WorldWideScience

Sample records for exit-entry competition strategy

  1. Corporate Strategies and Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Jensen, Kristoffer; Christensen, René Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting...... global segmentation and differentiation strategies. From the mid-1980s, however, it successfully followed a unique national responsiveness strategy, which scholars including Dong Sung Cho and Michael E. Porter had ruled out in shipbuilding. The article shows how shipyard owners shaped strategies...

  2. Modern Competitive Strategy Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of an ever increasing number of cases of successful application of old combat strategies in business practice. Nevertheless, the author refuses the so called “direct conflict“ of firms, when it is really fought for victory on the market. His approach is based on the philosophy of “victory without fight“, in other words – of achieving the aim without direct conflict with the rival firm.In the end he comes to the conclusion that combat philosophies are more and more often incorporated into classical approach of strategic firm control and become the integral part of philosophy of management. At the close happens to opinion that the one from basic factors absolutely necessary to creation such strategy at company, is necessary present so-called „creative intelligence“.

  3. Corporate real estate and competitive strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.; Singer, B.P.; Vande Putte, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organisations use a corporate real estate strategy to support their competitive strategy. It provides a theoretical and empirical overview and analysis of effective combinations of firms' real estate and competitive strategies.

  4. Growth and innovation Strategies In Global Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of firm dynamics in global competition and experimentally analyzes multinational growth strategies and optimal coordination of innovative activities. It shows that growth and innovation strategies of operatively engaged headquarters (business or corporate) with a

  5. A normative model for assessing competitive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerer, Gerard David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to evaluate and refine a business’ s competitive strategy , adding to its robustness and survivability.

  6. Sourcing Strategies to Keep up with Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve...... the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic...

  7. Competitive Strategy, Performance Appraisal and Firm Results

    OpenAIRE

    Bayo-Moriones, Alberto; Galdon-Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Martinez-de-Morentin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we address the relationship between performance appraisal and competitive strategy, as well as the impact of this relationship on firm performance. The results indicate that the adoption of developmental performance appraisal and the use of administrative performance appraisal are higher among firms that pursue differentiation strategies compared to those competing on costs. Regarding firm performance, the interaction between a developmental appraisal system and a quality strat...

  8. The five competitive forces that shape strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    In 1979, a young associate professor at Harvard Business School published his first article for HBR, "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." In the years that followed, Michael Porter's explication of the five forces that determine the long-run profitability of any industry has shaped a generation of academic research and business practice. In this article, Porter undertakes a thorough reaffirmation and extension of his classic work of strategy formulation, which includes substantial new sections showing how to put the five forces analysis into practice. The five forces govern the profit structure of an industry by determining how the economic value it creates is apportioned. That value may be drained away through the rivalry among existing competitors, of course, but it can also be bargained away through the power of suppliers or the power of customers or be constrained by the threat of new entrants or the threat of substitutes. Strategy can be viewed as building defenses against the competitive forces or as finding a position in an industry where the forces are weaker. Changes in the strength of the forces signal changes in the competitive landscape critical to ongoing strategy formulation. In exploring the implications of the five forces framework, Porter explains why a fast-growing industry is not always a profitable one, how eliminating today's competitors through mergers and acquisitions can reduce an industry's profit potential, how government policies play a role by changing the relative strength of the forces, and how to use the forces to understand complements. He then shows how a company can influence the key forces in its industry to create a more favorable structure for itself or to expand the pie altogether. The five forces reveal why industry profitability is what it is. Only by understanding them can a company incorporate industry conditions into strategy.

  9. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  10. Competitive Strategies In The Context Of Political Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Gabriela Baban

    2013-01-01

    By implementing effective marketing strategies organizations can achieve their strategic objectives and be competitive. The main objectives of the study are: 1). presentation of the main characteristics that define market strategy in the context of political marketing; 2). analysis of the competitive strategies according to the position held by an organization on the market; 3). presentation of the main trends of competitive environment in the contemporary business context. To obtain the vote...

  11. Strategy scenario selection in the competition of mobile ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Ki

    2013-01-01

    Competition in the mobile market is centered on platforms, or operating systems, for smartphones. The current competition and market structure of the global mobile market has shifted to a competition among ecosystems that utilize the same mobile operating systems of the platform operators. This paper aims to answer those questions. The direction of competition in the smartphone industry is traced. This study tries to list the selectable strategy options for each major ecosystem. Then the stra...

  12. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Ivan; Becić Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle. The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and pro...

  13. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) - Phase III ... and competitiveness; balancing growth with the distribution of gain; and new theoretical frameworks for studying the determinants of economic diversification. ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods.

  14. Competitive Strategies In The Context Of Political Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Gabriela Baban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By implementing effective marketing strategies organizations can achieve their strategic objectives and be competitive. The main objectives of the study are: 1. presentation of the main characteristics that define market strategy in the context of political marketing; 2. analysis of the competitive strategies according to the position held by an organization on the market; 3. presentation of the main trends of competitive environment in the contemporary business context. To obtain the vote of the electorate political parties apply specific competitive strategies according to the position they hold on the market. Electoral success depends largely on how political parties (or candidates manage to gain the voters’ trust by using effective strategies in order to improve and maintain their position on the market over a long period of time.

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUMENTS IN IMPLEMENTING FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES COMPETITIVENESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Stankovska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of  аdministrative instruments in implementing functional strategies competitiveness management. Due to providing strategic financial management competitiveness the use of administrative levers of control in the formulation and implementation of financial strategies were investigated. System of financial policies forming by individual policies of  general financial strategy, which is an administrative levers of influence on implementation strategies, was proposed. Structure strategic alternatives of financial and investment strategy implementation based on the decomposition and decision tree was formed. To select strategic alternatives, to identify strategic gaps and evaluate deviations from specified target markers in the implementation of financial policies using GAP-analysis that is a tool of management analysis was proposed. Key words: functional strategy, financial strategy, competitiveness management, financial policy, administrative instruments, GAP-analysis.

  16. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PERUSAHAAN BERDASARKAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Utami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan Tenun Ikat Lestari Indah adalah perusahaan pembuatan kain dengan alat tenun bukan mesin. Dalam menjalankan bisnisnya, perusahaan menghadapi berbagai kendala, diantaranya daya beli masyarakat menurun akibat situasi perekonomian yang tidak menentu serta persaingan harga yang tidak sehat antar pengrajin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merumuskan strategi perusahaan sesuai dengan kondisi internal dan eksternal perusahaan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis SWOT, I-E (Internal-External, dan QSPM (Quantitative Strategy Planning Matrix. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan posisi bisnis perusahaan berada pada posisi pertumbuhan, sehingga strategi yang dirumuskan adalah menghindari kehilangan profit dan penjualan. Dari hasil analisis QSPM (Quantitative Strategy Planning Matrix diketahui strategi yang terpilih untuk strategi jangka pendek adalah menjalin hubungan baik dengan konsumen tetap , strategi jangka pendek-menengah adalah menjalin kerjasama dengan biro-biro perjalanan wisata, strategi jangka menengah adalah menetapkan tingkatan harga sesuai kualitas dan desain, dan strategi jangka panjang adalah memperluas jaringan pemasaran di dalam dan luar negeri.

  17. Regulation of pacing strategy during athletic competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J de Koning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Athletic competition has been a source of interest to the scientific community for many years, as a surrogate of the limits of human ambulatory ability. One of the remarkable things about athletic competition is the observation that some athletes suddenly reduce their pace in the mid-portion of the race and drop back from their competitors. Alternatively, other athletes will perform great accelerations in mid-race (surges or during the closing stages of the race (the endspurt. This observation fits well with recent evidence that muscular power output is regulated in an anticipatory way, designed to prevent unreasonably large homeostatic disturbances. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that a simple index, the product of the momentary Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the fraction of race distance remaining, the Hazard Score, defines the likelihood that athletes will change their velocity during simulated competitions; and may effectively represent the language used to allow anticipatory regulation of muscle power output. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that the muscular power output during high intensity exercise performance is actively regulated in an anticipatory manner that accounts for both the momentary sensations the athlete is experiencing as well as the relative amount of a competition to be completed.

  18. Competitive Strategies and Improved Performance of Selected Nigeria Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waidi Adeniyi Akingbad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of globalization in telecommunication companies has greatly increased the level of competition in the industry and they are forced to be competitive to survive. Different types of strategies are put in place in order to be profitable and competitive. All these strategies are directed to attract, retain and maintain customers for continuous profitability. However, majority of them hardly measure the impact of their strategic innovation on their customers. The paper seeks to explore the influence of competitive strategies embarked upon by selected telecommunication companies in Nigeria on their performance. The paper also examines how competitive strategies could be implemented for improved customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Three null hypotheses were postulated to test the relationship between lower prices and customer satisfaction, uninterrupted trunk services and customer loyalty, and customer complaint handling and retention. Only customers using telephone service were selected as respondents from Lagos State. The state was stratified in to 20 local government council area and questionnaires were distributed to 125 respondents in each of them. The completion rate of the questionnaire in each of them is between 103 and 110. Survey research design was adopted to carry out the study. A structured questionnaire was designed and validated through the construct validity and tested for confirmation using the KMO measure of sampling adequacy. It was also made reliable using Cronbach’s Alpha test. From the study, findings revealed relationship between competitive strategies and customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between competitive strategies, its constituents and performance of telecommunication companies. It is recommended that universal mobile telecommunication services (UMTS operators should adopt the culture of competitive strategies since it can

  19. Competitive Strategy and Total Quality Management Culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the elements of competitive strategy, total quality management culture and productivity improvement and their relationship in producing better outputs of goods and services and individual and organizational performance. Production remains fundamental to the sustenance of human existence.

  20. Hybrid competitive strategies, organizational structure, and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pertusa Ortega, Eva María

    2008-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en SMS 28th Annual International Conference, Cologne, Germany, October 12-15, 2008. This paper analyzes the internal characteristics of organizational structure which have an influence on the development of hybrid competitive strategies and their link to firm performance. The study examines a sample of large Spanish firms belonging to different sectors by means of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique, using formative dimensions for competitive strategy and orga...

  1. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Porter's Model of Generic Competitive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Orges Ormanidhi; Omer Stringa

    2008-01-01

    A firm's competitive behavior is an important topic for practitioners, theorists, and policy makers. Among the explanations of firms' behavior is Michael Porter's model. We have presented this model along with some alternative approaches: Structure-Conduct-Performance, the New Industrial Organization and Game Theory, the Resource-Based Perspective, and Market Process Economics. These approaches are discussed in terms of their relations, similarities, and differences relative to Porter's model...

  3. Market Structure in the Context of Developing Competitive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Krivka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The abstract deals with the application of positioning strategies under the conditions of classical market structures. It is discovered that the assumptions of pure competition leave no space for M. Porter’s generic cost leadership and differentiation strategies to be applied. The enterprise’s actions, influencing five competitive forces and implementing generic strategies, are reasonable under the conditions of imperfect competition market structures. The game theory models, applied to oligopoly, indicate the close interaction of enterprises and interdependence of their strategic decisions: cost reduction and differentiation strategies not only increase the profit of the enterprise, implementing the strategy, but by affecting market price and residual demand decrease the competitor’s profit.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Strategies to meet increased competition for outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoszewski, P H

    1985-11-01

    The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the consumer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself," said P. F. Drucker in Management: Tasks, Practices, Responsibilities. For hospitals that are directly competing with surgicenters for patients and physicians, the competition will intensify. Hospitals in those environments must develop streamlined ambulatory surgery programs that are attuned to consumers' changing demands. The winners in capturing the ambulatory surgery market will be organizations with the following: current market knowledge, facilities that serve the consumer's needs and demands, creative leadership, a formalized marketing plan, and a commitment to excellence.

  5. Competitive Strategy of Banking Industry (Studies in Bengkulu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Anwar AB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study examines the competitive strategies tested the banking industry in the province of Bengkulu. Issues raised in this study is the extent the competitive strategy of banking and can ultimately increased customer. The aim to be achieved is to know what strategies can be applied. The analysis tool is to use qualitative paradigm mapping descriptive with banks in the province of Bengkulu with cluster analysis. Data collection method used in this study was secondary data collection and in-depth interviews. The results of this study conducted that the application of competitive strategy of Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Bank Mandiri, Bank Bengkulu and market penetration strategy was by opening a branch office network and cash office assistant sub-district area are yielded  positive results. From the aspect of services offered, the customer feels that the diversification of services has been able to meet customer needs. The aspect of competitive strategy, distribution aspects of a positive assessment, especially the ease of access, is felt more quickly. Customers feel that the branch offices is still lack, particularly for the Bank are classified as market followers. Customers feel that the promotion is still lacking, particularly those Bank whose branches or cash office in the area. The  strategy  that may be used is a segmentation strategy, developing target market, and positioning.

  6. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle. The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and properly implemented to fulfill the expected results. The best solution is developing the credible strategies. Researching of the strategic marketing literature, the authors have noted down that the greater attention is given to the formulation than the implementation of the marketing strategy. In this text, focus is on the research of the marketing strategy implementation as a significant factor of the competitive advantage. The traditional concept of the marketing strategy implementation is taken into consideration first, as well as the risks the enterprise is facing with in that case. Thereafter, the testing and developing of the credible marketing strategy is represented, as well as the problems the enterprise is facing with in the implementation. Finally, the executive skills and control are analyzed as important factors of the successful implementation of the marketing strategy. .

  7. SUSTAINABILITY AS A STRATEGY OF RESPONSIBLE AND COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a competitiveness strategy based on sustainability to lead the way to a model of responsible and competitive development. The analysis takes as its starting point the assumption that the maturity of a sustainable business strategy positively affects competitiveness. The used method is the critical analysis. Among other results of this analysis concludes that the current business strategy seeks a system ecologically appropriate, economically viable and socially fair to reach sustainable equilibrium. This strategy based on sustainability must be promoted by the institutions and strengthened by the capabilities and resources that each company counts on to develop advantages to foster the overall development and achieve the maximization of benefits from the tangible and intangible perspectives

  8. CREATING COMPETITIVE ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY USING THE FUNNEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Stefanovska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive environment of the 21st century, organizations must be able to effectively change through the application of effective strategies, quickly and in a way that the competitors will be unable to imitate. Therefore, the essential question in any organization is how to achieve and maintain competitive advantage. In this regard, strategic leaders should first logically consider what will bring a substantial advantage to the organization in a long-term, and then start with the process of creating the strategy. To achieve this, researchers in the field of managerial issues offer a concept of continuous process that begins by looking at the customers pattern, through defining the competitive environment and the place of business in it and finally categorizing several strategic business conditions, as a precondition for election and creation of a competitive strategy. This process can be presented as the “funnel for selection of competitive strategy”, in whose widest part we can put the customer matrix, in the middle part we can place definitions of the business outlook of the business and the position of the organization in those perspectives. In order to implement the "Funnel method" of strategic planning teams we need accurate, timely and relevant information based on which we can bring appropriate organizational strategy. The subject of this paper is displaying the Funnel method for selection of the competitive strategy, and presentation of the situation in some of the organizations in the Pelagonija region, related to the way and the information used to create organizational strategies through the Funnel method.

  9. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Effects of Cooperative and Competitive Learning Strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on Students' performance in Mathematics were investigated in this study. Eighty (80) Senior Secondary II students made up of 40 males and 40 females were randomly selected from the population of a Secondary Commercial School in Uyo. These students ...

  11. 47 Competitive Strategy and Total Quality Management Culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Competition in a broader sense can be termed extended rivalry. Quality management consultants agree that implementing quality management strategies requires a change in culture, a change that is often difficult to achieve but since marketing principles need to be changed from mere advertising techniques to customer ...

  12. Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so

  13. Performance Strategies of US Olympians in Practice and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K.; Gould, Daniel; Rolo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, no self-report instruments have examined psychological skills use in both practice and competition. In light of the significant role of practice in sport performance outcomes, a need exists to measure these skills in both domains. This study was designed to investigate differences in performance strategies of US Olympians in both…

  14. Competitive strategies in fashion industries: Portuguese footwear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. D.; Guedes, G.; Ferreira, F.

    2017-10-01

    Portugal is an important player in the European fashion industry. The Portuguese footwear industry, “low-tech” and traditional industry, dominated by SMEs and located in two main clusters, is a success case in the Portuguese economy. After a long period of decline until 2009, the footwear companies prepared new strategies that made big changes in the image and performance achieved. Since 2009, exports have increased more than 55% and the Portuguese footwear has grown in almost all the most important foreign markets. The competitive strategies followed by the Portuguese footwear companies are different and they can be clearly identified according Porter’s three generic competitive strategies: cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper had analysed seven Portuguese footwear companies (seven cases, case study strategy) and the results obtained shows how important is to have the right approach to the markets, according the internal and external resources that each firm has available. The footwear clusters in Portugal and the sectorial organizations are also very important in this competitive performance achieved by the companies. Last years the Portuguese governments recognize this increasing importance of the fashion industries and prepared several programs to promote these industries in Europe and other continents.

  15. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  16. Identifying competitive strategies to improve the performance of hospitals in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Hui; Chiao, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Yafang

    2017-11-21

    This study is based on competitive dynamics theory, and discusses competitive actions (including their implementation requirements, strategic orientation, and action complexity) that influence hospitals' performance, while also meeting the requirements of Taiwan's "global budget" insurance payment policy. In order to investigate the possible actions of hospitals, the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage investigated the actions of hospitals from March 1 to May 31, 2009. Semi-structured questionnaires were used, which included in-depth interviews with senior supervisors of 10 medium- and large-scale hospitals in central Taiwan. This stage collected data related to the types of actions adopted by the hospitals in previous years. The second stage was based on the data collected from the first stage and on developed questionnaires, which were distributed from June 29 to November 1, 2009. The questionnaires were given to 20 superintendents, deputy superintendents, and supervisors responsible for the management of a hospital, and focused on medical centers and regional hospitals in central Taiwan in order to determine the types and number of competitive actions. First, the strategic orientation of an action has a significantly positive influence on subjective performance. Second, action complexity has a significantly positive influence on the subjective and the objective performance of a hospital. Third, the implementation requirements of actions do not have a significantly positive impact on the subjective or the objective performance of a hospital. Managers facing a competitive healthcare environment should adopt competitive strategies to improve the performance of the hospital.

  17. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros de Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.

  18. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments.

  19. THE EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND HUMAN ADVANTAGE ON INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVE STRATEGY (Case Study: SMIs in Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifandi Lasalewo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Industries (SMIs have a strategic role in the Indonesian economy, as they earn 61.9 percent of the foreign exchange which goes to make up the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and nationally they are able to absorb 97 percent of the workforce. The Global Competitiveness Report also notes that SMIs serve as the business units that affect every nation’s competitiveness. Considering this strategic role, the selection of a competitive strategy for these SMIs is absolutely necessary. Through an in-depth literature review, this study aims to explore what variables influence the competitive strategy of industries, particularly the SMIs. By using a Systematic Literature Review (SLR with a total of 31 main literature (articles, papers and books, this study has found two dominant factors that influence industrial competitive strategy: Competitive advantage and human advantage, which are subsequently developed into six independent variables (construct variables, i.e. cost, delivery, product quality, product variety, know-how and innovativeness, with a total of 44 indicators. The results of measurements of the sample of SMIs in Gorontalo Province, using Structural Equation Modeling, found that both competitive advantage and human advantage jointly influence 40.2 percent of the industrial competitive strategies. These results indicate that competitive strategies, such as creating products with unique features, on-time delivery, flexibility in production, and employee involvement in the innovations, are indispensable to SMIs in order for them to produce quality products and be able to maintain their advantage.

  20. Strategies for Revitalizing Organizations: Regaining the Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, the United States has lost competitive stature in the world. Challenged daily by a technically sophisticated and vitalized global economy, industry and Government are examining quality and productivity initiatives with which to meet the foreign competitive challenge. At stake are our quality of life and our standard of living for the remainder of this century and beyond. Being competitive is an ongoing process, tuned to an awareness and understanding of the dynamics of the world marketplace and to the changing nature of the work environment. Solutions to America's quality and productivity problems do not exist independently within any organization or industry or at any given level of society. Success depends on commitment, partnership, meshing of goals and responsibilities, mutual respect and understanding, and a desire to be first. A change in organizational management culture is required. Traditional authoritarian management practices must give way to enlightened leadership initiatives that stress employee involvement and participation. There must be a lessening of adversarial relationships between management and labor and between industry and Government. Quality and productivity are understood to be the end result of an integrated process which begins with vigorous, committed leadership and ends with a satisfied customer. The essential elements in the revitalization process are organized in this report into seven strategies which represent the major findings of the Second NASA Symposium on Quality and Productivity. Each strategy is then broken down into its principal themes which are presented as recommendations. No one strategy can stand apart from any other; all are interrelated and work together.

  1. Competitive management strategy for print media advertising activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas-Bubanja Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend of transferring commercials from print media to online format during the last decade. Rising number of users who are spending more time on the Internet and social networks, are the main reason why print media are facing a problem of keeping advertisers in their media in order to provide resources for their survival. Newspapers are going through meager changes intending to adapt to business conditions in the digital environment. The conducted research on the sample of ten Belgrade daily newspapers indicate the weaknesses of print media formats and give inputs for the creation of competitive media strategy based on synergy of print and digital formats.

  2. Customer experience management: New game strategy for competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to do an extensive literature review of articles on customer experience management to explain the relationship between customer experience management and its factors which are supply chain management, location experience, packaging and labeling experience, atmosphere, service mix experience, promotion, customer experience, brand experience, and price experience for recommendation to the banking sector in Zimbabwe. Five modules of customer experience management which are sense, feel, think, act, and relate have also been reviewed and explored in the literature review. Findings showed that customer experience management factors contribute very much as a strategy to competitiveness in business. The article concluded by suggesting and recommending the adopting of customer experience management as a new game strategy.

  3. Judo strategy. The competitive dynamics of Internet time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoffie, D B; Cusumano, M A

    1999-01-01

    Competition on the Internet is creating fierce battles between industry giants and small-scale start-ups. Smart start-ups can avoid those conflicts by moving quickly to uncontested ground and, when that's no longer possible, turning dominant players' strengths against them. The authors call this competitive approach judo strategy. They use the Netscape-Microsoft battles to illustrate the three main principles of judo strategy: rapid movement, flexibility, and leverage. In the early part of the browser wars, for instance, Netscape applied the principle of rapid movement by being the first company to offer a free stand-alone browser. This allowed Netscape to build market share fast and to set the market standard. Flexibility became a critical factor later in the browser wars. In December 1995, when Microsoft announced that it would "embrace and extend" competitors' Internet successes, Netscape failed to give way in the face of superior strength. Instead it squared off against Microsoft and even turned down numerous opportunities to craft deep partnerships with other companies. The result was that Netscape lost deal after deal when competing with Microsoft for common distribution channels. Netscape applied the principle of leverage by using Microsoft's strengths against it. Taking advantage of Microsoft's determination to convert the world to Windows or Windows NT, Netscape made its software compatible with existing UNIX systems. While it is true that these principles can't replace basic execution, say the authors, without speed, flexibility, and leverage, very few companies can compete successfully on Internet time.

  4. Anti-Competitive Regulations and Subsidiary Relational Embeddedness Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The institution-based view (IBV) of firm strategy argues that formal and informal institutions combine to govern firm behavior and suggests a predominant reliance on network-based informal relationships when formal institutions are absent or deficient. Our knowledge on how formal and informal...... institutions combine to govern firm behavior remains scant when formal institutions are present but show varying degrees of non-marketsupporting regulation. This issue gains great relevance for subsidiaries which in host locations have also to confront the liability of outsidership. To advance IBV, we draw...... on industrial organization and firm productivity literature. In particular, we propose and test a conceptual model illustrating a U-shaped relationship between the extent of anti-competitive regulation in relevant service supplying sectors and the degree to which subsidiaries embed with value chain partners...

  5. The Effect of Advanced Management Accounting Practices on the Competitive Strategies and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Yücel; Kayhan Ahmetoğulları

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of 300 managers from the production industry of West Marmara Region. The goal of this study is to examine the interaction among advanced management accounting practices, competitive strategies and company performance. As a result of study, it is found that advanced accounting management practices have a positive effect on the company performance and competitive strategies. In addition, competitive strategies have an effect on the company performance positively....

  6. Examining Generic Competitive Strategy Types in U.S. and European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Susan P.; Dong Kee Rhee

    1989-01-01

    Identification of generic competitive strategy types has recently attracted considerable attention. Most of this research has, however, focused on competitive strategy of U.S. businesses in their domestic market. The present study extends these findings to markets outside the United States, and more specifically Europe, based on a sample of industrial businesses drawn from the PIMS database. Similar dimensions underlying competitive strategy, and similar generic types are found among business...

  7. CREATING A CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİNOĞLU, Didem; ARIKAN, Cenk Laçin

    2016-01-01

    Current competitive environment is rapidly changing. In today’s business environment, organizations are having an increasingly difficult time in creating competitive advantages. The main reason for this is the ease in contemporary business life for organizations to reach the same or very similar resources. Firms need innovation to create and sustain success and effectiveness. In such a highly competitive business life, the importance of creating competitive advantages for organizations based ...

  8. Business Strategies And Competitive Advantage Of Family Hotel Businesses In Ghana: The Role Of Strategic Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed Agyapong; Raheema Boakye Boamah

    2013-01-01

    ... that facilitate the competitive positioning of family businesses. This paper investigates the moderating influence of strategic leadership on business strategies and performance of family hotel businesses in Ghana...

  9. Relationship Between Competitive Strategies and the Success Perception of Polish Born Globals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowska-Prokop Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the competitive strategies applied by Polish born global enterprises. To reveal these strategies, two competitive models developed by M.E. Porter are applied to an original data set obtained from 256 small and medium Polish enterprises through a survey employing the CATI technique. The outcomes of these strategies, as perceived by the companies applying them, are also evaluated against two hypotheses. We conclude that Polish firms apply both basic strategies of competition, i.e. cost leadership strategies and differentiation strategies and that a substantial majority of companies perceive themselves to have succeeded on the market.

  10. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in- ChiefLoss of fluid during prolonged exercise has been purported to be a cause of fatigue (Below et al., 1995; Walsh et al., 1994, for example. A plethora of information regarding 'optimal' fluid replacement strategies exists; perhaps the most prominent of these in the public domain is the position stand on exercise and fluid replacement published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. It recommends that one should ingest fluid early and continually at regular intervals in an attempt to replace the volume of fluid lost through sweating or consume as much as can be tolerated (Covertino et al., 1996. Drinking practices associated with different types of endurance activity are not well documented and it may be possible that the guidelines based on empirical data derived from laboratory conditions lack the necessary ecological validity for performance in the field. To our knowledge, there are no data on fluid intake or body mass losses during high-intensity cycling time trials (TT outside of laboratory conditions; although a pilot study questionnaire used by El-Sayed et al., 1997 revealed that the volume ingested in pre-race preparation over a similar TT race distance (46 km ranged between 0.125-0.5 L. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to elucidate the fluid ingestion strategies of competitive cyclists during pre-race preparation and 40 km TT competition and the resultant body mass loss.Seventy-two competitive male cyclists ranging from Elite Category to Category 4 cyclists (according to British Cycling classification volunteered to participated in this investigation from two separate 40 km TT (n = 21 and n = 51, respectively. Mean (±SD body mass, height and age for all participants were 73.4 ± 7.5 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and 47 ± 13 years. All procedures were approved by the University's Research Ethics Committee and subjects completed informed consent prior to the start of the investigation.Both events were held

  11. Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results highlight the delicate importance of diversity and tolerance for the provisioning of public goods, and they reveal fascinating subtleties of the spatiotemporal dynamics that is due to the competition of subsystem solutions in structured populations.

  12. Strategi Persaingan Operator Telekomunikasi Seluler [The Competition Strategy Of Mobile Telecommunication Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Aziz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jumlah pelanggan ketiga operator telekomunikasi seluler pada akhir tahun 2013, yaitu PT. Telkomsel Tbk, PT. XL Axiata Tbk, dan PT. Indosat Tbk, sebanyak 251,285 juta. Jumlah pelanggan telekomunikasi seluler ini telah melebihi jumlah penduduk Indonesia  sebesar 242,013 juta pada akhir tahun 2013. Ketiga operator telekomunikasi seluler tersebut mendominasi pangsa pasar seluler di Indonesia dan sangat menentukan tingkat harga, kualitas layanan dan strategi persaingan lainnya. Persaingan di telekomunikasi seluler saat ini sudah masuk ke masa jenuh untuk suara dan SMS, tetapi sudah beralih ke layanan data atau menggunaan internet. Para operator telekomunikasi seluler berlomba-lomba untuk meningkatkan kualitas layanan internet kepada pelanggan yang menggunakan prabayar dan pascabayar untuk suara dan SMS.Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi penelitian kualitatif, dengan melakukan observasi atau pengamatan langsung ke lapangan kepada Telkomsel, XL Axiata dan Indosat.Teknik analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis deskritif. Berdasarkan hasil analisis  diperoleh bahwa strategi persaingan ketiga operator tersebut dari aspekcore competence, time based competition, disiplin nilai sama-sama mengimplementasikannya. Dari aspek expeditionary marketing sangat tergantung pada luas jaringan yang dimiliki, aspek standar produk, memiliki sertifikat ISO yang lebih baik dan kompetensi manajemen fokus pada sumber daya manusia dengan belajar ke luar negeri. *****The number of subscribers of three mobile telecommunication operators by the end of 2013, namely PT. Telkomsel Tbk,  PT. XL Axiata Tbk,  and PT. Indosat Tbk is 251.285 million. The number of mobile telecommunication subscribers has exceeded the population of Indonesia amounted to 242.013 million at the end of 2013. Those  operators dominate the market in Indonesia  and determine the level of price, quality of service and other competitive strategies. Competition in the mobile telecommunications currently

  13. Algorithm of developing competitive strategies and the trends of realizing them for agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Boiko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper specifies basic stages of developing and realizing the strategy of enhancing competitiveness of enterprises and represents an appropriate algorithm. The study analyzes the economic indexes and results of the activity of the agrarian enterprises in Kherson region and provides competitive strategies of efficient development of agrarian enterprises with different levels of competitiveness and specifies the ways of realizing them which will contribute to the optimal use of the available strategic potential

  14. The relationship among customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain the relationship between the operation system function goal decision making and customer demand and competition strategy, can better discover and integrate all available resources (including important capital resources to achieve business opportunities, the establishment of sustainable competitive ability. Because, to achieve business development lead policymakers take great uncertainty, which led to the investment behavior required for the operational activities of resources also bear the enormous risks. Design/methodology/approach: Through principal component analysis on the data collected by questionnaires, the manuscript obtains dominant factors for customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives respectively. By these factors, it tests its three hypotheses with the data from northeast of China and draws some conclusions. Findings: The results show that customer demand have a significant positive effect on competitive strategy; competitive strategy have positive influence on manufacturing system functional objectives; customer demand affect the functional objectives, by competitive strategy. Research limitations/implications: In this research, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives are influenced by customer demand. The conclusion of the research can provide theoretical guidance for Chinese enterprises which carry out manufacturing system functional objectives. Originality/value: In this research, a new measure questionnaire of competition strategy, customer satisfaction and operating system function goal was used, analyzed the influence factors of time, quality, cost, efficiency, service and environment, on the operation of the system. The study shows that the effect of competition strategy and customer demand has a direct impact on the operating system functions, customer demand through competitive strategy of indirect effects operating system functions.

  15. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms’ competitiveness.  This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries.   In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms.  In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage Model—a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries.  Their ...

  16. The Effects of Imbalanced Competition on Demonstration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Heiman, Amir; Ofir, Chezy

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of competition on product demonstration decisions. Pre-purchase product demonstration enables marketers to differentiate products that are ex-post differentiated but are judged according to perceived fit, rather than actual fit, due to pre-purchase consumer uncertainty. Imbalanced competition accompanied by fit uncertainty motivates the follower to offer demonstrations to avoid a price war. This paper explores the conditions that lead the leader to retaliate. In...

  17. Alignment of service characteristics with competitive strategy & customer satisfaction : A Comparative study in fast food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goraya, Muneeb; Zaaroura, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Competitive strategies are an essential tool for sustainable competitive advantage. Particularly in the service industry, strategy has its significance as it plays a vital role in achieving customer satisfaction. This study investigates alignment of four service characteristics i.e. servicescape, service quality, quality and value with the firms’ strategy and how this alignment achieves customer satisfaction. A set of hypotheses were formulated to portray the significance of each of the four ...

  18. THE MECHANISM FOR IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVENESS INCREASE OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Петрович ГРИНЧЕНКО

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the organizational competitiveness increase, which is employed to enhance the organizational structure, has been performed in the research. The principles ensuring the product competitiveness have been pointed out. The involvement of the strategic marketing service organizational structure which aims to optimize the information flows for the development of the managerial decisions has been proved.  The generalized structure of strategic marketing services focused on medium-sized and large enterprises has been proposed. The proposed strategic marketing service develops strategic standards for all production parameters on the first stage of organizational product life cycle. Employing the innovation management methods, it prepares the exclusive values for all production parameters to turn them into an organizational competitiveness according to the following scheme: exclusive value, competitive advantages of products, competitiveness of products and organization competitiveness. Strategic Marketing Service together with top managers performs: the strategic vision and organization mission development, the tree of long-term objectives development, the strategy of the organization competitiveness improvement development, projects formation, control, and implementation. The Strategic Marketing Service Management is based on the strategic management functions implementation while performing the strategy of organizational competitiveness increase. The mechanism structure of the strategy of organizational competitiveness increase that will effectively perform the strategic management decisions and convert the exclusive values into the organizational competitiveness has been proposed.

  19. Factors Determining Bank Competitive Strategy: An Empirical Study on Local Development Banks (LDBS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad IRFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.

  20. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  1. Positioning strategies in the case of oligopolistic competition: The case of telecommunications industry in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Babacar; Thiaw, Cheikh

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Innovation is the major instigator in competitive industry. The competition for innovation is traditionally analyzed within the framework of deterministic and stochastic models (Reinganum, 1989). Boone (2001), Fethke and Birch (1982) have respectively analyzed the standard models of competitive strategies in a duopoly and oligopoly industry. By focusing our analysis on deterministic models that is, the models without technological uncertainty, this paper attempts to in...

  2. Internationalization as a strategy to increase the competitiveness of the wine chain Gaucho

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Sinval Oliveira; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of the competitive environment of the Brazilian wine industry, focusing on companies gaúcha through the perspective of the value chain, reporting the main challenges that are presented in relation to international competition. It also presents a case study conducted with two major players and their strategies of internationalization. Finally evaluate the constraints that hinder competitiveness in the global market, raising some issues that should be consid...

  3. MODELS OF THE 5 PORTERS COMPETITIVE FORCES METHODOLOGY CHANGES IN COMPANIES STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT ON COMPETITIVE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some different types of approaches to 5 Porters Forces model development in thisarticle. Authors take up the negative attitude researcher reasons to this instrument and inputsuch changes in it, which can help to fi nd the best way to companies growing up on competitive market.

  4. MODELS OF THE 5 PORTERS COMPETITIVE FORCES METHODOLOGY CHANGES IN COMPANIES STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT ON COMPETITIVE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey I Zubin; Timur A. Tultaev

    2014-01-01

    There are some different types of approaches to 5 Porters Forces model development in thisarticle. Authors take up the negative attitude researcher reasons to this instrument and inputsuch changes in it, which can help to fi nd the best way to companies growing up on competitive market.

  5. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  6. Investigating blue ocean v. competitive strategy: A statistical analysis of the retail industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, A.; van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.

    2008-01-01

    The recent work of Kim and Mauborgne (2005a) has sought to turn strategic management on its head. They note that the field has been dominated by Porter’s (1980, 1985) competitive strategy and it has placed too much emphasis on the importance of competition and rivalry. By contrast they argue in

  7. A Real Option and a Game Theoretic Approach to Corporate Investment Strategy under Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); L.A. Ankum

    1993-01-01

    textabstractPresents a real options and game-theoretic approach to corporate investment strategy under competition. Analysis of aspects of competition in a microeconomic framework; Forecasting of operating cash inflows based on economic rents or excess profits; Implications of results obtained.

  8. A Knowledge Management Strategy To Achieve Organisation Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. St. Sukmawati.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the influence of organizational environment on the selection of knowledge management strategies. The research focuses particularly on the relationship between business and knowledge management strategy and the success of the knowledge management initiatives. This research is a case study researching 2 South Sulawesi banking companies. The knowledge management initiatives were categorized by six criteria objectives processes problems content strategy knowledge type and their fit with the respective business strategy of the organizational unit was evaluated. The findings in this research suggest a relationship between the success of knowledge management and the alignment of knowledge management and business strategy. The research also shows that an organization whose business strategy requires process efficiency should rely primarily on a codification strategy. An organization whose business strategy requires productprocess innovation should rely primarily on a personalization strategy. The most successful knowledge management projects were driven by a strong business need and with the goal to add value to the organizational unit operations. The research shows there are limitations due to the qualitative nature of the research logical rather than statistical conclusions small sample size and subjectivity of interpretations. The research sees that a manager should be aware of the objectives and business processes of the organizational unit and chooses the knowledge management strategy and objective in accordance to the business strategy and objective. Originalityvalue. The research enhances understanding about the influence of organizational environment factors on the success of knowledge management initiatives.

  9. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A COMPETITIVE STRATEGY: THE CASE OF HUMAN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castro Murillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Company, a 100% Costa Rican business, through its brand Eco Sunrise has achieved to produce biodegradable goods under a socially responsible approach. This paper is aimed at evaluating how these practices influence the Company’s competitiveness levels using the PRISMA method and the CINBAGE matrix. Therefore, the general objective is to determine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a competitive strategy for Human Company, for which the Company must identify advantages and obstacles faced by SMEs in regards to CSR, evaluate each of the areas comprising the Company’s CSR, quantify the Company´s competitiveness, and determine how CSR influences competitiveness.

  10. Visual data mining for developing competitive strategies in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2008-01-01

    Information visualization is the growing field of computer science that aims at visually mining data for knowledge discovery. In this paper, a data mining framework and a novel information visualization scheme is developed and applied to the domain of higher education. The presented framework consists of three main types of visual data analysis: Discovering general insights, carrying out competitive benchmarking, and planning for High School Relationship Management (HSRM). In this paper the f...

  11. Competition and market strategies in the Swiss fixed telephony market

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, Roberto E.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed telephony has long been a fundamentally important market for European telecommunications operators. The liberalisation and the introduction of regulation in the end of the 1990s, however, allowed new entrants to compete with incumbents at the retail level. A rapid price decline and a decline in revenues followed. Increased retail competition eventually led a number of national regulators to deregulate this market. In 2013, however, many European countries (including Switzerland) continu...

  12. The Impact of Competencies, Information Search, and Competitive Strategy on the Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Elitan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This confirmatory study is aimed at analyzing the impact of relationships, information search, and competencies on competitive strategy and SMEs performance in Indonesia. The study used 100 SMEs samples that obtained through mailed questionnaires. The results show: Firstly, the perception of information, information sources, and export competence has no significant effect on competitive strategy. However the findings for SMEs in Indonesia, indicated that export related information has negative effects on competitive strategy. Secondly, export competencies has an enormous influence on the company’s capacity and ability to use information appropriately,when the company must deal with challenges or when the company is eager to take advantage of the opportunities to increase growth and profitability. Thirdly, competitive strategy does not directly affect export performance but it is moderated by the environment uncertainty. It indicates that the influence of competitive strategy would be greater in an uncertain business environment. The uncertain business environment will encourage companies to explore competitive strategy to improve their performance.

  13. A Knowledge Management Strategy To Achieve Organisation Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. St. Sukmawati.; De, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of organizational environment on the selection of knowledge management strategies. The research focuses particularly on the relationship between business and knowledge management strategy and the success of the knowledge management initiatives. This research is a case study researching 2 South Sulawesi banking companies. The knowledge management initiatives were categorized by six criteria objectives processes problems content strategy kn...

  14. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985),

  15. Competition as an Acquisition Strategy: Impact of Competitive Research and Development on Procurement Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    T.K., and Shubert, G.H., "The Role oLý Prototypes in Development," RM-3467-1-PR, The Rand , orporatior, qanta Monica, California, April, 1971. Patnode...cost segment for which the design-to-unit-hardware-cost (DTUHC) ceiling of $507,790 (in constant 1972 dollars) was established at the beginning of the...competitive phase. This is the segment for which the competitors were required to propose firm ceiling prices for the first two production options. As

  16. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.

  17. AN ENTERPRISE COMPETITIVE STRATEGY DEFINITION ON THE EXAMPLE OFJSC “CONFECTORY ENTERPRISE “PERMSKAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Pyankov, V.; Akimova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the JSC “Confectionary enterprise “Permskaya” competitive strategy analysis. The article includes the enterprise’s function strategies, the drawbacks of strategic planning are singled out and the ways of its improvement are suggested.

  18. On-Line Project-Based Peer Assessed Competitions as an Instructional Strategy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ronen; Ronen, Miky; Kohen-Vacs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Project-based team competition is a well established instructional strategy with a sound constructivist rationale. However the implementation of this strategy in Higher-Education rarely includes socio-constructivist activities such as peer assessments, which have considerable advantages both for assessees and assessors. It seems that the logistics…

  19. Marketing strategies, or, it wouldn't be competition without competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, D

    1983-01-01

    Predicting that in an environment of limited resources, the hospital's competitive strategy will assume greater importance, the author reviews the relationship of positioning to market success. He also discussed how such strategies as differentiation, overall cost leadership, and market focus can be applied to hospitals.

  20. Territorial competition in the New Economy. Different strategies in different urban settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Johannes Kauko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Territorial competition in the New Economy comprises a variety of strategies, both direct and indirect ones. In this paper, first the most common direct strategies (traditional, ICT, cultural are discussed from an interdisciplinary perspective (urban geography, economic geography and urban economics, at least. Then, some indirect real estate and housing strategies (value creation, affordability are discussed. After that, the post-socialist context (where Richard Florida’s ideas have a high uptake is examined as a specific case of dynamic territorial competition process. Finally, a summary and conclusions are given.

  1. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  2. NPD project portfolio selection using reinvestment strategy in competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghassemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design a new model for selecting most fitting new product development projects in a pool of projects. To catch the best model, we assume new products will be introduced to the competitive markets. Also, we suppose the revenue yielded by completed projects can be reinvested on implementation of other projects. Other sources of financing are borrowing loans from banks and initial capital of the firm. These limited resources determine most evaluated projects to be performed. Several types of interactions among different projects are considered to make the chosen projects more like a portfolio. In addition, some numerical examples from the real world are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. These examples show how the particular considerations in the suggested model affect the results.

  3. A Competitive and Experiential Assignment in Search Engine Optimization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Theresa B.; Clarke, Irvine, III

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in ad spending and demand for employees with expertise in search engine optimization (SEO), methods for teaching this important marketing strategy have received little coverage in the literature. Using Bloom's cognitive goals hierarchy as a framework, this experiential assignment provides a process for educators who may be new…

  4. A study of STP strategies of Chinese retail banking industry for competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Manqing

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the research in how Chinese domestic banks use Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) strategy for retail banking in the context of anticipated competition after 2006 when the banking business will be fully open to foreign banks. With the full liberalization of China's banking sector due under China's WTO commitments, Chinese domestic banks are faced with the need to increase their competitiveness. This research will start with a literature review conce...

  5. The measurement of customer service quality as a competitive strategy in an industrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. This study deals with the measurement of customer service quality in an industrial environment. The concept was to measure service quality and then develop a competitive strategy based on this. The mechanism used is the SERVQUAL model. Subsequently reengineering aspects of customer service based on the findings is proposed as a competitive advantage. The study is diagnostic in nature offering insights on the application of a well researched service quality model in an industrial en...

  6. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  7. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  8. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  9. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  10. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  11. Psychological Strategy to stimulate the training of labor competitions in students of Psychology, in university conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Rodríguez Faría

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation proposes a psychological strategy to stimulate the training of labor competitions in students of Psychology in semi presence conditions based upon an educative necessity diagnosis felt by students and their potentialities and the educative context. ANSE Model was the main technique for the diagnosis, using specifically the Central Group, Research of problems and Nominal Group, besides observation, were used no structural interviews, revision of documents, and content analysis. The psychological strategy was validated by means of the Expert Criteria Method. The system of actions created were the based for the training process of labor competitions in students of psychology in semi presence conditions with the professor labor.

  12. Commercial secret as an instrument of company competitive strategy effectiveness increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskova Dinara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern companies are very much diversified in scale, sectoral affiliation, marketing behavior. There are many theoretical and applied studies in effective competitiveness strategies (see Porter, M. (2002, 1998, Kramer, M. (1998, Fatkhutdinov, R. A. (2000, Feigelson, V. M. (1996 and others.They present famous approaches and probably there is no need to repeat them in this article. We would like to feature a different concept (suggested by Yudanov A. and followers with terminology adopted from natural sciences and show the way the commercial secret can increase effectiveness of competitiveness strategy. We also perform valid methods of commercial secret protection.

  13. The entrenchment strategy of logistics service providers: Towards a sequential cooperation-competition process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Paché

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The logistics industry has been attracting the attention of researchers in management for several years. Their focus is increasingly on interorganisational relationships between logistics service providers and their customers, examining the modes of interaction occurring between them. An abundant literature emphasises the importance of cooperative strategies in the logistics industry, hinting that this is a dominant requirement, destined for inevitable development. This article presents a more qualified position and proposes that cooperative strategies are most likely a transition step between arm’s-length competition periods, and resorts to the entrenchment theory, imported from organisational finance, to propose a sequential cooperation-competition model.

  14. Developing a competitive intelligence strategy framework supporting the competitive intelligence needs of a financial institution’s decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya du Plessis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For competitive intelligence (CI to have the greatest contribution to strategic management, CI professionals require an in-depth understanding of the CI needs of decision makers. CI professionals have to carefully plan how to best inform corporate decision-making.A strategy framework is a planning tool which can be used to explore ways to enhance an organisation’s strategic planning capabilities.Objective: To investigate the CI needs of a financial institution’s decision makers in order to develop a CI strategy framework. To present the strategy framework as a planning tool to CI professionals in the financial services industry as well as mapping the process of developing a planning tool, thereby enabling a financial institution’s CI capability to better meet the CI needs of decision makers.Method: The guiding paradigm of interpretivist research directed the research design of a single qualitative case study, using an inductive approach. Qualitative data analysis techniques were used, which included the use of numerical data, to develop a planning tool for CI professionals based on a thorough understanding of the CI needs of decision makers.Results: Decision makers place considerable value on CI in terms of its contribution to strategy development, decision-making, gaining advantage over competitors and enhancing the financial performance of the organisation. Relationships between concepts and patterns or trends that were identified and utilised to establish themes in the data resulted in a 12-point strategy framework.Conclusion: A financial institution’s CI capability can be enhanced to better meet the CI needs of the organisation’s decision makers when CI professionals carefully plan their approach of informing corporate decision-making. This paper presents a 12-point CI strategy framework as a planning tool for CI professionals.

  15. Developing a competitive intelligence strategy framework supporting the competitive intelligence needs of a financial institution’s decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya du Plessis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For competitive intelligence (CI to have the greatest contribution to strategic management, CI professionals require an in-depth understanding of the CI needs of decision makers. CI professionals have to carefully plan how to best inform corporate decision-making.A strategy framework is a planning tool which can be used to explore ways to enhance an organisation’s strategic planning capabilities. Objective: To investigate the CI needs of a financial institution’s decision makers in order to develop a CI strategy framework. To present the strategy framework as a planning tool to CI professionals in the financial services industry as well as mapping the process of developing a planning tool, thereby enabling a financial institution’s CI capability to better meet the CI needs of decision makers. Method: The guiding paradigm of interpretivist research directed the research design of a single qualitative case study, using an inductive approach. Qualitative data analysis techniques were used, which included the use of numerical data, to develop a planning tool for CI professionals based on a thorough understanding of the CI needs of decision makers. Results: Decision makers place considerable value on CI in terms of its contribution to strategy development, decision-making, gaining advantage over competitors and enhancing the financial performance of the organisation. Relationships between concepts and patterns or trends that were identified and utilised to establish themes in the data resulted in a 12-point strategy framework. Conclusion: A financial institution’s CI capability can be enhanced to better meet the CI needs of the organisation’s decision makers when CI professionals carefully plan their approach of informing corporate decision-making. This paper presents a 12-point CI strategy framework as a planning tool for CI professionals.

  16. Competitive Strategy Formulation Through the Fields and Weapons of the Competition Model: Verification of Applicability and Adaptation for a Network of Gymnastics Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Zanuto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Porter and RBV theorists, although clearly expose their concepts of competitive strategy, does not clearly show how to employ them for the competitive business strategy formulation, which complicates the practical application. This motivated the authors of this article searching as other theorists circumvent this difficulty and found the fields and weapons of the competition model (CAC developed by Contador, model that combines and integrates the concepts of Porter and RBV. The CAC, simultaneously analog and symbolic model, qualitative and quantitative, consistently structured and scientifically validated by many studies in companies, primordially serves to understand, explain and increase enterprise competitiveness. Contador epistemologically verified the adherence to reality to the companies of their concepts and constructs. To fill the gap of the aforementioned concepts, Contador proposed a process of formulating competitive strategy. As this process has been tested a few times, the authors decided to conduct the study reported herein, whose objective was verify if this process is sufficient for proposing competitive strategies that would increase the competitiveness of a network of gyms. Through an exploratory qualitative and quantitative research and based on Popperian hypothetical-deductive method, it was found the sufficiency of the process because all business strategies proposals were accepted by the principal owner of the gym and only 4.5% operational strategic actions suggested were not, which led to the acceptance of the hypothesis.

  17. THE RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN BUSINESS STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okolnishnikova Irina Yurievna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the development of theoretical approaches to the study of the essence and structure of the resource potential of entrepreneurship in the context of the development strategy of the competitive advantages in business structure. As the research methodology the complex of principles and tools of system and axiological approaches is used. According to the results of the conducted research, possessing the scientific novelty, the conceptual apparatus is clarified and the author's definition of the resource potential of the enterprise is given, a model of the resource potential structure in commercial organization is analyzed and the mechanism of strategy formation for sustainable competitive advantages provision of the organization on the basis of the effective use of its resource potential is identified. Area of application of the research results is the control of competitiveness in general and resource potential of entrepreneurial structures, in particular at all levels of the socio-economic system of society.

  18. Competitive Strategies between Formula 1 Manufacturers in the Global Mass-Market for Road Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Mark Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper employs qualitative secondary source analysis to examine competitive strategies between those road car manufacturers that are also Formula 1 engine manufacturers. Particular emphasis is placed on Porter's (1980) generic strategies, the resource-based view, and the role of corporate culture and brand reputation. The external market in which these firms compete is examined. Then the internal, historical strategic development of each of the firms is reviewed. This allows future strate...

  19. EFL Learners' Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Layeq, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on Iranian adult EFL learners' use of direct strategies. To this end, a sample of 88 non-English major university students at Sohrevardi Nonprofit College in Qazvin were assigned to two groups, and each group received instruction under one of the treatment…

  20. "Every Kid Is Money": Market-Like Competition and School Leader Strategies in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary aims of choice policies is to introduce competition between schools. When parents can choose where to send their children, there is pressure on schools to improve to attract and retain students. However, do school leaders recognize market pressures? What strategies do they use in response? This study examines how choice creates…

  1. Identifying future competitive business strategies for the U.S. furniture industry: Benchmarking and paradigm shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert Schuler; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes benchmarking activities undertaken to provide a basis for comparing the U.S. wood furniture industry with other nations that have a globally competitive furniture manufacturing industry. The second part of this paper outlines and discusses strategies that have the potential to help the U.S. furniture industry survive and thrive in a global business...

  2. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model

  3. ACQUISITION AS A GENERATOR STRATEGY FROM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OF FUELS DISTRIBUITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernandes Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject from this work is about acquisitions as organizational strategies and it is guided by the general objective on identifying if the acquisition of Texaco by Ultra Group, in Brazil, could generate competitive advantages. Thus, the main aim is to characterize, specifically, the fuel distribution sector in Brazil, presenting characteristics, strategies, classification of resources and the competitive advantage’s identification in the buying process of Texaco by Ultra Group. The methodology used for this research is a case study of qualitative nature. Data collection has been performed through literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews. In the analysis of collected data, specific objectives have been met. It was clear, therefore, the presence of features such as scale earnings, brand exposure, better management practices, synergies, tangible and intangible assets and market growth. So, those resources are classified according to the competitive implications. Then, it might be concluded that Texaco´s acquisition could bring competitive advantages for Ultra / Ipiranga Group. Respondents believe the sector is growing and businesses tend to grow despite the world crisis. They also confirmed that, in a highly competitive market, strategic alliances and market growing are factors that may ensure success to each company.

  4. Collaborative and Competitive Strategies in Virtual Teams of e-Entrepreneurs: A pan-European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Matlay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the advent of the Internet have facilitated the emergence and growth of collaborative strategies amongst small e-Businesses (Matlay & Westhead, 2005. In addition, during the last decade or so, team-led entrepreneurship has been identified as a highly profitable alternative to single founder entrepreneurship. Recent research suggests that growth oriented, small e-Businesses operating in international e-Markets are more likely to be founded and managed by teams of e-Entrepreneurs (Matlay & Westhead, 2007. In increasingly globalised and hyper-competitive markets, "virtual teams" of e-Entrepreneurs search, discover and exploit new entrepreneurial opportunities. This type of entrepreneurial team consists of geographically dispersed entrepreneurs who are led by common entrepreneurial interests and interact electronically in order to promote interdependent strategies and fulfil entrepreneurial goals. In this article, an illustrative longitudinal case study of a pan-European virtual team of 24 e-Entrepreneur members is used to evaluate emergent collaborative and competitive strategies in small e-Businesses that are lead and managed by members. Collaborative and competitive strategies of e-Businesses are identified and related outcomes are analysed. Future research opportunities are suggested and pertinent policy recommendations are offered.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  6. The rival wears Prada: luxury consumption as a female competition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudders, Liselot; De Backer, Charlotte; Fisher, Maryanne; Vyncke, Patrick

    2014-06-04

    Previous studies on luxury consumption demonstrated that men spend large sums of money on luxury brands to signal their mate value to women and, thus, increase their reproductive success. Although women also spend copious amounts of money on luxuries, research focusing on women's motives for luxury consumption is rather scarce. Relying on costly signaling and intrasexual competition theory, the goal of the current study was to test whether female intrasexual competition in a mate attraction context triggers women's spending on luxuries. The results of the first experiment reveal that an intrasexual competition context enhances women's preferences for attractiveness enhancing, but not for non-attractiveness related luxuries such as a smartphone. This finding indicates that women may use luxury consumption as a self-promotion strategy during within-sex competitions, as these luxuries improve their advantages against same-sex rivals for mates. A follow-up study shows that compared to women who do not consume luxuries, women who do so are perceived as more attractive, flirty, young, ambitious, sexy, and less loyal, mature and smart by other women. These results suggest that luxury consumption may provide information about a women's willingness to engage in sex, as well as her views about other women, and consequently, her success in intrasexual competitions.

  7. The Rival Wears Prada: Luxury Consumption as a Female Competition Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselot Hudders

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on luxury consumption demonstrated that men spend large sums of money on luxury brands to signal their mate value to women and, thus, increase their reproductive success. Although women also spend copious amounts of money on luxuries, research focusing on women's motives for luxury consumption is rather scarce. Relying on costly signaling and intrasexual competition theory, the goal of the current study was to test whether female intrasexual competition in a mate attraction context triggers women's spending on luxuries. The results of the first experiment reveal that an intrasexual competition context enhances women's preferences for attractiveness enhancing, but not for non-attractiveness related luxuries such as a smartphone. This finding indicates that women may use luxury consumption as a self-promotion strategy during within-sex competitions, as these luxuries improve their advantages against same-sex rivals for mates. A follow-up study shows that compared to women who do not consume luxuries, women who do so are perceived as more attractive, flirty, young, ambitious, sexy, and less loyal, mature and smart by other women. These results suggest that luxury consumption may provide information about a women's willingness to engage in sex, as well as her views about other women, and consequently, her success in intrasexual competitions.

  8. Sourcing strategies to keep up with competition: the case of SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Antero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic of competition. The case study reveals that (a organizations are adaptive systems and capable of learning to make strategic changes pertaining to sourcing arrangements; (b organizations select the terms on which they want to compete by developing certain capabilities within the firm; (c organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes.

  9. Enhancing Competitiveness Business Strategy of Organic Vegetables Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristiana Widyastuti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Public awareness about healthy lifestyles leads people to want to understand more about the food they consume. Choosing organic vegetables is one alternative choices when seeking to have a healthy body and healthy lifestyle. Unfortunately, not a lot of organic vegetable farmers in Indonesia succeed in seizing the organic vegetable market rather than the non-organic and the competition with imported organic vegetables into Indonesia prevents farmers from thriving. This study aims to: 1 Analyze the factors affecting the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 2 Analyze the appropriate strategy for increasing the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 3 Analyze the factors priority strategies for improving the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market. Porter's Generic Model and Analysis Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to determine the best strategy. The research found that organic vegetables marketing channels are still dominated by conventional market; the higher cost for intensive cultivation of organic vegetables. The main strategies are derived from the analysis is focusing on market delivery. There needs to be retailers of organic vegetables either modern or traditional to display these products. The establishment of organic vegetable outlets and online marketing that are not dependent on large retail (hypermarket become recommendations in this study. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Kesadaran masyarakat tentang gaya hidup sehat memberi pilihan kepada masyarakat untuk memahami makanan yang mereka konsumsi. Pilihan sayuran organik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk memiliki tubuh sehat dan gaya hidup sehat bagi masyarakat. Sayangnya, tidak banyak petani sayuran organik di Indonesia yang berhasil merebut pasar sayuran organik daripada non organic. Persaingan produk impor sayuran organik ke Indonesia membuat petani tidak bisa berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: 1 Menganalisis faktor-faktor yang

  10. Competitive strategies of late followers in auto industry: Case study Hyundai-Kia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes competitive strategy of late followers in auto industry in the case of Hyundai Kia Auto Group (HKAG. The global economic crisis has had a strong impact on the leaders in auto industry. HKAG took advantage of the crisis and increased sales and global market share at the expense of the leaders in the industry. We found that during the crisis the company achieved excellent results thanks to innovative marketing and sales strategies combined with top quality, product design and productivity. Growing competition and changes in business environment in the post-crisis period jeopardized the future growth of the company. The company reacted to the changes in business environment by shifting the focus to the luxury segment and green vehicles, by launching independent luxury brand Genesis and by scaling up investment in R&D.

  11. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita ANGIONI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group, leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a comparison with the strategic choices of three main competitors of Tod's, which offer products with similar values (Made in Italy, exclusivity and high craftsmanship; they are listed companies; they derive from a family business and the family still holds the company's control. The analysis highlights the ability of the Tod's Group in valorizing its capabilities and skills, and the ability of the management to exploit the available relational network.

  12. The Role and Impact of Human Resources within Developing Post-Merger Competitive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Elvira Nica

    2012-01-01

    The current working paper focuses on the created context within post-merger companies provides the scope to develop new types of business, to increase the competitiveness of active companies with the economic sphere, offering new opportunities to increase productivity and efficiency of all activities. New perspectives generate significant changes for the human resources involved in the designing new strategies for work improvement. Considering the perpetual development of human capital in thi...

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as "industry bread", is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the produ...

  14. A competitive strategy for atrial and aortic tract segmentation based on deformable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Pedro; Vilaça, João L; Queirós, Sandro; Bourier, Felix; Deisenhofer, Isabel; Tavares, João Manuel R S; D'hooge, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Multiple strategies have previously been described for atrial region (i.e. atrial bodies and aortic tract) segmentation. Although these techniques have proven their accuracy, inadequate results in the mid atrial walls are common, restricting their application for specific cardiac interventions. In this work, we introduce a novel competitive strategy to perform atrial region segmentation with correct delineation of the thin mid walls, and integrated it into the B-spline Explicit Active Surfaces framework. A double-stage segmentation process is used, which starts with a fast contour growing followed by a refinement stage with local descriptors. Independent functions are used to define each region, being afterward combined to compete for the optimal boundary. The competition locally constrains the surface evolution, prevents overlaps and allows refinement to the walls. Three different scenarios were used to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach, through the evaluation of its segmentation accuracy, and its performance for heterogeneous mid walls. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging datasets were used, presenting results similar to the state-of-the-art methods for both atria and aorta. The competitive strategy showed its superior performance with statistically significant differences against the traditional free-evolution approach in cases with bad image quality or missed atrial/aortic walls. Moreover, only the competitive approach was able to accurately segment the atrial/aortic wall. Overall, the proposed strategy showed to be suitable for atrial region segmentation with a correct segmentation of the mid thin walls, demonstrating its added value with respect to the traditional techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The competitive advantage of nations and choice of entry strategies : a three scenario case study

    OpenAIRE

    Helvik, Marianne; Harnecker, Maria Luisa Garrido

    2005-01-01

    Michael E. Porter’s Diamond framework has been used as an analysis tool the last 15 years to define the competitive advantage of nations, but few researchers have discussed if there is a link between the Diamond framework and how international firms can pursue the best entry mode. Different variables will be presented linking the Diamond framework to entry strategies, designing an extended framework. Three case scenarios are used for analysis purposes; the first two originating in Porter’s Di...

  16. The Strategy and Competitive Advantage of Indoor Sports Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kar Fai

    2011-01-01

    The sports industry in Malaysia is an industry which is full of potential as it is considered young in this country. The most popular sports in Malaysia are football (soccer) and badminton. Other sports such as squash, cycling, hockey are also quite popular due to our national representative success in the international arena. The purpose of this study is to determine the strategy taken by firms operating in indoor sports industry in Malaysia and to know their competitive advantage. The me...

  17. Evaluation of mission planning strategies of a robotic aerial vehicle for the AIRC international competition

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba Coronado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The International Aerial Robotics Competition (IARC) is an important event where teams from universities design flying autonomous vehicles to overcome the last challenges in the field. The goal of the Seventh Mission proposed by the IARC is to guide several mobile ground robots to a target area. The scenario is complex and not determinist due to the random behavior of the ground robots movement. The UAV must select efficient strategies to complete the mission. The goal of this work has bee...

  18. Methodology of Integration for Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy: Application to an exotic fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Marisela Rodríguez Salvador; Manuel Alejandro Bautista Reyes

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new methodology that integrates Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy. We explore new business niches taking advantage of the synergy that both areas offer, developing a model based on cyclic interactions through a process developed in two stages: Understanding opportunity that arise from idea formulation to decision making and strategic development. The validity of our approach (first stage) was observed in the evaluation of an exotic fruit, Anac...

  19. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  20. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  1. The Analysis Of Factors Affect The Quality Of Competitive Strategy In Industry SME For Embroidery At Padang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dahliana kamener dahlia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the quality factors of competitive strategy on SME for Industrial embroidery in Padang city. With this research is expected to provide benefits to the industry, especially SMEs Industrial embroidery to be able to improve and consider the factors that can affect the quality of competitive strategy in this industry, which the factors influenced such as Quality Strategic Asset, Environment Adabtability and price strategic to the Quality Strategic Competition. The populations of this study were SME industry for the embroidery product in the city of Padang and used census sampling. Data retrieved from the primary data by spreading questionnaires and the measurement by using a Likert scale. Methods of analysis by using descriptive analysis, multiple regression analysis to test the hyphotheses. The result showed that the quality of asset strategik was postively significant effect the Quality Strategic Competition, and enviromental adaptability and price strategy have positively not significant effect on the Quality Strategic Competition.

  2. THE RESOURCE POTENTIAL AND THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN BUSINESS STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Юрьевна Окольнишникова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the development of theoretical approaches to the study of the essence and structure of the resource potential of entrepreneurship in the context of the development strategy of the competitive advantages in business structure.As the research methodology the complex of principles and tools of system and axiological approaches is used.According to the results of the conducted research, possessing the scientific novelty, the conceptual apparatus is clarified and the author's definition of the resource potential of the enterprise is given, a model of the resource potential structure in commercial organization is analyzed and the mechanism of strategy formation for sustainable competitive advantages provision of the organization on the basis of the effective use of its resource potential is identified.Area of application of the research results is the control of competitiveness in general and resource potential of entrepreneurial structures, in particular at all levels of the socio-economic system of society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-39

  3. Exclusivity strategies and opportunities in view of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Kate S

    2011-01-01

    Government-provided exclusivity periods provide pharmaceutical companies with incentives to invest in new drugs. Meanwhile, encouraging competition serves another worthy goal of improving the affordability of medications. Decades ago, the Hatch-Waxman Act set forth provisions attempting to balance these objectives in the context of small-molecule drugs. Recently, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act was enacted to meet similar aims in the context of biologic drugs. This article presents a detailed comparison of these two Acts. While the Acts share many global similarities (e.g., providing exclusivity terms and abbreviated approval processes), many differences are also apparent when analyzing details of the provisions. One area of great departure between the Acts is the requirements of how a generic or follow-on applicant must address patents covering a reference product. After describing these differences, the article presents predictions of how reference product sponsors will adapt their patent-prosecution strategies in view of the new Biologics Act.

  4. From the Food Sovereignty Ensuring Strategy to the Strategy of Improving the Agro-Food Complex Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2016-09-01

    . It shows the advisability of formulating the single scientifically based interministerial document in the form of the national strategy and some relevant programs to improve the competitiveness of the country’s agro-food complex, employment and income of the rural population.

  5. An Analysis of Competitive Strategies from Organizations in the Water and Sanitation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio José de Melo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitive strategies are considered as one of the central elements for all management systems. The purpose of this study was to analyze the main strategic policies and prerogatives based on competitive advantages. Regarding the methodological approach, this study can beclassified as a documentaryand qualitative research. The sample for this research comprised five companies listed on the BM&F Bovespa market inthe water and sanitation economic subsector. The analysis of this study was carried out through content analysis and correspondence analysis techniques (ANACOR. Data processing and statistical inferencing of the reports   were made with the aid of Atlas.ti, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Wordle net software. The tests carried out using content analysis and correspondence analysis led to the conclusion that most companies mainly focus their actions on partnership strategies. It could also beconcluded that the main strategies that have a direct impact on management are: programs aimed at reducing costs through technological efficiency, resource optimization, operational improvements and socio-environmental management.

  6. Competitive advantage for multiple-memory strategies in an artificial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitman, Kurt E.; Choe, Sehyo C.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2005-05-01

    We consider a simple binary market model containing N competitive agents. The novel feature of our model is that it incorporates the tendency shown by traders to look for patterns in past price movements over multiple time scales, i.e. multiple memory-lengths. In the regime where these memory-lengths are all small, the average winnings per agent exceed those obtained for either (1) a pure population where all agents have equal memory-length, or (2) a mixed population comprising sub-populations of equal-memory agents with each sub-population having a different memory-length. Agents who consistently play strategies of a given memory-length, are found to win more on average -- switching between strategies with different memory lengths incurs an effective penalty, while switching between strategies of equal memory does not. Agents employing short-memory strategies can outperform agents using long-memory strategies, even in the regime where an equal-memory system would have favored the use of long-memory strategies. Using the many-body 'Crowd-Anticrowd' theory, we obtain analytic expressions which are in good agreement with the observed numerical results. In the context of financial markets, our results suggest that multiple-memory agents have a better chance of identifying price patterns of unknown length and hence will typically have higher winnings.

  7. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmala, Seri; Hartiwi, Hartiwi

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  8. Methodology of Integration for Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy: Application to an exotic fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Rodríguez Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new methodology that integrates Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy. We explore new business niches taking advantage of the synergy that both areas offer, developing a model based on cyclic interactions through a process developed in two stages: Understanding opportunity that arise from idea formulation to decision making and strategic development. The validity of our approach (first stage was observed in the evaluation of an exotic fruit, Anacardium Occidentale, in the South of the State of Veracruz, Mexico with the support of the university ITESM, Campus Monterrey. We identified critical factors for success, opportunities and threats. Results confirm the attractiveness of this crop.

  9. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  10. Supplier Partnership Strategy and Global Competitiveness: A Case of Samsung Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwoo Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samsung Group has accelerated its management innovation process, following the announcement of ‘New Management’ by the CEO Lee Kun-Hee. Particular attention must be paid to the smart-phone business of Samsung Electronics, which is the core company of the Samsung Group. In 2009, as Apple entered into the Korean market, the domestic smart-phone market faced the so called ‘Apple Shock’ due to its choice of a monopolistic and closed operating system. In response, Samsung Electronics introduced the innovative Galaxy series, replacing the old model of Omnia series. This move reaped dramatic success by dominating the world smart-phone market. Samsung Electronics ranked first in the 2012 world smart-phone market, and in 2013 it sold over 300 million devices for the first time in history, thereby solidifying the number one spot with a market share of 32.3%. Samsung Electronics’ achievement in its management innovation process was successful, due to its internal innovation and its partnership with sub-suppliers. Samsung Electronics strengthened its supplier partnership strategy, which in turn, led to an internalization of subparts assembly and process technology. By conducting the final assembly process on its own, it established the global supply chain that accompanies a high level of efficiency and operational elasticity. Samsung Electronics successfully systemized several hundred suppliers into an effective partnership and created an eco system where cooperation and competition can co-exist in its supply chain network. In sum, Samsung Electronics has successfully created the Samsung Production System that brings an economy of scale and allows prompt response. On the other hand, Apple did not get involved with subparts production, besides design and product design. This research identifies the effectiveness of Samsung Electronics’ supplier partnerships in its global competitiveness by examining characteristics of supplier partnership

  11. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success.

  12. The Pricing Strategy of Oligopolistic Competition Food Firms with the Asymmetric Information and Scientific Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The arguments for and against genetically modified (GM food focus on the characteristics of the scientific uncertainty and asymmetric information for the GM food. How do these two factors affect the competition and pricing strategy of food firms that separate GM food and conventional food conforming to consumer’s right to know? We explore the issue of pricing strategies between two firms producing horizontally and vertically differentiated foods in the context of asymmetric information and scientific uncertainty. The theoretical results show that there are two separating perfect Bayesian equilibria in which the prices of the conventional food and GM food are strategic complements and the profits of two types of firms are both increasing in the price of GM food. The numerical example shows that a decrease of the expected potential net damage as the most sensitive parameter leads to an increase of the profits of the two firms. Additionally, an increase in product differentiation helps to increase the two firms’ profits. Finally, the decrease in risk aversion as the second sensitive parameter helps to increase both products’ prices and quantities and both firms’ profits. This paper contributes by combining food safety regulation with market mechanisms and competition.

  13. Competitive Supply Chain Network Design Considering Marketing Strategies: A Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Hasani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive model is proposed to design a network for multi-period, multi-echelon, and multi-product inventory controlled the supply chain. Various marketing strategies and guerrilla marketing approaches are considered in the design process under the static competition condition. The goal of the proposed model is to efficiently respond to the customers’ demands in the presence of the pre-existing competitors and the price inelasticity of demands. The proposed optimization model considers multiple objectives that incorporate both market share and total profit of the considered supply chain network, simultaneously. To tackle the proposed multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is developed that incorporates a Taguchi-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and a particle swarm optimization. A variable neighborhood decomposition search is applied to enhance a local search process of the proposed hybrid solution algorithm. Computational results illustrate that the proposed model and solution algorithm are notably efficient in dealing with the competitive pressure by adopting the proper marketing strategies.

  14. Design for a Crane Metallic Structure Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Inverse Reliability Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Ning; Zhi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainties in parameters such as materials, loading, and geometry are inevitable in designing metallic structures for cranes. When considering these uncertainty factors, reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) offers a more reasonable design approach. However, existing RBDO methods for crane metallic structures are prone to low convergence speed and high computational cost. A unilevel RBDO method, combining a discrete imperialist competitive algorithm with an inverse reliability strategy based on the performance measure approach, is developed. Application of the imperialist competitive algorithm at the optimization level significantly improves the convergence speed of this RBDO method. At the reliability analysis level, the inverse reliability strategy is used to determine the feasibility of each probabilistic constraint at each design point by calculating its α-percentile performance, thereby avoiding convergence failure, calculation error, and disproportionate computational effort encountered using conventional moment and simulation methods. Application of the RBDO method to an actual crane structure shows that the developed RBDO realizes a design with the best tradeoff between economy and safety together with about one-third of the convergence speed and the computational cost of the existing method. This paper provides a scientific and effective design approach for the design of metallic structures of cranes.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of a Two-Language Competitive Model with Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Fei Nie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a two-language competitive model is analyzed systemically in this paper. By the linearization and the Bendixson-Dulac theorem on dynamical system, some sufficient conditions on the globally asymptotical stability of the trivial equilibria and the existence and the stability of the positive equilibrium of this model are presented. Nextly, in order to protect the endangered language, an optimal control problem relative to this model is explored. We derive some necessary conditions to solve the optimal control problem and present some numerical simulations using a Runge-Kutta fourth-order method. Finally, the languages competitive model is extended to this model assessing the impact of state-dependent pulse control strategy. Using the Poincaré map, differential inequality, and method of qualitative analysis, we prove the existence and stability of positive order-1 periodic solution for this control model. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results and the feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategy.

  16. On Some Aspects of Territorial Competitiveness: Smart Specialization in the Zlin 2020 Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jirí Novosák; Oldrich Hájek; Petr Zahradník; Jana Nekolová

    2013-01-01

      Territorial competitiveness is a development concept often cited these days. Currently, smart specialization represents a politically influential concept how to stimulate territorial competitiveness...

  17. Designing Growth Strategies for Romanian Offshore Outsourcing Vendors: Deploying Competitive Intelligence from Indian Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta SAMTANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to derive growth strategies for three Romanian software developers involved in offshore outsourcing, by deploying competitive intelligence on the top offshore players from India. The paper revolves around two key assumptions. One is that Romanian companies are growing the way Indian companies did few years ago and so it would be important to analyse the strategies that they had adopted to reach their present potential. Second, there is a set of factors common to all industry players whether in India or Romania as the industry is global in nature, so it would really be important to collect information about how are these global competitors planning to mitigate the environmental threats and to take advantage of the opportunities being presented by the changes in the external environment. For the three Romanian companies whose managers accepted to be included in our study, the main strategic option they want to pursue is market penetration. Taking cue from the strategies adopted by their Indian counterparts, the study recommends growth strategies for these Romanian players.

  18. Investigating the Effect of Cooperative Learning and Competitive Learning Strategies on the English Vocabulary Development of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri, Neda

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on the acquisition of English vocabulary development by Iranian EFL intermediate learners. In addition, it explored what type of theses strategies was more effective. In such doing, utilizing an Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 45 out of 77 Iranian EFL…

  19. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A MARKET LEADER; CASE OF UD. PRIMADONA’S PROL TAPE JEMBER - EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetiya Prananda Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to formulate a competitive strategy to maintain the existence of Prol Tape Primadona. The study used a case study approach with UD. Primadona as the research object. The data were analyzed by using a value chain approach to determine the internal and external conditions that influence Prol Tape Primadona and using analysis of IFE, EFE, CPM, IE, SWOT, and QSPM to develop competitive strategies for Prol Tape Primadona. The results show that the strategies that can be recommended to UD. Primadona are as follows: 1 increasing production capacity, 2 creating website/blog to promote Prol Tape, 3 adding the variants of Prol Tape, 4 stricting quality control to maintain strong brand equity, and 5 establishing coordination with the district government of Jember to make Prol Tape as a superior product.Keywords: competitive strategy, Prol Tape Primadona, UD. Primadona, QSPM, SWOT

  20. Individualised dietary strategies for Olympic combat sports: Acute weight loss, recovery and competition nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-07-01

    Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success. Key considerations are the acute manipulations around weigh-in, which differ in importance, magnitude and methods depending on the requirements of the individual combat sport and the weigh-in regulations. In particular, the time available for recovery following weigh-in/before competition will determine what degree of acute BM loss can be implemented and reversed. Increased exercise and restricted food and fluid intake are undertaken to decrease body water and gut contents reducing BM. When taken to the extreme, severe weight-making practices can be hazardous, and efforts have been made to reduce their prevalence. Indeed some have called for the abolition of these practices altogether. In lieu of adequate strategies to achieve this, and the pragmatic recognition of the likely continuation of these practices as long as regulations allow, this review summarises guidelines for athletes and coaches for manipulating BM and optimising post weigh-in recovery, to achieve better health and performance outcomes across the different Olympic combat sports.

  1. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uy J Albert C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs. Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata, striped (parae, structural-coloured (blue and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Results Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations by 1 directly monopolizing access to females, and 2 modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Conclusions Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct

  2. A general strategy for nanohybrids synthesis via coupled competitive reactions controlled in a hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-03-30

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).

  3. STRATEGIES OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES WITH COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE: APPROPRIATION PRACTICE IN SUPPORT EXPORTERS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarrochena de Arjol, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a design strategies to facilitate the management of information, associated with the ownership of Competitive Intelligence, as a process of using proactive sales management resources, market and development capabilities and competitive advantages; like practice in public-private organizations partnerships to support small and medium-sized exporters of wood in Misiones.The breadth and diversity of information for organizational decision making is complex to reach perceiving the telltale signs of significant changes in the external environment, such as differential advantages for action and sustainability of the organization.The research background of wood markets provided relevant results changes occurring in its external environment and within the company, to address the follow-up. This allows us to identify the critical aspects in business management against market dynamics, and design strategic alternatives information for export development, in sustaining relationships between firms and supporting institutions.The strategic lead to the generation of market information systems, improved market access, capacity building, sustainability in the management and dissemination of knowledge

  4. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  5. Competition in the pharmaceutical industry: how do quality differences shape advertising strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos, Maria-Angeles; Ornaghi, Carmine; Siotis, Georges

    2013-01-01

    We present a Hotelling model of price and advertising competition between prescription drugs that differ in quality/side effects. Promotional effort results in the endogenous formation of two consumer groups: brand loyal and non-brand loyal ones. We show that advertising intensities are strategic substitutes, with the better quality drugs being the ones that are most advertised. This positive association stems from the higher rents that firms can extract from consumers whose brand loyalty is endogenously determined by promotional effort. The model's main results on advertising and pricing strategies are taken to the data. The latter consists of product level data on prices and quantities, product level advertising data, as well as the qualitative information on drug quality contained in the Orange Book compiled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The empirical results provide strong support to the model's predictions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection not necessarily favors the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the main...

  7. Performance Achievement As The Impact Of Strategy Organizatonal Competence Strategy Execution And Competitive Advantage A Study On Private Polytechnics In West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Musty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - The higher education environment has changed faster than the ability of higher education to respond the competition becomes more intense complex and dynamic making some polytechnics can thrive survive and others are stopping operations. This study was conducted to examine the profile of 29 polytechnics in West Java to achieve organizational performance. Research results show that polytechnic performance is affected by the quality of the execution and its competitive advantage which are determined by the precision and alignment strategies with organizational competence. The model findings of this study could be an analysis tool to solve the polytechnics survival problems how to face the intense competition and changing environment.

  8. Offensive and Defensive Competitive Marketing Strategy: The Development of Construct & Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantri Heriyati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation due to globalization. Local banks have since consolidated a decade ago and foreign banks expanding their businesses in local markets have intensified the competition. As a result, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers. Hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the paper is based on the buyer behaviour model by Kotler and Armstrong (1999. The model identifies the major factors which influence consumer buyer behaviour and how buyer decision process affects the buyer behaviour. The paper aims to examine the effectiveness of marketing strategies in enhancing credit card adoption. A survey was conducted on 251 respondents using a survey instrument. The data collected was analyzed using a series of statistical techniques. The results of the analysis are discussed and the findings revealed that social status is an important factor associated with customers’ behaviour. This factor is also associated with sales promotions. Findings also revealed that credits cards that create social admiration are preferred.

  9. How Overall Logistics Strategy Mediates The Influence Of Market Attractiveness And Dynamic Capability On Strategic Competitive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriyanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to examine the influence of market attractiveness and dynamic capability on strategic competitive response through overall logistics strategies of logistics service providers LSPs. Involving 266 LSPs SEM-LISREL is applied to test the hypotheses. The findings reveal that the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the overall logistics strategy. Additionally the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the strategic competitive response. Indirectly the market attractiveness and the dynamic capability positively affect the performance through strategic competitive response of LSPs. Obviously overall logistics strategy strengthen the influence of both market attractiveness and dynamic capability on strategic competitive response. There are five alternatives to optimize the overall logistics strategy of LSPs market intensification integration focus collaboration and strengthening value proposition. The involvement of overall logistics strategy as mediating variable is new paradigm in the strategic management discourses especially in logistics industry. Further research needs to be performed by involving the size of business as control variable and LSPs perception on Governments policies.

  10. POLICIES FOR PROMOTING COMPETITIVENESS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPE 2020 STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Cristina Popovici

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to identify the competitiveness gap between ten Eastern and Central European (ECE countries and effective measures for bridging this gap. We find that Romania and Bulgaria are far behind the European countries that joined the European Union (EU in 2004 in terms of competitiveness. Moreover, since the adhesion year, Romania and Bulgaria competitiveness improved very slowly, while other European countries accelerated their growth in terms of competitiveness. For this reason, the living standard of Romanians and Bulgarians increased very little compared to the increases in the rest of the ECE countries. For proving that increasing competitiveness drives an increase in GDP per capita, we also identify the gap between the actual GDP per capita and the potential GDP per capita if each of the analysed countries would apply the European Commission recommended measures for boosting competitiveness, as described in the Europe 2020 Strategy. We conclude that, unless harsh measures are imposed for increasing competitiveness, Romania and Bulgaria risk to remain far behind the rest of the analyzed countries. In this respect, we propose public policies actions based on other ECE countries good practices focused on the domains Romania and Bulgaria must improve.

  11. Competition between the invasive macrophyte Caulerpa taxifolia and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica: contrasting strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergent, Gérard; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Dumay, Olivier; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant defense strategy is usually a result of trade-offs between growth and differentiation (i.e. Optimal Defense Theory – ODT, Growth Differentiation Balance hypothesis – GDB, Plant Apparency Theory – PAT). Interaction between the introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea offers the opportunity to investigate the plausibility of these theories. We have accordingly investigated defense metabolite content and growth year-round, on the basis of an interaction gradient. Results When in competition with P. oceanica, C. taxifolia exhibits increased frond length and decreased Caulerpenyne – CYN content (major terpene compound). In contrast, the length of P. oceanica leaves decreases when in competition with C. taxifolia. However, the turnover is faster, resulting in a reduction of leaf longevity and an increase on the number of leaves produced per year. The primary production is therefore enhanced by the presence of C. taxifolia. While the overall concentration of phenolic compounds does not decline, there is an increase in some phenolic compounds (including ferulic acid and a methyl 12-acetoxyricinoleate) and the density of tannin cells. Conclusion Interference between these two species determines the reaction of both, confirming that they compete for space and/or resources. C. taxifolia invests in growth rather than in chemical defense, more or less matching the assumptions of the ODT and/or PAT theories. In contrast, P. oceanica apparently invests in defense rather than growth, as predicted by the GDB hypothesis. However, on the basis of closer scrutiny of our results, the possibility that P. oceanica is successful in finding a compromise between more growth and more defense cannot be ruled out. PMID:19077242

  12. Competition between the invasive macrophyte Caulerpa taxifolia and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica: contrasting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergent-Martini Christine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant defense strategy is usually a result of trade-offs between growth and differentiation (i.e. Optimal Defense Theory – ODT, Growth Differentiation Balance hypothesis – GDB, Plant Apparency Theory – PAT. Interaction between the introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea offers the opportunity to investigate the plausibility of these theories. We have accordingly investigated defense metabolite content and growth year-round, on the basis of an interaction gradient. Results When in competition with P. oceanica, C. taxifolia exhibits increased frond length and decreased Caulerpenyne – CYN content (major terpene compound. In contrast, the length of P. oceanica leaves decreases when in competition with C. taxifolia. However, the turnover is faster, resulting in a reduction of leaf longevity and an increase on the number of leaves produced per year. The primary production is therefore enhanced by the presence of C. taxifolia. While the overall concentration of phenolic compounds does not decline, there is an increase in some phenolic compounds (including ferulic acid and a methyl 12-acetoxyricinoleate and the density of tannin cells. Conclusion Interference between these two species determines the reaction of both, confirming that they compete for space and/or resources. C. taxifolia invests in growth rather than in chemical defense, more or less matching the assumptions of the ODT and/or PAT theories. In contrast, P. oceanica apparently invests in defense rather than growth, as predicted by the GDB hypothesis. However, on the basis of closer scrutiny of our results, the possibility that P. oceanica is successful in finding a compromise between more growth and more defense cannot be ruled out.

  13. Thiamine Acquisition Strategies Impact Metabolism and Competition in the Gut MicrobeBacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costliow, Zachary A; Degnan, Patrick H

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) is an essential cofactor for all organisms. Humans primarily acquire thiamine through their diet, and thiamine deficiencies have adverse neurological effects. However, the role gut microbes play in modulating thiamine availability is poorly understood, and little is known about how thiamine impacts the stability of microbial gut communities. To investigate thiamine's role in the gut, we utilized the model gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron . Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a global downregulation of thiamine and amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine metabolism when thiamine was present. Using genetic mutants with thiamine biosynthesis and transport locus mutations, we determined both systems were critical for growth in thiamine-deficient medium. The defect in the double transport mutant suggests an uncharacterized feedback mechanism between thiamine transport and biosynthesis in B. thetaiotaomicron . Mutant phenotypes were recapitulated during pairwise competitions, reinforcing the importance of encoding versatile thiamine acquisition mechanisms when thiamine concentrations are variable. In addition, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses corroborate that exogenous thiamine levels affect the internal thiamine pool of B. thetaiotaomicron . Furthermore, we computationally examined the ability of other gut microbes to acquire thiamine and identified lineage-specific differences in thiamine acquisition strategies. Among the Bacteroidetes , the capacities for both thiamine transport and biosynthesis are common. Together, these data show that thiamine acquisition mechanisms used by B. thetaiotaomicron not only are critical for its physiology and fitness but also provide the opportunity to model how other gut microbes may respond to the shifting availability of thiamine in the gut. IMPORTANCE Variation in the ability of gut microbes to transport, synthesize, and compete for vitamin B 1 (thiamine) is

  14. Thiamine Acquisition Strategies Impact Metabolism and Competition in the Gut Microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costliow, Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor for all organisms. Humans primarily acquire thiamine through their diet, and thiamine deficiencies have adverse neurological effects. However, the role gut microbes play in modulating thiamine availability is poorly understood, and little is known about how thiamine impacts the stability of microbial gut communities. To investigate thiamine’s role in the gut, we utilized the model gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a global downregulation of thiamine and amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine metabolism when thiamine was present. Using genetic mutants with thiamine biosynthesis and transport locus mutations, we determined both systems were critical for growth in thiamine-deficient medium. The defect in the double transport mutant suggests an uncharacterized feedback mechanism between thiamine transport and biosynthesis in B. thetaiotaomicron. Mutant phenotypes were recapitulated during pairwise competitions, reinforcing the importance of encoding versatile thiamine acquisition mechanisms when thiamine concentrations are variable. In addition, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses corroborate that exogenous thiamine levels affect the internal thiamine pool of B. thetaiotaomicron. Furthermore, we computationally examined the ability of other gut microbes to acquire thiamine and identified lineage-specific differences in thiamine acquisition strategies. Among the Bacteroidetes, the capacities for both thiamine transport and biosynthesis are common. Together, these data show that thiamine acquisition mechanisms used by B. thetaiotaomicron not only are critical for its physiology and fitness but also provide the opportunity to model how other gut microbes may respond to the shifting availability of thiamine in the gut. IMPORTANCE Variation in the ability of gut microbes to transport, synthesize, and compete for vitamin B1 (thiamine

  15. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS STRATEGY TO ACHIEVE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN OIL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernando Arellano Morales

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Man's interest in knowing and transform his reality, has led to a continuous and incessant development of science and the production of knowledge inherent in them. This cyclical and systemic process has become itself abundance of knowledge that is daily creating and disseminating, surpassing even the physical spaces where it can be stored and beyond assimilation, use and transfer. The complex and changing knowledge in the activities of oil organizations undoubtedly demands designing strategies that transform and create new experiences, knowledge and skills, in order to innovate traditional management processes, information technology and communication, the intellectual capital and organizational culture. This paper aims to highlight the importance of Knowledge Management (KM when the enthusiasm and ability to learn intangible capital of an organization is involved to generate knowledge to make intelligent decisions. As argue Argyris and Schön (1978 Nonaka (1991 Kogut and Zander (1992 "knowledge is one of the most critical variables to achieve sustainable success in any organization." In addition to highlighting the success of organizations and the economy of the country depend on its ability to produce, assimilate, to use and transmit knowledge, to transform it into a competitive advantage.

  16. Emerging Competitive Strategies in the Global Luxury Industry in the Perspective of Sustainable Development: the Case of Kering Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta PEZZETTI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many drivers should motivate luxury companies to engage in more sustainable practices. On the one hand, consumers seek new forms of luxury that shows respect for natural resources and human beings, yet standing by traditional factors such as quality, creativity, originality, craftsmanship and savoirfaire. The recent economic crisis has thrust the consumers towards the search for responsible luxury. In the new economic and competitive scenario, luxury brands would base their identity and image on a set of values through which they should be known and publicly judged by both clients and the market; sustainable development and corporate social responsibility strategies offer a particularly suitable platform to enrich the value-set of luxury brands. In this framework, the luxury industry is undergoing a process of self-analysis and redefinition of competitive strategies in the light of social responsibility and sustainable dimension. In order to create both financial and non-financial value, sustainable development needs to be incorporated in the core strategy of the firm and its core business. In this perspective, the paper provides an analysis of the main drivers that, in the luxury industry, are leading to a growing integration of social responsibility and sustainable development principles in the competitive strategies of luxury firms. In particular, the paper focuses on innovations emerging in the luxury industry, both at strategic and organizational levels, and provides an overview of new emerging innovative business models coherent with the principles of corporate social responsibility and sustainability. The theoretical analysis is supported by presentation of the case of the French Group Kering, which represents a pioneering example in sustainable development applied to competitive strategies and leading brand management practices.

  17. How do small rural food-processing firms compete?A resource-based approach to competitive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. FORSMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the competitive strategies of small food-processing firms in rural Finland and their ability to achieve and maintain a competitively advantaged position in relation to larger food companies in the dynamic and mature food market. Competitive strategies were approached from the resource-based view (RBV that emphasises internal firm factors as sources of competitive advantage and long-term success. As strategic choices, differentiation was specifically considered. The main objective was to explain the relationships between resources, competitive advantage and firm success. To understand the ambiguous nature of the resources in the small-scale food production context, the study introduced a distinction between strategic resources and basic resources and the strategic relationship between them. The empirical part of the study was based on quantitative analyses of the survey data collected from 238 small (less than 20 persons, food-processing firms in rural Finland. The sample firms represented different branches of the food industry and 39% of them operated in connection with a farm. The linkage between resources, competitive advantage and firm success was investigated by means of cluster analysis, mean comparisons and LISREL modelling. The results demonstrated that there are some typical features relating to small-scale food production in Finland. The results also revealed that small-scale, rural food processing firms do not constitute a homogenous group of their own, but that different strategies among small firms can be identified as well. The analyses proved that a linkage between resources, competitive advantage and firm success can be identified, which is consistent with resource-based logic. However, according to the findings, following a particular strategy does not automatically ensure that a firm will achieve success. The analysis also showed that strategic resources and basic resources are strongly interlinked

  18. Managing pressure: patterns of appraisals and coping strategies of non-elite and elite athletes during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmeiro, Luis; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eccles, David William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moment-to-moment appraisals and coping strategies of 4 non-elite and 2 elite male trap shooters during competitions and in particular during periods of competition perceived as critical to performance. Appraisals and coping patterns of trap shooters were captured via verbal reports of thinking provided between sets of shots during major competitions. Verbal reports were coded according to an appraisal and coping typology. Coded data as well as shooting performance data were subjected to a sequential analysis of probabilities of pairs of events. Fewer reports of negative appraisals (NEGAs) and more frequent reports of problem-focused coping (PFC) were observed among both elite athletes compared to non-elite athletes. After making a NEGA, non-elite shooters often progressed to the next target without attempting to cope, whereas elite shooters used both PFC and emotion-focused coping (EFC) before proceeding to the next target. After missing a target, the non-elite athletes used more EFC than expected. These results indicate that elite athletes are more likely to cope with NEGAs than non-elite athletes using a wider variety of coping strategies. Athletes might benefit from increased awareness of the potentially detrimental impact of NEGAs on performance and by integrating coping strategies within preparatory routines.

  19. Supply Chains Competition under Uncertainty Concerning Player’s Strategies and Customer Choice Behavior: A Generalized Nash Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezalkotob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers in a supply chain confront two main sources of uncertainty in market environment including uncertainty about customers purchasing behaviors and rival chains strategies. Focusing on competition between two supply chains, it is considered that each customer as an independent player selects products of these chains based on random utility model. Similar to quantal response equilibrium approach, we take account of customer rationality as an exogenous parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that decision makers in a supply chain can perceive an estimation of rival strategies about price and service level formulated in the model by fuzzy strategies. In the competition model, chain’s decision makers consider a subjective probability for wining each customer which is formulated by coupled constraints. These constraints connect chains strategies regarding to each customer and yield a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. Since price cutting and increasing service level are main responses to rival supply chain, after calculating optimal strategies, we show that more efficient responses depend on customer preferences.

  20. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  1. Strategies to enhance price and quality competition in health care: lessons learned from tracking local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Cara S; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2006-06-01

    Drawing on observations from tracking changes in local health care markets over the past ten years, this article critiques two Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recommendations to enhance price and quality competition. First, we take issue with the notion that consumers, acting independently, will drive greater competition in health care markets. Rather we suggest an important role remains for trusted agents who can analyze inherently complex price and quality information and negotiate on consumers' behalf. With aggregated information identifying providers who deliver cost-effective care, consumers would be better positioned to respond to financial incentives about where to seek care and thereby drive more meaningful competition among providers to reduce costs and improve quality. Second, we take issue with the FTC/DOJ recommendation to provide more direct subsidies to prevent distortions in competition. In the current political environment, it is not practical to provide direct subsidies for all of the unfunded care that exists in health care markets today; instead, some interference with competition may be necessary to protect cross subsidies. Barriers can be reduced, though, by revising pricing policies that have resulted in marked disparities in the relative profitability of different services.

  2. Competitive strategies in higher education institutions: a case study in the light of resource based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodrigo Petry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to highlight the resources used by an institution of higher education in the pursuit of competitive advantage, based on the precepts of the resource-based view. This is a case study applied in a higher education institution located in Santa Catarina. Data collection was performed through structured questionnaires, responded to the institution's course coordinators and used in conjunction with results obtained using a semi-structured interview with the vice-chancellor. Your search returned the resources of physical, human and organizational capital that the institution currently uses in the search for competitiveness, among them, its financial structure, specialization of the faculty and the management model implemented as well as possible evidence factors and resources that can be enhanced and used to further enhance their market competitiveness.

  3. INNOVATION STRATEGY TO IMPROVE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF MICRO, SMALL, AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES OF BANDAR LAMPUNG BANANA CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartami Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is needed by micro, small, and medium enterprises to grow and develop into large businesses. However, that innovations are limited by existing constraints such as limited number of employees, total assets, total revenues and total budget for innovation. Human resources or the entrepreneur is known to be an important factor in improving the performance and innovation of SMEs or UMKM. This research aims to formulate strategies given the constraints of innovation, human resource capacity and opportunities for innovation in improving competitiveness. The analytical method used is confirmed method, the evaluation model of structural equation modeling (SEM and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The analysis showed an effect of human resources amounting to 0.761 on the settlement of the constraints and influence of 0.806 to successful innovation. The main obstacle that have to be resolved are human resources, promotion, managerial finance and administration, location, and marketing. The innovation that most influence in purchasing decisions and according to the ability of SMEs are service innovation, organization, business model, supply chain, and marketing. The best strategy formulation that can be done in improving the competitiveness of businesses are participation in exhibitions and entrepreneurship seminars, technical assistance, training and the online marketing promotion, as well as the provision of machinery and appropriate process equipment.Keywords: innovation, competitiveness, structural equation modeling, analytic hierarchy process

  4. Origins of altruism diversity I: The diverse ecological roles of altruistic strategies and their evolutionary responses to local competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyken, J David; Wade, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Nature abounds with a rich variety of altruistic strategies, including public resource enhancement, resource provisioning, communal foraging, alarm calling, and nest defense. Yet, despite their vastly different ecological roles, current theory typically treats diverse altruistic traits as being favored under the same general conditions. Here, we introduce greater ecological realism into social evolution theory and find evidence of at least four distinct modes of altruism. Contrary to existing theory, we find that altruistic traits contributing to "resource-enhancement" (e.g., siderophore production, provisioning, agriculture) and "resource-efficiency" (e.g., pack hunting, communication) are most strongly favored when there is strong local competition. These resource-based modes of helping are "K-strategies" that increase a social group's growth yield, and should characterize species with scarce resources and/or high local crowding caused by low mortality, high fecundity, and/or mortality occurring late in the process of resource-acquisition. The opposite conditions, namely weak local competition (abundant resource, low crowding), favor survival (e.g., nest defense) and fecundity (e.g., nurse workers) altruism, which are "r-strategies" that increase a social group's growth rate. We find that survival altruism is uniquely favored by a novel evolutionary force that we call "sunk cost selection." Sunk cost selection favors helping that prevents resources from being wasted on individuals destined to die before reproduction. Our results contribute to explaining the observed natural diversity of altruistic strategies, reveal the necessary connection between the evolution and the ecology of sociality, and correct the widespread but inaccurate view that local competition uniformly impedes the evolution of altruism. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Competition and herbivory during salt marsh succession : the importance of forb growth strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, CF; Van der Wal, R; Bakker, JP

    1 Despite much debate about their importance, only a few field studies have evaluated the intensity of competition and herbivory. 2 Artemisia maritima, Atriplex portulacoides and Plantago maritima, three plant species which are common in European temperate salt marshes, were transplanted into

  6. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: an exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.; Beentjes, J.; Nuijten, K.; Peeters, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content

  7. Mobile policies and shifting contexts: city-regional competitiveness strategies in Amsterdam and Dublin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade international competitiveness has become the top priority of national, regional and urban governments in the advanced capitalist economy. Attracting and retaining creative and high-educated talent as well as creative and knowledge-intensive firms are considered essential

  8. The choice of strategy of development of the enterprise entering into the integrated structure on the basis of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article process of the choice of strategy of development of the enterprise, entering into the integrated structure (IS taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise from this occurrence is considered. The enterprises as a part of IS has to use a possibility of realization of effect of a synergy. In relation to the enterprise which is in IS, the synergy has not one concept, but three interrelations, different according to types, between the enterprises, namely: material, non-material and competitive. Such opinion of M. Porter shares most of the experts working in the sphere of strategic management. Realization of a synergy allows to improve overall performance not only IS (2 + 2 = 5 in general, but also and separately the enterprises entering IS. Overall performance of the enterprises improves thanks to obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprises in the form of decrease in expenses and differentiation of production that is realized by means of competitive strategy. Realization of effect of a synergy thanks to establishment of interrelations, as a rule, is followed also by increase in production of the enterprises entering IS that can be realized by means of growth strategy. Thus, it is desirable to develop strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS as the combined strategy consisting of two strategy: competitive and growth. The matrix of alternative strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS in the form of combinations competitive and strategy of growth, and also model of the choice of the similar combined strategy taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise is given in article. For an assessment of competitive advantages of the enterprise as a part of IS by means of ball estimates of experts the technique of a similar assessment, and a matrix of the arising interrelations of the enterprises in IS is

  9. Microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy to identify strain improvement genes after competitive selection of transposon libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottes, Alison K; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Successful strain engineering involves perturbing key nodes within the cellular network. How the -network's connectivity affects the phenotype of interest and the ideal nodes to modulate, however, are frequently not readily apparent. To guide the generation of a list of candidate nodes for detailed investigation, designers often examine the behavior of a representative set of strains, such as a library of transposon insertion mutants, in the environment of interest. Here, we first present design principles for creating a maximally informative competitive selection. Then, we describe how to globally quantify the change in distribution of strains within a transposon library in response to a competitive selection by amplifying the DNA adjacent to the transposons and hybridizing it to a microarray. Finally, we detail strategies for analyzing the resulting hybridization data to identify genes and pathways that contribute both negatively and positively to fitness in the desired environment.

  10. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  11. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-01-01

    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  12. Competitive spatially distributed population dynamics models: Does diversity in diffusion strategies promote coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E; Kamrujjaman, Md; Korobenko, L

    2015-06-01

    We study the interaction between different types of dispersal, intrinsic growth rates and carrying capacities of two competing species in a heterogeneous environment: one of them is subject to a regular diffusion while the other moves in the direction of most per capita available resources. If spatially heterogeneous carrying capacities coincide, and intrinsic growth rates are proportional then competitive exclusion of a regularly diffusing population is inevitable. However, the situation may change if intrinsic growth rates for the two populations have different spatial forms. We also consider the case when carrying capacities are different. If the carrying capacity of a regularly diffusing population is higher than for the other species, the two populations may coexist; as the difference between the two carrying capacities grows, competitive exclusion of the species with a lower carrying capacity occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Manufacturing strategy - a potential competitive tool for J&S Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus a manufacturing strategy sets the destination (and course), and implementation of the same defines how to get there. This work therefore outlines a customized methodology for formulating a manufacturing strategy through a strategic audit of a local case study company. The results of the audit carried out indicate that ...

  14. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  15. Balancing Technologies for Reverse Supply Chain with Modularity as Strategy for Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vettorato, Giovanna; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we review applications, case studies, models and techniques proposed for the design and optimization of reverse logistics systems according to the principle of modularity. Based on these studies we give an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse...... production activities and modularity in practice. We examine high technology industries and their potential competitiveness implementing reversed supply chain. The main research question addressed in the paper is: How can modularity guide and determine the development of complex technology and subsequently...... contributing to enhancing the efficiency of the reverse supply chain (RSC)?...

  16. Optimal control strategy for an impulsive stochastic competition system with time delays and jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lidan; Meng, Xinzhu; Zhang, Tonghua

    2017-07-01

    Driven by both white and jump noises, a stochastic delayed model with two competitive species in a polluted environment is proposed and investigated. By using the comparison theorem of stochastic differential equations and limit superior theory, sufficient conditions for persistence in mean and extinction of two species are established. In addition, we obtain that the system is asymptotically stable in distribution by using ergodic method. Furthermore, the optimal harvesting effort and the maximum of expectation of sustainable yield (ESY) are derived from Hessian matrix method and optimal harvesting theory of differential equations. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dae O

    2008-01-01

    ...) through competitiveness analysis is required. Thus, it is necessary to develop appropriate models for analyzing the Korean NDI and to conduct competitiveness analysis by using the developed model...

  18. Pacing strategy adopted in crawl swimming competitions: an analysis of the 800-m and 1500-m distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Vieira Damasceno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In long distance swimming competitions, the optimal pacing strategy is not well established. The objective of this study was to characterize the pacing strategy adopted by international level athletes in 800-m (female and 1500-m (male crawl swimming events. We analyzed the time of each 50 m splits for semi-finalists and finalists athletes of the last three world swimming championships from 2006 to 2010. The data analysis was performed through the statistic method named CHAID (Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection, which is a statistic χ2 to detect a homogeneity behavior among the variables. The main results found were: for the two events analyzed, the velocity-versus-distance curve was similar to the parabolic pacing strategy (U-shaped, characterized by a significantly faster start (p<0.05 than mean velocity for the race, followed by a gradual decline invelocity in the middle splits, when athletes increase the velocity again (p<0.05 to produce an end spurt. In conclusion, these findings indicate that this pacing strategy profile can be classified as optimal for the long distances wimming events since it was preferentially adopted by international level athletes.

  19. Competitive Coordination Strategy to Finely Tune Pore Environment of Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Ni, Bing; Xu, Xiaobin; Li, Haoyi; Lin, Haifeng; Yuan, Wenjuan; Luo, Jun; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Xun

    2017-07-12

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of crystalline porous materials with reticular architectures. Precisely tuning pore environment of MOFs has drawn tremendous attention but remains a great challenge. In this work, we demonstrate a competitive coordination approach to synthesize a series of zirconium-metalloporphyrinic MOFs through introducing H2O and monocarboxylic acid as modulating reagents, in which well-ordered mesoporous channels could be observed clearly under conventional transmission electron microscopy. Owing to plenty of unsaturated Lewis acid catalytic sites exposed in the visualized mesoporous channels, these structures exhibit outstanding catalytic activity and excellent stability in the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide to cyclic carbonates. The zirconium-based MOFs with ordered channel structures are expected to pave the way to expand the potential applications of MOFs.

  20. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  1. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  2. The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game: A Competitive In-Class Experience of Business-Level Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Maureen; Wheeler, Jane V.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game is a high-energy in-class exercise designed to help students gain hands-on experience with setting, implementing, evaluating, and revising business-level strategy. Students compete in teams to create and market sentences using Magnetic Poetry (a product of Magnetic Poetry, Inc.). Revenues earned are highly…

  3. The Analysis of Competitive Strategy and Suggestions for Didi under the Background of the New Car-hailing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The emergence of car-hailing service satisfies the need of public travel in Internet era. Didi—the representative of car-hailing service, provides users with cost-effective service and great travel experience and quickly became the leader in the field of mobile travel depending on its price advantage, market segmentation, fast respond and some other competitive strategies. However, the promulgation of the new car-hailing regulation brings many challenges to Didi. After the new regulation, it is hard for Didi to gap away significantly from its competitors in scale and price. Thus the differentiated service is the competitive focus for all platforms. So there is an urgent need for Didi to do something to make difference, such as improving the interface design of the platform and the process of order allocation, establishing exclusive ‘station’, increasing the interaction between drivers and passengers. By doing so, Didi can reduce the information asymmetry and increase the user engagement and loyalty with high quality service.

  4. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.

  5. Developing Marketing Strategy for Electronic Business by Using McCarthy's Four Marketing Mix Model and Porter’s Five Competitive Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Azadi; Elham Rahimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Original Published AbstractConsidering the importance of marketing strategies in a competitive environment dominated by E-commerce and also limit the effective implementation of research results in terms of marketing mix in e-participation, can manage sales and marketing in order to implement effective marketing strategies and ultimately achieve organizational goals Sector clients and helped the market. Main focus marketing strategies, coordinate activities and allocate appropriate resources ...

  6. Manufacturer's pricing strategies in cooperative and non-cooperative advertising supply chain under retail competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the manufacturer's pricing strategy in a supply chain with a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer, as a Stackelberg leader specifies wholesale prices to two retailers who face advertisement dependent demand. Based on this gaming structure, two mathematical models are developed - the cooperative advertising model where manufacturer shares a fraction of retailers' advertising costs and the non-cooperative advertising model where manufacturer does not share any retailer's advertising expenses. The optimal strategies of the manufacturer and retailers are determined and a numerical example is taken to illustrate the theoretical results derived. We show that cooperative advertising policy is beneficial not only for the participating entities but also for the entire supply chain.

  7. The Stress Management as a entrepreneurial strategy for increasing of the competitive advantage of the companies

    OpenAIRE

    Magdinceva Sopova, Marija; Petroska Angelovska, Neda; Ackovska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    We all live in time of unpredictable and quick changes. The effective and efficient management with the changes also modifies the working facilities of the companies, management and employees. The traditional way of working is replaced by the modern and variable working conditions. The aim of this work is to show the importance of introducing the stress management strategies inside and outside the working environment, recognizing the reasons of the stress and stress protection for the employe...

  8. The strategy of developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the methodical approach of developing the concept of long-term innovative development of the municipality. The author has developed recommendations on the formation of innovative strategy of the municipality on the basis of active technology forecasting (foresight, which allows to define the desired future socio-economic development of the territory through the use of innovative potential, to identify potential consumers of innovative products, to align the strategic interests of science, business and local community. Recommendations provide communication of municipal programs of innovative development with the regional strategy. The technique of estimation of innovative potential of the territory, based on the indicators of innovative activity and innovative susceptibility is substantiated. The methodology enables the classification of municipalities and justifies the choice of innovation strategy. The author presents recommendations on formation of innovative programs of the municipality and the establishment of an institutional mechanism for the implementation of the program. New mechanisms for financing innovation activities from the budget of implementing the innovative program, which includes municipal innovation Fund and the municipal venture innovation Fund, are proposed.

  9. PERSPECTIVES OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF ROMANIAN ENTERPRISES FROM THE VIEW OF PROMOTING THE COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using an appropriate strategic management may be a way of surviving in a world of increasing competition but also to withstand the so called „tyranny of choise”. Actually what pushed us to deal with such a theme for this conference too, because we were vexed by two questions: Why some organisations have success and others don’t? What do organizations do to seek profit, excellent performances year after year, while others go through periods when they struggle to survive? An answer may be found in the subject matter of this article: strategic management. We consider advantages those resulting from the organizations that think strategically, examining the way they understand their own operating environment and their own strength and weakness, which can lead to successful strategies.

  10. The Social Media MBA Your Competitive Edge in Social Media Strategy Development and Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Holloman, Christer

    2011-01-01

    It's a fact that companies so far have only scratched the surface of what can be achieved with social media. Whatever continent, industry, company size, current degree of social media adoption or your job title, the purpose of this book is to inspire you to see how you can raise the bar further to reap new rewards. It will give you the tools to make a difference to your organisation's social media strategy development and delivery going forward. In addition it will also give you more intellectual support and confidence to discuss social media on a higher level with peers, inspire colleagues or

  11. The role of National Strategies in maintaining Competitive Edge in Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Popoviciu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economical impact of IPv6, Internet Protocol's next generation. Technically, IPv6 represents an upgrade, an evolution that offers the resources necessary for deeper and wider market penetration of the IP technology, to support the needs of a global economy, to build new products and new services. Politically and economically it has the potential of being a quiet revolution. Countries that trailed US into the information revolution recognize this opportunity to take a leading role in its next expansion phase and have developed national strategies to help better position their respective economies. Despite understanding the constraints imposed by the current version of IP, the private sector is currently inclined to largely ignore IPv6 because of its initial deployment costs and long term returns. Forced by high investor expectations to focus exclusively on the immediate bottom line it trades long term growth opportunities for short term benefits revolving around productivity increases. The paper analyses the importance of a National Strategy in driving IPv6 adoption and in closing a widening knowledge and deployment gap between US and countries such as China, Japan, Korea and the EU.

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  13. Competitive priorities for service operations strategy: an analysis of the perceived-value criteria of a fitness center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Costa Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting of priorities among the various performance objectives is one of the main activities in the formulation of manufacturing strategy. Recognizing the importance of this activity and using the nomenclature of “perceived-value criteria”, this paper reports an analysis of competitive priorities of a fitness center, which was an essential part of a broader process aimed at the formulation of operations strategy for the company. After a brief literature review, the article proposes a model for the analysis of perceived-value criteria in service operations that, among other tools, makes use of importance-performance matrix and trade-off analysis. To validate its applicability, the proposed model was field-tested in an action research approach, in which one of the authors of this paper played the role of external facilitator of the process of organizational intervention. The application of the model allowed identifying the processes and the perceived-value criteria (PVC's that should be prioritized by the company, using for this, two bases of comparison: the direct competitors of its influence area and the benchmark fitness centers (best practices. As a result, the firm's managers were able to better decide about the different strategic alternatives to improve its operations.

  14. Exploratory studies into strategies to enhance innovation-driven international competitiveness in a port context : Toward ambidextrous ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. Hollen (Rick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractResearch has highlighted that firms competing in dynamic environments have to balance exploitative (efficiency-directed) activities with explorative (innovation-directed) ones in order to remain internationally competitive. In economically advanced countries, whose competitiveness is

  15. Developing Marketing Strategy for Electronic Business by Using McCarthy's Four Marketing Mix Model and Porter’s Five Competitive Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Original Published AbstractConsidering the importance of marketing strategies in a competitive environment dominated by E-commerce and also limit the effective implementation of research results in terms of marketing mix in e-participation, can manage sales and marketing in order to implement effective marketing strategies and ultimately achieve organizational goals Sector clients and helped the market. Main focus marketing strategies, coordinate activities and allocate appropriate resources to provide marketing operational objectives of the company as a particular product market. Therefore, the main issue related to the realm of marketing strategy, include the specific purpose of determining property markets for a product family or a particular product, then, through the corporate marketing mix according to needs and demands of potential customers in its target market, competitive advantage search And creating synergy are. Considering the importance of marketing strategies in a competitive environment dominated by Electronic markets and also limit the effective implementation of research results in terms of marketing mix in e-participation, can manage sales and marketing in order to implement effective marketing strategies and ultimately achieve organizational goals Sector clients and helped the market. This study usesMcCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internetcompanies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit. Corrected AbstractE-commerce is growing worldwide and is considered one of the modes and methods of business. This initiative led to the creation of new firms has several advantages over using benefits and this is the motivation for this phenomenon. While e-commerce success

  16. Effects of Video-Based Cooperative, Competitive and Individualized Instructional Strategies on the Performance of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Daramola, Florence Olutunu; James, Moses

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of video-based cooperative, competitive and individualized instructional strategies on the performance of senior secondary schools' students in geometry in Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement. Pretest, posttest, experimental control group design was adopted for this study.…

  17. Porter's Five Competitive Forces Framework and Other Factors That Influence the Choice of Response Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Francis M.; Ogutu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter's five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public…

  18. Analyzing sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  19. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  20. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  1. National Competitiveness through the Europe 2020 Strategy and Human Development Index in CEE Countries. A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmaciu Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new innovation economy, national competitiveness is an expression of the quality of the human capital and of the capacity to attract and retain the talent. In this paper, we propose to verify the link between the national competitiveness and the human capital, measured by the public expenditure on tertiary education and by the public expenditure on research and development. The research methodology uses the Panel Data method for Central and Eastern European countries by analyzing data on competitiveness scores in the Europe 2020 Report 2014, the Human Development Index 2015, the Global Competitiveness Report 2016 and those on public expenditure on tertiary education and by the public expenditure on research and development, corresponding to the period 2010-2014. The objectives of this paper are: synthesis of theoretical delimitations on competitiveness, highlighting the relationship between national competitiveness and human capital, testing this relationship for the case of Central and Eastern European countries. The results show a significant and a positive relation, indicating that investment in education and research contributes significantly to increasing the national competitiveness. The obtained results draw attention to the fact that Central and Eastern Europe countries need to initiate measures to reduce the drain-brain phenomenon and to create a favorable socio-economic context for retaining and attracting the talent.

  2. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  3. Competitive strategies and models of business management in the Brazilian electric sector; Estrategias competitivas e modelos de gestao empresarial no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Breno Pinto

    1999-12-15

    This study draws attention to the fact that most of the discussions and studies related to the restructuring of electricity industry in Brazil, almost exclusively address the technological and institutional aspects involved in the question, when competitive strategies and management models to be followed by power companies are essential to ensure the consolidation of new design of the institutional industry in the daily operation of business. The proposition is that the evaluation of competitive strategies and management models can be a working tool for the State, in addition to offer to the electric power companies administrators an initial map or check list for planning and operation of its business, in the institutional model that is being implemented for the Brazilian electric sector.

  4. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  5. Emerging Competitive Strategies in the Global Luxury Industry in the Perspective of Sustainable Development: the Case of Kering Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrica Pavione; Roberta Pezzetti; Matteo Dall'ava

    2016-01-01

    .... In the new economic and competitive scenario, luxury brands would base their identity and image on a set of values through which they should be known and publicly judged by both clients and the market...

  6. A Strategy to Increase the Competitiveness of Leading Industries in Central Java Province to Face AEC 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fafurida Fafurida; Avi Budi Setiawan; Setyani Irmawati

    2016-01-01

    ... competitiveness to face AEC 2015. Results of this research shows that leading industry in Central Java Province are beverage, tobacco processing, textile, apparel, wood, printing, furniture and other processing industry...

  7. THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE TRAINING STRATEGIES IN WHAT CONCERNS OBTAINING A BIGGER TRANSFER OF THE TRAINING EFFECT FOR THE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULGHERU MIRELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The personal experiences in the position of performance athletes, put us in the situation to do observations about the differences between the segmentary muscular contraction regime during training and theone of the solicitations in the competition effort. In the present paper we want to acknowledge and demonstrate the existence of a competition specific bio-motor (un-metabolic of which if we do not take it into account we risk to have low transfer premises of the training effect towards the competition. In the present paper we usedclassic materials and methods and modern ones of research (the bibliographic study method, the observation method, the logical method, the measurements and recordings method, the graphic method and the experimental one. In our paper we will present the video recorded data of the executions during the competitions and thetraining of an athlete that was part of the investigated subjects’ batch. I put experimentally in evidence the differences in the speed and positions distribution and also in the strengths and speeds distribution during training and competition reaching the conclusion that these differences are obvious and generate changes in thecommands succession. The conclusion that we reached refers to the fact that the administration and regulation process of the physical effort in concordance with the competition effort’s specificity must be revised, known being the fact that because of ignoring the differential nature of the effort’s specificity mistakes are made inchoosing the means and dosages, means are chosen without taking into account the existent differences between the segmentary contraction regime during practice and the one of the solicitations during the competition effort

  8. Analyzing the Dependency Between National Logistics Performance and Competitiveness: Which Logistics Competence is Core for National Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmaoglu Serhat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancements in the strategic management field, logistics management has changed considerably and logistics competency has emerged as a new and important area of research. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to find the core logistics abilities, which enable nations to achieve a competitive advantage in the logistics market. Two different data sets, one from World Economic Forum and the other from the World Bank were used. Cluster and discriminant analysis were used to answer the research questions. The results indicated that while the logistics infrastructure and the customs were absolute in determining a high-competitive country, the logistics competence and the tracking & tracing were the core logistics abilities needed to sustain the competitive advantage in long term. The implications of these results are also discussed.

  9. Where is the competitive advantage going?: a management model that incorporates people as a key element of the business strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio García Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is a concept that has evolved in an accelerated way during the last few years. Some scholars and executives claim that people are a fundamental element of its construction. In this line, business management has shown an inclination towards the human resources management – also called “talents” – as the key element of its organizational success. In this journey, the ideas, paradigms and conceptions have been modified in an interesting way. This paper tries to propose these new conceptions facing the organization management challenge, and proposes a management model based on the importance of the people in the competitive advantage administration.

  10. Competitive RT-PCR Strategy for Quantitative Evaluation of the Expression of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Hormone Receptor Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Mallon Alina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantization of gene expression requires that an accurate measurement of a specific transcript is made. In this paper, a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR by competition for tilapia growth hormone receptor type I is designed and validated. This experimental procedure was used to determine the abundance of growth hormone receptor type I transcript in different tilapia tissues. The results obtained with this developed competitive RT-PCR were similar to real-time PCR results reported recently. This protocol provides a reliable alternative, but less expensive than real-time PCR to quantify specific genes.

  11. Competitive RT-PCR Strategy for Quantitative Evaluation of the Expression of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Hormone Receptor Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Mallon Alina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantization of gene expression requires that an accurate measurement of a specific transcript is made. In this paper, a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR by competition for tilapia growth hormone receptor type I is designed and validated. This experimental procedure was used to determine the abundance of growth hormone receptor type I transcript in different tilapia tissues. The results obtained with this developed competitive RT-PCR were similar to real-time PCR results reported recently. This protocol provides a reliable alternative, but less expensive than real-time PCR to quantify specific genes.

  12. Multicriteria Decision Analysis to Develop Effective Sustainable Development Strategies for Enhancing Competitive Advantages: Case of the TFT-LCD Industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuan-Yuan Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things era, panel displays play a major role in human life, because humans frequently use liquid crystal displays to monitor their electrical devices. The display industry creates remarkable economic output, but every manufacturing process inevitably has some undesirable effects on the environment. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, balanced development is necessary to address the emerging market trends. However, short-sighted manufacturing corporations that focus solely on financial performance can achieve only short-term profits. The purpose of this study was to develop the most effective sustainable improvement strategies that can enhance competitive advantages in real-world situations. The proposed method combines the balanced scorecard and a new hybrid modified multiple attribute decision-making model which together adopt the DEMATEL technique to construct the influential network relation map and develop the DEMATEL-based ANP with the VIKOR method to deliver strategies that integrate environmental sustainability and competitive advantage. Finally, a real-world case study applying the proposed method to the cases of liquid crystal display manufacturers was conducted. Then, this paper discusses the effective use of natural resources, development of enterprises, and sustainable competitive advantage in this context. Various manufacturers, communities, and stakeholders can benefit from the coopetition solutions explained by the proposed method.

  13. Comparison of strategies and performance of functional electrical stimulation cycling in spinal cord injury pilots for competition in the first ever CYBATHLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES can elicit muscular contraction and restore motor function in paralyzed limbs. FES is a rehabilitation technique applied to various sensorimotor deficiencies and in different functional situations, e.g. grasping, walking, standing, transfer, cycling and rowing. FES can be combined with mechanical devices. FES-assisted cycling is mainly used in clinical environments for training sessions on cycle ergometers, but it has also been adapted for mobile devices, usually tricycles. In October 2016, twelve teams participated in the CYBATHLON competition in the FES-cycling discipline for persons with motor-complete spinal cord injury. It was the first event of this kind and a wide variety of strategies, techniques and designs were employed by the different teams in the competition. The approaches of the teams are detailed in this special issue. We hope that the knowledge contained herein, together with recent positive results of FES for denervated degenerating muscles, will provide a solid basis to encourage improvements in FES equipment and open new opportunities for many patients in need of safe and effective FES management. We hope to see further developments and/or the benefit of new training strategies at future FES competitions, e.g. at the Cybathlon 2020 (www.cybathlon.ethz.ch.

  14. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  15. National workshop on forest productivity & technology: cooperative research to support a sustainable & competitive future - progress and strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The Agenda 2020 Program is a partnership among government agencies, the forest products industry, and academia to develop technology capable of enhancing forest productivity, sustaining environmental values, increasing energy efficiency, and improving the economic competitiveness of the United States forest sector. In November 2006, the USDA Forest Service, in...

  16. Personalization and Competition in Elite Schools in Buenos Aires: School Strategies for the Production and Legitimization of Dominant Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the strategies found in two elite secondary institutions in Buenos Aires designed to legitimise the selection of students aspiring to become members of the elite. The first are personalization strategies where teachers and students work together with the aim of facilitating success in examinations. The second are strategies…

  17. Analysis Of Bankruptcy Law Provisions In New Member EU Countries: Global Competitive Strategy Implications For Multinational Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Brewerton; Jane LeMaster

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has been responsible for a number of ongoing interrelated trends including an accelerated worldwide movement toward economic integration, an ongoing proliferation of new multinational corporations, a widening search for new economic opportunities by multinational corporations, and an increasing concern for and attention to bankruptcy as a contingency strategy for multinational corporations when primary strategies catastrophically fail. The economic benefits associated with the r...

  18. Strategies for the coronary surgeon to remain “competitive and co-operative” in the PCI era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jose Valooran

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Though the adoptability of the newer strategies may vary between centers a close coalition between coronary surgeons and cardiologists would ensure that the management of coronary artery disease is based on evidence for the benefit of the patient.

  19. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  20. [Control of blood pressure by using an intelligent telephone application with feedback and competitiveness strategy. HTApp Control project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Prieto, J; Sabatel, F; Villarrubia Mendez, G; Divisón, J A; Garcia-Donaire, J A; Rodríguez-Padial, L

    2017-09-04

    Arterial hypertension is a highly important cardiovascular risk factor, with low control percentages. New technologies can help to obtain a better control of this disease. The intention is to know if a mobile application can help achieve this goal. A mobile phone application is used to give feedback to physicians with the aim of generate competitiveness in achieving objectives. The application could, at any time, determine the rate of controlled patients (140/90mmHg, despite medical treatment, tracked for 4 visits. At the end of the follow-up, 69.03% achieved good control, compared to 12.8% in the baseline study (Pfeedback on the results fosters the motivation and improves the therapeutic inertia in the control of blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. BUILDING WINNING STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE THROUGH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: AN X-RAY OF MTN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Abayomi, ADEBISI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken by the authors with the primary objective of appraising the possibility of organization leveraging on Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR as strategic tool for competitive performance with particular reference to MTN Limited (a giant Telecom Firm in Nigeria. Primary data were collected through questionnaire using quota sampling technique to divide Lagos (sampling population State to 5 divisions. 50 subscribers were randomly selected from each division to have a total of 250 respondents. 100 members of staff of MTN were equally randomly selected as respondents. Secondary data were obtained from the National Communication Commission (NCC and MTN Annual Report and Accounts. Multiple Regression, ANOVA and graphical charts were used to analyze the collated data and test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the coefficients of all the results (R2 0.955, F-Test 1531.979 for hypothesis 1; (R20.817, F-Test 324.973 for hypothesis 2; (R2 0.872, F-Test 497.814 for hypothesis 3; and (R20.892, F-Test 603.547 for hypothesis 4 were significant at 0.05 level, meaning that, good ethical CSR practices, environmental CSR, appropriate delivery of societal focused CSR and economic empowerment of the host community have significant effects on organizational performance of the GSM firms. Based on the findings, the authors recommended that, GSM service providers should ensure that they improve on their quality of services, identify the developmental needs of the host communities, abide with the ethical requirement on CSRs, establish peaceful and cordial relationship with the host communities and ensure transparency and prudent use of funds allocated for CSRs since the study has discovered that, there exists a very strong relationship between CSR and firms’ competitive performance.

  2. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies

  3. Towards a chain coordination model for quality management strategies to strengthen the competition of European pork producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, D.; Lang, J.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new chain coordination model for quality management strategies of European pork supply chains. It is a result of qualitative research into intensive and extensive pork production in seven selected countries consisting of a literature review, country-specific expert interviews

  4. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  5. Mixed-reproductive strategies, competitive mating-type distribution and life cycle of fourteen black morel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xi-Hui; Zhao, Qi; Xia, En-Hua; Gao, Li-Zhi; Richard, Franck; Yang, Zhu L

    2017-05-04

    Morchella species are well known world-round as popular and prized edible fungi due to their unique culinary flavor. Recently, several species have been successfully cultivated in China. However, their reproductive modes are still unknown, and their basic biology needs to be elucidated. Here, we use the morel genome information to investigate mating systems and life cycles of fourteen black morel species. Mating type-specific primers were developed to screen and genotype ascospores, hymenia and stipes from 223 ascocarps of the 14 species from Asia and Europe. Our data indicated that they are all heterothallic and their life cycles are predominantly haploid, but sterile haploid fruiting also exists. Ascospores in all species are mostly haploid, homokaryotic, and multinuclear, whereas aborted ascospores without any nuclei were also detected. Interestingly, we monitored divergent spatial distribution of both mating types in natural morel populations and cultivated sites, where the fertile tissue of fruiting bodies usually harbored both mating types, whereas sterile tissue of wild morels constantly had one MAT allele, while the sterile tissue of cultivated strains always exhibited both MAT alleles. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in natural populations, which strongly suggested a competitive advantage for MAT1-1 strains.

  6. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  7. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Johnsson, Filip [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  8. The Development of Low-Cost Airlines and Tourism as a Competitiveness Complementor: Effects, Evolution and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the development of the airline industry and tourism. On the one hand, air transport has triggered the growth of tourism throughout the world, while, on the other hand, tourism has acted as a complementary product for developing new flight routes. This process has intensified with the emergence of low-cost carriers. A profound change has been observed in companies’ strategy to adapt to the demands of this type of market. To conduct this study, a review of the existing literature related to tourism and lowcost carriers was carried out. To conclude, an analysis of the positioning and price-fixing strategies of low-cost airlines operating on some of the most important tourist routes in Europe was performed. The results indicate different level of fares among the five companies in the sample, especially between Ryanair and easyJet, but similar pricing behaviour on the routes studied.

  9. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  10. Comparison of U.S. and Italian experiences with sudden cardiac deaths in young competitive athletes and implications for preparticipation screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J; Haas, Tammy S; Doerer, Joseph J; Thompson, Paul D; Hodges, James S

    2009-07-15

    Controversy has evolved over the most practical and effective strategy for preparticipation cardiovascular screening of competitive athletes to detect unsuspected cardiovascular disease and prevent sudden death on the athletic field. Athlete screening in the Veneto region of Italy is part of a national program (with 12-lead electrocardiography) that has reported the detection of previously undiagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a decrease in the cardiovascular death rate in young athletes. In this study, over time periods of similar length, cardiovascular-related mortality rates in Veneto athletes were compared with those of a demographically similar region of the United States (Minnesota) in which screening is limited to history and physical examination. There were 55 sudden cardiovascular deaths reported in Veneto over 26 years (2.1/year), compared with 22 deaths in 23 years (0.96/year) in Minnesota. Over the recent and comparable 11-year period, 1993 to 2004, 12 deaths were reported in Veneto and 11 in Minnesota. When analyzed as deaths per 100,000 person-years, Veneto exceeded Minnesota for all years combined (1.87 for 1979 to 2004 vs 1.06 for 1985 to 2007, respectively, p = 0.006), although the 2 regions did not differ significantly for 1993 to 2004 (0.87 vs 0.93, respectively, p = 0.88) or most recently for 2001 to 2004 (0.43 vs 0.90, respectively, p = 0.38). In conclusion, sudden cardiovascular deaths in young competitive athletes occurred at a low rate in both Veneto and Minnesota. Despite different preparticipation screening strategies, athlete sudden death rates in these demographically similar regions of the United States and Italy have not differed significantly in recent years. These data do not support a lower mortality rate associated with preparticipation screening programs involving routine electrocardiography and examinations by specially trained personnel.

  11. CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES – THE EUROPEAN CSR-STRATEGY COMPARED WITH PORTER'S AND KRAMER'S SHARED VALUE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moczadlo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 the European Commission changed the definition and strategy for corporate social responsibility (CSR with the creation of shared value as one core element of the new concept. In the same year Porter and Kramer published in the Harvard Business Review their approach of creating shared value (CSV as core element of long-term business strategies. The starting point of both approaches is the societal legitimation of enterprises to do business. CSR respective CSV are evaluated to be a mean for reaching this legitimation and to further to gain back trust of the society that was lost during the financial crisis. This paper describes the two concepts and analyzes similarities and differences. From the overall aim and intention the EU concept has a wider focus and much higher requirements for enterprises. The European Commission assesses CSR as a measure for business to contribute to inclusive growth, employment and well-being of the society. Hence, companies have to take into account economic, social and environmental targets further include ethical, human rights and consumer concerns when developing their long-term business strategy. CSV of Porter and Kramer also goes beyond the pure business case of CSR because CSV also is defined as a long-term measure which has to be integrated systematically in the strategic core business of companies. The Commission see shareholder as just one common group of a company's stakeholder and gives no preference to them. For Porter and Kramer the simultaneous creation of profit and societal value are decisive.

  12. Improving strategies to assess competitive effects of barred owls on northern spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Weekes, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A scientific study has determined that survey methods designed for spotted owls do not always detect barred owls that are actually present in spotted owl habitat. The researchers suggest that strategies to address potential interactions between spotted owls and barred owls will require carefully designed surveys that account for response behaviors and imperfect detection of both species. Species-specific sampling methods, which are proposed, can be used by forest managers to determine the occurrence and distribution of barred owls with high confidence. This fact sheet provides highlights of the research (Wiens and others, 2011).

  13. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  14. Managing Dynamic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy R. Lewis; Huseyin Yildirim

    2002-01-01

    In many important high-technology markets, including software development, data processing, communications, aeronautics, and defense, suppliers learn through experience how to provide better service at lower cost. This paper examines how a buyer designs dynamic competition among rival suppliers to exploit learning economies while minimizing the costs of becoming locked in to one producer. Strategies for controlling dynamic competition include the handicapping of more efficient suppliers in pr...

  15. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  16. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthen ponds are the main production system for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in Portugal and in Southern Spain. Production costs in this low productivity farming system are higher compared to intensive cage farms, and its economic sustainability depends on product differentiation and optimization of production. The development of new farming protocols, to enhance productivity of ponds and lagoons, or the implementation of certification processes to add value to products from extensive and semi-intensive systems, could render these activities more economics benefits and be attractive for a new generation of farmers. One clear strategy to differentiate and add value to seabream produced in semi-intensive systems is its production under organic standards. Feeds often represent 40-60% of the operational costs of fish farming. In relation to the traditional feeds, the organic certified feeds currently present a price-differential of about +30%. To assess it economic feasibility, it is therefore essential to validate if such higher feeding costs will represent an increase on productivity (fish growth and feed conversion or can be fully integrated in the final sale price. Throughout a full production cycle of gilthead seabream (from 9 grams until >350 grams, a series of trials allowed us to assess the effects of: a an organic certified feed; b variable feeding levels (100 and 80% of recommendations; and c culture density (0.5 and 1.0 kg/m3 on the overall growth performance, body composition and environmental impact at the fish farm level. Results show that growth performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio of seabream fed the organic feed was similar to that found in fish fed a traditional diet. With the organic feed, a reduction of the feeding level by 20% of the manufacturer recommendations led to a lower growth, while a similar reduction on the feeding level of the traditional feed had no impact

  17. Sperm competition in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R

    1998-05-01

    of the mechanism of sperm competition, the optimal strategy for both males and females to maximize their likelihood of extra-pair fertilization is to copulate with an extra-pair partner as close as possible to the onset of oviposition.

  18. Selective Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubovik (Andrei); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a dynamic (differential) game with three players competing against each other. Each period each player can allocate his resources so as to direct his competition towards particular rivals -- we call such competition selective. The setting can be applied to a wide variety of

  19. Competitive intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a competitive edge and also ensure that companies develop an external focus to their business.2. In 2001/02, a team of researchers from both the academic world and the business sector in .... strategic and tactical decisions may be made.15 Much work has been done in ..... could be used to create a competitive advantage;.

  20. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  1. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  2. Electricity and Water Conservation on College and University Campuses in Response to National Competitions among Dormitories: Quantifying Relationships between Behavior, Conservation Strategies and Psychological Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cynthia M; Shammin, Md Rumi; Yanisch, Tess M; Tincknell, Evan; Myers, Noel

    2015-01-01

    "Campus Conservation Nationals" (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition's effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition were 4% for electricity and 6% for water. The top 10% of dorms achieved 28% and 36% reductions in electricity and water respectively. Participation was larger in 2012 and reductions were slightly smaller (i.e. 3% electricity). The fact that no seasonal pattern in electricity use was evident during non-competition periods suggests that results are attributable to the competition. Post competition resource use data collected in 2012 indicates that conservation behavior was sustained beyond the competition. Surveys were used to assess psychological and behavioral responses (n = 2,900 and 2,600 in 2010 and 2012 respectively). Electricity reductions were significantly correlated with: web visitation, specific conservation behaviors, awareness of the competition, motivation and sense of empowerment. However, participants were significantly more motivated than empowered. Perceived benefits of conservation were skewed towards global and future concerns while perceived barriers tended to be local. Results also suggest that competitions may be useful for "preaching beyond the choir"-engaging those who might lack prior intrinsic or political motivation. Although college life is distinct, certain conclusions related to competitions, self-efficacy, and motivation and social norms likely extend to other residential settings.

  3. The competitive challenge. [Competition in the independent power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead.

  4. Gestão de matriculas como estratégia competitiva em universidades comunitárias privadas Enrollment management as competitive strategy in private community universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Meyer Jr.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as práticas de gestão da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná - PUCPR, quanto à atração e retenção de alunos. O bem sucedido modelo de gestão de matrículas, implantado pela DePaul University, foi utilizado como referência no estudo. O contexto altamente competitivo vivenciado por ambas universidades, torna a atração e a retenção de alunos um desafio a ser vencido com estratégias apropriadas. O trabalho caracteriza -se como um estudo comparativo de natureza exploratória e descritiva. A análise focalizou o planejamento estratégico, o marketing educacional e a gestão de matrícula - os três principais elementos do modelo adotado pela DePaul University e os resultados indicam que a gestão de matrículas, na Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, é praticada d e forma incipiente, mesclando atividades profissionais e amadoras. Na prática a adoção de um sistema integrado de matrículas irá proporcionar base para melhores decisões quanto ao mercado, em especial quanto à concorrência, demanda e perfil do aluno desejado, além de estratégicas mais adequadas para a retenção de alunos. As conclusões ressaltam que a gestão de matrículas requer uma gestão profissional integrada se constituindo em estratégia relevante para a sobrevivência institucional.The purpose of this study is to analyze managerial practices of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná—PUCPR (Curitiba, Brazil—to attract and retain students. The highly-successful model of enrollment management implemented by DePaul University (Chicago, USA serves as reference and benchmark for comparison purposes. The highly -competitive environment experienced by both institutions provides the setting for the challenge to attract and retain students through effective managerial strategies. The study is comparative and descriptive in nature. The analysis focuses on strategic planning, educational

  5. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  6. Gaining and losing competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Bellak

    2003-01-01

    Efficient policies to stimulate the competitiveness of firms require knowledge of future firm-strategies and a proper assessment of the location advantages of a country or region. Therefore, industry comparative advantage analysis needs to be complemented by firm competitive advantage analysis. This yields four hypotheses of firm strategies on the basis of the existing advantage combination. Detailed empirical analysis of a representative sample of Austrian manufacturing firms during 1990- 20...

  7. Competition in the Mashup Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Shiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API, but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers' independent choices and where competitors are also complementors. This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

  8. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  9. Evaluation Strategy Michael Porter's five forces model of the competitive environment on the dairy industry (Case Study: Amoll Haraz Dvshh dairy company)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bolorian Tehrani; Faezeh Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    State of competition in an industry depends on five basic forces. Porter's five forces model including bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of newcomers to the industry, threat of substitute products is the intensity of rivalry between competitors. Joint strength of these forces determines the ultimate benefit of potentially any industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the competitive environment of the dairy industry based on Michael Por...

  10. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  11. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF ENTERPRISE POTENTIAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers economic principles on enterprise potential management and its competitiveness.  Elements of the enterprise economic potential that permit to select an efficient strategy of an organization behaviour are presented in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of enterprise potential competitiveness on the basis of the existing standard indices and various competitiveness levels.

  12. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  13. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  14. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  15. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. This case study incorporates competition and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve...... its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...

  16. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  17. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  18. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  19. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  20. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Govoreanu; Andreea Mora; Anca Serban

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges to face in this century. It’s an era of information. Those who have the best information are going to win the race for supremacy on the market. More and more managers are aware of the fact that they have to do something to remain on the market and to be successful. They have to adapt and to try to gain an advantage over the competitors. Nowadays, the only thing that makes the difference is the company’s competitiveness. The times when the one who had the capacity to ...

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  2. CORPORATE CULTURE AND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGOJANU Angela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. Many articles have been written in recent years about corporate culture, which can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. Outputs are organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc. Most organizations don't consciously try to create a certain culture, as it is typically created unconsciously, based on the values of the top management or the founders of an organization. In this paper we try to see whether corporate culture has any influence on competition and if it has, whether it is a positive one or a negative one.

  3. The information as strategy in a competitive and global context La información como estrategia en un contexto global y competitivo: una revisión teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zorrilla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the information importance in the firms as strategy of competitive advantage, using as signaling tool the Internet. The first part focuses on information role in the finance management and strategy as competitive factors. The second part studies thoroughly the asymmetric information problem and the signaling importance. Finally, the third part to approaches in three aspects: the web site as broadcasting information tool, the division of the information systems and finally the information role in the finance and investment of the firmsEl presente artículo muestra la importancia de la información en las empresas como una estrategia de ventaja competitiva empleando como herramienta de señalización el Internet. El primer apartado se centra en el papel de la información en la estrategia y gestión financiera como factores de competitividad. La segunda parte, ahonda el problema de información asimétrica y la importancia de la señalización. Finalmente, el tercer segmento se enfoca en tres aspectos: el web site como herramienta de difusión de la información, la división de los sistemas de información, y por último, el papel de la información en la inversión y financiación de la empresa

  4. Competitive advantage and competitive dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding competitors means locating and defining their main elements. The first element is participants - companies that compete and create a network of rivalry. Apart from our company it includes other participants in the market (investors, consumers, distributors, providers and producers of substitute and complementary products. The other element is additional value - net profit and loss which every competitor brings to the others. Measuring of additional value requires measurement of value for every single company, and then comparing it with situation without that company. The third element is the rules which create a structure and a system in which the battle is proceeded. The rules may be written (laws, contracts or non-written (habits, culture, spoken deals. The forth element is tactics - maneuvers of the company in creating profit and competitive advantage. Four main tactics are prevent, attack, discourage and react. The fifth element is the bounders of the market competitors.

  5. An Assessment of SME Competitiveness in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Agus Anton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to analyze source of SME competitiveness in selected industry clusters in Indonesia and to develop a theoretical model of SME competitiveness. This study employs quantitative design with multivariate model. We develop three models of estimation by using multiple regression analysis. Our models are based on Porter Model of Competitiveness (1990 which contains factor condition, demand condition, related and supporting industries and business strategy. Findings in this study idenntify sources of the competitiveness of SME in the level of innovation, entrepreneurship, human capital, financial resources, potential market and business strategy. Limitation of this study lies in the SME model of competitiveness based on cross sectional data which is not feasible for analysis of the dynamic aspect of competitiveness sources. Our findings show that SMEs need government assistance to develop marketing networks and access to financial institutions.

  6. Host plant quality mediates competition between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, B.; Jansa, J.; Franken, O.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Werner, G.D.A.; Bücking, H.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi exchange soil nutrients for carbon from plant hosts. Empirical works suggests that hosts may selectively provide resources to different fungal species, ultimately affecting fungal competition. However, fungal competition may also be mediated by colonization strategies of

  7. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  8. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  9. Building New Competition Law Regimes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The new administration had no choice but to devise a set of urgent economic reforms to replace the poorly-performing state-led development strategy. ...... Interestingly, the promulgation of both competition laws in 1979 and 1999 were products of the military-installed governments, rather than elected civilian governments.

  10. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate...

  11. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  12. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  13. Competitiveness factors and indexes for construction companies: findings of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, F; Serpell,A; Molenaar,K

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industry competitiveness has led to an urgent need for an effective competitiveness management strategy. Thus, companies require a better understanding about the definition of competitiveness, factors for determining it, and indexes for measuring it. This paper provides the results of an exhaustive literature review about competitiveness. It summarizes those factors which affect construction companies' competitiveness and indexes to measure it. From these results, a structur...

  14. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  15. Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    competitive or restrictive business practices. As evidenced by the rapidly growing number of countries involved in the preparation, adoption and implementation of competition laws and policies, there is growing awareness among developing ...

  16. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  17. Functional electrical stimulation cycling strategies tested during preparation for the First Cybathlon Competition - a practical report from team ENS de Lyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metani, Amine; Popović-Maneski, Lana; Mateo, Sebastien; Lemahieu, Laura; Bergeron, Vance

    2017-12-05

    Whether it is from the patient's or the physical therapist's point of view, FES cycling can be considered either as a recreational activity, or an engaging rehabilitation tool. In both cases, it keeps patients with lower-limb paralysis motivated to sustain a regular physical activity. Thus, it is not surprising that it was selected as one of the six disciplines of the first Cybathlon competition held on October 8, 2016. However, many unresolved issues prevent FES cycling from being an activity practiced outdoors on a daily basis; such as, low power production, rapid muscle fatigue, precise electrode positioning, lack of systematic procedures to determine stimulation patterns, and the difficulty of transferring disabled riders from their wheelchair to the tricycle. This article documents the challenges we faced during preparation for the Cybathlon 2016 FES cycling race, and provides results obtained during different phases of the process. A particular specificity of our team was that, unlike most other teams where pilots were mainly paraplegic, both the primary and backup pilots for team ENS de Lyon are C6/C7 tetraplegics, with neither voluntary control of their abdominal muscles nor hand grip, and only partial use of their arms.

  18. Functional electrical stimulation cycling strategies tested during preparation for the First Cybathlon Competition – a practical report from team ENS de Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Metani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether it is from the patient’s or the physical therapist’s point of view, FES cycling can be considered either as a recreational activity, or an engaging rehabilitation tool. In both cases, it keeps patients with lower-limb paralysis motivated to sustain a regular physical activity. Thus, it is not surprising that it was selected as one of the six disciplines of the first Cybathlon competition held on October 8, 2016. However, many unresolved issues prevent FES cycling from being an activity practiced outdoors on a daily basis; such as, low power production, rapid muscle fatigue, precise electrode positioning, lack of systematic procedures to determine stimulation patterns, and the difficulty of transferring disabled riders from their wheelchair to the tricycle. This article documents the challenges we faced during preparation for the Cybathlon 2016 FES cycling race, and provides results obtained during different phases of the process. A particular specificity of our team was that, unlike most other teams where pilots were mainly paraplegic, both the primary and backup pilots for team ENS de Lyon are C6/C7 tetraplegics, with neither voluntary control of their abdominal muscles nor hand grip, and only partial use of their arms.

  19. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  20. Evolution of generic competitive strategies and the importance of Michael E. Porter La evolución de las estrategias genéricas de competición y la influencia de Michael E. Porter A evolução das estratégias genéricas de competição e a influência de Michael E. Porter

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Weber; Edison Fernandes Polo

    2010-01-01

    Generic competitive strategies are considered almost as archetypes in Business Administration, sometimes leading to over simplification of their concepts as well as underestimation of their importance. Since publication in 1980, as part of Michael E. Porter's book Competitive Strategy, the generic strategies of Differentiation, Leadership in Total Cost and Focus have been used in whole or in part, in various approaches, accelerating dissemination of Porter's work and the subject itself. As a ...

  1. ICT-Supported Gaming for Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting and processing competitive intelligence for the purpose of strategy formulation are complex activities requiring deep insight in and models of the “organization in its environment.” These insights and models need to be not only shared between CI (competitive intelligence) practitioners

  2. Cost reducing investments and spatial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Scalera; Alberto Zazzaro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between competition and cost reducing investments in the context of a location model. In particular, we derive the symmetric subgame-perfect equilibrium of a three-stage circular city model with closed-loop strategies, and study the effects of changes in competition fundamentals under both a given number of firms and free entry

  3. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  5. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  6. Effect of competitive tactics on performance: The case of the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Apraiz, Julen; Matey, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Competitive tactics play a key role in explaining different levels of organizational performance since they are the linkers between strategy formulation and implementation. This study focuses on two main competitive tactics, namely, Quality-Oriented Competitive Tactic (Quality) and Cost-Oriented Competitive Tactic (Cost), which are the ones that are closely related to Porter’s generic competitive strategies. Apart from that, we will analyze two other important competitive tacti...

  7. Distribution development strategy of corn processed (corn stick and corn dodol production to achieve corn competitive product market in Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk; 1 Mengetahui profil petani jagung di Kabupaten Gorontalo; 2 Mengetahui karakteristik pelaku industri rumah tangga di Desa Todito, Kecamatan Pulubala; 3 Analisis ekonomi dodol jagung manis. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif, SWOT, dan analisis ekonomi. Hasil peneltian: 1 Kelompok, jumlah anggota dan luas tanaman jagung terbanyak di Kecamatan Batudaa terdapat di Desa Dunggala. Di Kecamatan Pulubala kelompok petani jagung terbanyak dan lahan terluas terdapat di Desa Puncak, dan jumlah anggota kelompok terbanyak terdapat di Desa Toidito; 2 Keuntungan industri stik jagung rasa udang di Danau Limboto dengan pendapatan di atas BEP (Break Even Point sebesar Rp. 120.000,- dengan BEP produksi sebesar 11,975 gram dan BEP harga Rp. 52.500. Keuntungan industri dodol jagung manis dengan pendapatan di atas BEP sebesar 170,174, dengan BEP produksi sebesar 6,90 keranjang, dan BEP harga sebesar 19.550. 3 Strategi utama pengembangan distribusi stik jagung dan dodol jagung adalah mengembangkan produk distribusi jagung, meningkatkan volume produksi, untuk mencapai target pasar, dan meningkatkan promosi produk dan informasi harga. Kata Kunci: Produksi Jagung, Strategi Pengembangan Distribusi   Abstract Reseach object are; 1 to know about the profile of maize farmer enterprise in Gorontalo Regency; 2 to know the people characteristic at home industry group in Todito village at Pulubala sub-district; 3 Economics analysis for Sweat Maize Dodol. Data analysis used is descriptive method, SWOT and economics analysis. The result of this research is 1 Groups of farmers enterprise, the more much of members and land is worked on by maize farmer found at Dunggala village in Batudaa sub-district. At Pulubala Sub-district the  more much of groups of farmer enterprise at Puncak Village, and the members is more much found at Toidito, but the largest land worked on by maize farmer is at Puncak village; 2 Production analysis for

  8. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael E.; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  9. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 1010. The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes.A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and

  10. UK Higher Education: Competitive Forces in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Considers United Kingdom higher education in the context of Michael Porter's book, "Competitive Strategy," which discusses five forces governing competition. Focusing mainly, but not exclusively, on teaching, the monograph identifies critical factors that have influenced the balance of competitive forces in higher education and…

  11. Competitiveness of Brazil in the wood international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Brazilian lumber on the international market in the period 2000 to 2007. The methodological tools used to compare the competitiveness of Brazil with its main competitors were the rates of Relative Position Marketing (PRM and Revealed Comparative Advantage (VCR. The results point out to the fact that, although Brazil has proved competitive, it is necessary to use marketing strategies aimed at increasing the country’s competitiveness in this sector.

  12. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  13. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    details on rationale for different dietary intakes. The contribution of diet supplements was also often not reported. When supplements were reported, intakes of some micronutrients were excessive (~1000% of US Recommended Dietary Allowance) and above the tolerable upper limit. This review demonstrates that literature describing the dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders is dated and often of poor quality. Intake reporting required better specificity and details of the rationale underpinning the use. The review suggests that high-quality contemporary research is needed in this area, with the potential to uncover dietary strategies worthy of scientific exploration.

  14. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes to present and analyse the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field.In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analysed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitivenesscompetitive advantage relation.During the last years, competitiveness has turned into one of the common concepts used in order to approach and describe the sustainable development of the tourism and travel industry. Expert literature has defined concepts such as tourism and travel competitiveness or touristic destinations competitiveness, suggesting not only the significance of the concept but also the emphasis that touristic organizations should lay on this aspect.The competitiveness of touristic destinations and, generally speaking, the global competitiveness of the tourism industry became vital for the survival and growth of the touristic organizations on the international market, provided by the growth of spare time and the growth of the level of income that is available for spending the time.

  15. Deterrence in Oligopolistic Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    processes and outcomes of competition. The theoretical literature, dating from Cournot [1838], is predominantly deductive and positive. That is, -5...provide salient, albeit rough, predictions about the processes and outcomes of competition. The theoretical literature, dating from Cournot [1838], is

  16. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  17. Creativity and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweton, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of competition on ideational creativity is considered in light of the theories of J. Adams, J. Abramson, P. Torrance, M. Raina, and J. Heifetz. It is concluded that the data show competition to facilitate creativity. (SW)

  18. Uma análise sobre a estratégia competitiva e operacional dos restaurantes self-service An analysis of the competitive and operational strategy of self-service restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Giroto Rebelato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Os restaurantes comerciais do tipo self-service surgiram como uma opção de comida rápida bem adaptada às novas necessidades da população brasileira. Formaram uma indústria que cresce em todo o país e evolui em termos de oferta e de atendimento. Este artigo analisa o fenômeno da refeição fora de casa e expõe a estratégia competitiva e operacional dos restaurantes self-service "por quilo". A partir de um estudo conduzido em uma empresa do ramo, identifica e analisa as características dos processos presentes no sistema "por quilo", sugerindo mudanças internas na forma de diretrizes gerenciais.Commercial self-service restaurants have arisen as a fast-food option well adapted to the new necessities of the Brazilian population. They constitute an industry in growth all over the country, and have evolved in terms of both supply and service. This paper analyses the phenomenon of "eating out" and presents the competitive and operational strategy of the "per kilo" self-service restaurants. From a study conducted in a branch enterprise, it identifies and analyses the process characteristics present in the "per kilo" system, suggesting internal changes in the form of management directions.

  19. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  20. In Defence of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  1. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...

  2. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  3. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    once they develop a strategy for obtaining a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to present the importance of having competitive advantage; the ways in which it ppoate obtain and hazards that may arise with its implementation by companies.

  4. Competitive differentiation through brand extensions in the era of hyper competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Catalin Munteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of hyper competition, competitive differentiation has become increasingly important. Brand extensions are used by companies across various industries for competitive differentiation. But in the era of hyper competition, a successful differentiation strategy requires that a brand emphasizes on uniqueness rather than commoditization. In this article, we make a case for creating a meaningful differentiation strategy. We emphasize the role of brand extensions for competitive differentiation and highlight the main perils of using brand extensions as a primary differentiation strategy. By using qualitative research, we identify primary objectives for brand extensions in practice. This investigation uses in-depth interviews with 14 senior brand managers across various industries to highlight brand portfolio strategies in relation to the brand differentiation strategy. Findings reveal that for business at the base of the pyramid, in markets such as Romania, brand managers are using brand extensions to increase sales or to boost short-term revenue rather than to implement a coherent differentiation strategy. We conclude with multiple recommendations for improving brand extension usage as a strategic instrument for creating meaningful differentiation in the era of hyper competition.

  5. Risk of Competition in Crisis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela-Cornelia DANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For many types of risk affecting the economic existence of firms, risk ofcompetition is among the most important, both in terms of the gravity andintensity and the spread in space and time. In the context of the global economiccrisis, - economical, financial, social, image problems etc. encountered by theeconomic entities are responded through the engage of the companies in thecompetitive game using various strategic alternatives. The competitive gameinvolves: understanding the nature of the competitive strategy, the demarcationof their playing field, the competition analysis and the competitive decisioncommitment. Implicit, the new conditions created field of manifestation of theanticompetitive behavior on the various world markets, increasing the inherentrole of the decision makers in the competition policy.

  6. Introducing the competitive dimension to corporate foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jan Oliver; Rohrbeck, René

    While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches in corpo......While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches...... or frameworks towards the competitive dimension in corporate foresight. In the paper an illustrative case study is discussed, with a first attempt to provide a framework for structuring the competitive dimension in corporate foresight....

  7. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enter the dragon : policies to attract Chinese investment. Rapports. Does exporting increase productivity of Thai firms via linkage spillovers? Rapports. Effects of environmental regulations on South Asian food and agricultural exports : a gravity analysis. Rapports. Developing inland China : do heterogeneous coastal foreign ...

  8. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET) was established in 2004 to enhance the capacity of researchers and research institutions to deliver timely, demand-driven, trade-related research to policymakers in the region. ARTNET has since become the largest trade policy research network in the ...

  9. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  10. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  11. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  12. Estratégias competitivas e competências essenciais: perspectivas para a internacionalização da indústria no Brasil Competitive strategies and core competencies: perspectives for the internationalization of industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso C. C. Fleury

    2003-08-01

    ' strategies and the formation of competencies. Searching for empirical evidences for that argument, we developed a survey (490 respondents about the recent evolution of industry in Brazil to see how local firms are redefining their strategies, organization and building relationships to survive and compete in a globalised and networked economy. The outcomes of the research reinforce the importance of networks as a basic concept for the analysis of competitiveness at firm and aggregate levels. Regarding the new organizational architecture of the Brazilian industry, what was observed was the widespread alignment of local firms into value chains led by TNC's and their subsidiaries, a limited number of strategic alliances, and a significant number of isolated firms, unable to respond to the demands of the new competition.

  13. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  14. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  15. Competitive Intelligence HF Czechforge

    OpenAIRE

    Nejtek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on options of Competitive Intelligence solutions in small and medium enterprises. Applied part is conducted in a medium sized manufacturing company. Theoretical part of this thesis introduces areas of Competitive Intelligence and Business Intelligence, basic technological overview and illustrates Competitive Intelligence cycle description. In Czech republic, majority of companies are in a form of a small or medium enterprise, therefore theoretical definition is pro...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF BANKS’ COMPETITIVENESS IN LOCAL FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of determinants of banks’ competitiveness in local financial markets, with respect to local (cooperative banks and branches of large commercial banks. The paper also evaluates the competitive position of the banks using the synthetic measure of competitive advantage MPK. The article proves that tere are considerable differences between the analyzed groups of banks, in terms of their competitiveness and its determining factors (which are banks’ assets. The paper also indicates the areas in which particular banks shouldmake changes in their resources and operational strategies in order to improve their competitiveness in local financial markets.

  17. La Cultura Organizacional y las Estrategias Competitivas en la industria de celulosa, cartón y papel en México/Organizational culture and the Competitive Strategies in the cellulose, paper and cardboard industry in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Martín Villarreal Solís; José Gerardo Ignacio Gómez Romero; María Deyanira Villarreal Solís

    2014-01-01

    ... of paper, cardboard and pulp in Mexico. Currently the volatile and competitive environment in which firms are inserted forces them to explore on the fundamentals that give sustenance to their organizational culture, and to study the...

  18. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  19. COMPETITIVENESS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIAN STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Elena TUCLEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented one of the important sectors of the nationaleconomy, at least from its potential for development perspective: thehospitality industry. The research interest is related to finding out the mainfactors of competitiveness in this field. This research attempts to identify theessential aspects of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. Theobjectives pursued refer to: discovering the degree to which the concept ofcompetitiveness is understood and capitalized on by the managers in theRomanian hospitality industry; identifying a set of factors considered decisivein raising the competitiveness of Romanian firms in the hospitality industry;identifying the strategic concerns of firms operating in the Romanianhospitality industry, in order to establish the connection between strategy andthe competitiveness of the firms belonging to this sector.As a result, the hypotheses are: in the hospitality industry there areparticularities which influence the firms’ competitiveness and strategicorientation; preoccupation towards raising competitiveness and strategicorientation is influenced by the type of exploitation and the number of stars(level of comfort; in the hospitality industry, managers focus on cost controland service quality as decisive factors of competitiveness.

  20. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  1. The Reinforcement Learning Competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Tanner, B.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the reinforcement learning competitions, which have been held annually since 2006. In these events, researchers from around the world developed reinforcement learning agents to compete in domains of various complexity and difficulty. We focus on the 2008 competition, which

  2. Competition research improves services

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... are leading to more choices for consumers in Uzbekistan. 5. Case study. THE POWER OF COMPETITIVE MARKETS. Competition and Development. One issue that all migrant workers face is how to send some of that all-important paycheque home — quickly, safely, and at the lowest possible cost. S e rg e y. S o ro k in a.

  3. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  4. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budiwibowo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia’s construction industry is important to the national economy. However, its competitiveness is considered low due to the lack of success of its development strategy and policy. A new approach known as the cluster approach is being used to make strategy and policy in order to develop a stronger more competitive industry . This paper discusses the layout of the Indonesian construction cluster and its competitiveness. The archival analysis research approach was used to identify the construction cluster. The analysis was based on the I/O tables of the years 1995 and 2000, which were published by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. The results suggest that the Indonesian construction cluster consists of the industries directly involved in construction as the core, with the other related and supporting industries as the balance. The anatomy of the Indonesian construction cluster permits structural changes to happen within it. These changes depend on policies that regulate the cluster’s constituents.

  5. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shakhshir Ghassan;

    2014-01-01

    The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market...

  6. Using a Competitive Approach to Improve Military Simulation Artificial Intelligence Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoykov, Sevdalin

    2008-01-01

    ...) design can lead to improvement of the AI solutions used in military simulations. To demonstrate the potential of the competitive approach, ORTS, a real-time strategy game engine, and its competition setup are used...

  7. Innovative competitive strategies of poultry system enterprises in the state of Paraná Estratégias competitivas inovadoras em empresas do sistema agroindustrial de frangos no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nakazato

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight firms were approved by the Committee of Poultry Sanity of the State and six companies of the poultry system were randomly selected, but only four questionnaires were returned which allowed us to infer the existence of differentiated acting and pattern of conduct among innovative and traditional companies. After the systematization of the information about the poultry system in Paraná and identification of patterns of technological innovation, environmental and competitive behavior, the current managerial practices were discussed. The field research allowed to qualify the rising of the complement and secondary data on the poultry section – collected in the linked institutions to the chicken agribusiness – APINCO, ABEF, AVIPAR and Committee of Poultry Sanity of the State. The dynamic companies of the aviculture in Paraná have been growing above the Brazilian average and they have been contributing to the regional development. The poultry system in Paraná presents technology, process quality and product, adapted animal sanity, high adaptation capacity to the consumers’ desires and the dynamic companies begin worrying with environmental subject, and all enterprises are medium sized, differently from the rest of Brazil. Heterogeneous conduct patterns were verified among innovative companies that seek for diversification, but companies were focused on reduction of costs. Innovating companies present stable competitive strategies and seek for improvement of the companies competitiveness to enlarge portions of internal and international market.O estudo identifica e analisa estratégias tecnológicas, competitivas e ambientais de empresas do sistema avícola paranaense no ano de 2000. Após realizar a discussão teórica sobre competitividade e avicultura a partir da literatura econômica, procurou-se verificar a competitividade e a conduta empresarial adotada pelas empresas paranaenses. À época da pesquisa em início de 2000

  8. Recent progress in competitive intelligence, competitive technical intelligence and knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Henri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of competitive intelligence and knowledge management to create, maintain and sustain competitive advantages. The triple helix model, based on the integration of the public sector (government, business models (private corporations and universities to promote innovation is examined. Research trends in competitive intelligence are presented. It concludes that the systematic use of the technology monitoring should support the comparison between various business models of companies that hold the market best practices and form a basis to knowledge for the decision making process and strategies development.

  9. Competitive Intelligence: Finding the Clues Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Richard; Moorhead, John

    1990-01-01

    Defines and discusses competitive intelligence for business decision making and suggests the use of online databases to start looking for relevant information. The best databases to use are described, designing the search strategy is explained, reviewing and editing results are discussed, and the presentation of results is considered. (LRW)

  10. Success factors, competitive advantage and competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Hildebrandt, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    years the structure-conduct-performance paradigm of (traditional) industrial economics served as the fundamental framework for large-scale empirical research in strategic management and strategic marketing. The most influential outcomes of this research stream were Porter's book on "Competitive Strategy...

  11. Product market competition, ultimate controlling structure and related party transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shenglan; Wang, Kun; Li, Xiaoxue

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that product market competition has an important effect on corporate strategies and internal governance mechanisms. Using a sample of China’s listed firms from 2004 to 2009, we explore the relationship between product market competition and normal related party transactions and find a significant positive relationship. In addition, we investigate the substitutive effect of product market competition and the cash flow rights owned by ultimate controlling shareholder...

  12. Competitive Intelligence in Malaysia Pharmaceutical Industry : Effectiveness of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Hooi Min

    2004-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence is increasingly being considered an important, if not mandatory, piece of every business’ overall strategy and functioning, including tactical and strategic planning. The level of Competitive Intelligence activities differ by industries, and at different stage of product life cycle. It is closely linked to Knowledge Management – another major field on the way company handling information. Competitive Intelligence has often been related to industrial espionage where so...

  13. Comparative economic competitiveness of the Central Caucasian states

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffarli, (imanov)

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the competitiveness of the Central Caucasian states compared to other developing countries of Europe and Central Asia. An analysis of the methodology and results of international comparative studies of business competitiveness, economic growth, technological development, public institutions, macroeconomic environment and other parameters helps to identify the areas of potential competitive advantage of countries and to develop strategies designed to achieve and enhance t...

  14. Competitive Advantages of Indonesian Plywood Industry: A Perspective from Porter???s Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu

    2015-01-01

    The Understanding industry structure is of great concern to industry strategic since depending against the competitive forces and shaping them in a company???s favor area essential to strategy. Competitive advantages provide the framework for assessing strategy and understanding the source of competitive advantage. This paper applies Porter Five Forces Model to identify the positioning of competitive advantages of plywood industry in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Qualitative research was carried...

  15. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  16. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  17. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  18. Linking root traits and competitive success in grassland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenek, Janneke M.; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J.W.; Ruijven, van Jasper; Paauw, van der Jan Willem; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek; Caluwe, de Hannie; Kroon, de Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Competition is an important force shaping plant communities. Here we test the hypothesis that high overall root length density and selective root placement in nutrient patches, as two alternative strategies, confer competitive advantage in species mixtures. Methods: We

  19. Petrochemical industries diagnosis concerning competition, quality and productivity programs; Diagnostico de industrias petroquimicas face aos programas de competitividade, produtividade e qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria de; Chamas, Claudia Ines [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how brazilian petrochemical industries take technological and competitive strategies. New industrial policy emphasizes quality, productivity and competitiveness aspects. The sector company survival depends on fitting to competition patterns. (author) 6 refs.

  20. Competition and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in these peer struggles. Watch how children play board games or card games, and you will recognize the competitiveness, striving and social learning taking place and sometimes digressing into cheating. As ...

  1. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  2. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    New technological and societal developments have entailed changes within the building sector; including building trades becomingacademically based, and the introduction of new building materials, new concepts and ICT-based designsand communication, traditional methods and organizations are being...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  3. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  4. FameLab competition

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  5. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  6. Telecommunications Competition Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2002-01-01

    On 21 June 2000 the Commission received a reference from the Treasurer on telecommunications-specific competition regulation for inquiry and report within 12 months of receipt of the reference. In conducting the review, the Commission was to have regard to the state of competition in the telecommunications market, and the impact of new technologies and delivery platforms. In making its recommendations, the Commission would aim to improve the overall economic performance of the Australian econ...

  7. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  8. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  9. Gamification in thoracic surgical education: Using competition to fuel performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mokadam, Nahush A; Lee, Richard; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Walker, Jennifer D; Cerfolio, Robert J; Hermsen, Joshua L; Baker, Craig J; Mark, Rebecca; Aloia, Lauren; Enter, Dan H; Carpenter, Andrea J; Moon, Marc R; Verrier, Edward D; Fann, James I

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate residents and trainers to increase their use of simulation training and the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum, a gamification strategy was developed in a friendly but competitive environment. "Top Gun...

  10. Regional Competition for Confidence: Features of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Svyatoslavovna Vazhenina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in economic independence of the regions inevitably leads to an increase in the quality requirements of the regional economic policy. The key to successful regional policy, both during its development and implementation, is the understanding of the necessity of gaining confidence (at all levels, and the inevitable participation in the competition for confidence. The importance of confidence in the region is determined by its value as a competitive advantage in the struggle for partners, resources and tourists, and attracting investments. In today’s environment the focus of governments, regions and companies on long-term cooperation is clearly expressed, which is impossible without a high level of confidence between partners. Therefore, the most important competitive advantages of territories are intangible assets such as an attractive image and a good reputation, which builds up confidence of the population and partners. The higher the confidence in the region is, the broader is the range of potential partners, the larger is the planning horizon of long-term concerted action, the better are the chances of acquiring investment, the higher is the level of competitive immunity of the territories. The article defines competition for confidence as purposeful behavior of a market participant in economic environment, aimed at acquiring specific intangible competitive advantage – the confidence of the largest possible number of other market actors. The article also highlights the specifics of confidence as a competitive goal, presents factors contributing to the destruction of confidence, proposes a strategy to fight for confidence as a program of four steps, considers the factors which integrate regional confidence and offers several recommendations for the establishment of effective regional competition for confidence

  11. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision is ex...... transistor. The case material is used to introduce the problem competition policy has when faced with competition derived from innovation....

  12. Strategic corporate social responsibility management for competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Filho,José Milton de; Wanderley,Lilian Soares Outtes; Gómez,Carla Pasa; Farache,Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility strategy and competitive advantage are important issues for the contemporary discussion on corporations in society when taking into account social and environmental impacts. Empirically, we can see that social responsibility strategies are associated with competitive advantages, such as attracting valuable employees as well as enhancing the company image and reputation. This paper presents a theoretical review that demonstrates the association between social st...

  13. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  14. Quantum Approach to Cournot-type Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate Cournot-type competition in the quantum domain with the use of the Li-Du-Massar scheme for continuous-variable quantum games. We derive a formula which, in a simple way, determines a unique Nash equilibrium. The result concerns a large class of Cournot duopoly problems including the competition, where the demand and cost functions are not necessary linear. Further, we show that the Nash equilibrium converges to a Pareto-optimal strategy profile as the quantum correlation increases. In addition to illustrating how the formula works, we provide the readers with two examples.

  15. Quantum Approach to Cournot-type Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate Cournot-type competition in the quantum domain with the use of the Li-Du-Massar scheme for continuous-variable quantum games. We derive a formula which, in a simple way, determines a unique Nash equilibrium. The result concerns a large class of Cournot duopoly problems including the competition, where the demand and cost functions are not necessary linear. Further, we show that the Nash equilibrium converges to a Pareto-optimal strategy profile as the quantum correlation increases. In addition to illustrating how the formula works, we provide the readers with two examples.

  16. Análise do alinhamento da estratégia de produção com a estratégia competitiva na indústria moveleira Analysis of the alignment of manufacturing and competitive strategies in the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliciane Maria da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o alinhamento das estratégias de produção com as estratégias competitivas adotadas por onze empresas moveleiras situadas no pólo industrial da região de Votuporanga - SP. Os questionários aplicados durante as entrevistas e as observações diretas no chão-de-fábrica foram as principais ferramentas escolhidas para coleta de dados. Os resultados da pesquisa de campo revelaram que a maioria das empresas produzia linhas variadas de móveis retilíneos com estilo tradicional. A comercialização ocorria em um mercado amplo com pouca ou nenhuma diferenciação, caracterizando a estratégia competitiva de menor custo. As prioridades competitivas da estratégia de produção eram predominantemente qualidade e custo. Observou-se a ausência de sistemas de medidas e de programas voltados para a gerência da qualidade, como de sistemas que objetivassem a redução do custo de produção. As preocupações com a competitividade ocorriam em curto prazo e não eram formalizadas em estratégias empresariais.This paper investigates the alignment of manufacturing strategies with the competitive strategies of eleven companies located in the furniture cluster of Votuporanga - SP. The administration of questionnaires during interviews and direct observation in the shop floor were the main tools chosen for data collection. This research has revealed that the majority of the companies produced a varied number of straight line-like furniture of traditional style. The trading occurs in a broad market with little or null differentiation which is a clear indication of lower cost competitive strategy. The competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy were predominantly quality and cost. It has been noticed the lack of measurement systems and employment of training programmes towards quality management, as well as systems which aimed at the reduction of manufacturing costs. The concerns with competitiveness were only envisaged for the

  17. Competitive intelligence: An instrument to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The case for Competitive Intelligence (CI as an instrument that can enhance the competitiveness of South African companies and South Africa as a country is strong. Various global competitive rankings measurements have indicated over a number of years the areas in which competitiveness is lacking. Moreover, these rankings have indicated that South Africa has failed to improve its position year on year. The fact that the world is becoming increasingly competitive for South African entities is undisputed. Coupled with a fluctuating exchange rate and the country’s geographical proximity, this poses unique challenges facing South African managers who have to deal with various regulations and legislative matters. In order to create and sustain an effective knowledge economy and to enhance global competitiveness, South Africa however has to put appropriate strategies/measures in place to stimulate, encourage and grow knowledge practices. Competitive Intelligence (CI as a means of making more sense of the competitive business environment and to identify opportunities and risks in time to act upon can be effectively used as a means to enhance competitiveness. Valuable lessons from successful CI practices in the business sector and government can be learnt from elsewhere in the world. CI should be investigated and adapted for South Africa’s business environment. It is therefore the aim of this article to first attempt to describe the role of CI in enhancing competitiveness, specifically in South Africa and secondly, to stimulate thought on how to secure momentum in enhancing CI as an academic field by developing relevant CI courses as well as demonstrating the value of CI to companies in South Africa through research and collaboration between academics and the private and public sectors.

  18. Bridging the gap between Schumpeterian competition and evolutionary game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This paper suggests that the analysis of Schumpeterian competition within the Nelson-Winter model should be complemented with evolutionary game theory. This model and its limitations for density-dependent Schumpeterian strategies are presented in terms of the equations of evolutionary dynamics....... Formulated as evolutionary games, the set of strategies can easily be extended from innovators and imitators to routinists, complementors, and mixers. All strategies are presented in relation to a modified version of the Hawk-Dove Game. In this setting, the possibility of coexistence of several Schumpeterian...... strategies is proved. This is an example of Schumpeterian competition within evolutionary game theory....

  19. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  20. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  1. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  2. Price competition in procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  3. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Competition from weeds is the most important of all biological factors that reduce agricultural crop yield. This occurs primarily because weeds use resources that would otherwise be available to the crop. The magnitude of yield loss is affected by numerous agronomic and environmental factors, most...... importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  4. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  5. APPROACHING COMPETITIVENESS AT THE LEVEL OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA NIŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of multinational corporations is a particularly complex concept due to the fact that at present this type of company represents economic entities which continue to develop in the context of the process of internationalization and the transition to the use of global strategies. Competitiveness is a competition between corporations for new positions on the markets. With regard to the competitiveness of multinational corporations, the most accurate description was given by Gilbert Abraham Frois who believed these businesses must think globally, but act locally. In the competitive global market, emphasis is laid on plus – the value given by the competitiveness of the human element, taking into account the fact that the human resource doesn’t run out, and its value doesn’t decrease over time, but on the contrary, its value increases on condition that it is rigorously managed and developed.

  6. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...... or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory...

  7. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  8. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...

  9. Pozitioning Strategies Used in Strategic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The consumer’s perception of the marketing company’s activities is represented by the positioning strategy. The positioning process consists of approaching the market’s segments in different ways, with deferent’s offer, using three fundamentals strategies: strengthen the current company position, competition free segments identification and repositioning the competition using an aggressive marketing strategy.

  10. Runaway Competition: A Correction and Extension of Results for a Model of Competitive Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Erin; Cojocaru, Monica Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    We investigate and generalize an existing model of competitive helping within a biological market, first introduced for a population of competing individuals in which one individual provides help to all others; the rest compete for the help available from this individual by providing help themselves. Our generalized model comprises two strategies in which each individual of a specific type provides the same amount of help as all other individuals of that type. Each individual's fitness function is dependent on this level of help, the cost of providing the help, and the fact that help is proportionally reciprocated by other individuals. Competitive helping occurs when individuals actively try to help more than other individuals. To assess the emergence of equilibrium help strategies as adopted by proportions of the population, we examine the competition over available help within two settings: replicator dynamics and agent-based numerical simulations. To move one step further in our generalization, we use the agent-based model to study the N-person competitive helping game, where all individuals in the population are heterogeneous with respect to help provided. Our results show that helping does not increase indefinitely with the population size, as concluded previously, and while there are some instances of an increase in help provided as a result of competition, this competition can be detrimental to all individuals and in most cases, one type simply gives up (thus evolving to a "no help" strategy). The degree to which an individual's help is reciprocated by the others in the population has strong implications in the long-term behaviour of equilibrium help levels of types of individuals (and of individuals themselves); these equilibrium help levels diverge from existing conjectures in current literature. Lastly, small amounts of passively provided (costless) help results in runaway competition among all individuals.

  11. Competitive Behavior, Stress, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether chronic stress and acute physiological responses to competitive stress can explain individual and gender differences in competitiveness. We measure individuals' autonomic nervous system activity in a resting state as well as under non-competitive and competitive incentives in a real task using heart rate variability measurement. We find that basal heart rate variability, a proxy for chronic stress, and acute competition-induced changes in heart rate variability...

  12. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  13. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, Pim; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  14. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  15. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  16. Competitive seeds-selection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates a competitive diffusion model where two competitors simultaneously select a set of nodes (seeds) in the network to influence. We focus on the problem of how to select these seeds such that, when the diffusion process terminates, a competitor can obtain more supports than its opponent. Instead of studying this problem in the game-theoretic framework as in the existing work, in this paper we design several heuristic seed-selection strategies inspired by commonly used centrality measures-Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Degree Centrality (DC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), and K-shell Centrality (KS). We mainly compare three centrality-based strategies, which have better performances in competing with the random selection strategy, through simulations on both real and artificial networks. Even though network structure varies across different networks, we find certain common trend appearing in all of these networks. Roughly speaking, BC-based strategy and DC-based strategy are better than CC-based strategy. Moreover, if a competitor adopts CC-based strategy, then BC-based strategy is a better strategy than DC-based strategy for his opponent, and the superiority of BC-based strategy decreases as the heterogeneity of the network decreases.

  17. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  18. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  19. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  20. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For non-commercial and academic uses only, this publication may be copied and redistributed provided suitable credit and reference is given to IDRC and the original ... This publication may be read online at www.idrc.ca/books, and serves as the focal point for an IDRC thematic website on competition law and policy: ...

  1. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  2. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  3. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  4. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  5. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  6. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  7. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  8. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  9. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  10. Discursive strategies of strategy in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    to articulate their strategies through private sector strategy terminology about competition, ranking, benchmarking, etc.. Thus, it is time to explore how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public organizations. An important way to study strategy as practice is by attending of the discourse...... relations, however they have not depicted an underlying conceptual structure in how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public service organizations. In this study, we depart from previous discursive strategy research by taking a deconstructive approach in order to identify underlying...... of strategy. Bodies of discursive scholarship, such as critical discourse analysis, narrative analysis, metaphor analysis and conversation analysis, have contributed with significant research into important issues and themes in strategy making processes such as sense-making, subject-positions and power...

  11. FLOSS strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, NM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOSS Strategies Presented... at Govtech Nhlanhla Mabaso Open Source Centre Manager November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za FLOSS in support of strategic Objectives • Competitiveness Exporting knowledge & skills • Investment Attracting meaningful...

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  13. Exporting Culture: a Requirement for Competitive Internationalization*

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra G., Jaime H.

    2005-01-01

    his paper proposes a concept of “culture for internationalization” and “exporting culture” –a highly relevant concept for developing countries’ firms that are likely to follow a gradualinternationalization process– based on the strong relationship binding the concept proposed to strategy and systemic competitiveness. These three items are paramount to Understand the conditions underlying internationalizationas it is characterized by particular traits that make it a key alternative for a firm...

  14. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  15. Non-Price Competition in the Port Sector: A Case Study of Ports in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Esmer, Soner; Nguyen, Hong-Oanh; Bandara, Yapa Mahinda; Yeni, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Although the port sector has been facing increasing competition, there is limited research on how ports compete using non-price competition strategies. There are a few studies on non-price competition in the port sector. However they mainly focus on the marketing aspect. This paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature, especially from a combined marketing-economic perspective. Especially the paper's main objective is to identify the determinants of non-price competition in the port sector...

  16. Internationalization strategies of Chinese enterprises and international competitiveness of Japanese, Chinese and Asisn enterprises : Japanese enterprises countermeasures and Japan-China-Asisn international business specialization network in business processes

    OpenAIRE

    永池, 克明

    2006-01-01

    Chinese government encourages Chinese enterprises to expand overseas business in accordance with their national strategies. Main purposes are that Chinese enterprises increase their presence in overseas countries and acquire overseas companies' technologies, management know-how, human resources and assets in order to catch up advanced nations. Their main measure is M & A strategy. International business specialization is expanding around East Asian countries. These phenomena will increase yea...

  17. Designing Competitive Service Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Veronica; Turner, Trevor

    The explosives developed in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ­century by the famous Swede and patron of the world peace prize, Alfred Nobel, were extremely durable and, apart from the introduction of the electric detonator, have remained in use with minor modifications for almost a century (Fig. 5.1a). In the 1970s a new invention started a process of change that has transformed the explosives business from being a supplier of products to a provider of a service. Survival very much depended on the agility of ICI Explosives UK, hereinafter referred to as "ICI Explosives," in adapting to the new competitive environment. Manufacturing excellence was not a solution. Innovative thinking was required to sustain the ­business as changes in technology reduced the complexity that had ­protected the business from serious competition for over a century.

  18. Single elimination competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, T. M. A.; Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2008-09-01

    We study a simple model of competition in which each player has a fixed strength: randomly selected pairs of players compete, the stronger one wins and the loser is eliminated. We show that the best indicator of future success is not the number of wins but a player's wealth: the accumulated wealth of all defeated players. We calculate the distributions of strength and wealth for two versions of the problem: in the first, the loser is replaced; in the second, the loser is not. The probability of attaining a given wealth is shown to be path-independent. We illustrate our model with the popular game of conkers and discuss an extension to round-robin sports competition.

  19. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  20. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  1. CIES Grant competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Washington, D.C., has announced the 1990-191 Fulbright Scholar Awards and the 1990-1991 Research Fellowships in India competitions.The 1990-1991 Fulbright grants in research and university lecturing abroad for periods of 3 months to 1 year have openings in over 100 countries, in most academic disciplines. Professionals, retired faculty, and independent scholars are encouraged to apply.

  2. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  3. Competitive quantity discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Giacomo; Denicolò, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effects of competition with quantity discounts in a duopoly model with asymmetric firms. Consumers are privately informed about demand, so firms use quantity discounts as a price discrimination device. However, a dominant firm may also use quantity discounts to weaken or eliminate its competitor. We analyze the effects of quantity discounts on firms' profits and consumer surplus. Our main finding is that quantity discounts can decrease social welfare (i.e., the sum of producers...

  4. Paternalism and tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisa Kotakorpi

    2007-01-01

    When consumers make mistakes, the government may wish to use paternalistic taxation as a corrective measure. We examine a country whose government attempts to use taxation to reduce the consumption of a harmful good, and analyse the extent to which cross-border shopping and tax competition undermine the feasibility of paternalistic taxation. We show that the paternalistic component of a tax on a harmful good is reduced due to the possibility of cross-border shopping, but it does not disappear...

  5. Competition in Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership (all at the University of Maryland). For 2003 – 2004, he served as Interim Dean of the School of...40 Figure 16. Results of Public/Private Competitions 1978 - 1994...15-50% Joint Economic Committee 1973 20 52% IDA 1974 20 37% LMI 1974 1 22% ARINC 1976 13 47% APRO 1978 11 12% IDA 1979 31 31% TASC 1979 45 30

  6. Injuries in Competitive Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J T

    1981-05-01

    In brief: There are relatively few injuries in competitive cycling, and abrasions are the most common. In this study most injuries occurred to the left side of the cyclist, and most common causes were flat tires and colliding with other cyclists. The number of injuries decreased as the cyclist gained more experience. Preventive measures include keeping the bicycle in top mechanical condition, wearing strong, durable clothing and a helmet, and knowing how to fall.

  7. Privatization, Competition and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Gundogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Privatization not only results in the transfer of state assets, but it also reduces economic role of the government. Developing and developed countries have experienced privatization in different ways for years. This article focuses upon the issue of privatization in Turkey. Turkey launched its comprehensive economic liberalization program named ‘structural adjustment reform' in 1980 by the stimulation of the World Bank and IMF. Later on, privatization has been an official state ideology with two institutions, the Privatization Higher Council and the Privatization Administration. Some of their implementations have been given. Privatization policies have multiple, often together with often inter-related and conflicting political, economic and financial objectives. They must be evaluated according to political, social and economical structures and conditions of the country concerned. Together with privatization, competition and its institutional framework with implementations have also been analyzed in the paper. The paper maintains that there seemed no direct and strong relationship between the privatization endeavours and institutional competition. Finally, the study points out that Turkey seems to be a bare-foot runner in its privatization venture unless there is a proper competitive market, together with a sound social security system and a profound capital market.

  8. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  9. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members.

  10. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  11. Strategic Concept of Competition Model in Knowledge-Based Logistics in Machinebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, O. V.

    2015-09-01

    A competitive labor market needs serious changing. Machinebuilding is one of the main problem domains. The current direction to promote human capital competition demands for modernization. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a strategy for social and economic promotion of competition in conditions of knowledge-based economy, in particularly, in machinebuilding. The necessity is demonstrated, as well as basic difficulties faced this strategy for machinebuilding.

  12. Concurrentie & strategie in de geneesmiddelensector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Snier (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to investigate competition and strategy in the Dutch pharmaceutical sector. Therefore, this study introduces Porters Five Basic Forces model (1980, 1985) to analyze competition in three separate (but connected) industries in the pharmaceutical sector, namely the

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Competition in the U.S. Hardwood Lumber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Competition in the U.S. hardwood lumber industry was investigated through interviews with company executives. The largest and smallest companies in the industry were found to be the most production oriented. When the competitive strategies of the companies were categorized using Porterâs (21) strategic typology, Overall Cost Leadership strategies were found to be the...

  14. Some Consideration On Knowledge Management Implication On Organization's Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghici, Anca; Ciortan, Marius Areta; Florea, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The research described in this paper has been focused on two objectives: to debate the knowledge management's active role for organizations competitive advantage and to describe information technology's capabilities in leveraging the knowledge worker's competencies. For the purposes of this article, competitive advantage is perceived as a strength that provides a market advantage relative to a competitor. Often competitive advantage is related to the core competencies of the organisation, which are frequently based on implicit know-how or tacit knowledge. This intangible, unstructured knowledge is difficult to manage; consequently management has ignored it when designing business strategy. However, the increased competitive pressures of the post-industrial global economy and the exponential advances in computing power have increased management's interest in knowledge as a sustainable source of competitive advantage.

  15. Competitive state anxiety and performance in young female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopani, Despoina; Dallas, George; Skordilis, Emmanouil K

    2011-04-01

    The study was designed to examine the competitive state anxiety and self-confidence of rhythmic gymnasts participating in the Greek national competition. 86 participants, ages 11 and 12 years, completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, 1 hr. before competition. The athletes, classified by performance (high and low performance) and participation in the finals (finalists and nonfinalists), responded to the three subscales: Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, and Self-confidence. Analyses indicated differences in Self-confidence between high versus low performance groups and finalists versus nonfinalists. No significant differences were found on Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety. In a regression analysis, Self-confidence was the only significant predictor of performance for this sample. Implications refer to the development of strategies to enhance self-confidence in order to improve the gymnast's performance during competition.

  16. Implementing a competitive medical care system through public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, W

    1982-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify so-called competition strategies for medical care, and to present a more flexible approach for public policy to encourage competition. In so doing, it appears useful to divide a competition strategy into two parts: (1)a structurally sound market mode for the future medical delivery and financing system, and (2) a strategy to implement the chosen model. Policymakers may choose any model that satisfies that structural conditions of a sound market. After listing there principal conditions, this paper presents two distant market models that satisfy them in entirely different ways and a third model that combines the first two. Once a specific market model is chosen, policymakers may choose among a variety of ways to implement it. Some implementation strategies require coercive legislation, others rely more on persuasive leadership, pressures, and incentives. The paper points out that all of these strategies must address certain common action areas: it then proposes one implementation strategy in some detail and uses it to illustrate a way to address each of these area. Although it certainly is not the only possible strategy, the proposal would appear to be practical approach for implementing effective competition.

  17. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  18. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition, which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  19. Organizational Implications of the Cost Leadership Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anisoara Duica; Mircea Constantin Duica

    2014-01-01

      Included by M. Porter in the category of the generic competitive strategies, the cost leadership strategies still present interest for the researchers in the strategic management domain, a research domain...

  20. Organizational Implications of the Cost Leadership Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anisoara Duica; Mircea Constantin Duica

    2014-01-01

      Included by M. Porter in the category of the generic competitive strategies, the cost leadership strategies still present interest for the researchers in the strategic management domain, a research domain on which...

  1. Chain-store competition: customized vs. uniform pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Paul; Waterson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Retail chains essentially practice one of two broad strategies in setting prices across their stores. The more straightforward is to set a chain- or country- wide price. Alternatively, managers of retail chains may customize prices to the store level according to local demand and competitive conditions. For example, a chain may price lower in a location with lower demand and/or more competition. However, despite having the ability to customize prices to local market conditions, some choose in...

  2. STRATEGIC POSITIONING OF BUILDING PRODUCTS IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Levitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the effective operation of a construction company in today's competitive market is based on the application of the principles of strategic positioning. The methodical approach to the sustainable market positioning of construction products. It is proved that the increase of competitive advantages of construction products is largely determined by the correct choice of strategy of formation and use of the resource potential of construction enterprises. 

  3. A Regional Comparative Outlook of the Romanian Tourism Industry Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen MORARU

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to determine if the Romanian tourism product has growth prospects using several diagnose and assessment tools: such as BCG matrix (Boston Consulting Group), "Porter Five Forces" model and finally, we are going to analyze the main products in the portfolio using the Ansoff's Matrix. This approach will help us decide what strategy is appropriate for each product. The last step will be to determine the degree of competitiveness of the Romanian tourism using the Tourism Competitive...

  4. Competition and Co-operation in the Corrugated Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Carl-Henric; Axelson, Johan; Emanuelsson, Martin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how the five Swedish corrugated box manufacturers, while still in fierce competition, got together in 1999 to fight a new logistic system, plastic crates, which threatened to overtake a substantial part of the Swedish market for transport packaging. It explains the background of SWIF 2000, the competitive response by the five Swedish corrugated box manufacturers, how the strategy was developed, and what made the competitors work together. Many driving forces influence com...

  5. Strategy Only Matters A Bit: The role of Strategy in the High Performance Organization

    OpenAIRE

    André de Waal

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Porter’s book Competitive Strategy (1980), developing a generic strategy and then executing this strategy well has been seen as the main source of competitive advantage for organizations. However, since the publication of Porter’s book the business environment has changed dramatically, giving rise to the questions: How important is strategy nowadays for an organization to become and stay successful? and Are the generic strategies of Porter still valid? To find answers on these ques...

  6. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  7. Managerial attitudes, strategic intent, environmental initiatives and competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe; Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    performed regularly since 1999. The purpose has been to track and analyse the development of the strategic responses of SMEs in Denmark. Furthermore, identification of potential shifts in the influence of motivators and the impact on competitive advantage has also been focused. In so doing, evidence......To stay at the competitive forefront successful firms have for quite a while addressed environmental issues as part of their strategy. The competitive 'imperative' is however not restricted to large enterprises entirely. This paper reports empirical findings from a series of identical surveys...

  8. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  9. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  10. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  11. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  12. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  13. Competitive facility location models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, A. V.; Kochetov, Yu. A.; Plyasunov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Two classes of competitive facility location models are considered, in which several persons (players) sequentially or simultaneously open facilities for serving clients. The first class consists of discrete two-level programming models. The second class consists of game models with several independent players pursuing selfish goals. For the first class, its relationship with pseudo-Boolean functions is established and a novel method for constructing a family of upper and lower bounds on the optimum is proposed. For the second class, the tight PLS-completeness of the problem of finding Nash equilibriums is proved.

  14. Rowing competitions and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  15. Optimal control for competitive-cooperative systems: Modeling flexible coalitions in tomorrow`s competitive world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic shift of the world`s military, political, and economic paradigm from a bi-polar competitive gridlock to a more fluid, multi-player environment. This change has necessarily been followed by a re-evaluation of the strategic thinking and by a reassessment of mutual positions, options, and decisions. The essential attributes of the new situation are modeled by a system of nonlinear evolution equations with competitive/cooperative interactions. The mathematical setting is quite general to accommodate models related to military confrontation, arms control, economic competition, political negotiations, etc. Irrespective of the specific details, all these situations share a common denominator, namely the presence of various players with different and often changing interests and goals. The interests, ranging from conflicting to consensual, are defined in a context of interactions between the players that vary from competitive to cooperative. Players with converging interests tend to build up cooperative coalitions while coalitions with diverging interests usually compete among themselves, but this is not an absolute requirement (namely, one may have groups with converging interests and competitive interactions, and vice-versa). Appurtenance to a coalition may change in time according to the shift in one`s perceptions, interests, or obligations. During the time evolution, the players try to modify their strategies as to best achieve their respective goals. An objective functional quantifying the rate of success (payoff) vs. effort (cost) measures the degree of goal attainment for all players involved, thus selecting an optimal strategy based on optimal controls. While the technical details may vary from problem to problem, the general approach described here establishes a standard framework for a host of concrete situations that may arise from tomorrow`s {open_quotes}next competition{close_quotes}.

  16. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of moving trading abroad or relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens...... their standards solely to attract business and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...... institutions' excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...

  17. Arbitrage and Competition in Global Financial Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where...... their standards solely to attract businesses and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...... institutions’ excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...

  18. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  19. Social competitive status of a country and means of its maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chornodid Igor S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the “social competitive status” category. It marks that competitiveness is more and more identified by society socialisation factors. It proves that the social competitive status is a characteristic of social competitiveness of the national economy and is ensured through achievement of such indicators as social security, development of the society, level and quality of life, level of correspondence of the potential of organisation of the “optimal” strategy of its development. The article shows positive and negative features of the international image of Ukraine. It offers a formula for calculation of the social competitive status. It characterises such categories as the “national brand”, “international image of the state” and “competitiveness of the nation” by definition of world organisations. It offers effects of ensuring and maintaining the social competitive status of a country, which influence formation of social competitive advantages of countries.

  20. INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRATEGY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALINA SORIANA SITNIKOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporations are at present operating in demanding and highly unsure periods, facing a mixture of increased macroeconomic need, competitive and capital market dangers, and in many cases, the prospect for significant technical and regulative gap. Throughout these demanding and highly unsure times, the corporations must pay particular attention to corporate strategy. In present times, corporate strategy must be perceived and used as a function of various fields, covers, and characters as well as a highly interactive system. For the corporation's strategy to become a competitive advantage is necessary to understand and also to integrate it in a holistic model to ensure sustainable progress of corporation activities under the optimum conditions of profitability. The model proposed in this paper is aimed at integrating the two strategic models, Hoshin Kanri and Integrated Strategy Model, as well as their consolidation with the principles of sound corporate governance set out by the OECD.

  1. Competition, Work Rules and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bridgman

    2011-01-01

    More competitive markets are associated with higher productivity. However, changes in competition complicate productivity measurement since changing mark-ups may shift factor shares. This paper examines productivity measurement in markets with market power and restrictive work rules: rules that induce wages to be paid for non-productive labor hours. It develops a theoretical model to explain why workers would want restrictive work rules and how competition leads to their reduction. I model a ...

  2. Competition Policy and Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    John Vickers

    2009-01-01

    One of the most controversial questions in current competition policy is when, if ever, should competition law require a firm with market power to share its property, notably intellectual property, with its rivals? And if supply is required, on what terms? These questions are discussed with reference to recent law cases including the EC Microsoft judgment of 2007 and the US linkLine case of 2009. The analysis focuses on whether competition law and regulation are complements or substitutes, an...

  3. Competition Advocacy: Time for Rethink?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the conventional wisdom concerning competition advocacy, paying particular attention to the applicability of such wisdom to developing countries. The definition of competition advocacy, its evaluation, and the likelihood of its successful implementation are discussed in some detail. The paper concludes with a call for considerably more thought about what, hitherto, has been one of the relatively uncontroversial aspects of many competition authorities' activities.

  4. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  5. Comparative Advertising and Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barigozzi, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, competition authorities tend to agree on comparative advertising being helpful in promoting competition. They now encourage firms to use it. They reason that comparative advertising, if fair and not misleading, increases consumers' information about alternative brands. For this to work, comparative claims must be credible. Competition policy and legal practice are essential in making comparative advertising (directly and indirectly) informative. In this paper, first we provide ...

  6. Comparative Advertising and Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barigozzi, F.; Peitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, competition authorities tend to agree on comparative advertising being helpful in promoting competition. They now encourage firms to use it. They reason that comparative advertising, if fair and not misleading, increases consumers’ information about alternative brands. For this to work, comparative claims must be credible. Competition policy and legal practice are essential in making comparative advertising (directly and indirectly) informative. In this paper,...

  7. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A238 831 " ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND COMPETITIVE PROCUREMENT Report PL006R1 June 1991 DTIC AJUL 2 9 1991"M Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci Prepared...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement C MDA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel J. Drake and... electronic commerce techniques ( electronic Jata interchange (EDI). electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards and facsimile] to competitive

  8. Local Tax Competition in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tax competition has been successfully applied in an analysis conducted in several European countries, but so far it has not been systematically tested either in Poland or in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. There are two types of competition discussed in the article: classic competition for mobile tax base and ‘yardstick competition’, in which local politicians compete for political capital being related to the comparison of tax rates with neighbouring municipalities. It is expected that in Poland the ‘yardstick competition’ is more important from the classic competition for the mobile tax base.

  9. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  10. The Competitiveness of Public Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poliak Milos; Poliakova Adela; Mrnikova Michaela; Simurková Patricia; Jaskiewicz Marek; Jurecki Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Examining the competitiveness of public transport plays an important role because through public transport, the transport of passengers to schools, public healthcare establishments and work is ensured...

  11. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, even with the competition law in place. Most small and large enterprises are accustomed to socialist government support. They now face the challenge of struggling to catch up with a ...

  12. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2012-03-22

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait 'exploration behaviour' and a simple cognitive trait, 'innovative problem-solving performance'. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in 'individual quality', our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies.

  13. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F.; Quinn, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait ‘exploration behaviour’ and a simple cognitive trait, ‘innovative problem-solving performance’. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in ‘individual quality’, our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies. PMID:21937498

  14. Anti- versus Pro-Competitive Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof

    2007-01-01

    In a framework where mergers are mutually excluding, I show that firms pursue anti- rather than (alternative) pro-competitive mergers. Potential outsiders to anti-competitive mergers refrain from pursuing pro-competitive mergers if the positive externalities from anti-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential outsiders to pro-competitive mergers pursue anti-competitive mergers if the negative externalities from the pro-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential participants in an...

  15. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  16. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  17. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  18. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  19. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage.

  20. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  1. Competitive Sport, Winning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the arguments against including competitive sports in the compulsory curriculum. Considers the adverse effects of selfishness and the emphasis upon winning and discusses the role of the teacher in competitive sports. Concludes that teachers can avoid miseducation by altering the value orientation, appealing to rationality, and becoming…

  2. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  4. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  5. A Survey of Robotic Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Balogh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of robotic competitions all over the world, their short history and present state is given. Contests are classified according to their difficulty and conditions. Typical competition categories, also with interesting robot constructions are described. Sense, advantages and disadvantages of contests are discussed, especially concerning educational purposes. At the same time, our experiences with organising the contest Istrobot are presented.

  6. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Tampuu

    Full Text Available Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  7. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampuu, Ardi; Matiisen, Tambet; Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  8. Product market competition, ultimate controlling structure and related party transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that product market competition has an important effect on corporate strategies and internal governance mechanisms. Using a sample of China’s listed firms from 2004 to 2009, we explore the relationship between product market competition and normal related party transactions and find a significant positive relationship. In addition, we investigate the substitutive effect of product market competition and the cash flow rights owned by ultimate controlling shareholders on the extent of normal related party transactions. In particular, our results suggest a positive relationship between the ultimate controlling shareholders’ cash flow rights and normal related party transactions that is strongest in noncompetitive industries and weakens as product market competition increases.

  9. The impact of innovativeness factors on the EU countries' competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of innovativeness factors in the European Union (EU member states on the level of their national economy competitiveness (global competitiveness of each country in the EU. The aim of the research is to identify the vital factors of innovativeness, innovative activity and innovation capital in the EU member states. The research is realized by the method of correlation, regression and cluster analysis. The research results point to the existence of differences in the level of innovativeness of the EU countries, a high correlation level between competitiveness and innovativeness, as well as segments of innovation activities (innovativeness factors which require necessary actions for increasing the competitiveness level of the EU countries. The study gives recommendations to the innovation policy makers in the European Union countries for formulating national innovation strategy.

  10. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  11. PLACEBO EFFECTS IN COMPETITIVE SPORT: QUALITATIVE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Beedie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97% of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73% have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33% offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it

  12. URBAN MARKETING AND ITS IMPACT OVER THE COMPETITION BETWEEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elena ALEXA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the globalization era, characterized by profound political and economical reforms of which main objective is the increased competitiveness, whether we talk about goods, companies, cities or countries, the proactive attitude and the marketing strategy is a must in order to survive and develop. Now more than ever the cities have become brands of their one, because they are in an endless competition for attention, investments, inhabitants and tourists and the main competitor is no longer the city located a couple of kilometers away, but any city across the globe. Cities and regions need competitive strategies in order to attract more tourists, investors and inhabitants and for this they have to make a change in the decision makers’ attitude. The new city is no longer a plain urban conglomerate; it becomes a Company, a Product, and a Market depending on the target group it applies to.

  13. Complex Automated Negotiations Theories, Models, and Software Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2013-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations are a widely studied, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. In general, automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. For this book, we solicited papers on all aspects of such complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This book includes two parts, which are Part I: Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiations and Part II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. Each chapter in Part I is an extended version of ACAN 2011 papers after peer reviews by three PC members. Part II includes ANAC 2011 (The Second Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents who have different negotiation strategies and implemented by different developers are automatically negotiate in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of...

  14. Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97%) of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73%) have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33%) offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it. Key pointsA survey of 30 athletes revealed that 73% have experienced a placebo effect in sport.Athletes suggest several potential explanations for these effects.Findings support the idea that placebo effects might be common in sport.Researchers and practitioners should be aware of the possible impact of these effects on research findings and competitive performance.

  15. Airline network structure in competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Danica D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airline's network is the key element of its business strategy and selected network structure will not have influence only on the airline's costs but could gain some advantage in revenues, too. Network designing implies that an airline has to make decisions about markets that it will serve and how to serve those markets. Network choice raises the following questions for an airline: a what markets to serve, b how to serve selected markets, c what level of service to offer, d what are the benefits/cost of the that decisions and e what is the influence of the competition. We analyzed the existing airline business models and corresponding network structure. The paper highlights the relationship between the network structures and the airline business strategies. Using a simple model we examine the relationship between the network structure and service quality in deregulated market.

  16. The concept of Ideal Strategy & its realization using White Ocean Mixed Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making have an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy, Purple ocean strategy and Black ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long-term organizational sustainability and to face or deviate from the competition. Based on organizational analy...

  17. The concept of Ideal Strategy and its realization using White Ocean Mixed Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making have an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy, Purple ocean strategy and Black ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long term organizational sustainability and to face or deviate from the competition. Based on the organizational analysis, it...

  18. Coordinating Tariff Reduction and Domestic Tax Reform under Imperfect Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    A major constraint on trade liberalization in many countries is the prospective loss of government revenue.Recent results, however, have established a simple and appealing strategy for overcoming this difficulty, whilst still realizing the efficiency gains from liberalization, in small, competitive

  19. KEY LINES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL INNOVATIVE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Reshetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the importance of small innovative businesses in the modern global economy. The article also deals with the key lines to improve their competitiveness, and the author makes the conclusion how spread and promising the strategies are in Russia.

  20. Obama Pushes Pre-K, Competitive Grants in Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's latest budget proposal envisions a sweeping, multi-billion-dollar expansion of prekindergarten programs and doubles down on the administration's strategy of using competitive grants to drive big change in states and districts--all as school districts try to cope with the largest cuts to federal education spending in recent…

  1. Competitive Intelligence on the Internet-Going for the Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Helene

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of competitive intelligence (CI) focuses on recent Web sties and several search techniques that provide valuable CI information. Highlights include links that display business relationships; information from vendors; general business sites; search engine strategies; local business newspapers; job postings; patent and trademark…

  2. Dynamics of an advertising competition model with sales promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Feng, Zhaosheng; Jiang, Guirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an advertising competition model with sales promotion is constructed and investigated. Conditions of the existence and stability of period-T solutions are obtained by means of the discrete map. Flip bifurcation is analyzed by using the center manifold theory and three sales promotion strategies are discussed. Example and numerical simulations are illustrated which agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  3. Using Information Technology as a Strategic Tool for Competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of IT has rarely helped the companies to acquire the expected competitive advantage. The main hurdle is the historical growth of the IT and the deficiency in taking into consideration the interactions between IT and the corporate strategic planning [4]. Corporate strategies can be effectively implemented, only ...

  4. INNOVATION POTENTIAL AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES BUILDING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Levitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is stipulated that the construction company, chosen the strategy of economic growth, should have some competitive advantages, determining opportunities for sustainable development and effective improving, and operational efficiency increase. One of the factors of the competitiveness increase of construction products is the innovative potential of construction industry. Methodical approaches to the evaluation of innovative capacity and its effect on the growth of competitive advantages have been proposed. 

  5. Competitive Environment of the National Market of Banking Services: Essence and Approaches to Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Urusova Svitlana S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study of essence of the "competitive environment of the market of banking services" notion and assessment of suitability of modern approaches to its segmentation for justifying the bank competitive strategy. On the basis of analysis and synthesis of theoretical approaches of scientists the article determines essence of competitive environment of the market of banking services and systemises methodical grounds of its structural analysis. The article establis...

  6. HOW COMPETITIVE IS AGRIBUSINESS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN FOOD COMMODITY CHAIN?

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen, C.J.; Esterhuizen, Dirk; Doyer, Ockert T.

    1999-01-01

    The competitiveness of sixteen selected food commodity chains in South Africa was calculated using the Revealed Comparative Advantage method of Balassa. The majority of commodity chains are marginally competitive. Except for the maize, pineapple, and apple chains, the competitiveness index generally decreases when moving from primary to processed products. This implies that benification or "value adding" opportunities in South Africa are restricted. To compete in a global economy strategies s...

  7. Changing competition in health care marketing: a method for analysis and strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B; Brockman, B K

    1993-01-01

    As the cost and importance of healthcare continue to increase, competition in the medical industry is taking new forms and becoming more intense. The driving trends behind this competition are analyzed in the framework of Porter's Five Forces of Competition Model. The authors then discuss how the widely accepted strategies of cost, differentiation, focus, and domestication can be utilized to counter the implications of these trends and how to capitalize on opportunities in medical practice in the 1990's.

  8. Doping in competition or doping in sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, competitive athletes have been familiar with the use of ergogenic aids and they will probably continue to use unfair and harmful substances in future, because their inclination to victory, along with the mirage of glory and money, will probably overcome health and legal risks. We searched PubMed using the term doping over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. By literature searching, it emerges that the phenomenon of doping is complex and multifaceted. It involves a number of causes and factors that do not originate solely in the athletic field, making universality its main feature. It is in fact observed in all ages and levels of competition, and it concerns all sports, even the most unpredictable. The high number of athletes testing positive for anti-doping controls attests that the current strategy might be analytically adequate to unmask most (but not all) doping practices, but it is probably ineffective to prevent athletes to dope and modify this upsetting trend. Growing points As doping parallels the use of medications, food supplements, alcohol and social drugs, a reinforced preventive policy is advisable. The current anti-doping policy should be replaced with a more efficient and practical strategy to identify and monitor abnormal and harmful deviations of the biochemical and haematological profiles.

  9. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  10. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among

  11. Price Competition or Tacit Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Makoto; Komatsubara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Every now and then, we observe a fierce price war in a real world market, through which competing firms end up with a Bertrand-like price competition equilibrium. Despite this, very little has been known in the existing literature as to why a price competition market is formed. We address this question in the context of a choice between engaging in price competition and holding a price leader. Focusing on a duopoly market, we demonstrate that if supply is tight relative to demand, and if the ...

  12. Principles of marketing: Setting goals and marketing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Presented material to the students: 6.1. The mission of the organization and corporate goals 6.2. Marketing goals 6.3. Classification of marketing strategies 6.4. Generic marketing strategies regarding the wanted competitive advantage. 6.5. Competitive strategies in relation to the competitors and in relation to the environment. 6.6. Growth strategies or investment (intensive growth and integration / diversification) and maintenance strategies or divest (maintenance, harvest...

  13. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable weight to the... 39 CFR Part 3015 Competitive Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review to determine whether competitive...

  14. Competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination: Analysis of selected key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesku Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the favourable competitiveness position, tourist destination has to offer quality experiences to tourists that can make the destination more attractive compared to other tourist destinations. The role of destination management is to exploit and develop existing resources by using clear and effective strategies for developing tourism products and creating additional value of tourist experience. The first step of analysis is to define destination competitiveness by using the indicators which will review and give the guidelines for improvement of competitive position. This paper discusses the tourist destinations' competitiveness and indicators for its measurement with a special reference to Serbia. Tourism development of Serbia is a big chance for overall economic development of the country. Current competitive position of Serbian tourism on international market is not satisfactory and this paper is trying to analyze and to point out the reasons of Serbia's tourism low competitiveness. Conclusions about the competitive positioning of Serbia as a tourist destination are drawn out firstly based on the relevant studies as well as on the Serbian Tourism Development Strategy. The results of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (WEF TTCI reports for Serbia are also presented. Based on own research, this paper is also showing the results related to competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination in terms of two groups of indicators: natural, cultural and historical resources as well as destination management. According to the results, Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and historical resources comparing to the role of destination management.

  15. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  16. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...

  17. Age estimation in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Maximilian; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Schmeling, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To maintain the principle of sporting fairness and to protect the health of athletes, it is essential that age limits for youth sporting competitions are complied with. Forensic scientists have developed validated procedures for age estimation in living individuals. Methods have also been published for age estimation in competitive sports. These methods make use of the ossification stage of an epiphyseal plate to draw conclusions about an athlete's age. This article presents published work on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for age estimation in competitive sports. In addition, it looks at the effect on age estimation of factors such as an athlete's socioeconomic status, the use of hormones and anabolic substances as well as chronic overuse of the growth plates. Finally, recommendations on the components required for a valid age estimation procedure in competitive sports are suggested.

  18. Does Competitive Sourcing Really Pay?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friar, Allen

    2007-01-01

    .... The stated policy objective in the revised circular is, "To ensure that the American people receive maximum value for their tax dollars, commercial activities should be subject to the forces of competition" (0MB, 2003, May 29...

  19. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  20. Organization of competitive duel games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Milan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play is the basic child activity in preschool period. Its attractiveness for the children of that age has been used for educational purposes by including cognitive content and goals into play activities. In middle, and, particularly, in senior and preparatory preschool group there is more interest for games of competitive nature. In this respect, the role of teacher is not merely limited to good knowledge and selection of competitive games; it also concerns their organization depending on special, time-wise, technical and population-wise conditions. In our pedagogical literature very little has been written on this topic. Hence, it no surprise that this issue is omitted in curricula of preschool teacher training colleges. The goal of this text is to emphasize the importance of proper organization of competitive duel games and describe the most common types of those competitions in practice.