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0539-analysis of lung tissues showed lower SERPINA1 expression in PiZZ emphysema patients receiving augmentation therapy relative to those without therapy. Finally, exogenously added purified A1AT (1mg/ml reduced SERPINA1 expression in naïve as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human adherent PBMCs. Exogenous A1AT protein reduces its own endogenous expression. Hence, augmentation with native M-A1AT protein and a parallel reduction in expression of dysfunctional mutant Z-A1AT may be beneficial for PiZZ liver, and this motivates further studies.

  7. Behavioural dissociation between exogenous and endogenous temporal orienting of attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rohenkohl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the current study we compared the effects of temporal orienting of attention based on predictions carried by the intrinsic temporal structure of events (rhythm and by instructive symbolic cues; and tested the degree of cognitive, strategic control that could be exerted over each type of temporal expectation. The experiments tested whether the distinction between exogenous and endogenous orienting made in spatial attention may extend to the temporal domain. TASK DESIGN AND MAIN RESULTS: In this task, a ball moved across the screen in discrete steps and disappeared temporarily under an occluding band. Participants were required to make a perceptual discrimination on the target upon its reappearance. The regularity of the speed (rhythmic cue or colour (symbolic cue of the moving stimulus could predict the exact time at which a target would reappear after a brief occlusion (valid trials or provide no temporal information (neutral trials. The predictive nature of rhythmic and symbolic cues was manipulated factorially in a symmetrical and orthogonal fashion. To test for the effects of strategic control over temporal orienting based on rhythmic or symbolic cues, participants were instructed either to "attend-to-speed" (rhythm or "attend-to-colour". Our results indicated that both rhythmic and symbolic (colour cues speeded reaction times in an independent fashion. However, whilst the rhythmic cueing effects were impervious to instruction, the effects of symbolic cues were contingent on the instruction to attend to colour. FINAL CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results provide evidence for the existence of qualitatively separable types of temporal orienting of attention, akin to exogenous and endogenous mechanisms.

  8. Disulfide bonds regulate binding of exogenous ligand to human cytoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Taku; Nose, Azusa; Kukino, Kaori; Sawai, Hitomi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Uno, Tadayuki

    2014-06-01

    Cytoglobin (Cgb) was discovered a decade ago and is a fourth member of the group of hexacoordinated globin-folded proteins. Although some crystal structures have been reported and several functions have been proposed for Cgb, its physiological role remains uncertain. In this study, we measured cyanide binding to the ferric state of the wild-type (WT) Cgb, and found that the binding consisted of multiple steps. These results indicated that Cgb may be comprised of several forms, and the presence of monomers, dimers, and tetramers was subsequently confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Remarkably, each species contained two distinguishable forms, and, in the monomer, analyses of alternative cysteine states suggested the presence of an intramolecular disulfide bond (monomer SS form) and a structure with unpaired thiol groups (monomer SH form). These confirmed that forms were separated by gel-exclusion chromatography, and that the cyanide binding of the separated fractions was again measured; they showed different affinities for cyanide, with the monomer fraction showing the highest affinity. In addition, the ferrous state in each fraction showed distinct carbon monoxide (CO)-binding properties, and the affinities for cyanide and CO suggested a linear correlation. Furthermore, we also prepared several variants involving the two cysteine residues. The C38S and C83S variants showed a binding affinity for cyanide similar to the value for the monomer SH form, and hence the fraction with the highest affinity for exogenous ligands was designated as a monomer SS form. We concluded that polymerization could be a mechanism that triggers the exertion of various physiological functions of this protein and that an appropriate disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues was critical for regulating the binding affinity of Cgb, which can act as a ROS scavenger, for exogenous ligands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  10. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung-Won; Logan, Jean; Hooker, Jacob M.; Muench, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Methods Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [11C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Results Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [11C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Conclusions Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior. PMID:20188349

  11. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  12. Rapid yeast estrogen bioassays stably expressing human estrogen receptors alpha and beta, and green fluorescent protein: a comparison of different compounds on both receptor types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Keijer, J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we described the construction of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor (hER) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) in response to estrogens. In the present study, the properties of this assay were further studied by testing a series of estrogenic

  13. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as

  14. Obligatory role of hypothalamic neuroestradiol during the estrogen-induced LH surge in female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenealy, Brian P; Keen, Kim L; Garcia, James P; Kohlenberg, Lucille K; Terasawa, Ei

    2017-12-26

    Negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) regulating release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are pivotal events in female reproductive function. While ovarian feedback on hypothalamo-pituitary function is a well-established concept, the present study shows that neuroestradiol, locally synthesized in the hypothalamus, is a part of estrogen's positive feedback loop. In experiment 1, E2 benzoate-induced LH surges in ovariectomized female monkeys were severely attenuated by systemic administration of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of E2 from androgens. In experiment 2, using microdialysis, GnRH and kisspeptin surges induced by E2 benzoate were similarly attenuated by infusion of letrozole into the median eminence of the hypothalamus. Therefore, neuroestradiol is an integral part of the hypothalamic engagement in response to elevated circulating E2 Collectively, we will need to modify the concept of estrogen's positive feedback mechanism.

  15. Estrogen-mediated hemangioma-derived stem cells through estrogen receptor-α for infantile hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ling Zhang,1 Hai Wei Wu,1 Weien Yuan,2 Jia Wei Zheng1 1Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Center for Specialty Strategy Research of Shanghai Jiao Tong University China Hospital Development Institute, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign vascular tumor of infancy. They occur more frequently in female infants. The cause of hemangioma is currently unknown; however, current studies suggested the importance of estrogen (E2 signaling in hemangioma proliferation. Methods: Hemangioma-derived stem cells (HemSCs were cultured with estrogen for 48–72 h; the cell viability and proliferation were evaluated with the messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α, by application of several in vitro assays, such as methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. Also, the cell population’s response to external estrogen was investigated by in vivo experiments. HemSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were mixed and injected subcutaneously into 20 flank of BALB/c-nu mice, which were randomly divided into 5 groups based on different E2 treatment doses (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg, respectively, 0.1 mg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Each group of mice were treated intramuscularly every week, then 2 and 4 weeks later, the subcutaneous implants were harvested and evaluated the tumor tissues with microvessel density (MVD assay and immunohistochemistry. Results: The study demonstrated that application of E2 increased the expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and ER-α in HemSCs with the optimal concentration from 10−9 to 10−5 M. Two

  16. A Chip for Estrogen Receptor Action: Detection of Biomarkers Released by MCF-7 Cells through Estrogenic and Anti-Estrogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Gier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence-based multi-analyte chip platform for the analysis of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic substances is a new in vitro tool for the high throughput screening of environmental samples. In contrast to existing tools, the chip investigates the complex action of xenoestrogens in a human cell model by characterizing protein expression. It allows for the quantification of 10 proteins secreted by MCF-7 cells, representing various biological and pathological endpoints of endocrine action and distinguishing between estrogen- and anti-estrogen-dependent secretion of proteins. Distinct protein secretion patterns of the cancer cell line after exposure to known estrogen receptor agonists ß-estradiol, bisphenol A, genistein, and nonylphenol as well as antagonists fulvestrant and tamoxifen demonstrate the potential of the chip. Stimulation of cells with Interleukin-1ß shifts concentrations of low abundant biomarkers towards the working range of the chip. In the non-stimulated cell culture, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF show differences upon treatment with antagonists and agonists of the estrogen receptor. In stimulated MCF-7 cells challenged with receptor agonists secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Rantes, and Interleukin-8 (IL-8 significantly decreases. In parallel, the proliferating effect of endocrine-disrupting substances in MCF-7 cells is assessed in a proliferation assay based on resazurin. Using ethanol as a solvent for test substances increases the background of proliferation and secretion experiments, while using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO does not show any adverse effects. The role of the selected biomarkers in different physiological processes such as cell development, reproduction, cancer, and metabolic syndrome makes the chip an excellent tool for either indicating endocrine-disrupting effects in food and environmental samples, or for screening the

  17. Red Clover Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) Agonists Enhance Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlap, Tareisha L.; Howell, Caitlin E.; Mukand, Nita; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2017-01-01

    Many women consider botanical dietary supplements (BDSs) as safe alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms. However, the effect of BDSs on breast cancer risk is largely unknown. In the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, P450 1B1 metabolizes estrogens to 4-hydroxylated catechols, which are oxidized to genotoxic quinones that initiate and promote breast cancer. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation represents a detoxification pathway. The current study evaluated t...

  18. Estrogen mediated expression of nucleophosmin 1 in human endometrial carcinoma clinical stages through estrogen receptor-α signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunxiao; Shen, Jie; Xia, Liqun; Wang, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies. Estrogen plays a critical role in its pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1), a multifunctional protein involved in many cellular activities, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis processes. However, the role of NPM1 in endometrial carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. The present study was aimed to elucidate the role of NPM1 in different clinical stages of human endometrial carcinoma and the underlying mechanism of NPM1 action. The distribution and expression of NPM1 in normal endometrium, FIGO stages I to IV endometrial carcinoma tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The association between NPM1 expression and estrogen and estrogen receptor signaling was investigated in primary-cultured FIGO stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. A strong positive correlation between NPM1 level and the clinical stage and histological grade of endometrial carcinomas was observed. Expression of NPM1 was up-regulated by estrogen in primary-cultured human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, estrogen increased NPM1 level via estrogen receptor-α (ERα) signaling, nor estrogen receptor-β signaling. Expression of NPM1 was gradually increased with the increase of clinical stages of endometrial carcinomas. Overexpression of NPM1 may play a role in the effects of estrogen on the malignant progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma via ERα signaling. These findings may extend our understanding of the oncogenesis of steroid hormone-related cancers and have significance for the diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma.

  19. Occurrence of selected estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of Langat River (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Lui, Tang Seok; Hamin, Nur'Aqilah; Razak, Siti Quistina Noorain Abdul; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and estrogenic activities of steroid estrogens, such as the natural estrone (E1), 17β estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in eight sampling points along the Langat River (Malaysia). Surface water samples were collected at 0.5 m and surface sediment 0-5 cm from the river surface. Instrument analysis of steroid estrogens was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (Perkin Elmer FX15) coupled to a Q Trap function mass spectrophotometer (model 3200: AB Sciex). Steroid estrogen concentrations were higher in the Langat River sediments than those in its surface water. In surface water, E1 was not detected in any sampling point, E2 was only detected in two midstream sampling points (range 0-0.004 ng/L), E3 in three sampling points (range 0-0.002 ng/L), and EE2 in four sampling points (range 0-0.02 ng/L). E1 and E2 were detected in sediments from all sampling points, E3 in five sampling points, while EE2 only in one midstream sample (3.29E-4 ng/g). Sewage treatment plants, farming waste, and agricultural activities particularly present midstream and downstream were identified as potential sources of estrogens. Estrogenic activity expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEQs) was below 1 ng/L in all samples for both surface water and sediment, indicating therefore a low potential estrogenic risk to the aquatic environment. Although the health risks are still uncertain for drinking water consumers exposed to low levels of steroid estrogen concentrations, Langat River water is unacceptable for direct drinking purposes without treatment. Further studies of endocrine disruptors in Malaysian waters are highly recommended.

  20. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics......, in this way, can be seen as a practice which mobilises and optimises this humanistic legacy, reproducing and transforming it into a new pedagogical desire....

  1. Modulation of antiviral immune responses by exogenous cytokines: effects of tumour necrosis factor-α interleukin-1 α, interleukin-2 and interferon-γ on the immunogenicity of an inactivated rabies vaccine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E.C.J. Schijns; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); A.A. Vermeulen; M.C. Horzinek; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn vivo administration of exogenous cytokines may influence elicited immune responses, and hence may change the efficacy of a vaccine. We investigated the effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma

  2. The silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor is required for full estrogen receptor alpha transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Theresa J; Karmakar, Sudipan; Pace, Margaret C; Gao, Tong; Smith, Carolyn L

    2007-09-01

    Multiple factors influence estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) transcriptional activity. Current models suggest that the silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor functions within a histone deactylase-containing protein complex that binds to antiestrogen-bound ERalpha and contributes to negative regulation of gene expression. In this report, we demonstrate that SMRT is required for full agonist-dependent ERalpha activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SMRT, like ERalpha and the SRC-3 coactivator, is recruited to an estrogen-responsive promoter in estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. Depletion of SMRT, but not histone deacetylases 1 or 3, negatively impacts estradiol-stimulated ERalpha transcriptional activity, while exogenous expression of SMRT's receptor interaction domains blocks ERalpha activity, indicating a functional interaction between this corepressor and agonist-bound ERalpha. Stimulation of estradiol-induced ERalpha activity by SMRT overexpression occurred in HeLa and MCF-7 cells, but not HepG2 cells, indicating that these positive effects are cell type specific. Similarly, the ability of SMRT depletion to promote the agonist activity of tamoxifen was observed for HeLa but not MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, impairment of agonist-stimulated activity by SMRT depletion is specific to ERalpha and not observed for receptors for vitamin D, androgen, or thyroid hormone. Nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) depletion increased the transcriptional activity of all four tested receptors. SMRT is required for full expression of the ERalpha target genes cyclin D1, BCL-2, and progesterone receptor but not pS2, and its depletion significantly attenuated estrogen-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Taken together, these data indicate that SMRT, in conjunction with gene-specific and cell-dependent factors, is required for positively regulating agonist-dependent ERalpha transcriptional activity.

  3. Identification of estrogen receptor dimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells that co-express ERα and ERβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Powell

    Full Text Available Estrogens play essential roles in the progression of mammary and prostatic diseases. The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ERα is proliferative while ERβ is anti-proliferative. Exogenous expression of ERβ in ERα-positive cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation in response to estrogen and reduces xenografted tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that ERβ might oppose ERα's proliferative effects via formation of ERα/β heterodimers. Despite biochemical and cellular evidence of ERα/β heterodimer formation in cells co-expressing both receptors, the biological roles of the ERα/β heterodimer remain to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of two phytoestrogens that selectively activate ERα/β heterodimers at specific concentrations using a cell-based, two-step high throughput small molecule screen for ER transcriptional activity and ER dimer selectivity. Using ERα/β heterodimer-selective ligands at defined concentrations, we demonstrate that ERα/β heterodimers are growth inhibitory in breast and prostate cells which co-express the two ER isoforms. Furthermore, using Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA to examine nuclear expression of ERα and ERβ in human breast tissue microarrays, we demonstrate that ERα and ERβ are co-expressed in the same cells in breast tumors. The co-expression of ERα and ERβ in the same cells supports the possibility of ERα/β heterodimer formation at physio- and pathological conditions, further suggesting that targeting ERα/β heterodimers might be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers which co-express ERα and ERβ.

  4. The effect of endo- and exogenous melanin on Zn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} elimination and distribution in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaj, P.; Buszman, E.; Swiatkowska, L.; Wilczok, T. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The content of endogenous melanin in white Balb c and black C-57 Bl. mice affected Zn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} accumulation, elimination and distribution following intraperitoneal administration of these ions. Elimination of Co{sup 2+} ions was significantly greater in white mice than in black mice. Accumulation of Zn{sup 2+} was higher than that of Co{sup 2+} and did not depend on melanin content in mice. The same response was observed upon administration of exogenous melanin. Both ions accumulated mainly in spleen and heart irrespective of melanin content. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA-protein complex between the estrogen response element and the estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stisova, Viktorie [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Na Truhlarce 39/64, 18086 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Goffinont, Stephane; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire CNRS, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Davidkova, Marie, E-mail: davidkova@ujf.cas.c [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Na Truhlarce 39/64, 18086 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2010-08-15

    Signaling by estrogens, risk factors in breast cancer, is mediated through their binding to the estrogen receptor protein (ER), followed by the formation of a complex between ER and a DNA sequence, called estrogen response element (ERE). Anti-estrogens act as competitive inhibitors by blocking the signal transduction. We have studied in vitro the radiosensitivity of the complex between ERalpha, a subtype of this receptor, and a DNA fragment bearing ERE, as well as the influence of an estrogen (estradiol) or an anti-estrogen (tamoxifen) on this radiosensitivity. We observe that the complex is destabilized upon irradiation with gamma rays in aerated aqueous solution. The analysis of the decrease of binding abilities of the two partners shows that destabilization is mainly due to the damage to the protein. The destabilization is reduced when irradiating in presence of tamoxifen and is increased in presence of estradiol. These effects are due to opposite influences of the ligands on the loss of binding ability of ER. The mechanism that can account for our results is: binding of estradiol or tamoxifen induces distinct structural changes of the ER ligand-binding domain that can trigger (by allostery) distinct structural changes of the ER DNA-binding domains and thus, can differently affect ER-ERE interaction.

  6. The "busy life" of unliganded estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, Claudia; Porreca, Immacolata; Cuomo, Danila; Tarallo, Roberta; Nassa, Giovanni; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the role of estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the pathophysiology of breast cancer (BC) has considerably increased in last decades. Despite sharing a similar structure, these two transcription factors often exert opposite roles in BC. In addition, it has been shown that their transcriptional activity is not strictly associated to ligand activation and that unliganded ERs are able to "have a life on their own." This appears to be mainly due to ligand-independent mechanisms leading to ERs PTMs or to their recruitment to specific protein complexes, dependent on cellular context. Furthermore, a significant unliganded ER activity, probably independent by the activation of other pathways, has been recently reported to affect gene transcription, microRNA expression, and downstream proteome. In this review, we describe recent findings on nuclear and cytoplasmic unliganded ERα and ERβ activity. We focus on functional genomics, epigenomics, and interaction proteomics data, including PTM induced by ERs-modulated miRNAs in the BC context. A better comprehension of the molecular events controlled by unliganded ERs activity in BC pathogenesis is crucial since it may impact the therapeutic approach to the initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies, frequently experienced in the treatment of BC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Pushing estrogen receptor around in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Elgene; Tarulli, Gerard; Portman, Neil; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Palmieri, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments. Emerging data have shown that other SSRs may regulate the sites at which ER binds to DNA in ways that can powerfully suppress the oncogenic activity of ER in breast cancer. This includes the progesterone receptor (PR) that was recently shown to reprogram the ER DNA binding landscape towards genes associated with a favourable outcome. Another attractive candidate is the androgen receptor (AR), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and inhibits growth of the normal breast and ER-positive tumours when activated by ligand. These findings have led to the initiation of breast cancer clinical trials evaluating therapies that selectively harness the ability of SSRs to 'push' ER towards anti-tumorigenic activity. Our review will focus on the established and emerging clinical evidence for activating PR or AR in ER-positive breast cancer to inhibit the tumour growth-promoting functions of ER. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Bovee, Toine F H; Bi, Yonghong; Bernhöft, Silke; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-02-01

    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities. The estrogenic activity was assessed using a rapid yeast estrogen bioassay, based on the expression of a green fluorescent reporter protein. Weak anti-estrogenic activity was detected in sediments from an area close to the dam of the reservoir, and weak estrogenic activities ranging from 0.3 to 1 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EQ) g(-1) dry weight sediment (dw) were detected in sediments from the Wanzhou to Guojiaba areas. In the upstream areas Wanzhou and Wushan, sediments demonstrated additive effects in co-administration of 1 nM E2 in the yeast test system, while sediments from the downstream Badong and Guojiaba areas showed estrogenic activities which seemed to be more than additive (synergistic activity). There was an increasing tendency in estrogenic activity from upstream of TGR to downstream, while this tendency terminated and converted into anti-estrogenic activity in the area close to the dam. The AhR activity was detected employing rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). EROD activities were found homogenously distributed in sediments in TGR ranging from 200 to 311 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) EQ g(-1) dw for total AhR agonists and from 45 to 76 pg TCDD EQ g(-1) dw for more persistent AhR agonists. The known AhR agonists polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl, and PCDD/F only explained up to 8 % of the more persistent AhR agonist activity in the samples, which suggests that unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a great proportion of the TCDD EQ in sediments from TGR. These findings of estrogenic potential and dioxin-like activity in TGR sediments provide possible weight-of-evidence of potential

  9. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), U.Porto—University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  11. Menopausal estrogen therapy predicts better nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Virtanen, Irina; Vahlberg, Tero; Irjala, Kerttu; Polo, Olli

    2006-10-20

    The respiratory responses in the few previous studies evaluating the effects of short-term unopposed estrogen therapy on breathing in postmenopausal women have been inconsistent. We performed a study to investigate whether long-term estrogen therapy would prevent age-related decline in nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and whether higher serum estradiol concentration is associated with better arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation. Sixty-four healthy postmenopausal women were followed-up for 5 years in a 5-year prospective open follow-up study. The women were users or non-users of estrogen therapy according to their personal preference. Mean overnight arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation was similar at baseline (94.3 +/- 1.1%) and after follow-up (94.5 +/- 1.6%). Present estrogen users had higher mean arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (95.2 +/- 1.4%) than present non-users (94.0 +/- 1.5%), when adjusted for age and body mass index (p = 0.042). The change in mean arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during follow-up was not associated with serum estradiol concentration at baseline but associated with estradiol at follow-up (p = 0.042), when adjusted for age and body mass index. At follow-up, women with higher serum estradiol concentration had also higher mean nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pearson r = 0.29, p = 0.019) and lower apnea-hypopnea index (Spearman r = -0.28, p = 0.031). The pooled current estrogen users spent proportionally less time with SaO(2) below 90% than non-users (ANCOVA adjusted for age and BMI, p = 0.017). Estrogen use and especially high serum estradiol concentration predict higher mean overnight arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation. The present data suggest that estrogen therapy has favorable respiratory effects.

  12. Differential expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta mRNA during differentiation of human osteoblast SV-HFO cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Arts (Janine); J.M.M.F. Janssen (Josine); J.A. Gustafsson (Jan-Ake); C.W.G.M. Löwik (Clemens); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEstrogens have been shown to be essential for maintaining a sufficiently high bone mineral density and ER alpha expression has been demonstrated in bone cells. Recently, a novel estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has been identified. Here

  13. Targeted basic research to highlight the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworatzek, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies revealed that sex differences exist in the manifestation and outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in these sex differences are not fully understood. The reasons for sex differences in CVD are definitely multifactorial, but major evidence points to the contribution of sex steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), and its receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). In this review, we summarize past and present studies that implicate E2 and ER as important determinants of sexual dimorphism in the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart. In particular, we give an overview of studies aimed to reveal the role of E2 and ER in the physiology of the observed sex differences in CVD using ER knock-out mice. Finally, we discuss recent findings from novel transgenic mouse models, which have provided new information on the sexual dimorphic roles of ER specifically in cardiomyocytes under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in two species of Peromyscus that exhibit gonadal regression in short days. P. polionotus (old field mice) were more aggressive than P. maniculatus (deer mice) and both species were more aggressive in short days. We used immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to characterize the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression. In both species ERα-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs. long days. Both species had reduced ERβ-immunoreactive expression in the posterior BNST in short days. In the medial amygdala ERβ immunoreactivity was increased in long days for both species. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction on punch samples that included the BNST, we observed that ERα mRNA was increased and ERβ mRNA was decreased in short days. These data suggest that the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression may thus have important behavioral consequences. PMID:17614949

  15. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Rowland, Michael R; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-07-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERalpha and ERbeta), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in two species of Peromyscus that exhibit gonadal regression in short days. P. polionotus (old field mice) were more aggressive than P. maniculatus (deer mice) and both species were more aggressive in short days. We used immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to characterize the effects of photoperiod on ERalpha and ERbeta expression. In both species ERalpha-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs. long days. Both species had reduced ERbeta-immunoreactive expression in the posterior BNST in short days. In the medial amygdala ERbeta immunoreactivity was increased in long days for both species. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction on punch samples that included the BNST, we observed that ERalpha mRNA was increased and ERbeta mRNA was decreased in short days. These data suggest that the effects of photoperiod on ERalpha and ERbeta expression may thus have important behavioral consequences.

  16. Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulators (ERXs) effectively target estrogen receptor positive human breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ganesh V; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Ma, Shihong; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xihui; Murakami, Shino; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mann, Monica; Krishnan, Samaya Rajeshwari; Manandhar, Bikash; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Strand, Douglas; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive. While anti-estrogens/aromatase inhibitors are initially effective, resistance to these drugs commonly develops. Therapy-resistant tumors often retain ER signaling, via interaction with critical oncogenic coregulator proteins. To address these mechanisms of resistance, we have developed a novel ER coregulator binding modulator, ERX-11. ERX-11 interacts directly with ER and blocks the interaction between a subset of coregulators with both native and mutant forms of ER. ERX-11 effectively blocks ER-mediated oncogenic signaling and has potent anti-proliferative activity against therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant human breast cancer cells. ERX-11 is orally bioavailable, with no overt signs of toxicity and potent activity in both murine xenograft and patient-derived breast tumor explant models. This first-in-class agent, with its novel mechanism of action of disrupting critical protein-protein interactions, overcomes the limitations of current therapies and may be clinically translatable for patients with therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant breast cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26857.001 PMID:28786813

  17. Use of Exogenous Testosterone for the Treatment of Male Factor Infertility: A Survey of Nigerian Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin; Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Abdulsalam, Moruf Adekunle; Ajenifuja, Sheriff Olabode; Shittu, Khadijah Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Though exogenous testosterone is known for its contraceptive effects in men, it is sometimes prescribed by medical practitioners for the treatment of male factor infertility in the mistaken belief that exogenous testosterone improves sperm count. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of testosterone use in the treatment of male factor infertility by medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out amongst doctors attending a regular Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme in Lagos, Nigeria. There were 225 respondents. Most of the respondents (69.8%, n = 157) indicated that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. Only 22 respondents (9.8%) indicated (correctly) that exogenous testosterone decreases sperm count. Seventy-seven respondents (34.2%) had prescribed some form of exogenous testosterone in the treatment of male factor infertility. The vast majority of respondents who had prescribed testosterone (81.8%, n = 63) thought exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. There was no statistically significant difference in the pattern of prescription across the respondents' specialty (p = 0.859) or practice type (p = 0.747). The misuse of exogenous testosterone for the treatment of male infertility was common amongst the respondents, with most of them wrongly believing that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count.

  18. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    to exogenous ABA, resulting in much lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentrations and O2- production rate. In addition, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II was also enhanced in ABA-treated offspring's seedlings. It is concluded that exogenous ABA treatment at later grain-filling stage...

  19. Exogenous stimuli and circadian peak expiratory flow variation in allergic asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, DS; VanderHeide, S; DeReus, DM; Koeter, GH; VanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    The influence of exogenous factors in the home on the circadian variation of airway obstruction has not been fully assessed in children with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of exogenous stimuli to the degree of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability during 24

  20. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna J. Stubbs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE; (R-3-hydroxybutyl (R-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS; sodium plus potassium βHB.Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001, which returned to baseline within 3–4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB Cmax by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001, but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks (n = 12 or a continuous nasogastric infusion (n = 4 to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks

  1. Effect of exogenous adminstration of antioxidants on Blastocystis hominis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Moshera M; Hussein, Eman M; El-Moamly, Amal A; Eida, Amany M; Eida, Omima M; Salem, Attia M

    2008-04-01

    The effect of exogenous administration of antioxidant (Anttox) on the course of B. hominis in experimentally infected mice was studied. B. hominis isolates were obtained from 10 gastrointestinal symptomatic adult patients. Three groups of 30 infected mice (3/isolate) were used. GI was untreated infected, GII was treated by antox for 4 weeks after infection diagnosis (treatment strategy), and GIII antox treated by for 4 weeks before infection (prophylactic strategy). Mild pathological changes were detected on 13.4%, 19.9% & 86.8% of mice in Gs I, II & III, respectively. Moderate pathological changes were found in 29.9%, 26.6% & 6.6% of mice in Gs I, II & III, respectively. While, the majority of severe pathological changes were in Gs I & II (56.7% & 53.5%) as compared to GIII (6.6%). Meanwhile, 86.8% of mice in GIII had B. hominis forms > 10/high power field compared to 3.3% in Gs I & II, respectively. Although 19.8% of mice in GII were positive for B. hominis by direct smear, no growth resulted in vitro and all the forms were non-viable by using neutral red stain. All the differences were statistically significant. So, antioxidant exacerbated B. hominis intensity but it decreased the pathological changes.

  2. Competition between endogenous and exogenous attention to nonemotional stimuli in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether impaired endogenous attention and enhanced exogenous attention for the processing of nonemotional stimuli were observed in individuals with high social anxiety. In each trial, participants were presented with an endogenous cue at a center, followed by exogenous cues at peripheral locations; subsequently, nonemotional masked targets were presented wherein the subjects were asked to distinguish between the targets. The accuracy rates were influenced by social anxiety only in exogenous conditions. Individuals with high social anxiety exhibited higher accuracy in the valid condition than in the invalid condition of exogenous attention, whereas individuals with low social anxiety displayed uniform accuracy rates in valid, neutral, and invalid conditions. The validity effects in individuals with high social anxiety did not diminish when controlling for trait and state anxiety and depression. The results suggest that individuals with high social anxiety have an enhanced exogenous attentional system and that they are attracted to salient stimuli regardless of emotionality.

  3. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  4. Estrogens and atherosclerosis: insights from animal models and cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2012-04-01

    Estrogens not only play a pivotal role in sexual development but are also involved in several physiological processes in various tissues including vasculature. While several epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma estrogen levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and related it to the inhibition of atherosclerosis, an interventional trial showed an increase in cardiovascular events among postmenopausal women on estrogen treatment. The development of atherosclerotic lesions involves complex interplay between various pro- or anti-atherogenic processes that can be effectively studied only in vivo in appropriate animal models. With the advent of genetic engineering, transgenic mouse models of atherosclerosis have supplemented classical dietary cholesterol-induced disease models such as the cholesterol-fed rabbit. In the last two decades, these models were widely applied along with in vitro cell systems to specifically investigate the influence of estrogens on the development of early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The present review summarizes the results of these studies and assesses their contribution toward better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying anti- and/or pro-atherogenic effects of estrogens in humans.

  5. Endogenous and exogenous control of gametogenesis and spawning in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Hamel, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Most echinoderms display seasonal or other temporal cycles of reproduction that presumably result from the complex interplay of endogenous and exogenous signals. Various environmental, chemical and hormonal factors, acting directly or indirectly, individually or in combination, have been proposed to cue, favour or modulate a suite of reproductive functions from the onset of gametogenesis to gamete release. From as early as the nineteenth century, an astonishing array of studies has been published on topics related to the control of reproduction in echinoderms, ranging from fortuitous behavioural observations to complex experimental demonstrations and molecular analyses. Although the exact pathways involved in the perception of external signals and their transduction into coordinated spawning events remain obscure for most species, significant advances have been made that shed new light on the information gathered over decades of research. By compiling the existing literature (over 1000 references), interpreting the main results, critically assessing the methodologies used and reviewing the emerging hypotheses, we endeavour to draw a clearer picture of the existing knowledge and to provide a framework for future investigation of the mechanisms that underlie reproductive strategies in echinoderms and, by extension, in other marine invertebrates.

  6. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine increases chilling tolerance in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Jeknic, Zoran; Chen, Tony H H

    2006-06-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H(2)O(2), catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in control plants. One day after exposure to chilling stress, the treated plants had significantly greater catalase activity and CAT1 expression, although their H(2)O(2) levels remained unchanged. During the following 2 d of this chilling treatment, GB-treated plants maintained lower H(2)O(2) levels but had higher catalase activity than the controls. These results suggest that, in addition to protecting macromolecules and membranes directly, GB-enhanced chilling tolerance may involve the induction of H(2)O(2)-mediated antioxidant mechanisms, e.g. enhanced catalase expression and catalase activity.

  7. Reprogramming with Small Molecules instead of Exogenous Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxiang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could be employed in the creation of patient-specific stem cells, which could subsequently be used in various basic and clinical applications. However, current iPSC methodologies present significant hidden risks with respect to genetic mutations and abnormal expression which are a barrier in realizing the full potential of iPSCs. A chemical approach is thought to be a promising strategy for safety and efficiency of iPSC generation. Many small molecules have been identified that can be used in place of exogenous transcription factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming efficiency and quality. Recent studies have shown that the use of small molecules results in the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. These studies might lead to new areas of stem cell research and medical applications, not only human iPSC by chemicals alone, but also safe generation of somatic stem cells for cell based clinical trials and other researches. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent advances in small molecule approaches for the generation of iPSCs.

  8. Dynamic structural transformations of coordination supramolecular systems upon exogenous stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Peng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao

    2015-02-18

    Reactions in the solid state, especially single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SC-SC) transformations, provide an appealing pathway to obtain target crystalline materials with modified properties via a solvent-free green chemistry approach. This feature article focuses on the progress to date in the context of coordination supramolecular systems (CSSs), especially coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which show interesting dynamic natures upon exposure to various exogenous stimuli, including concentration, temperature, light and mechanical force, as well as their synergic effect. In essence, dynamic CSSs normally possess crucial crystalline-reactive characteristics: (i) metal ions or clusters with unstable or metastable electronic configurations and coordination geometries; (ii) organic ligands bearing physicochemically active functional groups for subsequent reactions; (iii) polymeric networks of high flexibility for structural bending, rotation, swelling, or shrinking; (iv) guest moieties to be freely exchanged or eliminated by varying the environmental conditions. The significant changes in catalytic, sorption, magnetic, or luminescent properties accompanied by the structural transformations will also be discussed, which reveal the proof-of-concept thereof in designing new functional crystalline materials.

  9. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  10. An experimental study of exogenous lipoid pneumonia : sequential changes in high-resolution CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Choi, Jeong Cheol; Kim, Ae Ree; Kim, Han Kyum; Cha, In Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate sequential changes in high-resolution CT(HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in rabbits and to compare the radiologic and histopathologic findings. A single endobronchial administration of shark liver oil(0.5 or 1 ml/kg of body weight) was given to 25 rabbits. HRCT scans were obtained immediately(n=17), at 1 day(n=14), 3 days(n=10), 1 week(n=15), 2 weeks(n=10), 4 weeks(n=9), 6 weeks(n=5), 8 weeks(n=6), 10 weeks(n=4), 12 weeks(n=2), 14 weeks(n=3), and 16 weeks(n=2) after administration. Changes in distribution, extent, and attenuation were assessed on HRCT scans. MR scans were obtained immediately(n=12), at 1 day(n=9), 3 days(n=9), 1 week(n=15), 2 weeks(n=9), 4 weeks(n=11), 6 weeks(n=5), 8 weeks(n=7), 10 weeks(n=3), 14 weeks(n=3), and at 16 weeks(n=2) after administration. Changes in distribution, extent, and signal intensity were assessed on MR scans. In 16 rabbits, CT and MR findings were compared with histopatholo-gic findings obtained in the same plane. HRCT findings included consolidation with air-bronchogram, ground-glass attenuation and fat attenuation within the lesion at earlier stages(immediate-2 weeks). The extent of lesions was greatest at 1 week, and was then seen to gradually decrease on follow-up CT scans. T1-weighted MR images(T1WI) showed high or intermediate signal intensity(SI) at earlier stages and intermediate SI at later stages, while T2-weighted MR images(T2WI) showed high SI at both earlier and later stages. Histopathologic correlation showed that ground-glass attenuation and consolidation on HRCT reflected intraalveolar lipid-laden macrophages, cuboidal metaplasia of alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar septal widening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Maximal infiltration of oil in the lung correlated closely with the peak low-attenuation seen on CT scans and the high signal intensity seen on T1WI. Shark liver oil-induced exogenous lipoid pneumonia in rabbits is reliably diagnosed by HRCT and MR during

  11. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic regulation of estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast-cancer cells: comparison of immunocytochemical data with biochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H S; Larsimont, D; Querton, G; El Khissiin, A; Laios, I; Legros, N; Leclercq, G

    1998-12-09

    Data from immunocytochemical assessment of estrogen receptor (ER) regulation in MCF-7 cells under estrogenic and anti-estrogenic stimulation were compared with those obtained by enzyme immunoassay (Abbott ER-EIA). Similar trends were observed, although ER level variations were less marked when assessed immunocytochemically. We confirmed reports of ER disappearance in the presence of estrogens (Es; E2 and DES) and pure anti-estrogens (AEs; RU 58,668 and ICI 164,384) as well as its increase with partial AEs (4-OH-TAM and RU 39,119). E2-induced ER down-regulation was partly blocked by actinomycin D (AMD), okadaic acid (OK) and cycloheximide (CHX) when assessed by these 2 methods. Down-regulation by pure AEs was not impeded by CHX, indicating that they operate differently from Es (i.e., transformation of ER to a form sensitive to constitutive degradation activity). In situ pre-labeling of the cells with [3H]TAZ indicated that all investigated ligands eliminate pre-existing ER through binding to newly synthetized receptors, since [3H]TAZ co-valently associates with ER; E2 and RU 58,668 were more effective than 4-OH-TAM in this regard. CHX blocked ER disappearance even in the presence of pure AEs, which is in contrast to the data established with cells not pre-exposed to [3H]TAZ. Nuclear location of [3H]TAZ-ER complexes may explain this discrepancy, since pure AE-ER complexes were reported to be incapable of nuclear translocation.

  12. Seasonal effects on ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotrophins and successful artificial insemination in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Armstrong, D L; Barrie, M T; Wildt, D E

    1997-01-01

    Ovaries of the seasonally-breeding snow leopard (Uncia uncia) were examined to determine whether they were responsive to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. The potential of laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) also was assessed for producing offspring. During the non-breeding, pre-breeding, breeding and post-breeding seasons, females (n = 20) were treated with a standardized, dual-hormone regimen given intramuscularly (600 I.U. of equine chorionic gonadotrophin followed 80-84 h later with 300 I.U. of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)). Laparoscopy was performed 45-50 h after administration of hCG, and all ovarian structures were described. Females with fresh corpora lutea (CL) were inseminated, and anovulatory females were subjected to follicular aspiration to examine oocyte quality. Snow leopards responded to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. Mean number of total ovarian structures (distinct follicles mature in appearance plus CL) did not differ (P > or = 0.05) with season, but the proportion of CL: total ovarian structures was greater (P or = 0.05) among seasons. Of 15 females artificially inseminated, the only one that was inseminated in the non-breeding season became pregnant and delivered a single cub. This is the first successful pregnancy resulting from AI in this endangered species.

  13. Exogenous testosterone, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: a review of trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Culley C; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of supplemental testosterone has led to a heightened focus on the safety of testosterone in elderly males, with a particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk. To evaluate, based on available clinical trial data, whether exogenous testosterone administration in middle-aged to elderly men increases cardiovascular risk, and to assess whether these effects differ in hypogonadal vs. eugonadal subjects. MEDLINE search from 2004 to present of all meta-analyses and randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone administration in male subjects ≥ 45 years old that included measurements of cardiovascular outcomes or known cardiovascular risk factors before and after treatment with testosterone. The effects of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. In clinical trials where testosterone has been used in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions, the effect on disease symptoms has typically been either neutral or beneficial. Based on clinical trial data, testosterone treatment has minimal effect on cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of an increase in hematocrit, which is consistently seen with testosterone treatment, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is an inconsistent response. Responses of hypogonadal and eugonadal men to testosterone treatment in terms of cardiovascular risk are generally similar. Testosterone treatment has not been reported to increase the incidence of cardiovascular events with the possible exception of one trial in frail elderly men. Available clinical trial data indicate that the use of testosterone in middle-aged to elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor does it unfavorably modify cardiovascular risk profile. Prospective data from large, well-designed, long-term trials of testosterone treatment are lacking and will be required to verify the cardiovascular efficacy/safety of chronic treatment.

  14. Estrogen-Modulated Response of Breast Cancer To Vitamin D and Its Analogs: Role of IGF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolezalova, Hana

    1999-01-01

    ... (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative cells express predominantly Edg-2 and Edg-4 Rs for LPA and Edg-3 for Sip, which transduce proliferative responses by direct nuclear signaling...

  15. Fate of the estrogen nonylphenol in river sediment: availability, mass transfer and biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, de J.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Veel riviersedimenten zijn in het verleden verontreinigd geraakt met estrogene verbindingen, die toxische effecten kunnen veroorzaken op aquatische organismen, zoals de vervrouwlijking van mannelijke vissen. Een van deze estrogene verbindingen is nonylfenol (NP). Nonylfenol is een organische

  16. Higher estrogen levels are not associated with larger hippocampi and better memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. den Heijer (Tom); M.I. Geerlings (Miriam); F.H. de Jong (Frank); L.J. Launer (Lenore); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Estrogens may prevent cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease. Animal study findings have shown beneficial effects of estrogen on the brain, particularly on the hippocampus, a structure related to memory performance and early Alzheimer disease. OBJECTIVE:

  17. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of growth hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk...... with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH......-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This crosstalk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens...

  18. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their

  19. Tissue Specific Effects of Loss of Estrogen During Menopause and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinna eWend

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of estrogens have been best studied in the breast, breast cancers and in the female reproductive tract. However, estrogens have important functions in almost every tissue in the body. Recent clinical trials such as the Women’s Health Initiative have highlighted both the importance of estrogens and how little we know about the molecular mechanism of estrogens in these other tissues. In this review, we illustrate the diverse functions of estrogens in the bone, adipose tissue, skin, hair, brain, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system, and how the loss of estrogens during aging affects these tissues. Early transcriptional targets of estrogen are reviewed in each tissue. We also describe the tissue-specific effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs used for the treatment of breast cancers and post-menopausal symptoms.

  20. Interleukin-6 is a potential therapeutic target in interleukin-6 dependent, estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casneuf T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tineke Casneuf,1 Amy E Axel,2 Peter King,2 John D Alvarez,2 Jillian L Werbeck,3 Tinne Verhulst,1 Karin Verstraeten,1 Brett M Hall,2 A Kate Sasser2 1Janssen Research and Development, Beerse, Belgium; 2Janssen Research and Development, Spring House, PA, 3LabConnect LLC, Seattle, WA, USAIntroduction: Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an important growth factor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα-positive breast cancer, and elevated serum IL-6 is associated with poor prognosis.Methods: The role of the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was investigated in ERα-positive breast cancer. A panel of cell lines was treated with exogenous IL-6. An IL-6 specific gene signature was generated by profiling ten ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines alone or following treatment with 10 ng/mL recombinant IL-6 or human marrow stromal cell-conditioned media, with or without siltuximab (a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody and grown in three-dimensional tumor microenvironment-aligned cultures for 4 days, 5 days, or 6 days. The established IL-6 signature was validated against 36 human ERα-positive breast tumor samples with matched serum. A comparative MCF-7 xenograft murine model was utilized to determine the role of IL-6 in estrogen-supplemented ERa-positive breast cancer to assess the efficacy of anti-IL-6 therapy in vivo.Results: In eight of nine ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines, recombinant IL-6 increased phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 of STAT3. Differential gene expression analysis identified 17 genes that could be used to determine IL-6 pathway activation by combining their expression intensity into a pathway activation score. The gene signature included a variety of genes involved in immune cell function and migration, cell growth and apoptosis, and the tumor microenvironment. Validation of the IL-6 gene signature in 36 matched human serum and ERα-positive breast tumor samples showed that patients with a high IL-6 pathway

  1. Environmental impact of estrogens on human, animal and plant life: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel, Muhammad; Song, Xiaoming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Francis, Dennis; Yang, Yuesuo

    2017-02-01

    Since the inception of global industrialization, steroidal estrogens have become an emerging and serious concern. Worldwide, steroid estrogens including estrone, estradiol and estriol, pose serious threats to soil, plants, water resources and humans. Indeed, estrogens have gained notable attention in recent years, due to their rapidly increasing concentrations in soil and water all over the world. Concern has been expressed regarding the entry of estrogens into the human food chain which in turn relates to how plants take up and metabolism estrogens. In this review we explore the environmental fate of estrogens highlighting their release through effluent sources, their uptake, partitioning and physiological effects in the ecological system. We draw attention to the potential risk of intensive modern agriculture and waste disposal systems on estrogen release and their effects on human health. We also highlight their uptake and metabolism in plants. We use MEDLINE and other search data bases for estrogens in the environment from 2005 to the present, with the majority of our sources spanning the past five years. Published acceptable daily intake of estrogens (μg/L) and predicted no effect concentrations (μg/L) are listed from published sources and used as thresholds to discuss reported levels of estrogens in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Global levels of estrogens from river sources and from Waste Water Treatment Facilities have been mapped, together with transport pathways of estrogens in plants. Estrogens at polluting levels have been detected at sites close to waste water treatment facilities and in groundwater at various sites globally. Estrogens at pollutant levels have been linked with breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. Estrogens also perturb fish physiology and can affect reproductive development in both domestic and wild animals. Treatment of plants with steroid estrogen hormones or their precursors can affect root and shoot

  2. Is there an estrogenic component in the metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, S; Vollmer, G

    2006-09-01

    One of the major upcoming concerns leading to health related problems in the industrialized societies is the metabolic syndrome which is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, raised fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. The focus of this review is on a potential estrogenic linkage between the metabolic mechanisms involved into the development of this disease cluster and specific estrogen related regulatory pattern. The candidate molecules for this link are insulin and insulin-like growthfactor, C-reactive protein, peroxisome-proliferation-activatingreceptorgamma, and leptin which all seem to interact with each other and show a responsiveness to changing estrogen levels. From this perspective they might also represent target molecules for a phytochemical intervention with phytoestrogens.

  3. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  4. Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in the Mouse Forebrain: Age and Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Zuloaga, Kristen L.; Hinds, Laura R.; Carbone, David L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors regulate multiple brain functions including stress, sexual, and memory associated behaviors as well as control of neuroendocrine and autonomic function. During development, estrogen signaling is involved in programming adult sex differences in physiology and behavior. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha changes across development in a region specific fashion. By contrast, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in many brain regions, yet few studies have explored sex an...

  5. Removal of Estrogens at Full and Pilot Scale Livestock Manure Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zunyang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Three experiments were conducted to 1) develop appropriate methods for livestock manure estrogen analysis; 2) determine estrogen removal in different manure treatment systems; and 3) determine estrogen removal from dairy manure in pilot scale reactors. In Experiment I, the recoveries of 17Ã -estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) were evaluated in double distilled water and dairy manure after a base extraction and analysis of estrogens by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and yeast ...

  6. The estrogen-injected female mouse: new insight into the etiology of PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, John C; Min, Soo Hong; Freeh, Steven M; Michael, Sandra D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Female mice and rats injected with estrogen perinatally become anovulatory and develop follicular cysts. The current consensus is that this adverse response to estrogen involves the hypothalamus and occurs because of an estrogen-induced alteration in the GnRH delivery system. Whether or not this is true has yet to be firmly established. The present study examined an alternate possibility in which anovulation and cyst development occurs through an estrogen-induced disruptio...

  7. Estrogen receptor determination in endometrial carcinoma: ligand binding assay versus enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1995-01-01

    We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA, and cyto......We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA...

  8. Estrogens and the risk of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-01-01

    Since complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) shows a clear female predominance, we investigated the association between the cumulative as well as current exposure to estrogens, and CRPS. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during a visit (using International Association for the Study of Pain Criteria), or had been diagnosed by a specialist. Controls were matched to cases on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Measures of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure were obtained by questionnaire and included age of menarche and menopause, menstrual life, and cumulative months of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Current estrogen exposure at CRPS onset was retrieved from the electronic medical records and determined by current pregnancy or by the use of oral contraceptive (OC) drugs or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Hundred and forty-three female cases (1493 controls) were included in analyses on drug use and pregnancies, while cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure was studied in 53 cases (58 controls) for whom questionnaire data were available. There was no association between CRPS and either cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure, OC, or HRT use. CRPS onset was increased during the first 6 months after pregnancy (OR: 5.6, 95%CI: 1.0-32.4), although based on small numbers. We did not find an association between CRPS onset and cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure or current OC or HRT use, but more powered studies are needed to exclude potential minor associations.

  9. Set-Based Joint Test of Interaction Between SNPs in the VEGF Pathway and Exogenous Estrogen Finds Association With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Monique D.; Cade, William H.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn L.; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Scott, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in developed countries. Its etiology includes genetic and environmental factors. Although VEGFA variants are associated with AMD, the joint action of variants within the VEGF pathway and their interaction with nongenetic factors have not been investigated. Methods. Affymetrix 6.0 chipsets were used to genotype 668,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1207 AMD cases and 686 controls. Environmental exposures were collected by questionnaire. A set-based test was conducted using the χ2 statistic at each SNP derived from Kraft's two degree of freedom (2df) joint test. Pathway- and gene-based test statistics were calculated as the mean of all independent SNP statistics. Phenotype labels were permuted 10,000 times to generate an empirical P value. Results. While a main effect of the VEGF pathway was not identified, the pathway was associated with neovascular AMD in women when accounting for birth control pill (BCP) use (P = 0.017). Analysis of VEGF's subpathways showed that SNPs in the proliferation subpathway were associated with neovascular AMD (P = 0.029) when accounting for BCP use. Nominally significant genes within this subpathway were also observed. Stratification by BCP use revealed novel significant genetic effects in women who had taken BCPs. Conclusions. These results illustrate that some AMD genetic risk factors may be revealed only when complex relationships among risk factors are considered. This shows the utility of exploring pathways of previously associated genes to find novel effects. It also demonstrates the importance of incorporating environmental exposures in tests of genetic association at the SNP, gene, or pathway level. PMID:25015356

  10. Terapia com surfactante pulmonar exógeno em pediatria Exogenous surfactant therapy in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto A. Freddi

    2003-11-01

    ' experience and on recent data retrieved from ONIA, Mdconsult, Medline and the Cochrane Database Library. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In spite of the success of the use of exogenous surfactants in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS of the newborn, some questions remain unanswered, such as the optimal administration timing - either very early (prophylactic, based on gestational age or on quick tests of lung maturity, or later, when the clinical picture becomes unequivocal. In other severe diseases requiring ventilatory support, the use of surfactants is still controversial, and data in the literature are limited and conflicting. However, successful use in several other diseases has been reported. Recent studies have focused on surfactant inactivation by substances that can be found in the airways. New surfactants with the addition of substances to control inhibition, such as polyethyleneglycol, are being tested for diseases in which inactivation seems to be a significant factor. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with exogenous surfactants, even as a treatment for RDS, has not been thoroughly investigated. Further studies should be conducted to improve surfactants - mainly their resistance to inhibition - and the treatment of diseases other than RDS.

  11. Ozone Concentration Prediction via Spatiotemporal Autoregressive Model With Exogenous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, W.; Senoussi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forecast of environmental variables are nowadays of main concern for public health or agricultural management. In this context a large literature is devoted to spatio-temporal modelling of these variables using different statistical approaches. However, most of studies ignored the potential contribution of local (e.g. meteorological and/or geographical) covariables as well as the dynamical characteristics of observations. In this study, we present a spatiotemporal short term forecasting model for ozone concentration based on regularly observed covariables in predefined geographical sites. Our driving system simply combines a multidimensional second order autoregressive structured process with a linear regression model over influent exogenous factors and reads as follows: ‘2 ‘q j Z (t) = A (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ αiZ(t- i)]+ B (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ βjX (t)]+ ɛ(t) i=1 j=1 Z(t)=(Z1(t),…,Zn(t)) represents the vector of ozone concentration at time t of the n geographical sites, whereas Xj(t)=(X1j(t),…,Xnj(t)) denotes the jth exogenous variable observed over these sites. The nxn matrix functions A and B account for the spatial relationships between sites through the inter site distance matrix D and a vector parameter Î&.cedil; Multidimensional white noise ɛ is assumed to be Gaussian and spatially correlated but temporally independent. A covariance structure of Z that takes account of noise spatial dependences is deduced under a stationary hypothesis and then included in the likelihood function. Statistical model and estimation procedure: Contrarily to the widely used choice of a {0,1}-valued neighbour matrix A, we put forward two more natural choices of exponential or power decay. Moreover, the model revealed enough stable to readily accommodate the crude observations without the usual tedious and somewhat arbitrarily variable transformations. Data set and preliminary analysis: In our case, ozone variable represents here the daily maximum ozone

  12. Use of alternatives to estrogen for treatment of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, J V; Santen, R

    2002-03-01

    Women frequently chose alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for treatment of menopause even though medical indications for estrogens may be present. Prior breast cancer or fear of breast cancer is a major consideration. This review of alternatives to estrogen discusses the evidence linking breast cancer to HRTs and compares potential risks and benefits of HRT to nonHRT alternatives for relief of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy, neurocognitive changes and prevention of heart disease and osteoporosis. Practical guidelines are suggested for use of alternatives for each problem.

  13. ESTROGEN IN THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Andrika Kusuma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression led to the decline quality of life. With more incidence in women due tohormonal cycle caused women more susceptible to depression. Hormone that fluctuatesand holds a key role in brain and nerve cells is estrogen. Estrogen in premenopausalwomen already decreases. Treatment of depression in premenopausal women who gopast the various considerations needs to consider the provision of hormonal therapy. Inthe case of patients treated with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the form of 2 x20 mg Fluoxetine by mouth and hormonal therapy in the form of 1 x 2 mg Estradiol.Feasibility study to evaluate the hormonal therapy contraindications such as breastcancer also needs to be done.

  14. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D

    2008-01-01

    . We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  15. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, E.; Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17 beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices' tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS Results were compared and discussed according...... to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens...

  16. Dissociable endogenous and exogenous attention in disorders of consciousness☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennu, Srivas; Finoia, Paola; Kamau, Evelyn; Monti, Martin M.; Allanson, Judith; Pickard, John D.; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that despite the seeming inability of patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states to generate consistent behaviour, some might possess covert awareness detectable with functional neuroimaging. These findings motivate further research into the cognitive mechanisms that might support the existence of consciousness in these states of profound neurological dysfunction. One of the key questions in this regard relates to the nature and capabilities of attention in patients, known to be related to but distinct from consciousness. Previous assays of the electroencephalographic P300 marker of attention have demonstrated its presence and potential clinical value. Here we analysed data from 21 patients and 8 healthy volunteers collected during an experimental task designed to engender exogenous or endogenous attention, indexed by the P3a and P3b components, respectively, in response to a pair of word stimuli presented amongst distractors. Remarkably, we found that the early, bottom-up P3a and the late, top-down P3b could in fact be dissociated in a patient who fitted the behavioural criteria for the vegetative state. In juxtaposition with healthy volunteers, the patient's responses suggested the presence of a relatively high level of attentional abilities despite the absence of any behavioural indications thereof. Furthermore, we found independent evidence of covert command following in the patient, as measured by functional neuroimaging during tennis imagery. Three other minimally conscious patients evidenced non-discriminatory bottom-up orienting, but no top-down engagement of selective attentional control. Our findings present a persuasive case for dissociable attentional processing in behaviourally unresponsive patients, adding to our understanding of the possible levels and applications of consequent conscious awareness. PMID:24273727

  17. Engineered Assimilation of Exogenous and Endogenous Formate in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yishai, Oren; Goldbach, Leander; Tenenboim, Hezi; Lindner, Steffen N; Bar-Even, Arren

    2017-09-15

    Decoupling biorefineries from land use and agriculture is a major challenge. As formate can be produced from various sources, e.g., electrochemical reduction of CO2, microbial formate-assimilation has the potential to become a sustainable feedstock for the bioindustry. However, organisms that naturally grow on formate are limited by either a low biomass yield or by a narrow product spectrum. The engineering of a model biotechnological microbe for growth on formate via synthetic pathways represents a promising approach to tackle this challenge. Here, we achieve a critical milestone for two such synthetic formate-assimilation pathways in Escherichia coli. Our engineering strategy involves the division of the pathways into metabolic modules; the activity of each module-providing at least one essential building block-is selected for in an appropriate auxotrophic strain. We demonstrate that formate can serve as a sole source of all cellular C1-compounds, including the beta-carbon of serine. We further show that by overexpressing the native threonine cleavage enzymes, the entire cellular glycine requirement can be provided by threonine biosynthesis and degradation. Together, we confirm the simultaneous activity of all pathway segments of the synthetic serine-threonine cycle. We go beyond the formate bioeconomy concept by showing that, under anaerobic conditions, formate produced endogenously by pyruvate formate-lyase can replace exogenous formate. The resulting prototrophic strain constitutes a substantial rewiring of central metabolism in which C1, glycine, and serine metabolism proceed via a unique set of pathways. This strain can serve as a platform for future metabolic-engineering efforts and could further pave the way for investigating the plasticity of metabolic networks.

  18. Estrogen rapidly phosphorylates AMPK, Akt, and AS160 in isolated rat soleus muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen status is positively correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity, however direct effects of estrogen on skeletal muscle glucose uptake have not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogen can acutely activate Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and/or Akt...

  19. Identification of estrogenic compounds in fish bile using bioassay-directed fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; van Oostveen, A.M.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.

    2004-01-01

    Conjugates of estrogenic chemicals, endogenous as well as xenobiotic, are mainly excreted via bile into the intestine. Therefore, measurement of estrogenic activity in bile yields useful information about an organism's internal exposure to (xeno-)estrogens. Although previous studies in The

  20. Bone marrow oxytocin mediates the anabolic action of estrogen on the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen withdrawal in women due to natural or artificial menopause is followed by rapid bone loss, osteoporosis, and a high fracture risk. Replacement with estrogen prevents this bone loss and reduces the risk of fracture. Estrogen uses two mechanisms to exert this effect: it inhibits bone resorpti...

  1. Melanocortin 4 receptor is not required for estrogenic regulations on energy homeostasis and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain estrogen receptor-a (ERa) is essential for estrogenic regulation of energy homeostasis and reproduction. We previously showed that ERa expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates estrogen's effects on food intake, body weight, negative regulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal...

  2. Generalized space time autoregressive with exogenous variable model and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Dewi; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Soemartini

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proposed the Generalized Space Time Autoregressive with variable Exogenous, abbreviated GSTARX as GSTAR development with the addition of exogenous variables. GSTARX not only involves the element of time and location, but also the influence of exogenous variables in the model. GSTARX equation can be written as a linear model, so we can estimate parameters of GSTARX model using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method. For our case study, we use GSTARX model with uniform and inverse distance weights to predict an export volume of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in several locations on the island of Sumatera, where X is the international CPO prices.

  3. Differences in verbal memory performance in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy: 17β-estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroolie, Tonita E; Kenna, Heather A; Williams, Katherine E; Powers, Bevin N; Holcomb, Megan; Khaylis, Anna; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2011-09-01

    Much controversy exists and many questions remain unanswered about the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition in postmenopausal women. There is growing evidence suggesting that HT compounds containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) have negative effects on cognition whereas 17β-estradiol (17β-E) either has positive or neutral effects. The present study sought to further examine this issue in a sample of postmenopausal women with risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional neuropsychological evaluation. Academic research clinic. 68 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49-68) receiving either 17β-E or CEE for at least one year with increased risk for AD. Neuropsychological test battery of the cognitive domains of attention/working memory/processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) showed significantly better verbal memory performance in women receiving 17β-E compared to women receiving CEE regardless of age, IQ, years of education, risk factors for AD (including APOE-ε4 carriership), duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure, concurrent progesterone use, or natural versus surgical menopause status. Verbal memory performance was better in postmenopausal women receiving 17β-E compared to CEE in a sample population of women with risk factors for AD. Genetic risk for AD as well as other confounds did not affect this finding. The results suggest a differential effect of HT type on verbal memory, with 17β-E being a preferential compound. Further evaluation of HT types, regimens and duration of use on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women in a controlled longitudinal design is warranted.

  4. Estrogen therapy: from women's choice to women's preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, M

    2002-06-01

    the proposed prescription. The mode of administration should be proposed and not imposed, offered first as one of many possibilities, and should take into account the lifestyle, the private and professional situation of the particular woman, and her habits and tastes, allowing her a true role in the decision-making process. Observance and compliance will therefore naturally follow, with a woman feeling she has been listened to and understood as a mature adult, and not as a stupid individual or a child. After all, there are not very many medical situations where both patients and physicians have such an array of products and routes of administration available to them. This was the way patients in the Aerodiol studies were considered, and it was also the way that they responded, after the initial surprise factor which opened the road to interesting exchanges. Local acceptability was graded as good to excellent by the spray users. While the Kupperman score was as significantly reduced in both the group that received the Aerodiol spray and the group treated via the transdermal route, mastalgia, one of those side-effects known to dramatically reduce the acceptability of a treatment, was significantly less frequent and user satisfaction was similarly greater at week 16 in the Aerodiol group. The approach, as well as the drug itself, seems to have been well appreciated, as a great number of patients (66% versus 34% for the transdermal route) wanted to continue the treatment after the end of the protocol. How else do our patients express their satisfaction if not by their compliance (which is, after all, our aim)? Compliance was not a problem with the pulsed estrogen therapy and nasal administration of it. The woman's preference could well be the doctor's choice, meaning true informed consent from both parties.

  5. Estrogen protects the inner retina from apoptosis and ischemia-induced loss of Vesl-1L/Homer 1c immunoreactive synaptic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Yang, Shao-Hua; Wei, Jiao; Fujitani, Kazuko; Liu, Ran; Brun-Zinkernagel, Anne-Marie; Simpkins, James W; Inokuchi, Kaoru; Koulen, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Protective effects of estrogen on nerve cells including retinal neurons have been described previously. However, subcellular effects on synaptic connectivity in mild ischemia more closely resembling ischemic conditions found in diabetic or sickle cell retinopathy and stenosis of the carotid artery have not been identified. The present study quantitatively analyzed effects of estrogen administration on synaptic connections of neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the retina. Staining of Vesl-1L/Homer 1c (V-1L) immunoreactivity and TUNEL cytochemistry were used to quantify neuroprotective effects at the synaptic level in a model of mild retinal ischemia induced by temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in the adult rat. V-1L immunoreactivity was found in both synaptic layers, postsynaptic to glutamatergic ribbon synapses. Mild retinal ischemia led to a significantly higher percentage reduction in the number of V-1L-positive synapses in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) compared with the percentage of TUNEL-positive apoptotic neurons in the GCL. Estrogen prevented ischemia-induced loss of V-1L-immunoreactive synapses in the IPL and apoptosis of cells in the GCL. Immunoreactivity for V-1L can be used as a synaptic marker for early changes before more severe neurodegenerative events. The present results suggest that estrogen protects neurons in the GCL including RGCs from both apoptosis and early changes in synaptic connections associated with ischemia and potentially preceding apoptosis.

  6. NOTES ON ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: Introduction 1. Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    administrative litigation and not general administrative law dealing with relations between agencies of the administration. The notes will deal with judicial review of administrative action. This paper is limited to a comparative exposition of the manner in which judicial review is treated in England and. France. The purpose is ...

  7. Development of a recombinant human ovarian (BG1) cell line containing estrogen receptor α and β for improved detection of estrogenic/antiestrogenic chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Jennifer C; Bassal, Arzoo; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in environmental and biological samples, commercial and consumer products, food, and numerous other sources. Given their ubiquitous nature and potential for adverse effects, there is a critical need for rapidly detecting these chemicals. We developed an estrogen-responsive recombinant human ovarian (BG1Luc4E2) cell line recently accepted by the USEPA and OECD as a bioanalytical method to detect estrogen receptor (ER) agonists/antagonists. Un...

  8. Estrogen is essential but not sufficient to induce endometriosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mosami Galvankar

    2017-05-11

    May 11, 2017 ... Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health,. Mumbai 400 012, India. *Corresponding author (Email, deepaknmodi@yahoo.com). Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder of unknown aetiology. Among the several factors, estrogen has.

  9. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Risk of Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female gender and increasing age are key risk factors for gallstone disease; therefore, postmenopausal women are at high risk. Estrogen increases cholesterol saturation of bile and may further increase gallstone risk, but population-based evidence is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective...

  10. Microbial transformation of synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajthaml, Tomas, E-mail: cajthaml@biomed.cas.c [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Kresinova, Zdena; Svobodova, Katerina; Sigler, Karel; Rezanka, Tomas [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    Natural estrogens such as estrone, 17beta-estradiol, estriol, and the particularly recalcitrant synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol used as oral contraceptive, accumulate in the environment and may give rise to health problems. The processes participating in their removal from soil, wastewater, water-sediments, groundwater-aquifer material, and wastewater or sewage treatment plant effluents may involve the action of bacterial and microbial consortia, and in some cases fungi and algae. This review discusses the different efficiencies of bacterial degradation of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the role of sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing conditions in anaerobic degradation, and the role of sorption. The participation of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in cometabolic degradation of estrogens, the estrogen-degrading action of ligninolytic fungi and their extracellular enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, laccase), and of algae are discussed in detail. - Current knowledge of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol microbial transformation is summarized.

  11. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  12. Estrogen Receptor Mutants/Variants in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Recherche Louis- Charles Simard, Montreal, Canada. Four nor- mal human breast tissues from reduction mammoplasties of pre- menopausal women were obtained...to hormone resistance. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6208-17. 22. Karnik PS, Kulkarni S, Lui XP, Budd GT, Bukowski RM. Estrogen receptor mutations in

  13. Multiparametric flow cytometric analysis of estrogen receptor: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These sections from forty breast cancer patients were subjected to multiparametric flow cytometric analysis for simultaneous assessment of estrogen receptor and DNA content analysis as well as immunohistochemical staining for steroid receptors. Moreover, tumor markers were estimated in the preoperable sera of these ...

  14. Estrogenicity and metabolism of prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van de M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

      Binding of (prenylated) flavonoids and isoflavonoids to the human estrogen receptors (hERs) might result in beneficial health effects in vivo. To understand structure-activity relationships of prenylated (iso)flavonoids towards the hERs, prenylated (iso)flavonoids were purified from extracts

  15. Ontogeny of estrogen receptor-beta expression in rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.; van der Burg, B.; van der Saag, P. T.; Gustafsson, J. A.; Kuiper, G. G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently discovered estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) is expressed in rodent and human testes. To obtain insight in the physiological role of ERbeta we have investigated the cell type-specific expression pattern of ERbeta messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the testis of rats of various ages by in

  16. Pollution by endocrine disrupting estrogens in aquatic ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Morogoro urban and peri-urban areas. The main sources of fresh water for domestic uses, fishing and agricultural activities in the study areas including the Mindu dam catchment area, Ngerengere and Morogoro Rivers were assessed. The endocrine disrupting estrogens in water samples were ...

  17. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha I. Hussien

    2015-12-30

    Dec 30, 2015 ... and estrogen on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in ovariectomized rats ... blood flow; TNF-o, Tumor necrosis factor-o; MPO, Myeloperoxidase activity; NO, nitric oxide; ET-1, endothelin-1. * Corresponding author. .... and the abdominal muscle layer and the peritoneum were incised. Both fallopian tubes ...

  18. Estrogen is essential but not sufficient to induce endometriosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder of unknown aetiology. Among the several factors, estrogen hasbeen implicated as a causative factor in endometriosis. In the present study using mouse model, we assessed the role ofestrogen in the initial implantation and growth of endometrium in ectopic locations.

  19. Estrogen is essential but not sufficient to induce endometriosis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    30

    endometrial fragments in the mouse but not humans, to understand the role of host tissue biology in occurrence of endometriosis. Finally, an unusual observation in our study was the failure to sustain the growth of endometriotic lesions despite excessive estrogen supplementation. These results are in contrast with earlier ...

  20. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal ischemia–reperfusion (RIR) is an important etiopathological mechanism of acute renal failure (ARF). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been candidate as a nephroprotectant agent. However, its nephroprotective effect when it is accompanied with estrogen has not been studied in female. Methods: Fifty-six female ...

  1. Diminished adrenal sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in critical illness: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.C. de Jong (Margriet F.C.); N. Molenaar (Nienke); A. Beishuizen (Albertus); A.J. Groeneveld

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Adrenal dysfunction may represent critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), as evidenced by a diminished cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but this concept and its clinical significance remain highly controversial. We

  2. Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis without exogenous steroid intake; report of case with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gero, B.T.; Chynn, K.Y.

    1989-05-01

    We present a case of epidural lipomatosis, in which there is no association with exogenous steroids and describe a previously unreported plain film finding. To our knowledge these are the first published MR images of this condition.

  3. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  4. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Eijking (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently,

  5. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity to Cole (Brassica campestris L. Cruciferae) by exogenous glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we determined the influence of exogenous GSH on cadmium toxicity to cole. GSH addition had beneficial effect on plant development and growth, especially on aboveground biomass and root length. Despite that exogenous GSH insignificantly promoted Cd uptake by the plant, it could decrease of Cd root-to-shoot transport and ameliorate Cd toxicity to the plant. At 6 mg Cd kg-1 soil, GSH addition well countered the Cd-induced significant reduction in CAT activity, but only insignificantly decreased MDA content, suggesting exogenous GSH might indirectly protect plant against oxidative stress via regulating antioxidative enzyme activities. However, at 12 mg Cd kg-1 soil, GSH application insignificantly increased the antioxidant activities but significantly decreased MDA content, indicating external GSH could directly participate in removing radical oxygen species. The results suggest exogenous GSH may have the potential of decreasing Cd accumulation in the edible parts of cultivars and alleviating Cd toxicity.

  6. Estrogen formulations and beauty care practices in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Takeda, Tze Fang Wong, Mari Kitamura, Nobuo YaegashiDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, JapanPurpose: Traditionally, oral estrogens have been used for hormone replacement therapy. However, in Japan, additional estrogen formulations have been used, including transdermal patches and transdermal gels. The latter have a unique commonality with cosmetics because both of them are applied to the skin. Beauty care is one of the most important lifestyle factors for women, and it has been reported that the amount of attention paid to beauty care has an effect in determining whether or not women will choose to undergo HRT during menopause. Therefore, our study focused on estrogen formulations and beauty care practices.Patients and methods: Fifty women who use hormone replacement therapy were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Tohoku University Hospital. They were treated with oral conjugated estrogen (n = 11, transdermal 17ß -estradiol patch (n = 11, and transdermal 17ß-estradiol gel (n = 28. They completed a questionnaire to assess their lifestyle (beauty care practices and exercise habits and their compliance. The transdermal gel users were further interviewed about their subjective impressions regarding “smell”, “sticky feeling”, “spreadability”, and “irritation” on the skin using a five-grade scale.Results: There were no differences in the usability of medicines and patient compliance among the estrogen formulations. We observed a positive tendency between the level of beauty care and transdermal gel use (P = 0.0645, ordinary logistic regression analysis. The gel users placed top priority on a lack of “sticky feeling” but the subjective impression regarding “sticky feeling” was worst among the four factors (P < 0.01, Steel–Dwass test. Correspondence analysis showed that the subjective impressions of transdermal gel corresponding to usability in the

  7. Estrogen and estrogen plus progestin act directly on the mammary gland to increase proliferation in a postmenopausal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, A M; Li, S; Bennett, J M; Hofseth, L J; Haslam, S Z

    2001-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with ovarian hormones is an important therapeutic modality for postmenopausal women. However, a negative side effect of HRT is an increased risk of breast cancer. Surgical induction of menopause by ovariectomy (OVX) in mice is an experimental model that may provide insights into the effects of hormone replacement therapy on the human breast. We have developed a mouse model of early and late postmenopausal states to investigate the effects of HRT on the normal mammary gland. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRT-induced proliferation was due to the direct action of the hormones on the mammary gland, or mediated systemically by hormones or growth factors produced elsewhere in the body. Estrogen (E) or E plus the synthetic progestin, R5020, were implanted directly into the mammary glands of early (1 week post OVX) and late (5 week post OVX) postmenopausal mice instead of administration by injection. We report that responses of early and late postmenopausal mice to implanted hormones were the same as those observed previously with systemically administered hormones. Implanted E conferred an enhanced proliferative response in the late postmenopausal gland characterized morphologically by enlarged duct ends. E+R5020 implants induced similar degrees of cell proliferation in both postmenopausal states but the morphological responses differed. Ductal sidebranching was observed in early postmenopausal mice, whereas duct end enlargement was observed in late postmenopausal mice. The differences in morphological response to E+R5020 in 5 week post OVX were associated with an inability of E to induce progesterone receptors (PR) in the late postmenopausal gland. The responses of the late postmenopausal glands to E and E+P were very similar to that observed previously in immature pubertal glands in ovary-intact mice. In pubertal mice, PR cannot be induced by E unless the mammary gland is pre-treated with EGF-containing implants

  8. Fate of Estrogens in Soils and Detection by ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Emmanuelle; Sheedy, Claudia; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Zvomuya, Francis; Gaultier, Jeanette; Goddard, Tom

    2010-05-01

    Land application of manure can contribute to the release of estrogenic compounds in the environment. Estrogens may move from soils to water by processes such as runoff and leaching. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fate of estrogens in soils and to develop a detection method for these compounds. The sorption (soil sorption coefficient (Kd) and sorption coefficient per unit organic carbon (Koc)) of 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and equol were studied, using batch equilibrium experiments, in 121 surface soils from Alberta, Canada. The mineralization of [4-14C] 17β-estradiol was determined in soil microcosms in a subset of 36 samples. Quantitative relationships at the regional level were explored using partial least squares regression (PLS) (between Kd or Koc values and soil properties) and by ordinary least squares regression (between Kd or Koc values of different estrogens). Soil properties (r2 0.51-0.87 for Kd and 0.32-0.44 for Koc) provided better prediction models than using the data of different estrogens (r2 0.38-0.71 for Kd and 0.18-0.40 for Koc). PLS regression models for mineralization parameters of 17ß-estradiol had lower predictive power (lower r2)than models developed for sorption parameters. In addition, it has become of primary importance to develop sensitive detection methods that are able to detect low estrogen concentrations (ng L-1) in a wide variety of environmental matrices in order to validate the prediction of their fate and to study their presence in affected ecosystems. Conjugates were synthesized using a mixed anhydride reaction and two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were developed using polyclonal antibodies. One ELISA was highly specific for 17β-estradiol (with an IC50 of 243 ng mL-1) and the second allowed for the broader detection of 17β-estradiol, estrone and estriol (with an IC50 of 18 ng mL-1 for 17β-estradiol). The cross-reactivity of both ELISAs was studied against 13 compounds (natural

  9. Administration of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Surgeon What We Do Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively ... Injury Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively ...

  10. Neural correlates of endogenous attention, exogenous attention and inhibition of return in touch

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jones; Forster, B.

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention helps process the myriad of information constantly touching our body. Both endogenous and exogenous mechanisms are relied upon to effectively process this information; however, it is unclear how they relate in the sense of touch. In three tasks we contrasted endogenous and exogenous event-related potential (ERP) and behavioural effects. Unilateral tactile cues were followed by a tactile target at the same or opposite hand. Clear behavioural effects showed facilitation of e...

  11. Diminished adrenal sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in critical illness: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Margriet FC; Molenaar, Nienke; Beishuizen, Albertus; Groeneveld, AB Johan

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Adrenal dysfunction may represent critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), as evidenced by a diminished cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but this concept and its clinical significance remain highly controversial. We studied the adrenal response to exogenous ACTH as a function of the endogenous cortisol-to-ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, and of clinical variables, during critical illness and recover...

  12. Evaluating the Genetic, Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy Number Variation in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0579 TITLE: Evaluating the Genetic , Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy Number Variation in...Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluating the Genetic , Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy...progress in subaim 1a, substantially improving the design of our proposed transgenic animal , the “deletion reporter mouse”, and are finalizing cloning

  13. Progress in the molecular understanding of central regulation of body weight by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The objective is to review recent findings in these aspects. Methods We reviewed recent studies, primarily from those using the conventional and conditional knockout mouse strains, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of estrogens on body weight balance. We also discuss emerging genetic tools that could further benefit the field of estrogen research, and newly developed estrogen-based regimen that produce body weight-lowering benefits. Results The body weight-lowering effects of estrogens are mediated by multiple forms of estrogen receptors, in different brain regions through distinct but coordinated mechanisms. Both rapid signals and “classic” nuclear receptor actions of estrogen receptors appear to contribute to estrogenic regulation on body weight. Conclusion Estrogen receptors and associated signal networks are potential targets for obesity treatment, and further investigations are warranted. PMID:25865677

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Estrogen-Mediated Signal Transduction in Osteoclasts Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen plays an important role in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and protecting against bone loss from osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of estrogen on osteoclasts are not well known. In the present study, we performed proteomics analysis and bioinformatics analysis to comprehensively compare the differential expression of proteins in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand RANKL-induced osteoclasts in the presence and absence of estrogen. We identified 6403 proteins, of which 124 were upregulated and 231 were downregulated by estrogen. Bioinformatics analysis showed that estrogen treatment interfered with 77 intracellular pathways, including both confirmed canonical and unconfirmed pathways of osteoclast formation. Our findings validate the inhibitory effect of estrogen on osteoclasts via the promotion of apoptosis and suppression of differentiation and polarization and suggest that estrogen might inhibit osteoclast formation via other pathways, which requires further investigation and verification.

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein protects the developing female mouse brain from masculinization and defeminization by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Julie; De Mees, Christelle; Douhard, Quentin; Balthazart, Jacques; Gabant, Philippe; Szpirer, Josiane; Szpirer, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Two clearly opposing views exist on the function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal plasma protein that binds estrogens with high affinity, in the sexual differentiation of the rodent brain. AFP has been proposed to either prevent the entry of estrogens or to actively transport estrogens into the developing female brain. The availability of Afp mutant mice (Afp(-/-)) now finally allows us to resolve this longstanding controversy concerning the role of AFP in brain sexual differentiation, and thus to determine whether prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of the female brain. Here we show that the brain and behavior of female Afp(-/-) mice were masculinized and defeminized. However, when estrogen production was blocked by embryonic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione, the feminine phenotype of these mice was rescued. These results clearly demonstrate that prenatal estrogens masculinize and defeminize the brain and that AFP protects the female brain from these effects of estrogens.

  16. Brain Sex Matters: estrogen in cognition and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Shen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are the primary female sex hormones and play important roles in both reproductive and non-reproductive systems. Estrogens can be synthesized in non-reproductive tissues such as liver, heart, muscle, bone and the brain. During the past decade, increasing evidence suggests that brain estrogen can not only be synthesized by neurons, but also by astrocytes. Brain estrogen also works locally at the site of synthesis in paracrine and/or intracrine fashion to maintain important tissue-specific functions. Here, we will focus on the biology of brain estrogen and its impact on cognitive function and Alzheimer’s disease. This comprehensive review provides new insights into brain estrogens by presenting a better understanding of the tissue-specific estrogen effects and their roles in healthy ageing and cognitive function. PMID:24418360

  17. The Role of Estrogens in Control of Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Hevener, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens play a fundamental role in the physiology of the reproductive, cardiovascular, skeletal, and central nervous systems. In this report, we review the literature in both rodents and humans on the role of estrogens and their receptors in the control of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism in health and metabolic diseases. Estrogen actions in hypothalamic nuclei differentially control food intake, energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue distribution. Estrogen actions in skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and immune cells are involved in insulin sensitivity as well as prevention of lipid accumulation and inflammation. Estrogen actions in pancreatic islet β-cells also regulate insulin secretion, nutrient homeostasis, and survival. Estrogen deficiency promotes metabolic dysfunction predisposing to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on metabolic disorders. PMID:23460719

  18. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  19. Estrogen concentration affects its biodegradation rate in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Llewellyn, Neville R; Hankins, Nick P; Darton, Richard C

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the biodegradation rate of the steroid estrogens, estrone (E1) and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), was studied in batch and continuous-flow reactor systems using fresh activated sludge from two sewage treatment plants. Between the concentrations of 0.03 to 10 μg/L in the batch system no consistent difference was found in the biodegradation rates for either estrogen. The biodegradation half-life was 0.3 to 0.7 h for E1, and 1.5 to 4.4 h for EE2 at 15 to 20°C. However, at 100 μg/L, biodegradation rates for both estrogens decreased, with the half-life prolonged to around 2.5 h for E1 and 12 to 18 h for EE2. In continuous-flow experiments, over a 2 h residence time, 95% of E1 and 48% of EE2 were removed on average at 0.1 μg/L, whilst 52% of E1 and 20% of EE2 were removed at 100 μg/L. In general, spiking concentration of estrogens did not appear to affect biodegradation rates between the ng/L to low μg/L levels in activated sludge; however, the rates greatly slowed down when the concentration increased up to 100 μg/L. The results suggest activated sludge biodegradation studies with estrogens in the high μg/L levels could give misleading results and should be avoided.

  20. Degradation of estrogenic hormones in a silt loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Richeng; Blassengale, Alma A; Wang, Qiquan

    2008-10-08

    Estrogenic hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which disrupt the endocrine system function of animals and humans by mimicking and/or antagonizing endogenous hormones. With the application of sludge biosolid and animal manure as alternative fertilizers in agricultural lands, estrogens enter the soil and become an environmental concern. The degradation kinetics of 17beta-estradiol, an estrogenic hormone of major concern, in a silt loam soil were investigated in this study. It was found that 17beta-estradiol degraded rapidly in nonsterilized soil with a half-life of 0.17 day. The degradation rate constant was proportional to the percentage of nonsterilized soil, indicating that microorganisms are directly responsible for the rapid degradation of 17beta-estradiol in soil. The half-life of 17beta-estradiol in 20% nonsterilized soil was slightly shortened from 1.3 to 0.69 day with the increase of soil moisture from 10 to 20% and was greatly decreased from 4.9 to 0.92 day with the increase of temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C. The coexistence of 40 micromol kg (-1) sulfadimethoxine, a veterinary antibiotic, decreased the degradation rate constant of 17beta-estradiol from 0.750 +/- 0.038 to 0.492 +/- 0.016 day (-1). The degradation kinetics of another three estrogenic hormones, including 17alpha-estradiol, estrone, and estriol, were also investigated and compared. Estrone was identified as a degradation product of 17beta-estradiol and the most persistent hormone among the four investigated estrogens. Estriol was observed in the degradation of estrone and 17alpha-estradiol.

  1. Estrogen-biosynthesis gene CYP17 and its interactions with reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle factors in breast cancer risk: results from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gammon, Marilie D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Britton, Julie A; Terry, Mary Beth; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Eng, Sybil M; Wang, Qiao; Gurvich, Irina; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-04-01

    The genes that are involved in estrogen biosynthesis, cellular binding and metabolism may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. We examined the effect of the CYP17 promoter T --> C polymorphism and its interactions with the reproductive history, exogenous hormone use and selected lifestyle risk factors on breast cancer risk among 1037 population-based incident cases and 1096 population-based controls in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Overall, there were no associations between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer risk. Among postmenopausal women, the joint exposure to higher body mass index (BMI) and the variant C allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.22]. The joint exposure to the variant C allele and long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (>51 months) was related to an increased risk of breast cancer (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99-2.31) especially estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.08-3.25). Among the control population, the CYP17 variant C allele was inversely associated with long-term use of postmenopausal HRT and a higher BMI in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the CYP17 variant C allele may increase breast cancer risk in conjunction with long-term HRT use and high BMI in postmenopausal women.

  2. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  3. Genotype-dependent metabolism of exogenous testosterone - new biomarkers result in prolonged detectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone (T) misuse still represents a major problem in sports drug testing. Many strategies have been developed and applied to routine doping controls in recent years to enable both to identify suspicious samples in initial testing procedures and to confirm the exogenous origin of urinary T by means of carbon isotope ratio (CIR) determinations. Depending on the tested individual's genotype of UGT2B17, significantly different amounts of T are glucuronidated and excreted, which results in unaffected T/epitestosterone ratios after T misuse in those subjects with the deletion/deletion polymorphism (del/del). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in metabolic pathways of orally administered T between persons of del/del and insertion/insertion (ins/ins) genetic polymorphism. Therefore, a recently established method using hydrogen isotope ratios together with high-resolution and high-accuracy mass spectrometry was applied after administration of deuterated T to n = 4 subjects including both genotypes. Participants collected urine specimens directly before and for up to 8 days after the application. Urine aliquots were prepared to yield unconjugated, glucuronidated, and sulphoconjugated fractions of urinary steroids. Besides the significant difference in the excretion of T-glucuronide, all measured metabolites varied rather on an individual basis than due to a genotype difference. New T metabolites (both methylated and de-methylated) were detected and investigated regarding their potential to enhance the screening for T misuse. Sulphoconjugated epiandrosterone was further identified as the biomarker allowing for a prolonged retrospective detection of T misuse by means of CIR determinations for up to 5 days compared to 1 day if currently applied sports drug testing procedures were used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Litt, Lawrence; Segal, Mark R.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Kim, Myungwon

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case) greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately developing

  5. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ON THE EXTRAFASCICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN TRANSECTED RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ćosović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies linking the effect of certain pharmacological agents with the status of connective tissue and nerve fiber regeneration after traumatic transection were focused mainly on the proximal nerve stump. In our study, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the proximal and the distal nerve stump were done. Male Wistar rats underwent transection and excision of an 8-mm nerve segment of the left sciatic nerve. The vehiculum group of animals (n=7 was administered with 5% ethanol in Ringer solution (vehiculum, while the melatonin group (n=10 received 30mg/kg of melatonin dissolved in vehiculum, daily, intraperitoneally (i.p. for 14 consecutive days. Then, intravital excision of the marginal zone of the proximal and distal nerve stump was performed and the samples were further processed for qualitative photomicroscopic and stereological analysis. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of both nerve stumps showed absent or slight stump thickening in the melatonin group compared to the vehiculum group of animals, which is the result of reduced connective tissue proliferation. The mean epineurial volume density of the proximal nerve stump was statistically significantly lower (p=0,003 in the melatonin (0,36 than in the vehiculum group of animals (0,51. The difference in mean epineurial volume density of the distal stump was also statistically significant (p=0,039 with 0,33 in melatonin and 0,46 in the vehiculum group. Our study revealed that the administration of exogenous melatonin was effective in suppression of trauma-caused extrafascicular connective tissue proliferation in neuroma of the proximal nerve stump as well as fibroma formation in the distal nerve stump.

  6. Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Pelton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately

  7. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic regulation of the half-life of covalently labeled estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, M; Laios, I; el Khissiin, A; Seo, H S; Lempereur, F; Legros, N; Leclercq, G

    1996-02-01

    Effect of estrogens and antiestrogens (AEs) on estrogen receptor (ER) half-life was analyzed in MCF-7 cells by assessing its progressive disappearance after covalent labeling in situ with [3H]tamoxifen aziridine ([3H]TAZ). Cells were incubated for 1 h with 20 nM [3H]TAZ either in the absence or presence of a 500-fold excess of unlabeled estradiol (E2) (non-specific binding). The entire ER population was labeled by this method as established by subsequent incubation of the cells with [125I]E2. [3H]TAZ labeled cells were maintained in culture for additional 5 h in the absence (control) or presence of increasing amounts (0.1 nM - 1 microM) of either a given estrogen (E2, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol), a pure AE (RU 58 668, ICI 164 384) or an AE with residual estrogenic activity (RU 39 411, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, keoxifene). The progressive disappearance of nuclear and cytosolic [3H]TAZ-ER complex during 5 h incubation were assessed by their immunoprecipitation with anti-ER monoclonal antibody (H 222) followed by scintillation counting or SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Fading of labeled receptors was extremely slow (approximately 10% loss after 6 h) in absence of any hormone/antihormone indicating a long half-life of the [3H]TAZ-ER complex. Addition of estrogens as well as pure AEs led to a dramatic reduction of the half-life while AEs with residual estrogenic activity were extremely less efficient in this regard providing an explanation for the ability of latter compounds to up-regulate the receptor since they do not affect ER mRNA synthesis and stability. Receptor disappearance induced by estrogens was closely related to their binding affinity for ER. Newly synthesized ER emerged during the treatment with hormones or antihormones seems to be implicated in the phenomenon since [3H]TAZ was covalently bound and could, therefore, not be displaced by these compounds. Induction of synthesis of a short half-life peptide(s) with degradative activity was demonstrated by

  8. RNase P-mediated inhibition of viral growth by exogenous administration of short oligonucleotide external guide sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Walter; Liu, Fenyong

    2004-01-01

    The use of external guide sequence (EGS) in directing endogenous ribonuclease P (RNase P) for inhibition of viral propagation is described in this chapter, with an emphasis on chemically modified EGSs and their extracellular delivery. Targeting of the mRNA-encoding human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protease by DNA-based EGSs is presented as an example of how to design chemically modified EGSs for antiviral applications. General information about the EGS-based technology is included, followed by detailed protocols for EGS design, human RNase P purification, in vitro assay of EGS activity, liposome-mediated delivery of chemically modified EGSs and detection of their distribution in cells, and an assay of EGS activity for blocking growth of HCMV in cultured cells.

  9. Expression of estrogen-induced genes and estrogen receptor β in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: implications for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Ma, Ly T; Milton, Denái R; Yao, James C; Wang, Huamin; Rashid, Asif; Broaddus, Russell R

    2014-10-01

    The indolent nature and expression of progesterone receptor (PR), a well-known estrogen-induced gene, in a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), raise the possibility of hormonal regulation in these tumors. Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β as well as messenger RNA expression of estrogen-induced genes (PR, EIG121, IGF-1, IGF-1R, sFRP1, and sFRP4) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were examined in 131 World Health Organization grade G1 and G2 PanNETs and correlated their expression with clinicopathological features. Thirty-nine PanNETs (30%) showed high positive ERβ staining, and 87 cases (66%) had low positive ERβ staining; only 5 cases (4%) had no nuclear staining. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with small size (P = 0.02), low World Health Organization grade (P = 0.02), and low American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P = 0.006) more frequently showed high positive ERβ staining. Among the estrogen-induced genes studied, PanNETs had significantly higher expression of PR, EIG121, IGF-1, sFRP1, and sFRP4 compared with normal pancreas, independent of age or sex. High positive ERβ staining was associated with an increased expression of PR (P < 0.001) and EIG121 (P = 0.02). Our study showed that PanNETs with favorable prognostic features have higher ERβ expression, which is associated with up-regulated PR and EIG121 messenger RNA expression. Estrogen regulation in PanNETs could potentially help in risk stratification and provide a rational target for novel treatment strategies.

  10. Estrogen receptor beta participate in the regulation of metabolizm of extracellular matrix in estrogen alpha negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Monika; Miltyk, Wojciech; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Kuźmicki, Mariusz; Pałka, Jerzy; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2009-01-01

    The biology of breast cancer is closely releted to sex steroid hormones. Estrogen receptor beta is overexpressed in around 70% breast cancer cases, referrd to as "ER positive". Estrogens bind to estrogen receptor and stimulate the transcription of genes involved in control of cell proliferation. Moreover, estrogens may induce growth factors and components of extracellular matrix and interact with them in a complex manner. Extracellular matrix and integrins play an important role in cell functions and their aberrant expressions are implicated in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis. ER beta is certainly associated with more differentiated tumors, while evidence of role of ER beta is controversial. The highly invasive breast cancer ER beta negative cell line MDA-MB 231 can be the model of exam the role of ER beta in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the role of activation of ER beta on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix and the expression of beta-1 integrin in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. The cells were exposed on the estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifen and genisteina in dose dependent concentrations. To determine the relative rate of collagen syntesis we measured the time-dependent reduction of collagen-bound radioactivity after pulse-chase labeling with [3 H] prolina by Peterkofsky methods. The expression of beta-1 integrin was determine by Western blot analysis. The activity of MMP2 and 9 were measured using gelatin zymography with an image analysis system. Our data suggest on the role of estrogen receptor beta on the metabolism of extracellular matrix in the breast cancer line MDA - MB 231. Estradiol and SERMs regulate the expression of ECM proteins: collagen, integrins and enhance activity of metaloproteinases 2 and 9.

  11. Estrogen receptor beta participate in the regulation of metabolizm of extracellular matrix in estrogen alpha negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kuźmicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of breast cancer is closely releted to sex steroid hormones. Estrogen receptor beta is overexpressed in around 70% breast cancer cases, referrd to as "ER positive". Estrogens bind to estrogen receptor and stimulate the transcription of genes involved in control of cell proliferation. Moreover, estrogens may induce growth factors and components of extracellular matrix and interact with them in a complex manner. Extracellular matrix and integrins play an important role in cell functions and their aberrant expressions are implicated in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis. ER beta is certainly associated with more differentiated tumors, while evidence of role of ER beta is controversial. The highly invasive breast cancer ER beta negative cell line MDA-MB 231 can be the model of exam the role of ER beta in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the role of activation of ER beta on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix and the expression of beta-1 integrin in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. The cells were exposed on the estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifen and genisteina in dose dependent concentrations. To determine the relative rate of collagen syntesis we measured the time-dependent reduction of collagen-bound radioactivity after pulse-chase labeling with [3 H] prolina by Peterkofsky methods. The expression of beta-1 integrin was determine by Western blot analysis. The activity of MMP2 and 9 were measured using gelatin zymography with an image analysis system. Our data suggest on the role of estrogen receptor beta on the metabolism of extracellular matrix in the breast cancer line MDA - MB 231. Estradiol and SERMs regulate the expression of ECM proteins: collagen, integrins and enhance activity of metaloproteinases 2 and 9.

  12. Estrogen treatment decreases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in autoimmune demyelinating disease through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Stefan M; Sasidhar, Manda V; Morales, Laurie B; Du, Sienmi; Sicotte, Nancy L; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2009-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a crucial function in migration of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Levels of MMP-9 are elevated in multiple sclerosis (MS) and predict the occurrence of new active lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This translational study aims to determine whether in vivo treatment with the pregnancy hormone estriol affects MMP-9 levels from immune cells in patients with MS and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from three female MS patients treated with estriol and splenocytes from EAE mice treated with estriol, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha ligand, ERbeta ligand or vehicle were stimulated ex vivo and analyzed for levels of MMP-9. Markers of CNS infiltration were assessed using MRI in patients and immunohistochemistry in mice. Supernatants from PBMCs obtained during estriol treatment in female MS patients showed significantly decreased MMP-9 compared with pretreatment. Decreases in MMP-9 coincided with a decrease in enhancing lesion volume on MRI. Estriol treatment of mice with EAE reduced MMP-9 in supernatants from autoantigen-stimulated splenocytes, coinciding with decreased CNS infiltration by T cells and monocytes. Experiments with selective ER ligands showed that this effect was mediated through ERalpha. In conclusion, estriol acting through ERalpha to reduce MMP-9 from immune cells is one mechanism potentially underlying the estriol-mediated reduction in enhancing lesions in MS and inflammatory lesions in EAE.

  13. Immunocytochemical study of estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and the proteins that interact with nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II in epithelial endometrial cells, in the presence and in the absence of estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OM Echeverría

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The localization and abundance of the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP complex containing three proteins, p32, p55 and p60, which interact with the nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II, have been studied in rat endometrial epithelial cells by means of immunofluorescence and high resolution quantitative immunocytochemistry. In the cytoplasm E-RAF is associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the nucleus it is mainly localized at the interchromatin space, and surrounding the clumps of compact or semi-condensed chromatin. Quantitative analyses show that the abundance of E-RAF in the nucleus increases after ovariectomy and decreases 3 minutes after estradiol administration. These results are in agreement with the currently available biochemical data. Double immunolocalizations demonstrate that p32, p55, p60 co-localize with other splicing-related protein. High resolution immunolocalization shows that p32, p55, p60 are associated with perichromatin fibrils (co-transcriptional splicing and with clusters of interchromatin granules (storage of splicing-related molecules. The nuclear abundance of the snRNP complex decreases with ovariectomy, increases within 3 minutes after estradiol administration and remains higher than that in ovariectomized animals for 27 minutes. These results strongly support the previous data on the role of nER-II in the regulation of mRNA transcription and its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

  14. Activated vitamin D3 and pro-activated vitamin D3 attenuate induction of permanent changes caused by neonatal estrogen exposure in the mouse vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Manabu; Kurosaki, Keiko; Okamura, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development.

  15. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  16. Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of long-term memory retrieval in female rats: influences of estrous cycle and estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkhani, Raziyeh; Darbandi, Niloufar; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Using an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task, the effects of glucocorticoids on memory retrieval in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were investigated. Young adult female rats were trained in a one trial IA task (1-mA, 3-s footshock). The latency to reenter the dark compartment of the apparatus was recorded in the retention test performed 48h after training. Pre-retrieval injection of corticosterone (CORT, 1, 3, and 10mg/kg) to OVX rats impaired memory retrieval at all doses tested. Similar administration of CORT (3mg/kg) in intact female rats impaired memory retrieval in the estrus phase (when endogenous plasma levels of estrogen are low) but not in the proestrus phase (when endogenous levels of estrogen are high). Concurrent administration of CORT (3mg/kg) and 17-β-estradiol (15μg/kg) in both proestrus and estrous phases impaired memory retrieval. Our findings indicate that the effects of corticosterone on memory retrieval are modulated by the estrous cycle and 17-β-estradiol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of estrogen responsive genes using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essack Magbubah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy has positively impact the treatment of several cancers, such as prostate, lung and breast cancers. Moreover, several groups have reported the importance of estrogen induced gene regulation in esophageal cancer (EC. This suggests that there could be a potential for estrogen therapy for EC. The efficient design of estrogen therapies requires as complete as possible list of genes responsive to estrogen. Our study develops a systems biology methodology using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC as a model to identify estrogen responsive genes. These genes, on the other hand, could be affected by estrogen therapy in ESCC. Results Based on different sources of information we identified 418 genes implicated in ESCC. Putative estrogen responsive elements (EREs mapped to the promoter region of the ESCC genes were used to initially identify candidate estrogen responsive genes. EREs mapped to the promoter sequence of 30.62% (128/418 of ESCC genes of which 43.75% (56/128 are known to be estrogen responsive, while 56.25% (72/128 are new candidate estrogen responsive genes. EREs did not map to 290 ESCC genes. Of these 290 genes, 50.34% (146/290 are known to be estrogen responsive. By analyzing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoters of the 202 (56+146 known estrogen responsive ESCC genes under study, we found that their regulatory potential may be characterized by 44 significantly over-represented co-localized TFBSs (cTFBSs. We were able to map these cTFBSs to promoters of 32 of the 72 new candidate estrogen responsive ESCC genes, thereby increasing confidence that these 32 ESCC genes are responsive to estrogen since their promoters contain both: a/mapped EREs, and b/at least four cTFBSs characteristic of ESCC genes that are responsive to estrogen. Recent publications confirm that 47% (15/32 of these 32 predicted genes are indeed responsive to estrogen. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge our

  18. Identification of estrogen responsive genes using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as a model

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2012-10-26

    Background: Estrogen therapy has positively impact the treatment of several cancers, such as prostate, lung and breast cancers. Moreover, several groups have reported the importance of estrogen induced gene regulation in esophageal cancer (EC). This suggests that there could be a potential for estrogen therapy for EC. The efficient design of estrogen therapies requires as complete as possible list of genes responsive to estrogen. Our study develops a systems biology methodology using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as a model to identify estrogen responsive genes. These genes, on the other hand, could be affected by estrogen therapy in ESCC.Results: Based on different sources of information we identified 418 genes implicated in ESCC. Putative estrogen responsive elements (EREs) mapped to the promoter region of the ESCC genes were used to initially identify candidate estrogen responsive genes. EREs mapped to the promoter sequence of 30.62% (128/418) of ESCC genes of which 43.75% (56/128) are known to be estrogen responsive, while 56.25% (72/128) are new candidate estrogen responsive genes. EREs did not map to 290 ESCC genes. Of these 290 genes, 50.34% (146/290) are known to be estrogen responsive. By analyzing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoters of the 202 (56+146) known estrogen responsive ESCC genes under study, we found that their regulatory potential may be characterized by 44 significantly over-represented co-localized TFBSs (cTFBSs). We were able to map these cTFBSs to promoters of 32 of the 72 new candidate estrogen responsive ESCC genes, thereby increasing confidence that these 32 ESCC genes are responsive to estrogen since their promoters contain both: a/mapped EREs, and b/at least four cTFBSs characteristic of ESCC genes that are responsive to estrogen. Recent publications confirm that 47% (15/32) of these 32 predicted genes are indeed responsive to estrogen.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge our study is the first

  19. Differential effects of exogenous and endogenous attention on second-order texture contrast sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    The visual system can use a rich variety of contours to segment visual scenes into distinct perceptually coherent regions. However, successfully segmenting an image is a computationally expensive process. Previously we have shown that exogenous attention—the more automatic, stimulus-driven component of spatial attention—helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for second-order, texture-defined patterns at the attended location, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. Interestingly, the effects of exogenous attention depended on the second-order spatial frequency of the stimulus. At parafoveal locations, attention enhanced second-order contrast sensitivity to relatively high, but not to low second-order spatial frequencies. In the present study we investigated whether endogenous attention—the more voluntary, conceptually-driven component of spatial attention—affects second-order contrast sensitivity, and if so, whether its effects are similar to those of exogenous attention. To that end, we compared the effects of exogenous and endogenous attention on the sensitivity to second-order, orientation-defined, texture patterns of either high or low second-order spatial frequencies. The results show that, like exogenous attention, endogenous attention enhances second-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location and reduces it at unattended locations. However, whereas the effects of exogenous attention are a function of the second-order spatial frequency content, endogenous attention affected second-order contrast sensitivity independent of the second-order spatial frequency content. This finding supports the notion that both exogenous and endogenous attention can affect second-order contrast sensitivity, but that endogenous attention is more flexible, benefitting performance under different conditions. PMID:22895879

  20. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.