WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing wind developments

  1. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  2. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  3. Flow visualization techniques, new developments and modernization of the existing Schlieren system in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PANAIT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schlieren flow visualization methods are an important part of high speed wind tunnel testing, being a fast and reliable method of graphically presenting complex dynamic phenomena that occur in high subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Images can be processed and effects of configuration changes can be understood faster. Quantitative variations of the Schlieren method enable CFD simulations to use real data, resulting in greater precision and thus help improve efficiency of the re-design phase for the aerodynamic object. A modification of the classic Schlieren system is proposed, that would enable extraction of such data with minimal costs

  4. Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.

    2002-12-01

    Primarily due to concerns generated from observed raptor mortality at the Altamont Pass (CA) wind plant, one of the first commercial electricity generating wind plants in the U.S., new proposed wind projects both within and outside of California have received a great deal of scrutiny and environmental review. A large amount of baseline and operational monitoring data have been collected at proposed and existing U.S. wind plants. The primary use of the avian baseline data collected at wind developments has been to estimate the overall project impacts (e.g., very low, low, moderate, and high relative mortality) on birds, especially raptors and sensitive species (e.g., state and federally listed species). In a few cases, these data have also been used for guiding placement of turbines within a project boundary. This new information has strengthened our ability to accurately predict and mitigate impacts from new projects. This report should assist various stakeholders in the interpretation and use of this large information source in evaluating new projects. This report also suggests that the level of baseline data (e.g., avian use data) required to adequately assess expected impacts of some projects may be reduced. This report provides an evaluation of the ability to predict direct impacts on avian resources (primarily raptors and waterfowl/waterbirds) using less than an entire year of baseline avian use data (one season, two seasons, etc.). This evaluation is important because pre-construction wildlife surveys can be one of the most time-consuming aspects of permitting wind power projects. For baseline data, this study focuses primarily on standardized avian use data usually collected using point count survey methodology and raptor nest survey data. In addition to avian use and raptor nest survey data, other baseline data is usually collected at a proposed project to further quantify potential impacts. These surveys often include vegetation mapping and state or

  5. Birds and wind turbines: can they co-exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This one-day seminar was intended to provide a forum for information exchange and discussion between those concerned with the potential effects of wind turbines on bird life and to produce recommendations that would be helpful in future wind power developments, environmental impact assessments and related research activities. The six papers presented cover the following topics: impacts, mitigation and monitoring of collisions, disturbance in the construction phase and habitat loss; bird protection and the law with particular reference to the burden of proof required from developers in a planning context in the United Kingdom; continuing studies on the birds of Blyth Harbour in the UK where nine 300kW wind turbines are mounted on a pier jutting out into the sea; an overview of European and American experience; the policy and experience of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; wind farm design in the light of previous experience. The discussion arising out of each paper is summarised. (UK)

  6. Wind/seismic comparison for upgrading existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper depicts the analysis procedures and methods used to evaluate three existing building structures for extreme wind loads. The three structures involved in this evaluation are located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This site is characterized by open flat grassland with few surrounding obstructions and has extreme winds in lieu of tornados as a design basis accident condition. This group of buildings represents a variety of construction types, including a concrete stack, a concrete load-bearing wall structure, and a rigid steel-frame building. The three structures included in this group have recently been evaluated for response to the design basis earthquake that included non-linear time history effects. The resulting loads and stresses from the wind analyses were compared to the loads and stresses resulting from seismic analyses. This approach eliminated the need to prepare additional capacity calculations that were already contained in the seismic evaluations

  7. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  8. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  9. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  10. Wind Energy for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand in energy and concern about depleting natural resources and global warming has led states worldwide to consider alternatives to the use of fossil fuel for energy production. Several countries especially in Europe have already increased their renewable energy share 6-10%, expected to increase to 20% by the year 2020. For Egypt excellent resources of wind and solar energy exist. The article discusses perspectives of wind energy in Egypt with projections to generate ∼ 3.5 GWe by 2022, representing ∼ 9% of the total installed power at that time (40.2 GW). Total renewable (hydro + wind + solar) are expected to provide ∼ 7.4 GWe by 2022 representing ∼ 19% of the total installed power. Such a share would reduce dependence on depleting oil and gas resources, and hence improve country's sustainable development

  11. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  12. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  13. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  14. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...

  15. Conference on wind energy development and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, Arnaud; Prevors, Lionel; Nagel, Paul-Bastian; Otto, Iris; Gourat, Fabrice; Sornin-Petit, Nicolas; Kelm, Volker; Beucher, Yannick; Rosenthal, Sonja; Strobl, Reinhard; Kozlowski, Sonia; Herrholz, Thomas; Hannemann, Thomas; Lange, Helmut; Behr, Oliver; Hochradel, Klaus; Mages, Juergen; Nagy, Martina; Korner-Nievergelt, Fraenzi; Niermann, Ivo; Simon, Ralph; Stiller, Florian; Weber, Natalie; Brinkmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind energy development and biodiversity. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 90 participants exchanged views on the existing regulatory systems for nature protection in a wind energy context in both countries. In particular, birds fauna and chiropters protection were in the center of the debates. The question of wind energy development in a forest environment was addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The development of onshore wind farms and the French environmental Code (Arnaud Gossement); 2 - Wind energy development priority - recent advances in environmental regulation (Lionel Prevors); 3 - environmental legislation and wind power deployment in Germany: An overview (Paul-Bastian Nagel); 4 - Avifauna and wind energy plants - To bring the expansion of wind energy in line with environmental issues (Iris Otto) 5 - environmental impact study in France and Germany: what challenges and what bird fauna specificities? (Fabrice Gourat); 6 - How to take into account the chiropters' aspect in authorization procedures? Regional scale experience feedback: the Champagne-Ardenne case (Nicolas Sornin-Petit); 7 - France and Germany - a comparison of bat monitoring experience (Volker Kelm, Yannick Beucher); 8 - Bat-friendly operation algorithms: reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines in central Europe (Oliver Behr); 9 - Wind energy use in forests? specifics from an environmental planning perspective (Sonja Rosenthal); 10 - expansion of wind energy in the Bavarian State Forest (Reinhard Strobl); 11 - Environmental impact assessment and environmental follow-up study for the forest wind farms: experience feedback (Sonia Kozlowski); 12 - German aviation light regulations - German aviation light regulations. Case study: eno 92 at wind farm Schoenerlinde (Thomas Herrholz); 13 - Welcome to

  16. Challenges on wind power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianjin; Shi, Jingli

    2010-09-15

    Wind power has experienced exponential growth in China in the past five years, which exceeds the most optimistic expectations. The increasing penetration and aggressive future plan are arousing big concerns about its impact on operation and security of existing power networks. This paper introduces present condition of wind power development in China and the challenges on both grid integration and regulations. Most of these challenges are economical rather than technical. Feed-in tariff policies and grid code are the key countermeasures. Accurate wind forecast and economical mass energy storage are needed to guarantee compliance of wind power to the grid.

  17. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  18. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  19. Birds and wind turbines: can they co-exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, David.

    1996-01-01

    The wind farm is situated along an exposed pier at Blyth Harbour and has now been designated as part of a SSI and part of a proposed RAMSAR site. The bird activity within the harbour is high and is also the wintering home of the Purple Sandpiper. An offshore wind farm is proposed for the area, one kilometre from the pier. Two turbines will be erected with the support of the European Commission THERMIE Programme. The bird study at Blyth has been funded by Border Wind, Blyth Harbour Wind Farm Company and the DTI as part of an ETSU funded study. (UK)

  20. Wind energy developments in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, R.; Ancona, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will highlight the key wind energy activities and programs of American countries. In South and Central America, wind technology awareness and opportunity is spreading. Countries have projects in the beginning stages of development and many sites with excellent wind resources are believed to exist. Argentina, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and several Caribbean countries are among those active in wind energy development. In Canada, after a decade of research and systems development, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources is conducting a review of all renewable energy technologies, including wind, to develop a strategic plan for future activities. Canadian industry continues development of various vertical axis projects and the Province of Alberta has begun a program to assess wind potential in that region. In the United States, commercial application of wind energy is continuing to expand. During 1989, over 140 MW of new wind turbine capacity was installed in wind power plants, bringing the total operating in the U.S. to 14600 turbines and 1,400 MW. During 1989, these machines produced over 2.1 billion kWh, enough to supply the residential needs of Washington D.C. or San Francisco. This is an increase of 15% over the 1988 total, even though installed operating capacity dropped by about 10% as smaller, out-dated turbines were phased out or replaced. The U.S. government is in the process of formulating a new National Energy Strategy. It seems clear that renewable energy and energy efficiency will play an increasingly important role in this strategy. The U.S. wind program continues to emphasize broad-based technology development, but has also initiated conceptual design studies for an advanced wind turbine for power generation in the late 1990s. (Author)

  1. Experiences with commercial wind energy development in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, K.

    1993-04-01

    This project, open-quotes Experiences with Commercial Wind Energy Development in Hawaii,close quotes was undertaken in order to examine the wind energy experience in Hawaii and to determine what has and has not worked in developing Hawaii's wind resource. Specific objectives include: establishing the background and environment in Hawaii in terms of the policies and attitudes that impact both the existing and future wind power developments; documenting the formation and development aspects of existing and planned wind power stations; and summarizing the operational problems encountered by these projects

  2. Technology Development and Innovation | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development Technology Center (NWTC) supports efforts to reduce bird and bat fatalities at wind energy projects and photo of wind turbines at the National Wind Technology Center. Wildlife technology research and

  3. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...

  4. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  5. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  6. Learning in wind turbine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Linda Manon

    2002-01-01

    Both the Netherlands and Denmark started to develop wind energy in the 1970s. Reasons were the oil crisis and the Club of Rome report, which warned of imminent shortages of traditional energy sources like oil and gas. Both countries started this development around 1975 and their governments gave

  7. Wind Energy Career Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwen Andersen

    2012-03-29

    Saint Francis University has developed curriculum in engineering and in business that is meeting the needs of students and employers (Task 1) as well as integrating wind energy throughout the curriculum. Through a variety of approaches, the University engaged in public outreach and education that reached over 2,000 people annually (Task 2). We have demonstrated, through the success of these programs, that students are eager to prepare for emerging jobs in alternative energy, that employers are willing to assist in developing employees who understand the broader business and policy context of the industry, and that people want to learn about wind energy.

  8. Wind Alliance for the Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Damarys Gonzalez [Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Executive Office of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    2012-09-30

    The Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration (PREAA) is actively engaged in the implementation of existing public policy for the conservation of energy and promotion of renewable energy to reduce consumer’s costs and reduce environmental impact. Puerto Rico is an island in where no own reserves of gas, oil or coal exists. This severe dependence in on foreign oil is reflected in the higher cost of electricity in Puerto Rico, which is significantly higher than most of the United States. Therefore, public energy policy of Puerto Rico places emphasis on diversification of energy sources and the use of renewable energy technologies. The Wind energy Alliance for the Sustainable Development project focused on the formation of a wind energy working group to educate and promote wind energy technologies; at the same time the evaluating the viability of wind energy in Puerto Rico. The educational outreach was performed through a series of wind energy workshops where interested parties such as, installers, sellers, engineers, general public even opposing groups participate from the activities.

  9. Development of wind energy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, P. [Danske Elvaerkers Forenings Udredningsafdeling (DEFU), Lyngby (Denmark)

    1994-12-31

    In Denmark, wind energy has for centuries been used for many purposes, among these water pumping, milling of grain, and electricity generation. This paper discusses the development of grid-connected wind turbines on a large-scale sponsored by the national government, the Commission of the European Communities and the Danish electric utilities, and small-scale grid-connected wind turbines both privately and utility owned. Siting investigations have shown that it is possible to find sites of reasonable quality for a potential electricity production of at least 10 percent of the expected electricity consumption in 2005 which corresponds to about 1500 MW of installed capacity. Regulations were introduced in 1991 limiting the owners of wind turbines to noise levels from the wind turbines to the existing levels of 45 dB in rural areas, and 40 dB in residential areas and other noise sensitive areas. Studies of the effects of wind turbines on birds found that compared with other human activities, such as farming and car driving, a wind turbine in a bird sanctuary does not have a particular impact on bird life, although there were some effects such as birds moving away from the turbine to breed, forage etc. The Danish Government`s aim to establish 1500 MW of wind power by the year 2005 has some problems. Funding for research, a combination of agreements with the utilities, and production subsidies to private persons and co-operative societies is contributing to the resolution of these problems. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...

  11. Control development for floating wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenije, Feike; Peeringa, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Control of a floating wind turbine has proven to be challenging, but essential for lowering the cost of floating wind energy. Topic of a recent joint R and D project by GustoMSC, MARIN and ECN, is the concept design and verification with coupled simulations and model tests of the GustoMSC Tri-Floater. Only using an integral design approach, including mooring and control design, a cost effective system can be obtained. In this project, ECN developed a general floating wind turbine control strategy and applied this in a case study to the GustoMSC Tri-Floater and the OC3Hywind spar, both equipped with the NREL 5MW RWT. The designed controller ensures stable operation, while maintaining proper speed and power regulation. The motions of the floating support are reduced and substantial load reduction has been achieved

  12. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  13. Large-scale integration of wind power into the existing Chinese energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    stability, the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing Chinese energy system is approximately 26% from both technical and economic points of view. A fuel efficiency decrease occurred when increasing wind power penetration in the system, due to its rigid power supply structure and the task......This paper presents the ability of the existing Chinese energy system to integrate wind power and explores how the Chinese energy system needs to prepare itself in order to integrate more fluctuating renewable energy in the future. With this purpose in mind, a model of the Chinese energy system has...... been constructed by using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which has then been used for investigating three issues. Firstly, the accuracy of the model itself has been examined and then the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing energy system has been identified. Finally, barriers...

  14. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  15. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  16. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  17. Social contention in Denmark over alternative wind power development paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    of Nørrekær Enge in Jutland. The paper traces protracted negotiations between a large energy company acting as wind farm developer who bought up dwellings to make space for extending an existing wind farm, land-owners, a farmers' association, and municipalities, as well as with an emergent coalition...

  18. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Review of Existing Geospatial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report features the geospatial data component of a larger project evaluating logistical and infrastructure requirements for transporting oversized and overweight (OSOW) wind components. The goal of the larger project was to assess the status and opportunities for improving the infrastructure and regulatory practices necessary to transport wind turbine towers, blades, and nacelles from current and potential manufacturing facilities to end-use markets. The purpose of this report is to summarize existing geospatial data on wind component transportation infrastructure and to provide a data gap analysis, identifying areas for further analysis and data collection.

  19. Assessment of wind turbine seismic risk : existing literature and simple study of tower moment demand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Ian (University of California, San Diego, CA); Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    Various sources of risk exist for all civil structures, one of which is seismic risk. As structures change in scale, the magnitude of seismic risk changes relative to risk from other sources. This paper presents an introduction to seismic hazard as applied to wind turbine structures. The existing design methods and research regarding seismic risk for wind turbines is then summarized. Finally a preliminary assessment is made based on current guidelines to understand how tower moment demand scales as rated power increases. Potential areas of uncertainty in the application of the current guidelines are summarized.

  20. Perspectives of China's wind energy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Dexin; Wang Zhongying

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, which is also relatively mature in technology, with large-scale development conditions and prospect for the commercialization. The development of wind energy is a systematic project, involving policy, law, technology, economy, society, environment, education and other aspects. The relation-ship among all the aspects should be well treated and coordinated. This paper has discussed the following relationships which should be well coordinated: relationship between wind resources and wind energy development, relationship be-tween the wind turbine generator system and the components, relationship between wind energy technology and wind en-ergy industry, relationship between off-grid wind power and grid-connected wind power, relationship between wind farm and the power grid, relationship between onshore wind power and offshore wind power, relationship between wind energy and other energies, relationship between technology introduction and self-innovation, relationship among foreign-funded, joint ventured and domestic-funded enterprises and relationship between the government guidance and the market regula-tion, as well as giving out some suggestions.

  1. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  2. Wind energy development: Danish experiences and international options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.; Hasted, F.; Josephsen, L.; Nielson, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    In Denmark, wind energy makes a visible contribution to energy planning. Since 1976, over 1,800 wind turbine units have been installed in Denmark, representing a capacity of ca 140 MW out of a grid capacity of 8,000 MW. These units are all grid-connected and the unit sizes range from 55 kW to 400 kW. The installed wind energy capacity represents a substantial development of technologies for wind energy utilization during the last 15 years, involving participation from research institutes, electric utilities, private industry, and the national energy administration. A considerable improvement of the technical and economic performance of wind turbines, along with increased reliability and durability, has been strongly supported by comprehensive government programs. In 1985, another large construction program was initiated which will add 100 MW wind power capacity by the end of 1990. Parallel with commercial development, Danish utilities have developed and constructed a number of megawatt-size wind turbines on a pilot basis. In general terms the wind energy resources in Denmark are rather good, and many suitable sites exist, but installed wind energy capacity is limited by the high population density. Consequently, research is being conducted on the feasibility of offshore wind turbines. In other countries, wind energy developments similar to those in Denmark are taking place. In communities with no connection to the national grid, special attention should be paid to hybrid systems such as wind-diesel and hydro-wind systems. A substantial transfer of technology is required for facilitating significant development of hybrid systems in developing countries. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. About the wind energetics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D.S.; Kharitonov, V.P.; Murugov, V.P.; Sokol'skij, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The review of wind power energetics state in USA, Europe, Russia is given. The data of EC on wind power plants production in different periods are presented. The directions of scientific-research works with the purpose of increasing the level of wind power industry of Russia corresponding to economics demands were elaborated. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Leahy, M.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a model of the Irish energy-system was developed using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which was then used for three investigations. The first compares the model results with actual values from 2007 to validate its accuracy. The second illustrates the exposure of the existing Irish energy-system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO 2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy-system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland's energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally, these results are not only applicable to Ireland, but also represent the issues facing many other countries. (author)

  5. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  6. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  7. Trends in Wind Energy Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Tande, John O.

    2011-01-01

    . The huge potential of wind, the rapid development of the technology and the impressive growth of the industry justify the perception that wind energy is changing its role to become the future backbone of a secure global energy supply. Between the mid-1980s, when the wind industry took off, and 2005 wind......Text Over the past 25 years global wind energy capacity has doubled every three years, corresponding to a tenfold expansion every decade. By the end of 2010 global installed wind capacity was approximately 200 GW and in 2011 is expected to produce about 2% of global electricity consumption...... turbine technology has seen rapid development, leading to impressive increases in the size of turbines, with corresponding cost reductions. From 2005 to 2009 the industry’s focus seems to have been on increasing manufacturing capacity, meeting market demand and making wind turbines more reliable...

  8. Developments on the wind energy scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The recently published report of the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA), entitled ''Power for a Sustainable Future'', is summarised. It calls on the government to: set a target of 10% of United Kingdom electricity from wind by 2025; encourage green energy trading by not charging value added tax on electricity from renewable sources; establish a fair market price for wind power; adopt a new development policy for renewable energies based on a rolling programme of equitable fixed contracts to encourage long-term investment; broaden the basis of the final Non Fossil Fuel Option, introducing new development bands and increasing the number of projects in Scotland which has half of Britain's wind resource; continue support for research and development into wind energy technologies and manufacturing methods; implement foreign aid programmes to benefit the British wind industry as well as aid recipients; continue to develop international standards for turbine design and construction to facilitate trade for manufacturers throughout the European Union. (UK)

  9. Wind energy development policy and prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markevicius, Antanas; Katinas, Vladislovas; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2007-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/77/EC 7% of all electricity production is to be generated from renewable energy sources (RES) in Lithuania in 2010. Electricity production from RES is determined by hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Further development of hydro power plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development. The aim of this paper is to show estimation of the maximum wind power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity system using such criteria as wind potential, possibilities of the existing electricity network, possible environmental impact, and social and economical aspects. Generalization of data from the meteorological stations and special measurements shows that the highest average wind speed in Lithuanian territory is in the coastal region and at 50 m above ground level reaches 6.4 m/s. In regard to wind resource distribution in this region, arrangement of electricity grid and environment protection requirements, six zones have been determined for wind power plant construction. Calculations have shown that the largest total installed capacity of wind farms, which could cause no significant increase in power transmission expenses, is 170 MW. The threshold, which cannot be passed without capital reconstruction of electricity network, is 500 MW of total capacity of wind farms

  10. Wind energy for a sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    of both the wind energy related research activities and the wind energy industry, as installed capacity has been increasing in most of the developed and developing countries. The DTU Wind Energy department carries the heritage of the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy by leading the research......Wind energy is on the forefront of sustainable technologies related to the production of electricity from green sources that combine the efficiency of meeting the demand for growth and the ethical responsibility for environmental protection. The last decades have seen an unprecedented growth...... developments in all sectors related to planning, installing and operating modern wind farms at land and offshore. With as many as 8 sections the department combines specialists at different thematic categories, ranging from meteorology, aeroelastic design and composite materials to electrical grids and test...

  11. Development of Danish Wind Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency. In the early nineties favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid. As a result wind power was booming...

  12. Development of wind power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiquan, Y.; Yan, C.; Lijun, X.

    1995-01-01

    Present status and development of wind power generation in China is described in this paper. China is vast in territory with abundant wind resources. The exploitable wind energy in China is estimated up to 253,000 MW. At present, more than 150 thousand small WTGs of a total capacity of 17 MW are used to provide residential electricity uses in non-grid connected areas and 13 wind farms, with above 160 medium and large scale grid connected WTGs (50-500 kW) of a total capacity of 30 MW, have been constructed. At the same time, some progress has been made in the fields of nation-wide wind resource assessment, measurement technology of wind turbine performance, the assimilation of foreign wind turbine technology, grid connected WTG technology and the operation of wind farm etc. It is planned that the total installed capacity of WTGs will reach 1000 MW by the end of 2000. Wind power generation could be a part of electric power industry in China. (Author)

  13. Wind power development. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the status and long-term perspectives for the development of wind power, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion and alternative technologies, part of the programme for Socio-Economic Research on Fusion. The report concentrates on the development of the production costs for wind power, limited to turbines connected to the public grid. The report shows status and perspectives for production costs for wind turbines until the year 2020-30. In general two trends have dominated the grid-connected wind turbine development until now: The average size of the turbines sold at the market place has increased substantially, while at the same time the efficiency of turbine electricity production has increased steadily. Together these trends have increased the cost-effectiveness of wind power by almost 45% over a time span of 9-10 years. Looking at perspectives, a substantial cut in wind power cost per kWh can be expected within the next 20-30 years. A survey performed for a number of long-term forecasts for the wind power technology in general shows a decrease in production costs of 2-2.5% p.a., which implies that the cost of wind-generated electricity would be halved by the year 2030, probably making it fully competitive to conventional fossil fuel based electricity production. (au)

  14. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  15. Reliability benefits of dispersed wind resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.; Artig, R.

    1998-05-01

    Generating capacity that is available during the utility peak period is worth more than off-peak capacity. Wind power from a single location might not be available during enough of the peak period to provide sufficient value. However, if the wind power plant is developed over geographically disperse locations, the timing and availability of wind power from these multiple sources could provide a better match with the utility's peak load than a single site. There are other issues that arise when considering disperse wind plant development. Singular development can result in economies of scale and might reduce the costs of obtaining multiple permits and multiple interconnections. However, disperse development can result in cost efficiencies if interconnection can be accomplished at lower voltages or at locations closer to load centers. Several wind plants are in various stages of planning or development in the US. Although some of these are small-scale demonstration projects, significant wind capacity has been developed in Minnesota, with additional developments planned in Wyoming, Iowa and Texas. As these and other projects are planned and developed, there is a need to perform analysis of the value of geographically disperse sites on the reliability of the overall wind plant.This paper uses a production-cost/reliability model to analyze the reliability of several wind sites in the state of Minnesota. The analysis finds that the use of a model with traditional reliability measures does not produce consistent, robust results. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is applied in this paper, with improved results. Using such a model, the authors find that system reliability can be optimized with a mix of disperse wind sites

  16. Development of distributed topographical forecasting model for wind resource assessment using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, P.B. [Green Life Energy Solutions LLP, Secunderabad (India); Rao, S.S. [National Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Warangal (India); Reddy, K.H. [JNT Univ.. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anantapur (India)

    2012-07-01

    Economics of wind power projects largely depend on the availability of wind power density. Wind resource assessment is a study estimating wind speeds and wind power densities in the region under consideration. The accuracy and reliability of data sets comprising of wind speeds and wind power densities at different heights per topographic region characterized by elevation or mean sea level, is important for wind power projects. Indian Wind Resource Assessment program conducted in 80's consisted of wind data measured by monitoring stations at different topographies in order to measure wind power density values at 25 and 50 meters above the ground level. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess wind resource at a given location using artificial neural networks. Existing wind resource data has been used to train the neural networks. Location topography (characterized by longitude, latitude and mean sea level), air density, mean annual wind speed (MAWS) are used as inputs to the neural network. Mean annual wind power density (MAWPD) in watt/m{sup 2} is predicted for a new topographic location. Simple back propagation based neural network has been found to be sufficient for predicting these values with suitable accuracy. This model is closely linked to the problem of wind energy forecasting considering the variations of specific atmospheric variables with time horizons. This model will help the wind farm developers to have an initial estimation of the wind energy potential at a particular topography. (Author)

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  18. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  19. MELCOR development for existing and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts in MELCOR development to address previously identified deficiencies have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.2, a much-improved version of the code. Major new models have been implemented for direct containment heating, ice condensers, debris quenching, lower plenum debris behavior, core materials interactions' and radial relocation of debris. Significant improvements have also been made in the modeling of interfacial momentum exchange and in the modeling of fission product release, condensation/evaporation, and aerosol behavior. Efforts are underway to address two-phase hydrodynamics difficulties, to improve modeling of water condensation on structures and fine-scale natural circulation within the reactor vessel, and to implement CORCON-Mod3. Improvements are also being made to MELCOR's capability to handle new features of the advanced light water reactor designs, including drainage of water films on connected heat structures, heat transfer from the external surface of the reactor vessel to a flooded cavity, and creep rupture failure of the lower head. Additional development needs in other areas are discussed

  20. Offshore wind development research (technical brief).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The study addresses all aspects of Offshore Wind (OSW) development. This includes identifying : vessel types, vessel installation methods, needs and operating characteristics through all phases : of OSW installation, construction, operations and main...

  1. Coping with climate change and China's wind energy sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of today's climate change. To address this problem, the world is in an era of new round energy transformation, and the existing energy structure is being reformed. In this paper, according to the Chinese government's action plan for coping with climate change, the China's wind energy sustainable development goals and development route are discussed, and the countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. Wind energy is currently a kind of important renewable energy with matured technology which can be scale-up developed and put into commercial application, and in this transformation, wind energy will play a key role with other non-fossil energy sources. The development and utilization of wind energy is a systematic project, which needs to be solved from the aspects of policy, technology and management. At present, China is in the stage of transferring from “large wind power country” to “strong wind power country”, opportunities and challenges coexist, and the advantages of China's socialist system could be fully used, which can concentrate power to do big things and make contribution in the process of realizing global energy transformation.

  2. Developing wind energy for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, Marcus [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (GB). Faculty of Technology

    1990-01-01

    There is now emerging a consensus that the sensitive development of renewable sources of energy, and in particular wind energy, is going to be of major environmental significance for the UK. Primarily, renewable sources of energy can act as a means of combating the Greenhouse Effect and of reducing the other environmental impacts of conventional energy technology, including the build-up of radioactive waste and the damaging emissions from fossil fuelled power stations. The UK has a large natural potential for harnessing energy from the wind (between 20% and 200% of our current electrical requirements). This potential is beginning to be tapped. Wind energy is now in a position where it can take advantage of the profound changes taking place in the form of the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry. In other countries wind energy has developed successfully. (author).

  3. Development of Danish wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2004-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. Based on long traditions of Danish wind power dating back to the beginning of the century a new commercial phase was initiated by small industrial entrepreneurs with support by the Danish government, the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences and green organizations. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency, while the investment subsidies from the state were gradually phased out. Conflicts between utilities and wind power producers over tariffs and the costs of grid connections, then slowed down the penetration of wind power on the Danish market. In addition, many local municipalities were setting up administrative barriers for wind turbines. These barriers were removed by government intervention in the early nineties when favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid, simple procedures for construction allowances and priority to green electricity. As a result wind power was booming in the Danish home market and Danish turbines achieved a global market share of around 50%. After a change of government in December 2001, however the Danish home market for wind power has more or less collapsed. (Author)

  4. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  5. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  6. Development of a generic wind farm SCADA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a 'Generic Wind Farm Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System' for the wind energy industry. A SCADA is a computer-based system that allows local and remote control of basic wind turbine functions and collects data from the wind farm that can be used to analyse and report on the operational performance. As wind farm size, complexity and remoteness of location increase an industry standard SCADA is vitally important to allow effective operation, monitoring, control and reporting. Turbine manufacturers offer a number of existing systems but these do not always fully meet the needs of wind farm operators and owners. Operators and owners who are involved with more than one turbine supplier end up with a number of incompatible systems. This causes operational difficulties and makes it hard to compared performance data from different turbines. This project aims to address these issues and develop a system that will communicate with all turbine types and calculate and store performance data in a consistent way. (Author)

  7. Studying wind energy/bird interactions: a guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.; Morrison, M.; Sinclair, K.; Strickland, D.; Davis, H.; Kendall, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1980s little was known about the potential environmental effects associated with large scale wind energy development. Although wind turbines have been used in farming and remote location applications throughout this country for centuries, impacts on birds resulting from these dispersed turbines had not been reported. Thus early wind energy developments were planned, permitted, constructed, and operated with little consideration for the potential effects on birds. In the ensuing years wind plant impacts on birds became a source of concern among a number of stakeholder groups. Based on the studies that have been done to date, significant levels of bird fatalities have been identified at only one major commercial wind energy development in the United States. Research on wind energy/bird interactions has spanned such a wide variety of protocols and vastly different levels of study effort that it is difficult to make comparisons among study findings. As a result there continues to be interest, confusion, and concern over wind energy development's potential impacts on birds. Some hypothesize that technology changes, such as less dense wind farms with larger, slower-moving turbines, will decrease the number of bird fatalities from wind turbines. Others hypothesize that, because the tip speed may be the same or faster, new turbines will not result in decreased bird fatalities but may actually increase bird impacts. Statistically significant data sets from scientifically rigorous studies will be required before either hypothesis can be tested.

  8. Development of Data Acquisition System for Wind Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    西本,澄

    1992-01-01

    A Data acquisiton system developed for wind energy applications will be described in this paper. This system is composed of an anemometer with two blades downwind and a computer which processes wind data. Wind energy calculated from an average wind speed is inaccurate, since wind power increases with the cube of wind velocity. To decide the design and the site for a wind turbine system, it is very important to consider wind data on a long term basis, that is the total wind energy and distribu...

  9. Wake models developed during the Wind Shadow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.; Ott, S.; Pena, A.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, M.; Rathmann, O.; Joergensen, H.

    2011-11-15

    The Wind Shadow project has developed and validated improved models for determining the wakes losses, and thereby the array efficiency of very large, closely packed wind farms. The rationale behind the project has been that the existing software has been covering these types of wind farms poorly, both with respect to the densely packed turbines and the large fetches needed to describe the collective shadow effects of one farm to the next. Further the project has developed the necessary software for the use of the models. Guidelines with recommendations for the use of the models are included in the model deliverables. The project has been carried out as a collaborative project between Risoe DTU, DONG, Vattenfall, DNV and VESTAS, and it has been financed by energinet.dk grant no. 10086. (Author)

  10. Ecodesign framework for developing wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Skelton, Kristen; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    such as workshops, pilots, interviews and life cycle assessment were applied. The ecodesign framework was aligned with the company's formal product lifecycle management process. When combined with life cycle assessment, the framework can identify potential environmental improvements and contribute to coherent......Despite a wind turbines perceived environmental benefits, there are still many improvements that can be made in the product development process to improve its environmental performance across life cycles. This is especially important as the wind power industry continues to grow, both in volume...... and size, in response to increasing global market demands. Planning, implementing, monitoring, documenting and communicating product related environmental activities of wind turbines in a life cycle management context is the focal point of this article. The development and application of an ecodesign...

  11. Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation factors regarding wind energy development, an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gartman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries promoting renewable energies encounter a variety of phenomena that can challenge the implementation of further onshore wind energy development. Those challenges can be observed in many multi-level governance systems, as exhibited in the U.S., Germany, and Mexico, where various regulatory and institutional levels must agree on goals and responsibilities. This is a challenge, as both forms of governance (top-down and bottom-up dominated are present in wind energy planning and policy. (1 Political and market phenomena, (2 siting issues, (3 the green vs. green dilemma, and (4 social acceptance are selected challenges within the different levels of decision-making processes in wind energy implementation. (1 Political and financial factors can influence the development by implementing incentive- and market-based policies, command-and-control policies, and feed-in tariffs. However, success of these policy designs for renewable energies is based on different political environments, and their electricity markets nationally, regionally, or statewide. (2 Spatial limitations in planning are created based on limited land availability due to conflicts with other land uses such as aviation, nature reserves, residential areas, their respective buffers. (3 The "green vs. green" dilemma involves the incoherent relationship between policies promoting renewable energies with policies protection species and their environments, becoming a major point of concern during siting and operations of wind energy. (4 Lastly, while there is a general overall support for wind energy, social acceptance on a local level is influenced by institutional settings i.e. information availability, as well as public and stakeholder concerns. Involvement in decision-making as well as financial participation (e.g. community-ownership affects public participation and acceptance. This paper goes into detail on these phenomena and discusses case studies in Europe and North America

  12. Environmental criteria for wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, P.; Lloyd, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of commercial wind farms in the U.K. started only in the early 1990s and the standards of environmental assessment applied to them through the planning consents procedure have changed considerably. For a realistic level of further expansion in line with the imperatives of global warming, landscape planning policy needs to be in accord with energy policy. (author)

  13. Wind Turbine Development at Montana State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Douglas S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Riddle, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Nelson, Jared [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Peterson, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-23

    A survey of wind turbine blade manufacturers, repair companies, wind farm operators, and third party investigators has directed the focus of this investigation on several types of flaws commonly found in wind turbine blades: waviness and porosity/voids. Several commercial scale wind turbine blades were inspected for the development of metrics for the identification, analysis and disposition. Analysis of flaw geometries yielded metrics which utilize specific parameters to physically characterize a defect. Data as it relates flaw parameters to frequencies of occurrence have been complied. Basic statistical analysis shows that the frequency of flaw parameters generally follows standard distributions. A testing program was then developed around this flaw data. Results from static testing indicate that there is strong correlation between flaw parameters and mechanical response. Preliminary results from the in-field data collection effort and coupon level testing have established a protocol by which a defect in a blade can be characterized quantifiably. With this data it is possible to develop probabilistic analysis, damage progression models and criticality assessment tools that will enable improved blade design methodology and the development of a risk management framework which describes the probability of failure for blades with defects.

  14. Environmental criteria for wind farm development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, P.; Lloyd, A. [National Wind Power Ltd., Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    The development of commercial wind farms in the U.K. started only in the early 1990s and the standards of environmental assessment applied to them through the planning consents procedure have changed considerably. For a realistic level of further expansion in line with the imperatives of global warming, landscape planning policy needs to be in accord with energy policy. (author)

  15. Development actions of wind energy in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esseghir, M.

    1991-01-01

    The actions undertaken in Tunisia during the last few years concern research, development and industrial processes and the creation of the National Energy Agency (Agence de Maitrise de l'Energie (AME)) interested in starting up national programs for energy planning, energy saving, and the use of alternative energy sources. This study is based on the most important wind applications realized in the last few years in Tunisia. Firstly the national energy situation is observed. Then attention is paid to the activities in the field of wind energy. After this follows a general description of wind availability per region in Tunisia. Two important applications, water pumping and rural electrification, are described. Finally the perspectives and the evolution of these applications for the future are dealt with. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 2 ills

  16. China's Wind Power Development in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Liping; LiJialu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Over the past decade,considering the energy supply security and the sustainable energy development,as well as the atmospheric-environmental protection especially the climate change,countries all over the world have generated more and more enthusiasm for renewable energy development.Driven by this trend,wind power development has been keeping up great momentum worldwide,and new records have been set.

  17. Wind power developments in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, P.; White, G.

    1997-01-01

    New Zealand currently generates approximately 86% of its electricity requirement from renewable energy sources, predominantly large hydro. Forecasts show that due to the expected increase in demand, a new mid-sized power station will be required by 1997/98. Due to the commercialisation and restructuring of the electricity market, and despite the country's commitment to CO 2 reductions, proposed new large generation projects are gas fired stations. The country's first commercial wind farm was commissioned in June 1996, in a market where there are no subsidies or tax benefits for non traditional energy generation. For wind power projects to compete with other forms of electricity generation, they need to take full advantage of all the benefits of being embedded into the local network. This paper considers these issues in the existing electricity market. (author)

  18. The wind power state of the art and development outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presented during the Physics Summer school, deals with the wind power situation in Europe. The wind energy conversion in electric power is explained as the management and implementing of a wind site. The author discusses also the economy of the wind power and the market and development outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  19. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Wind power for the world international reviews and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Maegaard, Preben; Palz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction, Preben MaegaardAccelerated Global Expansion of the Renewable Energy Sector: the Example of Wind Energy, Preben MaegaardWind Power Development in the European Union, Wolfgang PalzWind Energy to the rescue of mankind from the menace of the Fossil Fuel burning hazards, Anil KaneBlack or Green Wind Power, Frede HvelplundWind Energy Development in China, He DexinNon-grid-connected Wind Power and Offshore "Three Georges of Wind Power" in China, Gu WeidongWind Power in Japan: Past, Present, and Future Prospect, Izumi UshiyamaWind Power Development in India, Jami HossainChallenges and Opportunities for Energy Paradigm Shifting in Ontario, Canada, Jose EtcheverryWind Power in Cuba's Energy Revolution, Conrado Moreno FigueredoWind Power in Argentina, Erico SpinadelThe Emergence of Wind Power in Brazil, Everaldo FeitosaWind Energy in Chile, Arturo KunstmannWind Power in Austria, Wolfgang HeinThe History of Wind Power in France, Jean-Louis BalHistory, State-of-the Art and Future of Wind Energy in France, Ma...

  1. Development of Wind Farm AEP Prediction Program Considering Directional Wake Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoungboo; Cho, Kyungho; Huh, Jongchul [Jeju Nat’l Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    For accurate AEP prediction in a wind farm, it is necessary to effectively calculate the wind speed reduction and the power loss due to the wake effect in each wind direction. In this study, a computer program for AEP prediction considering directional wake effect was developed. The results of the developed program were compared with the actual AEP of the wind farm and the calculation result of existing commercial software to confirm the accuracy of prediction. The applied equations are identical with those of commercial software based on existing theories, but there is a difference in the calculation process of the detection of the wake effect area in each wind direction. As a result, the developed program predicted to be less than 1% of difference to the actual capacity factor and showed more than 2% of better results compared with the existing commercial software.

  2. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  3. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  4. Draft South African wind energy technology platform: preliminary wind energy research and development framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Wind Energy Technology Programme (SAWEP) Phase 1 aims to achieve two key strategic outputs that will guide South Africa on wind energy development. One of these outputs is the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) which will play a...

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a goal to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity from wind power by 2030. Achieving this “20% Wind Scenario” in 2030 requires acceleration of the current rate of wind project development. Offshore wind resources contribute substantially to the nation’s wind resource, yet to date no offshore wind turbines have been installed in the U.S. Progress developing offshore wind projects has been slowed by technological challenges, uncertainties about impacts to the marine environment, siting and permitting challenges, and viewshed concerns. To address challenges associated with siting and permitting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed offshore wind project developers about siting and project development processes, their experience with the environmental permitting process, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) in development of the offshore wind industry. Based on the responses to survey questions, we identify several priority recommendations to support offshore wind development. Recommendations also include considerations for developing supporting industries in the U.S. and how to use Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) to appropriately consider ocean energy among existing ocean uses. In this report, we summarize findings, discuss the implications, and suggest actions to improve the permitting and siting process.

  6. Does the recent warming hiatus exist over northern Asia for winter wind chill temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Wind chill temperature (WCT) describes the joint effect of wind velocity and air temperature on exposed body skin and could support policy makers in designing plans to reduce the risks of notably cold and windy weather. This study examined winter WCT over northern Asia during 1973-2013 by analyzing in situ station data. The winter WCT warming rate over the Tibetan Plateau slowed during 1999-2013 (-0.04 °C/decade) compared with that during 1973-1998 (0.67 °C/decade). The winter WCT warming hiatus has also been observed in the remainder of Northern Asia with trends of 1.11 °C/decade during 1973-1998 but -1.02 °C/decade during 1999-2013, except for the Far East of Russia (FE), where the winter WCT has continued to heat up during both the earlier period of 1973-1998 (0.54 °C/decade) and the recent period of 1999-2013 (0.75 °C/decade). The results indicate that the influence of temperature on winter WCT is greater than that of wind speed over northern Asia. Atmospheric circulation changes associated with air temperature and wind speed were analyzed to identify the causes for the warming hiatus of winter WCT over northern Asia. The distributions of sea level pressure and 500 hPa height anomalies during 1999-2013 transported cold air from the high latitudes to middle latitudes, resulting in low air temperature over Northern Asia except for the Far East of Russia. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the increase in wind speed offset the increase in air temperature during 1999-2013. For the Far East, the southerly wind from the Western Pacific drove the temperature up during the 1999-2013 period via warm advection.

  7. Optimization of Installation, Operation and Maintenance at Offshore Wind Projects in the U.S.: Review and Modeling of Existing and Emerging Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, Nick [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sevilla, Fernando [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Redfern, Robin [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Storey, Alexis [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kempenaar, Anton [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Elkinton, Chris [Garrad Hassan America, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant to GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) to investigate the logistics, opportunities, and costs associated with existing and emerging installation and operation and maintenance (O&M) activities at offshore wind projects as part of the DOE’s program to reduce barriers facing offshore wind project development in the United States (U.S.). This report (the Report) forms part of Subtopic 5.3 “Optimized Installation, Operation and Maintenance Strategies Study” which in turn is part of the “Removing Market Barriers in U.S. Offshore Wind” set of projects for the DOE. The purpose of Subtopic 5.3 is to aid and facilitate informed decision-making regarding installation and O&M during the development, installation, and operation of offshore wind projects in order to increase efficiency and reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCoE). Given the large area of U.S. territorial waters, the generally higher mean wind speeds offshore, and the proximity to the coast of many large U.S. cities, offshore wind power has the potential to become a significant contributor of energy to U.S. markets. However, for the U.S. to ensure that the development of offshore wind energy projects is carried out in an efficient and cost-effective manner, it is important to be cognizant of the current and emerging practices in both the domestic and international offshore wind energy industries. The U.S. can harness the experience gained globally and combine this with the skills and assets of an already sizeable onshore wind industry, as well as the resources of a mature offshore oil and gas industry, to develop a strong offshore wind sector. The work detailed in this report is aimed at assisting with that learning curve, particularly in terms of offshore specific installation and O&M activities. This Report and the Installation and O&M LCoE Analysis Tool, which were developed together by GL GH as part of this study, allow readers to identify, model

  8. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  9. Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges......, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines...... to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines...

  10. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Concepts development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    will make wind power more firm and possible to connect to weaker grids. So, when the concept is matured, theexpectation is that for certain wind power installations, the cost of the power control is paid back as added wind power capacity value and saved grid reinforcement costs. Different systems...... and analyze methods and technologies for making it viable to utilize more of the wind potential in remote areas. The suggestion is to develop a power control concept for wind turbines which will even out thepower fluctuations and make it possible to increase the wind energy penetration. The main options...... are to combine wind power with a pumped hydro power storage or with an AC/DC converter and battery storage. The AC/DC converter can either be an "add-on" typeor it can be designed as an integrated part of a variable speed wind turbine. The idea is that combining wind power with the power control concept...

  11. Development of electric machines with superconducting windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Novitskij, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    Some studies are discussed performed in the USSR with the aim to develop the most promising electrical machines with superconducting windings, i.e. powerful (more than 1 MW) cryoturbogenerators for power heat and nuclear plants, electric motors of more than 10,000 kW, reverse systems of an electric driver and unipolar generators for electrolysis industry. The design and performances of the simulator of a 1500 kW cryoturbogenerator are given. Problems of coooling and oscillations of the simulator rotor are considered

  12. Status of large scale wind turbine technology development abroad?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LI; Lei DUAN

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the large scale (multi-megawatt) wind turbine development in China, the foreign e?orts and achievements in the area are reviewed and summarized. Not only the popular horizontal axis wind turbines on-land but also the o?shore wind turbines, vertical axis wind turbines, airborne wind turbines, and shroud wind turbines are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive comment and assessment about the basic work principle, economic aspects, and environmental impacts of turbines.

  13. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  14. Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

  15. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could be that the ...

  16. Facilitating wind development: the importance of electric industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2008-04-15

    ISOs and RTOs, with their day-ahead and real-time markets, large geographies to aggregate diverse wind resources, large loads to aggregate with wind, large generation pools that tap conventional-generator flexibility, and regional transmission planning efforts, offer the best environments for wind generation to develop. (author)

  17. Landscape impact assessment for wind turbine development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Thomas, B.; Osment, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek to exclude or encourage wind turbine development, provide guidelines which will assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape and provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments. Dyfed County Council's relevant Structure Plan policies are also considered, as are the new draft policies relating directly to wind energy released by other authorities. The sizes and status of planning applications are summarised and the landscape implications and precedent set by the test case at Mynydd-y-Cemais is discussed. Public perception of wind power is reviewed in the context of research in Europe and the USA. (author)

  18. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  19. Wind Power: Growing with the Demand of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxu; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ History review Looking back upon the human history, China is among the earliest countries which make use of wind energy. It started to use the wind energy to pump water for irrigation very long time ago. Since the establishment of the new China, pilot projects of wind energy generation have been carried out in many areas. In 1975, Tsinghua University and the Inner Mongolia Prairie Research Institute cooperated to develop wind turbines. They developed prototypes of 50/100-W off-grid micro wind turbines. Meanwhile, small wind turbines were also developed in other areas. The wind turbines produced at that time were all in small capacity and did not play important role in power industry.

  20. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  1. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (author)

  2. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  3. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  4. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  5. History and development of wind technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy has been increasing day by day in India due to various reasons such as increasing population, the aspiration for improved living standards, and general economic and industrial growth. But due to the environmental constraints and risks associated with high dependence on fossil fuel-based energy generation, further capacity additions to the conventional centralized methods of power generation would be questionable. However, as a result of the increased attention directed towards alternative forms of energy and methods of conversion, the significance of renewable energy devices operating in the dispersed and decentralized mode as serious components of modern energy supply has been growing. Wind energy is one of the clean and renewable energy sources which hold out the promise of meeting a significant portion of energy demand in the direct grid-connected-modes-stand-alone and remote niche applications (e.g. water pumping, desalination, and telecommunications), in developing countries like India. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Landscape impact assessment of wind farm development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Garrad, A.D.; Morgan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chris Blandford Associates, in association with Garrad Hassan and Partners, was commissioned to carry out a landscape impact assessment of wind turbine development in Dyfed. The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek either to exclude or encourage wind turbine development; provide guidelines to assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape; provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments, as set out in the ''non-fossil fuel obligation'' and the draft planning policy guidance note for renewable energy published last December. (author)

  7. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This analysis examined the current situation of wind power development in the province of Quebec and presented a qualitative assessment of the economic repercussions in terms of employment, investments and environmental and social impacts. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec gained momentum in 2003 when the provincial government expressed support for fast growth of wind power. In response, Hydro-Quebec launched an invitation to interested stakeholders to tender for 1000 MW of wind power projects to be installed between 2006 and 2012. The invitation was a great success, with more than 4000 MW of projects filed. The average price of the selected offers was 6.5 cents per kWh for 990 MW in 8 projects. The economic repercussions related to construction of wind farms in the Gaspe was discussed along with indirect and induced economic repercussions for suppliers and subcontractors in the entire province. It was noted that Quebec is already a leader in the field of electricity and wind energy consultation. Stimulated by these successes, the government of Quebec recently raised its target for wind power development to 2,500 MW. Therefore, taking into account the wind developments already supported by Hydro-Quebec, the installed wind capacity in Quebec is expected to reach more than 4000 MW by 2015, with an investment by the wind power industry of more than 5.8 billion dollars. The wind power industry is expected to generate 45,000 direct or indirect jobs for more than a 20 year period. Presently, the government of Quebec supports the establishment of a local wind market to promote free competition, energy diversity, and coexistence of key players. As its international support mechanism, Quebec chose to integrate regional economic development criteria with the price of electricity. In the long term, the wind industry could constitute a key element in Quebec's sustainable energy development plan. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  9. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  10. 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  11. Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind Resource Assessment and Siting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 45700 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  12. Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind Resource Assessment and Siting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  13. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...

  14. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  15. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  16. Assessment of the Joint Development Potential of Wave and Wind Energy in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is a major shipping hub between the West Pacific and Indian Oceans. In this region, the demand for energy is enormous, both for residents’ daily lives and for economic development. Wave energy and wind energy are two major clean and low-cost ocean sources of renewable energy. The reasonable development and utilization of these energy sources can provide a stable energy supply for coastal cities and remote islands of China. Before wave energy and wind energy development, however, we must assess the potential of each of these sources. Based on high-resolution and high-accuracy wave field data and wind field data obtained by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the recent 38-year period from 1979–2016, the joint development potential of wave energy and wind energy was assessed in detail for offshore and nearshore areas in the South China Sea. Based on potential installed capacity, the results revealed three promising areas for the joint development of nearshore wave energy and wind energy, including the Taiwan Strait, Luzon Strait and the sea southeast of the Indo-China Peninsula. For these three dominant areas (key stations, the directionality of wave energy and wind energy propagation were good in various seasons; the dominant wave conditions and the dominant wind conditions were the same, which is advantageous for the joint development of wave and wind energy. Existing well-known wave energy converters (WECs are not suitable for wave energy development in the areas of interest. Therefore, we must consider the distributions of wave conditions and develop more suitable WECs for these areas. The economic and environmental benefits of the joint development of wave and wind energy are high in these promising areas. The results described in this paper can provide references for the joint development of wave and wind energy in the South China Sea.

  17. Impacts of Wind Farms on Cumulus Cloud Development in the Central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, L. C.; Wagner, T. J.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kulie, M.

    2014-12-01

    Cumulus clouds have a net cooling effect on the surface radiative balance by reflecting more downwelling solar radiation than absorbing upwelling terrestrial radiation. As boundary layer cumuli form from buoyant, moist plumes ascending from the surface, their growth may be hindered by the turbulent deformation of the plume by wind farms. A natural laboratory to study the impact of wind farms on cumulus formation are the states of Iowa and Nebraska. Despite their prime location for wind resources and similar synoptic forcings, regulatory issues cause these two states to vary vastly in their wind power offerings. In 2013, Iowa ranked 3rd in the nation for total megawatts installed and generates over a quarter of its electricity from wind energy, more than any other state. In contrast, Nebraska has an order of magnitude fewer turbines installed, and less than five percent of the state's electrical load is wind-generated. This variance in wind power in close proximity makes Iowa and Nebraska a prime area for initial research. This study uses Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) visible satellite imagery from the summer of 2009 to 2013 to investigate cumulus development in these adjacent states, as the majority of large-scale wind farms in Iowa were completed by 2009. Image reflectances in Nebraska and Iowa are compared to determine the magnitude of cumulus growth. Preliminary analysis indicates a reduction in cumulus development near the existing wind farms; a synoptic investigation of these cases will be completed to determine causality.

  18. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegen, Maya; Audet, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: → We address social acceptance of wind energy. → We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. → Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. → Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. → Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  19. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  20. Projected contributions of future wind farm development to community noise and annoyance levels in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Knopper, Loren D.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound during their operation; therefore, jurisdictions around the world have developed regulations regarding the placement of electricity generating wind farms with the intent of preventing unacceptable levels of ‘community noise’ in their vicinity. However, as survey results indicate that the relationship between wind turbine noise and annoyance may differ from noise-annoyance relationships for other common noise sources (e.g., rail, traffic), there are concerns that the application of general noise guidelines for wind turbines may lead to unacceptably high levels of annoyance in communities. In this study, previously published survey results that quantified wind turbine noise and self-reported annoyance were applied to the predicted noise levels (from turbines and transformers) for over 8000 receptors in the vicinity of 13 planned wind power developments in the province of Ontario, Canada. The results of this analysis indicate that the current wind turbine noise restrictions in Ontario will limit community exposure to wind turbine related noise such that levels of annoyance are unlikely to exceed previously established background levels of noise-related annoyance from other common noise sources. This provides valuable context that should be considered by policy-makers when evaluating the potential impacts of wind turbine noise on the community. -- highlights: •Wind turbine noise-annoyance relationship used to predict annoyance in Ontario. •Noise annoyance predicted to be <8% for non-participants <1 km from turbines. •Predicted levels of wind turbine noise annoyance similar to that from traffic noise. •Wind turbine noise annoyance not expected to exceed existing background levels

  1. Development of mobile platform integrated with existing electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungAh; Kim, Sung Soo; Kang, Simon; Kim, Kyungduk; Kim, Jun

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) platform designed to manage and utilize the existing EMR and mobile application with optimized resources. We structured the mEMR to reuse services of retrieval and storage in mobile app environments that have already proven to have no problem working with EMRs. A new mobile architecture-based mobile solution was developed in four steps: the construction of a server and its architecture; screen layout and storyboard making; screen user interface design and development; and a pilot test and step-by-step deployment. This mobile architecture consists of two parts, the server-side area and the client-side area. In the server-side area, it performs the roles of service management for EMR and documents and for information exchange. Furthermore, it performs menu allocation depending on user permission and automatic clinical document architecture document conversion. Currently, Severance Hospital operates an iOS-compatible mobile solution based on this mobile architecture and provides stable service without additional resources, dealing with dynamic changes of EMR templates. The proposed mobile solution should go hand in hand with the existing EMR system, and it can be a cost-effective solution if a quality EMR system is operated steadily with this solution. Thus, we expect this example to be shared with hospitals that currently plan to deploy mobile solutions.

  2. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  3. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  4. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects: A Review and Empirical Evaluation; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-04-01

    'Community wind' refers to a class of wind energy ownership structures. The extent of local ownership may range from a small minority share to full ownership by persons in the immediate area surrounding the wind project site. Potential project owners include local farmers, businesses, Native American tribes, universities, cooperatives, or any other local entity seeking to invest in wind energy. The opposite of community wind is an 'absentee' project, in which ownership is completely removed from the state and community surrounding the facility. Thus, there is little or no ongoing direct financial benefit to state and local populations aside from salaries for local repair technicians, local property tax payments, and land lease payments. In recent years, the community wind sector has been inhibited by manufacturers' preference for larger turbine orders. This often puts smaller community wind developers and projects at a competitive disadvantage. However, state policies specifically supporting community wind may become a more influential market factor as turbines are now more readily available given manufacturer ramp-ups and the slow-down in the industry that has accompanied the recent economic and financial crises. This report examines existing literature to provide an overview of economic impacts resulting from community wind projects, compares results, and explains variability.

  5. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects. A Review and Empirical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-04-01

    "Community wind" refers to a class of wind energy ownership structures. The extent of local ownership may range from a small minority share to full ownership by persons in the immediate area surrounding the wind project site. Potential project owners include local farmers, businesses, Native American tribes, universities, cooperatives, or any other local entity seeking to invest in wind energy. The opposite of community wind is an "absentee" project, in which ownership is completely removed from the state and community surrounding the facility. Thus, there is little or no ongoing direct financial benefit to state and local populations aside from salaries for local repair technicians, local property tax payments, and land lease payments. In recent years, the community wind sector has been inhibited by manufacturers' preference for larger turbine orders. This often puts smaller community wind developers and projects at a competitive disadvantage. However, state policies specifically supporting community wind may become a more influential market factor as turbines are now more readily available given manufacturer ramp-ups and the slow-down in the industry that has accompanied the recent economic and financial crises. This report examines existing literature to provide an overview of economic impacts resulting from community wind projects, compares results, and explains variability.

  6. Development of wind energy in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzili, M.

    2008-01-01

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs

  7. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (2). Evaluation for applicability of existing atmospheric dispersion models to building wake dispersion by using wind tunnel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ryo; Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Watada, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to predict the concentration field behind the containment vessel building for the evaluation of main control room habitability in case of the emergency. The concentration field behind the building is very complicated phenomena and the exact prediction of concentration would be very difficult even if philosophical numerical simulation was used. Instead the simple and analytical prediction models (ARCON96, Gifford and Murphy-Campe etc.) have been used for the assessment of main control room habitability. In order to evaluate the previous models, the wind tunnel experiment was carried out. Recent regulatory models of ADMS4 developed by UK-CERC and AERMOD by US-EPA were also compared with this experimental data. Only both the containment vessel and reactor buildings of the typical PWR plant was scaled in 1/200 and the atmospheric stability C-D between C and D of Pasquill-Gifford categories was reproduced as a neutral condition in the wind tunnel experiment. In the wind experiment, the meandering effect for 1 hour was taken into consideration by the so-called overlapping method that a scaled model in the test section of a wind tunnel was rotated. By the rotation of the scaled model, wind directional fluctuations were relatively generated in the test section. The model was rotated at a various speed which was inversely proportional to each frequency of occurrence of a wind direction. Tracer gas was sampled during the rotation of the building model. As a result, we got the 1 hr.-averaged concentration taking a meandering effect into consideration. In this experiment, it is assumed that the frequency distribution of wind direction is Gaussian and horizontal plume width for 1 hr. was expanded to about 1.8 times of plume width based on Pasquill-Gifford chart by 1/5 power law due to the meandering effect. From the experiment, it was found as follows; It seems that meandering effect was not important in the near field behind a building, because strong

  8. Public acceptability of California's wind energy developments: three studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosley, P.; Bosley, K.

    1988-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted during 1988 to determine perceptions and attitudes regarding wind energy development as held by government and regulatory officials involved with windfarm development in the three major wind resource regions in California; environmentalists and community activists in these regions; and members of the wind industry. Results indicate that realization of large windfarm projects is being affected by local opposition which exists partly because of lack of knowledge about the technical maturity and economics of today's windpower; opposed interests between the developers and the locality; and development-created problems such as ''Visual Intrusion''. Public acceptability, essential for industry success, may be hindered because wind energy benefits to a locality are not perceived to equal the risks incurred by that particular region. Therefore, the industry needs to continue improving its performance as well as its communications with all affected parties.

  9. Land Use, Land Conservation, and Wind Energy Development Outcomes in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, William Cameron

    exists for regional land use energy plans; (4) The wind resources of Western Massachusetts can significantly contribute to the state's current renewable portfolio standard while balancing conservation and renewable energy development objectives; However, (5) a combination of exurban residential development and conservation easements significantly reduces wind power development potential over time; and (6) a need exists to legally define wind as a publicly beneficial resource.

  10. Shifting towards offshore wind energy—Recent activity and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kapsali, M.

    2013-01-01

    To date, most of the existing wind farms have been built on-land but during the last few years many countries have also invested in offshore applications. The shift towards offshore wind project developments has mainly been driven by European energy policies, especially in north-west countries. In offshore sites the winds are stronger and steadier than on-land, making wind farms more productive with higher capacity factors. On the other hand, although offshore wind energy is not in its infancy period, most of the costs associated with its development are still much higher from onshore counterparts; however some recent technological progress may have the potential to narrow this gap in the years to come. In the present work, an overview of the activity noted in the field of offshore wind energy is carried out, with emphasis being given on the current status and future trends of the technology employed, examining at the same time energy production and availability issues as well as economic considerations. - Highlights: ► An overview of the activity noted in the field of offshore wind energy is carried out. ► Emphasis is given on the current status and future trends of the technology. ► Wind energy production and availability issues are discussed. ► Economic issues such as investment and energy production costs are also analysed.

  11. China's experimental pragmatics of "Scientific development" in wind power: Algorithmic struggles over software in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julia

    2016-01-01

    . This increased focus on quality, to ensure the sustainable and scientific development of China's wind energy market, requires improved indigenous Chinese innovation capabilities in wind turbine technology. To shed light on how the turn to quality impacts upon the industry and global competition, this study......This article presents a case study on the development of China's wind power market. As China's wind industry has experienced a quality crisis, the Chinese government has intervened to steer the industry towards a turn to quality, indicating a pragmatist and experimental mode of market development...... unfold over issues associated with intellectual property rights (IPRs), certification and standardisation of software algorithms. The article concludes that the use of this STS lens makes a fresh contribution to the often path-dependent, structuralist and hierarchical China literature, offering instead...

  12. Development of a numerical wind atlas for South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennard, Christopher; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Two verified wind atlases have been developed for South Africa. The first adopted a statistical-dynamical approach and the second a novel, fully dynamical approach. We verify the atlases against an observational wind atlas generated from three years of data from 10 measurement masts...

  13. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  14. 'Wind in motion'. The rough guide to wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    This project, which will run from January 2005 to October 2005, aims to develop a promotional DVD to inform and reassure the public and specific audiences on controversial aspects of proposed new wind farms. The DVD would also be used as a tool to gain acceptance and contributions from bodies involved in wind energy developments. 'Wind in Motion' complements a number of other public relations campaigns being undertaken bor proposed by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA). The DVD would cover issues such as the impact of wind farms of wild birds, the visual impact of wind farms on the landscape, the impact on tourism in scenic areas, the impact of local house prices, the impact on local residents during the construction and operational phases, and comparisons with the capacity and efficiencies of other electricity generating systems such as coal, gas and nuclear. The project's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of wind energy by addressing information barriers and providing information to help industry with transferable skills to diversify in the supply chain. Work will include cataloguing the footage taken for the DVD to allow it to be made available to the industry and producing case studies of the benefits of skills transfer.

  15. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  16. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  17. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  18. Wind energy developments in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Wind turbine systems for generating electrical power have been tested in many countries. Representative examples of turbines which have produced from 100 to 1250 kW are described. The advantages of wind energy consist of its being a nondepleting, nonpolluting, and free fuel source. Its disadvantages relate to the variability of wind and the high installation cost per kilowatt of capacity of wind turbines when compared to other methods of electric-power generation. High fuel costs and potential resource scarcity have led to a five-year joint NASA-NSF program to study wind energy. The program will study wind energy conversion and storage systems with respect to cost effectiveness, and will attempt to estimate national wind-energy potential and develop techniques for generator site selection. The studies concern a small-systems (50-250 kW) project, a megawatt-systems (500-3000 kW) project, supporting research and technology, and energy storage. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that wind-energy conversion can be competitive in high-average-wind areas.

  19. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  20. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  1. Wind Development in the United States: A Comprehensive Policy Framework for Effective Wind Development as Framed by PJM Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Courtney A.

    Wind energy has been lauded as a resource for the United States to lessen its dependency on foreign fuels, reduce carbon output, and potentially create millions of jobs. Accordingly, wind energy is in the forefront of many government officials' minds throughout the United States; however, there are several barriers to wind farm development. This research reviews the social and political barriers to wind farm development and examines the successful renewable energy policies that have been used throughout Europe and the United States. This research consists of interviews with various stakeholders in the PJM region who compare and contrast renewable energy policies in Europe from those in the United States. The resulting information from the interviews creates a comprehensive policy framework that policy makers at all levels of government can utilize and refer to when discussing and drafting wind energy legislation.

  2. Development of superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors......; and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are, however, not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down to somewhere...

  3. Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors (LTS); one is based on high temperature superconductors...... (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down...

  4. SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    amplifier and control system , and data acquisition, processing, and display systems . Boeing�s LRTS (Fig. 2), consists of a sled structure that...Support Test Stand Sled Tail Sting Outrigger Arm Figure 2: System integration test at whirl tower Port Rotor Balance Main Strut Flap Tail...demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind tunnel testing

  5. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana. ... In the event of shortages in petroleum products, these power plants will have ... Layers of these criteria setting were combined using the overlay function in a GIS environment.

  6. Wind energy and local development; Eolien et developpement local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depreste, B. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Cabanes, A. [Communes du Canton de Saint Agreve, 07 (France); Puig, J.; Jochen, T. [BWE, Berlin (Germany); Gunnar boye, Olesen [Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (Denmark); Preben, Maegaard; Bidal, J.L. [FNSEA, 75 - Paris (France); Hartmann, Ch. [Confederation Paysanne, Alsace (France); Jedliczka, M.; Quantin, J.

    2002-04-01

    This issue of Cler Info journal includes a dossier about the development of wind energy in France and in some other European countries (Spain, Germany, Denmark) and about its economical impact at the local scale. (J.S.)

  7. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  8. Wind energy development in the light of Danish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.

    1991-01-01

    Wind energy will undoubtedly play a significant role in the future energy supply being a nonpolluting energy source, which on a technical basis has proved to be an economically feasible and thus a realistic alternative to traditional power production. This conclusion may be drawn from Danish experiences where energy planning comprises a visible contribution from wind energy. Since 1976 more than 3200 wind turbine units have been installed in Denmark, representing a capacity of roughly 340 MW out of a grid capacity of 8,000 MW. These units are all grid-connected and the unit sizes range from 55 kW to 450 kW. The installed wind energy capacity represents a substantial development of technologies for wind energy utilization during the last 15 years, involving participation from many sides: research institutes, electric utilities, the national energy administration, and private industry. The development has implied a considerable improvement of the technical and economic performance of wind turbines along with increased reliability and durability. The successful development has been strongly supported by comprehensive government programmes, i.e. establishment of a national wind energy research programme, establishment of the Riso Test Station for Windmills and a subsidy scheme for private turbine owners. The improved economic performance is partly the result of a development in rotor size of commercially available wind turbines. In 1981 the largest commercial wind turbine size in Denmark was 55 kW, while today it is close to 500 kW. In the same period the average energy production per installed unit capacity almost doubled, due to enhanced aerodynamic rotor design, increased tower height and improved overall design and production methods. (author) 7 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  9. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  10. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliore, P.G.; Calvert, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind-turbine development activities in the Unites States and relates those activities to market conditions and projections. Several factors are responsible for a surge in wind energy development in the United States, including a federal production tax credit, ''green power'' marketing, and improving cost and reliability. More development is likely, as approximately 363 GW of new capacity will be needed by 2020 to meet growing demand and replace retiring units. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is helping two companies develop next-generation turbines intended to generate electricity for $0.025/kWh or less. We expect to achieve this objective through a combination of improved engineering methods and configuration advancements. This should ensure that wind power will compete effectively against advanced combined-cycle plants having projected generating costs of $0.031/kWh in 2005. To address the market for small and intermediate-size wind turbines, DOE is assisting five companies in their attempts to develop new turbines having low capital cost and high reliability. Additional information regarding U.S. wind energy programs is available on the internet site www.nrel.gov/wind/. E-mail addresses for the turbine manufacturers are found in the Acknowledgements

  12. Prospects for development of wind turbines with orthogonal rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Krivospitsky, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The experimental data obtained previously on the investigation of power characteristics and the possibility of the self-start of the Darrieus rotor are anlysed. These results are used at the design of new two-tier wind turbines with straight blades. The full-scale tests of two design variants showed the prospects for the development of wind turbines with the Darrieus rotor. At a reasonable design, they do not need any devices for the rotor orientation and start-up, are little sensitive to wind gusts and can have a high level of power characteristics, which is not inferior to the best samples of the units of propeller type.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The report shows how China, already the world's largest wind market, could reach 1 000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.

  14. China, Norway and offshore wind development. A win-win wind relationship?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslow, Rachel

    2010-03-15

    This study published by WWF Norway, outlines the status of offshore wind power development in China and looks at how the Norwegian offshore industry can contribute to speed it up. Today China is the world's fastest growing market for renewable energy. China's annual offshore wind energy generation potential is 11,000 TWh, similar to that of the North Sea. The study estimates that in the next decade China will install 30 GW of offshore wind energy generation capacity. This could mitigate 1.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} over the 20 year asset lifetime (more than the total Norwegian emissions forecast over the same period). To unleash China's potential and speed up development of offshore wind energy production, however, bridges must to be built between stakeholders with the relevant experience and the best available technology and policy makers and project developers in China. This study puts forward possible ways for future cooperation between China and Norway - a country with a world leading offshore industry cluster - in order to leverage mutual strengths to upscale and commercialize offshore wind technology for the global market. (Author)

  15. China, Norway and offshore wind development. A win-win wind relationship?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslow, Rachel

    2010-03-15

    This study published by WWF Norway, outlines the status of offshore wind power development in China and looks at how the Norwegian offshore industry can contribute to speed it up. Today China is the world's fastest growing market for renewable energy. China's annual offshore wind energy generation potential is 11,000 TWh, similar to that of the North Sea. The study estimates that in the next decade China will install 30 GW of offshore wind energy generation capacity. This could mitigate 1.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} over the 20 year asset lifetime (more than the total Norwegian emissions forecast over the same period). To unleash China's potential and speed up development of offshore wind energy production, however, bridges must to be built between stakeholders with the relevant experience and the best available technology and policy makers and project developers in China. This study puts forward possible ways for future cooperation between China and Norway - a country with a world leading offshore industry cluster - in order to leverage mutual strengths to upscale and commercialize offshore wind technology for the global market. (Author)

  16. Towards mass-market development of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palz, W.

    1996-01-01

    The wind turbine technologies employed in today's markets for wind energy are innovative, efficient and in many cases cost competitive. A world market of more than 1000 MW/year and with a turnover of 1 billion ECU has developed and 30,000 new jobs have been created, most of them in small and medium size enterprises. 80% of today's world production is European. The preferred turbine capacity of today is 500 kW. In the next few years a three-fold increase in the rated power of most commercial machines to 1.5 MW is expected. The new large machines have been achieved through the ''WEGA''-programme of the European Commission. Significant market penetration of wind power in the European Union is very recent. The 2500 MW installed wind capacity in Europe today accounts only for 1/2% of the total capacity available for electricity production. Markets of the future will depend on a better development of the economic integration issues of wind energy into large networks. A key is the cost of electric grids which conditions the opportunity cost for feeding wind power at any particular point into the grids. Also, better predictability of the wind resource will give higher value to wind power in the grid and improve its economics further. Various financing schemes have been set up throughout Europe. Financial support and incentives are vital for some more years to come to expand current markets and improve economics through economy of scale. The utilisation of wind turbines in off-grid situations is an important new field for technological innovations and deployment. (author)

  17. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  18. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  19. Assessing noise from wind farm developments in Ireland: A consideration of critical wind speeds and turbine choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, E.A.; Pilla, F.; Mahon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms are becoming increasingly popular in Ireland in an effort to increase the production of green energy within the state. As with any infrastructural development, wind farms must consider potential environmental impacts prior to construction. One particular issue that must be examined is the emission of noise from the development. In Ireland wind farm developments must adhere to planning conditions that usually outline permissible noise levels for both the construction and operational phases of the development. The critical wind speed is often cited as the wind speed at which these limits apply. This paper examines how the critical wind speed is determined and investigates its relationship with background noise levels and turbine choice. The study consisted of ten one-week monitoring periods during which meteorological conditions and background noise levels were simultaneously recorded. It was found that the critical wind speed is non-transferable, i.e. it depends on both the turbine choice and background noise environment and is specific to that particular turbine/site combination. Furthermore the critical wind speed during the night-time is often different to the overall critical wind speed suggesting that future noise studies should consider a range of critical wind speeds, particularly for night-time noise assessments. - Highlights: ► This paper considers the use of the critical wind speed when assessing noise impacts from wind farms. ► It was found that the critical wind speed could vary depending on the time of the day. ► The critical wind speed was found to be a non-transferable value. ► Noise assessments for wind farms should be developed over a range of critical wind speeds.

  20. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  1. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Feasibility study on development of new technologies for wind power generation, and study on local wind resource prediction model; 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Furyoku hatsuden shingijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa (kyokusho fukyo yosoku shuho ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1998 results of the study on local wind resource prediction model. The local wind resource prediction models developed so far apply the solutions based on the existing linear models (WASP and AVENU) for relatively flat terrain. These models are studied for their applicability limits. The study covers wind direction and speed patterns of the surface wind and upper winds at 3 sites in Hokkaido, Fukushima Pref. and Shizuoka Pref. The surface winds are found to be correlated with the upper winds both for wind direction and wind speed in almost all cases. Next, wind resources simulations are carried out for each of the classified weather patterns using the existing models, and the prediction errors are studied. The results show that the prediction accuracy of the existing linear models is highly dependent on inputs of observed data, and that the accuracy tends to decrease for the situations where the upper and surface wind conditions greatly differ from each other, as in the case of a land and sea breeze of thermal origin. It is also confirmed that prediction accuracy is lower on complex terrain than on flat terrain. (NEDO)

  2. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  3. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power...... quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been toverify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating...

  4. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  5. Developing a safety report for an existing conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carisse, Hess

    2013-01-01

    A review of the process used to meet the regulatory requirements for a Safety Report at an existing conversion facility is described. This paper will cover the establishment of the regulatory criteria, selection of appropriate methodologies, identification of events and modeling of credible events. Once established there is on-going maintenance to deal with design changes and the need for periodic reviews will also be discussed. Challenges in dealing with the various phases, including incorporation of historical licensing documents, and lessons learned are presented. Of specific interest is the failure of the selected methodology to deal with infrastructure issues. One aspect of lessons learned that will be explored is the lack of an available mechanism for sharing information with similar fuel cycle facilities which is compounded by the fact that there are a small number of fuel cycle facilities compared to nuclear power plants. Possible approaches to dealing with this issue are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  7. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware

  8. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  9. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the QC and splicing methodology for KSC's 50- and 915-MHz DRWP measurements that generates an extensive archive of vertically complete profiles from 0.20-18.45 km. The concurrent POR from each archive extends from April 2000 to December 2009. MSFC NE applies separate but similar QC processes to each of the 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives. DRWP literature and data examination provide the basis for developing and applying the automated and manual QC processes on both archives. Depending on the month, the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives retain 52-65% and 16-30% of the possible data, respectively. The 50- and 915-MHz DRWP QC archives retain 84-91% and 85-95%, respectively, of all the available data provided that data exist in the non- QC'ed archives. Next, MSFC NE applies an algorithm to splice concurrent measurements from both DRWP sources. Last, MSFC NE generates a composite profile from the (up to) five available spliced profiles to effectively characterize boundary layer winds and to utilize all possible 915-MHz DRWP measurements at each timestamp. During a given month, roughly 23,000-32,000 complete profiles exist from 0.25-18.45 km from the composite profiles' archive, and approximately 5,000- 27,000 complete profiles exist from an archive utilizing an individual 915-MHz DRWP. One can extract a variety of profile combinations (pairs, triplets, etc.) from this sample for a given application. The sample of vertically complete DRWP wind measurements not only gives launch vehicle customers greater confidence in loads and trajectory assessments versus using balloon output, but also provides flexibility to simulate different DOL situations across applicable altitudes. In addition to increasing sample size and providing more flexibility for DOL simulations in the vehicle design phase, the spliced DRWP database provides any upcoming launch vehicle program with the capability to utilize DRWP profiles on DOL to compute vehicle steering

  10. Myeloid sarcoma developing in pre-existing pyoderma gangrenosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Møller, Hanne; Kjaerskov, Mette Wanscher

    2009-01-01

    We report here a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing into myeloid sarcoma as a sign of transformation to acute leukaemia. The patient was treated successfully with intensive chemotherapy and achieved complete remission, and her otherwise expanding...

  11. Residents' Perceptions toward Utility-Scale Wind Farm Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joseph; Romich, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Increased development of wind farms in the U.S. has fostered debates surrounding the siting and support for the projects. Prior research demonstrates the importance of understanding the attitudes and opinions of community members when developing projects. This article reviews a case study of an Ohio community that integrated a local survey to…

  12. Applications of Systems Engineering to the Research, Design, and Development of Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Meadows, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Lunacek, M.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Musial, W.; Veers, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper surveys the landscape of systems engineering methods and current wind modeling capabilities to assess the potential for development of a systems engineering to wind energy research, design, and development. Wind energy has evolved from a small industry in a few countries to a large international industry involving major organizations in the manufacturing, development, and utility sectors. Along with this growth, significant technology innovation has led to larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and ever more complex designs for all major subsystems - from the rotor, hub, and tower to the drivetrain, electronics, and controls. However, as large-scale deployment of the technology continues and its contribution to electricity generation becomes more prominent, so have the expectations of the technology in terms of performance and cost. For the industry to become a sustainable source of electricity, innovation in wind energy technology must continue to improve performance and lower the cost of energy while supporting seamless integration of wind generation into the electric grid without significant negative impacts on local communities and environments. At the same time, issues associated with wind energy research, design, and development are noticeably increasing in complexity. The industry would benefit from an integrated approach that simultaneously addresses turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated in order to meet this diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs that exist between them. While potential exists today to integrate across different domains within the wind energy system design process, organizational barriers such as different institutional objectives and the importance of proprietary information have previously limited a system level approach to wind energy research, design, and

  13. Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rashmi, R.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P; John, M.P

    -dimensional significant wind sea heightH ∗S and peak wind sea period T ∗P have been calculated (Fig. 9). The best fit between log (H ∗Sws) and log (T ∗Pws) has been es- timated and resolved as follows: Fig. 7. (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) are wave energy spectrum, wave... of shallow water waves along Indian coast, J. Coastl. Res., 19, 1052–1065, 2003. Neetu, S., Shetye, S., and Chandramohan, P.: Impact of sea-breeze on wind seas off Goa, west coast of India, J. Earth Sys. Sci., 115, 229–234, 2006. Peterson, E. W. and Hennessey...

  14. Development of an online reputation monitor by using existing components

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, G.J.C.; Venter, W.C.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Customer opinion about companies are very important and companies often get customer feedback via surveys or other official methods. Some customers prefer to voice their opinion on the internet where they take comfort in anonymity. Currently this form of customer feedback is not closely monitored. This project aims to address this shortcoming by developing a system capable of monitoring various web and social networking sites for customer feedback http://tinyurl.com...

  15. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  16. German support systems for onshore wind farms in the context of Polish acts limiting wind energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.

  17. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  18. Wind-energy Science, Technology and Research (WindSTAR) Consortium: Curriculum, Workforce Development, and Education Plan Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, James [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The purpose of the project is to modify and expand the current wind energy curriculum at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and to develop plans to expand the graduate program to a national scale. The expansion plans include the foundational steps to establish the American Academy of Wind Energy (AAWE). The AAWE is intended to be a cooperative organization of wind energy research, development, and deployment institutes and universities across North America, whose mission will be to develop and execute joint RD&D projects and to organize high-level science and education in wind energy

  19. Development of controller strategies for a robotized filament winding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Edgar; Machado, José; Mendonça, João P.

    2013-10-01

    The composites reinforced with continuous fibers of polymeric material are increasingly used in applications where it is essential to reduce weight, mainly due to their high ratio of strength/weight and rigidity/weight. A conventional application are pressure vessels, used for storing liquids or gases subjected to low or high pressure, where the tape continuous fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix material is wound around a mandrel defining the final geometry. In this context the filament winding process is a very attractive process for the production of composite components. For optimal structural performance, and greater weight saving, an optimal path should be adopted, resulting only in axial tension in the longitudinal direction (slip). Such path is the geodesic winding and diverse equipment may be used to guarantee the process automation of the winding. This work herein presented is focused on the study and development of the controller program for a robotized filament winding equipment, taking into account customization of possible trajectories controlling filament winding. The automation of the custom path according to user needs increases exponentially the capabilities, where the use of a robotized solution increases process flexibility and repeatability.

  20. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  1. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  2. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiliang Zhang; Shuhua Gu; Wenqiang Liu; Lin Gan

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analysed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (Author)

  3. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiliang; Liu Wenqiang; Gu Shuhua; Gan Lin

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analyzed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (author)

  4. A REVIEW ON COUNTER-ROTATING WIND TURBINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRINA G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On a dynamic energy market characterized by the constant energy demand increase and economic as well as environmental constraints, the study and development of efficient conversion systems of wind’s energy has been approached by a considerable number of researchers. Given the modern economic and environmental challenges regarding the energy production and consumption, an advance in the research of innovative or improved wind energy conversion solutions has been registered. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, but not exhaustive overview of research achievements in counter-rotating wind turbine systems development, characterization and use. The review presents the first theoretical results that led to the counterrotating wind turbines development as well as the related methods used for investigating their performance. Valuable results have been found within various studies, which are carried out for different testing systems and conditions. Furthermore, there is still need of extensive studies, taking into account that the counter-rotating wind turbines have to prove their reliability in real operating conditions.

  5. Development of a wind converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 1: Technical description of the wind energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly, J. P.; Steinheber, R.

    1982-11-01

    A 10 kW wind energy converter was developed by using as far possible standard serial production parts. The design criteria and the description of the essential machinery components of the MODA 10 wind energy converter are discussed. For some special load cases the safety calculation of the important components is shown. The blade control system which qualified for small wind energy converters, is explained. Weight and cost of the MODA 10 are considered.

  6. Wind Turbine and Power Production, the Danish Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjems, Joergen; Oester, Flemming

    2007-07-01

    The progress within the Danish wind energy sector in Denmark is reviewed. Excluding minor intermission periods the R and D development of electricity producing wind turbines has taken place continuously for more than 100 years in Denmark. After the first oil crisis in 1973 this development accelerated and has led to a remarkable scientific and commercial success. For a few years turbines in Denmark have been producing electricity corresponding to almost 20% of the Danish demand. Danish manufacturers produce components and export turbines in large quantities, amounting in 2005 to a total capacity of about 3.8 GW which is about one third of the world market. Important present day R&D topics are offshore technology and interaction between turbines and the grid, including the ability of turbines to contribute to regulation and stabilization of the power system. These questions are crucial when handling fluctuating electricity production in networks with large fractions of wind energy and CHP power production. In the future, a main point may be storage of wind energy, e.g. in the form of hydrogen produced by fuel cells. (auth)

  7. ANEMOS: Development of a next generation wind power forecasting system for the large-scale integration of onshore and offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniotakis, G.; Anemos Team

    2003-04-01

    Objectives: Accurate forecasting of the wind energy production up to two days ahead is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Especially, in a liberalized electricity market, prediction tools enhance the position of wind energy compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. ANEMOS, is a new 3.5 years R&D project supported by the European Commission, that resembles research organizations and end-users with an important experience on the domain. The project aims to develop advanced forecasting models that will substantially outperform current methods. Emphasis is given to situations like complex terrain, extreme weather conditions, as well as to offshore prediction for which no specific tools currently exist. The prediction models will be implemented in a software platform and installed for online operation at onshore and offshore wind farms by the end-users participating in the project. Approach: The paper presents the methodology of the project. Initially, the prediction requirements are identified according to the profiles of the end-users. The project develops prediction models based on both a physical and an alternative statistical approach. Research on physical models gives emphasis to techniques for use in complex terrain and the development of prediction tools based on CFD techniques, advanced model output statistics or high-resolution meteorological information. Statistical models (i.e. based on artificial intelligence) are developed for downscaling, power curve representation, upscaling for prediction at regional or national level, etc. A benchmarking process is set-up to evaluate the performance of the developed models and to compare them with existing ones using a number of case studies. The synergy between statistical and physical approaches is examined to identify promising areas for further improvement of forecasting accuracy. Appropriate physical and statistical prediction models are also developed for

  8. Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-12-06

    (with spatial and/or temporal dependence). Statistical approaches to uncertainty forecasting basically consist of estimating the uncertainty based on observed forecasting errors. Quantile regression (QR) is currently a commonly used approach in uncertainty forecasting. In Chapter 3, we propose new statistical approaches to the uncertainty estimation problem by employing kernel density forecast (KDF) methods. We use two estimators in both offline and time-adaptive modes, namely, the Nadaraya-Watson (NW) and Quantilecopula (QC) estimators. We conduct detailed tests of the new approaches using QR as a benchmark. One of the major issues in wind power generation are sudden and large changes of wind power output over a short period of time, namely ramping events. In Chapter 4, we perform a comparative study of existing definitions and methodologies for ramp forecasting. We also introduce a new probabilistic method for ramp event detection. The method starts with a stochastic algorithm that generates wind power scenarios, which are passed through a high-pass filter for ramp detection and estimation of the likelihood of ramp events to happen. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the results of the application of ITL training criteria to deterministic WPF; Chapter 3 reports the study on probabilistic WPF, including new contributions to wind power uncertainty forecasting; Chapter 4 presents a new method to predict and visualize ramp events, comparing it with state-of-the-art methodologies; Chapter 5 briefly summarizes the main findings and contributions of this report.

  9. Optimal application of climate data to the development of design wind speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Retief, Johan V.; Goliger, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Africa (WASA project) focuses, amongst others, on the development of a Regional Extreme Wind Climate (REWC) for South Africa. Wind farms are planned for areas with relatively strong and sustained winds, with wind turbines classed according to their suitability for different wind conditions. The REWC...... statistics are used during the construction and design phase to make assumptions about the local strong wind climate that the wind turbines will be exposed to, with the local environment and topography as additional input. The simultaneous development of the REWC and revision of the extreme wind statistics...... of South Africa created an opportunity to bring together a range of expertise that could contribute to the optimal development of design wind speed information. These include the knowledge of the statistical extraction of extreme wind observations from reanalysis and model data, the quality control...

  10. Economic Issues in the Wind Energy Development at World and European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Elena HOLBAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy has become increasingly more a commodity we can not replace, a good without which modern life can not exist. Over time, sources of energy have experienced several stages of development. The quantitative involution of energy sources from fossil fuels, leading with climate change and a range of additional costs due to their scarcity, have led scientists to find them a replacement. Like any large-scale technological innovation, electricity obtained from wind power required huge cost of implementation, turning out to be a real industry. Nowadays, the investment costs are still high, but the need of this type of power to operate, made the results worth the financial efforts of those involved. Increasingly used both in developed countries and in contries with developing economies, wind energy turns out to be not only in line with sustainable development, but also profitable for investors.

  11. Development, Capabilities, and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.; Amarin, R.; Atlas, R.; Bailey, M.; Black, P.; Buckley, C.; Chen, S.; El-Nimri, S.; Hood, R.; James, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is being designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude) with approximately 2 km resolution. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument and the physical basis for its operations, including chamber test data from the instrument. The potential value of future HIRAD observations will be illustrated with a summary of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct simulated H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact on H*Wind analyses of using the HIRAD instrument observations to replace those of the SFMR instrument, and also on the impact of a future satellite-based HIRAD in comparison to instruments with more limited capabilities for observing strong winds through heavy

  12. Development, construction and testing of a vertical axis 200 kW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-20

    It is proposed to design and develop a large vertical axis wind turbine that will generate economically 200 kilowatts of power at a wind speed of about 30 miles per hour. The scope of this proposal is to carry out studies, build, erect and test an electrical power generation plant that will feed into existing power grids. Preliminary technical studies indicate that the power of the turbine increases with the third power of the the wind speed. The rotor power loading should be as high as the prevailing winds allow; thus it would always be advisable to let the rotor run at as high an rpm as the economics will allow. For turbines up to about 100 ft in diameter, an extruded blade seems to be the best solution for economic rotor design. A 300 ft/s runaway tip speed seems to be acceptable as an rpm limit. Structurally, it is advantageous to increase the blade airfoil section to 18%. The proposed program has a very high probability of success in that each element of the total system involves a very low technical risk. The manufacturing methods rely on existing technology, and preliminary research indicates that readily available commercial materials can be used. There will be no involvement with highly stressed, fatigue-sensitive components. The total unit energy cost will be about fifty percent less for the proposed 90 ft. turbine than for the 15 ft. turbine produced for the National Research Council. 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Development of a site analysis tool for distributed wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Shawn [The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham MA (United States)

    2012-02-28

    The Cadmus Group, Inc., in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Encraft, was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a site analysis tool for distributed wind technologies. As the principal investigator for this project, Mr. Shawn Shaw was responsible for overall project management, direction, and technical approach. The product resulting from this project is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT), a software tool for analyzing proposed sites for distributed wind technology (DWT) systems. This user-friendly tool supports the long-term growth and stability of the DWT market by providing reliable, realistic estimates of site and system energy output and feasibility. DSAT-which is accessible online and requires no purchase or download of software-is available in two account types; Standard: This free account allows the user to analyze a limited number of sites and to produce a system performance report for each; and Professional: For a small annual fee users can analyze an unlimited number of sites, produce system performance reports, and generate other customizable reports containing key information such as visual influence and wind resources. The tool’s interactive maps allow users to create site models that incorporate the obstructions and terrain types present. Users can generate site reports immediately after entering the requisite site information. Ideally, this tool also educates users regarding good site selection and effective evaluation practices.

  15. China: an emerging offshore wind development hotspot. With a new assessment of China's offshore wind potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinvang, Rasmus; Enslow, Rachel; Beaumont, Hubert

    2010-08-15

    This study provides new and more detailed estimates of the offshore wind energy resources in China, with particular focus on Southern China. The study points out that the offshore wind industry is ramping up in China with at least 11.9GW in the development pipeline per April 2010. The study estimates the offshore wind potential of China (excluding Taiwan) to 11,580TWh/year. The study proves estimates and wind energy resource maps per province. Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan stand out with the highest offshore wind speeds in China while Guangdong also shows significant potential, with annual wind speed averages of 6.5-10.2m/s and an energy density range of 12-36GWh/km2. Even though current offshore wind development is mainly taking place in Fujian and Jiangsu, this study shows that the potential is likely even greater in other provinces. The study was developed by the Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA) and Sun Yat-sen University, and commissioned by WWF as part of a project funded by the Norwegian Agency of development Coopeartion (Norad). Methodology and constraints: The wind resource analysis improves upon previous studies in estimating the wind energy generation potential for offshore wind power in China, with available meteorological data adjusted for influence of typhoons. The study models how much energy offshore wind can produce along China's coast up to 100km from the shore by calculating the energy output of theoretical wind farms by applying the power curve of a 3MW turbine at a 100m hub height. In addition the study further expands by giving special consideration to the deep-sea offshore potential at +50m water depths. The study focuses particularly on the coastline from Shandong down to Hainan. The final results provide good indication of the offshore wind resource in China when comparing one area to the other. The report can therefore be used as a preliminary tool to identifying most interesting provinces and locations for offshore wind

  16. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  17. Canadian Wind Energy Association small wind conference proceedings : small wind policy developments (turbines of 300 kW or less)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The small wind session at the Canadian Wind Energy Association's (CanWEA) annual conference addressed policies affecting small wind, such as net metering, advanced renewable tariffs and interconnections. It also addressed CanWEA's efforts in promoting small wind turbines, particularly in remote northern communities, small businesses and within the residential sector. Small wind systems are typically installed in remote communities to offset utility supplied electricity at the retail price level. In certain circumstances, small wind and hybrid systems can produce electricity at less than half the cost of traditional electricity sources, which in remote communities is typically diesel generators. Small wind turbines require different materials and technologies than large wind turbines. They also involve different local installation requirements, different by-laws, tax treatment and environmental assessments. Small wind turbines are typically installed for a range of factors, including energy independence, energy price stability and to lower environmental impacts of traditional power generation. The small wind session at the conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  18. Cherokee Wind Energy Development - Feasibility and Pre-Construction Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Andy [Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC, Catoosa, OK (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Cherokee Nation Businesses (CNB) received a grant from the US Department of Energy to explore feasibility and pursue development of a wind power generation facility on Cherokee land in north-central Oklahoma. This project followed several years of initial study exploring the possibility of commercial-scale wind power generation on primarily agricultural land owned by the Cherokee Nation. This project produced detailed analysis of the legal, financial and market viability of such generation facilities, and encompassed a full technical evaluation of the engineering, environmental, and geotechnical aspects of installing this capacity. During the course of this project, information gleaned from this exploration changed CNB’s thinking about the best course of action for Cherokee participation in the development, eventually moving away from an equity-owner model and towards utilization of the land asset as a resource while mitigating Cherokee financial and operational risk.

  19. Developments of the offshore wind turbine wake model Fuga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    features to Fuga and turn it into a useful tool for offshore wind farm developers. The new features consist in - Flexibility. Including the ability to cope with several types of turbines in the same project, thus making it possible to predict inter farm interactions. The graphical user interface has been...... from Horns Rev has been made in order to quantify the impact of non-stationarity of the wind direction. The results are generalized so as to account for the uncertainties imposed by a ten minute mean value trend as well as by the distance between turbines and the met mast. The old model has been...... validated against a number of data sets. Some of these tests have been repeated in order to demonstrate and validate the new model features. Production data from Horns Rev 1 have been re-analysed using well defined selection criteria for which the developed uncertainty models apply, and a comparison...

  20. Development of ANN Model for Wind Speed Prediction as a Support for Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural disasters increases every year with more casualties and damage to property and the environment. Therefore, it is important to prevent consequences by implementation of the early warning system (EWS in order to announce the possibility of the harmful phenomena occurrence. In this paper, focus is placed on the implementation of the EWS on the micro location in order to announce possible harmful phenomena occurrence caused by wind. In order to predict such phenomena (wind speed, an artificial neural network (ANN prediction model is developed. The model is developed on the basis of the input data obtained by local meteorological station on the University of Rijeka campus area in the Republic of Croatia. The prediction model is validated and evaluated by visual and common calculation approaches, after which it was found that it is possible to perform very good wind speed prediction for time steps Δt=1 h, Δt=3 h, and Δt=8 h. The developed model is implemented in the EWS as a decision support for improvement of the existing “procedure plan in a case of the emergency caused by stormy wind or hurricane, snow and occurrence of the ice on the University of Rijeka campus.”

  1. Survey for making a data book related to the development of new energy technology. Wind power generation; 1999 nendo shin energy gijjtsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa hokokusho. Furyoku hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of systematically arranging the data on new energy, this paper focused on the wind power system and collected/arranged the most up-to-date published data on the wind power system, mostly in terms of samples of introduction in Japan and abroad, supporting plans and policies, market of the wind power system, specifications for the main wind turbines, etc. This report included the following: (1) Quantity of introduction of wind power system. (2) Targeted quantity of introduction of wind power system in Japan and abroad. (3) Policies on wind power system in Japan and abroad. (4) Sales of wind power system. (5) Cost of introduction of wind power system. (6) Effects of introduction of wind power generation. (7) Trend of technology development/subjects on technology development/problems on introductory promotion. (8) Outline of wind power system. (9) Predominant trends of wind power generation in Japan. (10) List of the persons to contact enterprises related to wind power generation. (11) Quantity of wind energy existing in Japan. (12) Specifications for wind turbine by power generation scale. (13) Method to calculate power generation cost of wind power system. (14) Explanation of basic technical terms. (15) List of the related rules as to introduction of wind power generation. (16) Publications relating to wind power generation. (NEDO)

  2. Wind energy in ''Basse Normandie'': the energies of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper brings together the main topics discussed during the 4. colloquium on the wind energy: the french lateness concerning the wind energy development, the regulatory framework concerning the wind turbines implementation sites, the wind energy situation in ''Basse Normandie'', the offshore wind energy, the site of Sortosville-en-Beaumont, the public relations, the employment and an analysis of some rumors and prejudices. (A.L.B.)

  3. Status and further development of wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-01-01

    By December 31st, 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines with 1,136 MW were installed in Germany. Only in the year 1995 the WEC installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. about 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WECs is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WECs have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WECs a good overview of the further development is derived. (author)

  4. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  5. The Existence of Long-Run PPP: A Comparison between Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiadi Dono Iskandar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available McNown & Wallace (1989 argued that PPP will tend to holds in less developed countries due to the domination of nominal factors in the economy. In this study we try to investigate the existence of long-run PPP in eight countries consisting four developed and developing countries. Here we show that there is a strong evidence that long-run PPP holds for Germany, United Kingdom, and Chile. Furthermore, the additional tests also show that symmetry and proportionality conditions seem to hold in the three economies. As for other five economies, long-run PPP seems to be absence. Although one step general Error Correction Model and Johansen-Juselius cointegration procedure generates conflicting result, the result of both technique do not show a tendency for PPP to hold in developing countries thus rejecting argument proposed by McNown and Wallace.

  6. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  7. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  8. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  9. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...... of the blades and turbines. It was further demonstrated that the low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a promising and viable option for the decentralized energy production in developing countries, which also opens new areas for businesses....

  10. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also......This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...

  11. Government installation guidelines for the sustainable development of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Government of Quebec has made a commitment to clean renewable energy, including wind power, as part of its sustainable development strategy. However, any proposed projects are subject to conditions imposed by regional municipalities. Municipalities are responsible for urban planning laws with jurisdiction over landscape, noise, public safety, and wildlife. Project proponents must meet both social and environmental criteria to ensure the preservation of the municipal territory and the quality of life. Regulations are in place to ensure economic development occurs in tandem with meeting the energy needs of local and regional communities. 16 refs

  12. Low Wind Speed Turbine Developments in Convoloid Gearing: Final Technical Report, June 2005 - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genesis Partners LP

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Genesis Partners LP as part of the United States Department of Energy Wind Energy Research Program to develop wind technology that will enable wind systems to compete in regions having low wind speeds. The purpose of the program is to reduce the cost of electricity from large wind systems in areas having Class 4 winds to 3 cents per kWh for onshore systems or 5 cents per kWh for offshore systems. This work builds upon previous activities under the WindPACT project, the Next Generation Turbine project, and Phase I of the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) project. This project is concerned with the development of more cost-effective gearing for speed increasers for wind turbines.

  13. Catching the Wind in a Bottle: Collection Development for Wind Energy Technology Programs at Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Renvall, Poppy

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to assist information professionals in developing a resource collection that serves Wind Energy students in academic settings. Traditional as well as Internet resources should be utilized in order to meet the needs of this unique student population.

  14. Wind energy - The facts. Vol. 5: Market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming increasingly competitive with conventional sources. However, it is likely that some form of incentive will be required for the foreseeable future, at least until environmental costs are fully internalised or increased economies of scale and technological development makes wind power fully competitive with conventional sources, such as coal and gas, without the need to consider externalities. 'There are currently five main systems to support electricity from renewable energy sources in the EU member states: investment subsidies, fixed price systems, fixed premium systems, auctions, and certificates systems. The idea behind the mechanisms is to offset at least some of the competitive disadvantage for renewable as a consequence of electricity markets neglecting the environmental cost of production from conventional technologies. Low electricity prices are of little benefit if they lead to high costs to society as a whole through higher health care costs and environmental costs levied on current and future taxpayers and citizens. If the environmental costs of power production were reflected in European power prices, wind power and many other renewable energy technologies would not need support, as pointed out in the European Commission's Green Paper on Security of Supply. (au)

  15. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  16. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  17. Wind Energy Development in India and a Methodology for Evaluating Performance of Wind Farm Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, India is moving towards a trend of generating electricity from renewable resources. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved from a marginal activity into a multibillion dollar industry today. Wind energy power plants, also known as wind farms, comprise multiple wind turbines. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations across the world, evaluating their performance is a complex task and is an important focus for stakeholders. In this work an attempt is made to estimate the performance of wind clusters employing a multicriteria approach. Multiple factors that affect wind farm operations are analyzed by taking experts opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The proposed methodology evaluates wind farm performance based on technical, economic, environmental, and sociological indicators. Both qualitative and quantitative parameters were considered. Empirical data were collected through questionnaire from the selected wind farms of Belagavi district in the Indian State of Karnataka. This proposed methodology is a useful tool for cluster analysis.

  18. Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, JH; Fogarty, PJ; Heitzenroeder, PJ; Meighan, T.; Nelson, B.; Raftopoulos, S.; Williamson, D.

    2005-01-01

    The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R and D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including ''Keystoning'' concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented

  19. Wind energy development in China - reality and market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinghua Han

    1999-01-01

    Economic reforms in China started in 1978, which led to profound changes as a result of a consistent structural adjustment and stabilisation policy. The national economy is now characterised with high growth and low inflation. In 1997, GDP was US$ 767 billion and foreign exchange reached US$ 140 billion. This paper examines the outstanding contribution of rural industries to rapid growth of national economy and the consequences of increase of energy consumption and its environmental impact. It also emphasises the necessity and benefit of using renewable energy and wind energy in particular. The paper also addresses the issue of joint venture in farm development in line with Chinese market economy. (Author)

  20. Engineering handbook on the atmospheric environmental guidelines for use in wind turbine generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Long, B. H.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The guidelines are given in the form of design criteria relative to wind speed, wind shear, turbulence, wind direction, ice and snow loading, and other climatological parameters which include rain, hail, thermal effects, abrasive and corrosive effects, and humidity. This report is a presentation of design criteria in an engineering format which can be directly input to wind turbine generator design computations. Guidelines are also provided for developing specialized wind turbine generators or for designing wind turbine generators which are to be used in a special region of the United States.

  1. On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Rashmi, R.; Vethamony, P.; Menon, H.B.

    %). The mean wave periods (Tm) during southwest monsoon are generally above 5 s, whereas Tm is below 5 s during other seasons. Co-existence of multiple peaks (from NW and NE) was observed in the locally generated part of the wave spectrum, especially during...

  2. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Electronics Engineering, Prof. ... In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion ... the wind turbine simulator is used as a necessary tool in research laboratories.

  3. Wind energy technology development and diffusion. A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiliang; Gu Shuhua; Liu Wenqiang; Lin Gan

    1999-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China, with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts and relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building and international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development and analysing the role of alternative policy instruments, the major constraints of wind technology development are analysed and relevant policy recommendations are given. 12 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Development opportunities for the UK offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the UK's ability to compete for the construction of offshore wind farms. The European offshore wind farm market is examined, and the UK offshore construction equipment and wind farm construction methods are analysed, and recommendations for a purpose build or modified construction vessel are presented. The appendix gives UK construction companies addresses and contact names

  5. Wind Power:Growing with the Demand of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    History review Looking back upon the human history,China is among the earliest countries which make use of wind energy.It started to use the wind energy to pump water for irrigation very long time ago.Since the establishment of the new China,pilot projects of wind energy generation have

  6. Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy utilization, especially onshore grid-connected wind power generation, has a history of 30 years in China. With the increasing attention to renewable energy development in recent years, wind energy has become the focus of academic research and policy-making. While the potential and

  7. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  8. Progress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, AJ

    1992-01-01

    The progress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique is reviewed. While improvements have been achieved in the quality of the composite picture created by combining computer generated animation sequences of wind turbines with background scenes of the wind farm site, extending the technique to include camera movements has proved troublesome.

  9. Vertical-axis wind turbine development in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R. J.; Rangi, R. S.

    1983-12-01

    Recent Canadian progress in the development of the curved-blade Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. Cooperation between government, industry and power utilities in the conduct of field trials, over several years, has demonstrated improved performance and reliability of grid-coupled turbines of this type. The rated power of the VAWTs currently under test ranges from 30 kW, in a wind/diesel powerplant, to 230 kW, in an installation on an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Progress has also been made in understanding the basic aerodynamic behavior of the VAWT and theoretical methods for performance and load prediction have correspondingly improved. A brief description is given of 'Project EOLE', a cooperative project between the federal government and the utility Hydro-Quebec to develop and test, during the next two to three years, a 4 MW VAWT prototype, which will be coupled to the power grid at a location on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

  10. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  11. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Least cost addition of power from hydroelectrical developments: Maximizing existing assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lafontant; Briand, Marie-Helene; Veilleux, Rheaume

    2010-09-15

    Hydroelectric developments built in the early 1900's are nearing their useful lifespan and require significant rehabilitation in order to meet modern safety and performance criteria. Also, global increasing energy costs represent a strong incentive for operators to find low-cost, environment-friendly solutions while increasing energy generation at existing facilities. Projects promoting innovative ways of recycling existing developments are great examples of sustainable development and represent win-win solutions for population and hydropower industry alike. The proposed presentation describes successful projects consisting in the rehabilitation or addition of power to existing hydroelectric. These recycling projects are very attractive from both economic and environmental.

  13. Development of low AC loss windings for superconducting traction transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, H; Hata, H; Fukumoto, Y; Tomioka, A; Bohno, T; Yamada, H; Ayai, N; Yamasaki, K; Kato, T; Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a light weight and high efficiency superconducting traction transformer for railway rolling stock. We designed and fabricated a prototype superconducting traction transformer of a floor-mount type for Shinkansen rolling stock in 2004. We performed the type-test, the system-test, and the vibration-test. Consequently, we could verify that the transformer satisfied the requirement almost exactly as initially planned. However, there have been raised some problems to be solved to put superconducting traction transformer into practical use such that AC loss of the superconducting tape must be lower and the capacity of the refrigerator must be larger. Especially it is the most important to reduce the AC loss of superconducting windings for lightweight and high efficiency. The AC loss must be reduced near the theoretical value of superconducting tape with multifilament. In this study, we fabricated and evaluated the Bi2223 tapes as introduced various measures to reduce the AC loss. We confirmed that the AC loss of the narrow type of Bi2223 tapes with twist of filaments is lower, and we fabricated windings of this tape for use in superconducting traction transformer.

  14. The development of the Dutch wind energy technology in an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the developments in the Dutch wind energy industry and the position of that industry in the industrialized world. First attention is paid to some historical developments of the modern wind energy technology in the Netherlands compared to some other countries. The start of the Integral Wind energy Program (IPW) at the end of 1985 brought the Dutch know-how of wind energy back on the international level. Next a brief overview is given of governmental wind energy programs which resulted in various projects aimed at designing, testing and implementing wind turbines in the Netherlands. Here too a comparison is made with other countries concerning the realized capacity, investments, and attempts to commercialize the wind turbines. The technological developments in the Netherlands can be characterized as gradual: step-by-step larger wind turbines (i.e. larger capacities) will be developed. The development of multi-megawatt turbines is too risky and too costly at present. Some final remarks state that the present position of the Dutch wind energy industry and the Dutch research activities are good starting-points to realize an important part of the wind energy capacity in Europe, or even the world. Recommendations are given by which the Dutch wind energy industry can operate with success on the international market. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  15. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  16. Conference on wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoire Lejzerzon; Sauron, Claire; Villot, Marie; Ratzbor, Guenter; Tausch, Christian; Cagneaux, Bertrand; Jouneau, Agathe; Stemmer, Boris; Huebner, Gundula; Orozco-Souel, Paola; Lhermitte, Charles; Ferus, Elisabeth; Benezech, Philippe; Gunzelmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12

  17. Development of weightage for criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in Higher Learning Institution with clean energy initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izie Adiana Abidin, Nur; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Siti; Sahamir, Shaza Rina; Shahzaib, Jam; Nafis Abas, Darul

    2018-04-01

    Campus university building is the Higher Learning Institution (HLI) involves complex activities and operations, conserving the energy has become paramount important. There are several efforts taken by universities to improve its current energy use such as policy development, education, and adaption of energy conservation solution through retrofitting. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing buildings with clean energy in order to achieve zero energy balance in buildings. The focus is given to the development of criteria for solar photovoltaic (solar PV), wind turbines and small-scale hydropower. A questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the green building expert practitioner. Factor Analysis, Factor Score, and Weightage Factor were adapted as a method of analysis in order to produce the final result with weightage output for prioritization and ranking of the relevant criteria. The result performed assists to provide the stakeholders an overview of the important criteria that should be considered especially during the decision making to retrofit the existing buildings with clean energy resources. The criteria developed are also to establish a structured decision-making process and to ensure the selection of the decision or alternatives achieve the desired outcome.

  18. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  19. The use of wind data with an operational wind turbine in a research and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadter, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that in 1976, 17 candidate sites were identified for detailed evaluation as potential sites for installation of large, horizontal axis Wind Turbines (WT). Attention is given to the Mod-OA, a 200 kW WT located in Clayton, New Mexico. The discussion covers the meteorological data collected, some of the analyses based on these wind data as well as additional areas currently being investigated in relation to these data.

  20. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  1. The current state of wind energy development in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainkwa, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wind Energy is one of the renewable power sources that is currently used in a commercial scale for various end-uses such as pumping water deep wells and electricity generation. A precise knowledge of wind speed characteristics is an essential for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. In Tanzania the use of wind energy in generating electricity has not yet taken place due to lack of knowledge on prospective sites with high wind energy potential. The main objective of this paper is to review some attempts that have been made to explore the wind energy potential in Tanzania and the corresponding prospective sites that have been earmarked so far. (author)

  2. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J. [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  3. Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-07-15

    Proposed development of domestic energy resources, including wind energy, is expected to impact the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western United States. The greater sage-grouse relies on habitats within this ecosystem for survival, yet very little is known about how wind energy development may affect sage-grouse. The purpose of this report is to inform organizations of the impacts wind energy development could have on greater sage-grouse populations and identify information needed to fill gaps in knowledge.

  4. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  5. Review of Recent Development of Dynamic Wind Farm Equivalent Models Based on Big Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggen; Zhou, Qian; Han, Mingzhe; Lv, Zhan’ao; Hou, Xiao; Zhao, Haoran; Bu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the big data mining method has been applied in dynamic wind farm equivalent modeling. In this paper, its recent development with present research both domestic and overseas is reviewed. Firstly, the studies of wind speed prediction, equivalence and its distribution in the wind farm are concluded. Secondly, two typical approaches used in the big data mining method is introduced, respectively. For single wind turbine equivalent modeling, it focuses on how to choose and identify equivalent parameters. For multiple wind turbine equivalent modeling, the following three aspects are concentrated, i.e. aggregation of different wind turbine clusters, the parameters in the same cluster, and equivalence of collector system. Thirdly, an outlook on the development of dynamic wind farm equivalent models in the future is discussed.

  6. Wind versus coal: Comparing the local economic impacts of energy resource development in Appalachia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Alan R.; Hansen, Evan; Hendryx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Two energy development scenarios were compared for the Coal River Mountain in Raleigh County, West Virginia: (1) mountaintop mining (MTM) of coal, and (2) wind energy plus underground mining of coal. Economic impact computations over the life of each energy development scenario were made on a county basis for output of goods and services, the number of jobs created, and local earnings. Externality costs were assigned monetary values for coal mining and subtracted from earnings. Premature mortality within the general population due to additional coal mining accounted for 96% of these external cost computations. The results showed that economic output over the life of each scenario was twice as high for MTM mining as wind energy plus underground coal mining. Over the short term, employment and earnings were higher for MTM mining, but towards the end of the scenario, cumulative employment and earnings became higher under scenario (2). When local externality costs were subtracted from local earnings, MTM coal production had an overall negative net social impact on the citizens of Raleigh County. The external costs of MTM coal production provide an explanation of the existence of a “resource curse” and the conflicting results of output versus income provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped. - Highlights: ► Mountaintop mining (MTM) was compared to wind plus underground mining. ► Economic output was twice as high for MTM. ► Employment and earnings were cumulatively higher for wind energy. ► Including local externality costs, MTM had an overall negative net social impact. ► Results provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped.

  7. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  8. Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya

    2017-07-01

    Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.

  9. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  10. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  11. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind Farm Design and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  12. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind-Farm Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-09

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  13. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Tim [Mackintosh Environmental Architecture Research Unit (MEARU), Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, G3 6RQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Proven, Gordon [Proven Energy Ltd. Wardhead Park, Stewarton, Ayrshire, KA3 5LH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  14. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Tim; Proven, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  15. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  16. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  17. Medicine Bow wind project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. L.

    1982-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

  18. Social assessment of wind power. Part 4: International position and development conditions of the Danish wind turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnoee, P.; Joergensen, U.

    1995-12-01

    Today, the Danish wind turbine industry is positioned as a global market leader on a fast growing international market. The conclusion and observation of this report are: 1. The international market for wind power is likely to grow fast over the next 5 years (a self-reinforcing development) and the Danish wind turbine industry has the potential to increase export from the present DKK 2 billion per year to DKK 4 billion per year. 2. The leading market position is achieved after the collapse of the California market in 1987. The last four years have been export-driven growth together with the development of complementary assets to support a strong product technology. 3. The Danish position might be threatened by the new competitors, but it is our view that it takes 2-3 years before they have equivalent competences, and since the Danish companies are presently also mobilizing resources and competences it is not likely that they are easily outperformed. 4. A continued installation of wind power in Denmark is important to support the sustaining of the international position in the coming years. Through, it is not the volume size of the domestic market, but rather a stable market which serves as a home base for the industry. Not only for the reference and testing of new wind turbines, but also the knowledge networks between manufacturers and suppliers and between manufacturers and the Test Station for Windmills at Risoe. (EG) 51 refs

  19. International wind energy development. World market update 2011. Forecast 2012-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The World Market Update 2011 is BTM Consult's seventeenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2012 - 2016 and predictions for the wind market through 2021. The report delivers several views on the fast-growing wind market, including: 1) Record installation of 41.7 GW. 2) Strong presence of four Chinese wind turbine suppliers in the Top 10 list. 3) China maintains the No. 1 market position in the world, with 17.6 GW of new capacity. 4) Offshore wind is on track for increased contribution to wind power in Europe. 5) Market value will grow from Euro 52.2 billion in 2011 to Euro 86.3 billion in 2016. 6) Direct drive turbines now account for 21.2% of the world's supply of wind power capacity. 7) Wind power will deliver 2.26% of the world's electricity in 2012. 8) Forecasts and predictions to 2021 indicate that wind power can meet 8.0% of the world's consumption of electricity by 2021. International Wind Energy Development - World Update 2011 includes individual country wind market assessments, incentives around the world, and detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the wind market in 2011. This year's report reviews the latest developments in hydraulic drivetrains, identifies the pros and cons, and compares the hydraulic technology to the industry's three currently established drivetrain technologies: conventional gear-, direct and hybrid-drivetrains. (Author)

  20. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  1. Estonian company develops an enhanced wind power generator

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti firmas Goliath Wind OÜ töötatakse välja uut tüüpi energiasäästlikku tuulegeneraatorit, mis võimaldaks tuuleenergia hinda alandada kuni viiendiku võrra. Vt. samas intervjuud Goliath Wind OÜ juhatuse liikme Lars Machiga

  2. Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely

  3. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  4. Design and development of direct drive generators for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses various options for wind generators in modern wind turbines without any gearbox. Various power converter configurations are also discussed. The design of modern and efficient variable speed generators is also proposed. The design of a novel permanent magnet generator is also given. (author)

  5. Planners to the rescue: spatial planning facilitating the development of offshore wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    The development of offshore wind energy has started to take place surprisingly quickly, especially in North European waters. This has taken the wind energy industry out of the territory of planning systems that usually govern the siting of wind farms on land, and into the world of departmental, sectoral regulation of marine activities. Although this has favoured the expansion of offshore wind energy in some respects, evidence suggests that the practice and principles of spatial planning can make an important contribution to the proper consideration of proposals for offshore wind arrays. This is especially so when a strategic planning process is put in place for marine areas, in which offshore wind is treated as part of the overall configuration of marine interests, so that adjustments can be made in the interests of wind energy. The current process of marine planning in the Netherlands is described as an illustration of this. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  7. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  8. Climate change: an amplifier of existing health risks in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, Maud; Martens, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is perceived as one of the biggest global health risks of the twenty-first century and a threat to the achievement of sustainable (economic) development; especially in developing countries, climate change is believed to further exacerbate existing vulnerability to disease and food

  9. Wind energy scenarios up to 2020. Developments in the Netherlands in the framework of the SDE regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Dutch government relies heavily on wind energy to reach the renewable energy target. Aim for the onshore installed capacity is 4,000 MW in 2020 and the offshore capacity target is 6,000 MW in 2020. In order to reach these targets, the so-called SDE subsidy mechanism exists. The regulation subsidises the financial gap of wind projects. It is unsure whether this SDE regulation, offers enough support to achieve the above targets. The main research question of this study was formulated as follows: Is it possible for the Dutch government to meet the 2020 targets for wind energy, as a part of the renewable energy targets, with the current SDE regulation or should the regulation be altered to create an improved contribution of wind energy? To answer this question, several sub-questions were formulated concerning cost developments, capacity developments, and possible supporting subsidy strategies and the implementation of other policy measures. The research questions were answered with help of a specific spreadsheet model. Cost and capacity developments are the main elements of the model. Cost developments depend on learning effects, material costs and economic aspects. Long term expectations of these aspects are combined to sketch cost developments. Together with the electricity price (APX day-ahead base load index), the costs determine the financial gap of wind energy, that needs to be subsidised. A distinction is made between different capacity categories: new onshore wind turbines, new offshore wind farms and repowering. Repowering is defined as a combination of renewal projects for older onshore turbines which are renovated or replaced at the end of their economic lifetime. The capacity categories differ on the cost aspect and required subsidy payments, but also the capacity potential that can be achieved. The results show that in the most favourable scenario, the targets can be reached with an annual budget equal to that of the 2008 budget (800 million euro). A

  10. 2016 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Significant expansion of wind energy development will be required to achieve the scenarios outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s Wind Vision: 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% wind energy by 2050. Wind energy currently provides nearly 5% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. The wind industry and the DOE's Wind Energy Technologies Office are addressing technical wind energy challenges, such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability. The Office recognizes that public acceptance of wind energy can be challenging, depending on the proximity of proposed wind farms to local populations. Informed decision makers and communities equipped with unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy development are better prepared to navigate the sometimes contentious development process. In 2014, DOE established six Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) across the United States to communicate unbiased, credible information about wind energy to stakeholders through regional networks. The RRCs provide ready access to this information to familiarize the public with wind energy; raise awareness about potential benefits and issues; and disseminate data on siting considerations such as turbine sound and wildlife habitat protection. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development during 2016. RRC leaders provided a report of wind energy development in their regions, which was combined with findings from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers to provide an account of the state of the regions, as well as updates on developments in individual states. NREL researchers and state partners added updates for all states that are not directly supported by an RRC. Accounts for each region include updates on renewable portfolio standards, the Clean Power Plan, workforce development, manufacturing and economic development, and individual

  11. Win-win for wind and wildlife: a vision to facilitate sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesecker, Joseph M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R; Kunz, Thomas H; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Niemuth, Neal D

    2011-04-13

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Win-win for wind and wildlife: a vision to facilitate sustainable development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Kiesecker

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation.

  13. When is enough, enough? Identifying predictors of capacity estimates for onshore wind-power development in a region of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Orr, Barry J.; Eiser, J. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The level of 'wind-prospecting' presently occurring in the UK is increasing the likelihood that new wind-power developments will conflict with other existing and/or proposed schemes. This study reports multiple-regression analyses performed on survey data obtained in a region of the UK (i.e. Humberhead Levels, near Doncaster) simultaneously subject to nine wind-farm proposals (September 2008). The aim of the analysis was to identify which survey-items were predictors of respondents' estimates of the number of wind turbines they believed the region could reasonably support (i.e. capacity estimates). The results revealed that the majority of respondents would endorse some local development; however, there was substantial variability in the upper level that was considered acceptable. Prominent predictors included general attitude, perceived knowledge of wind power, community attachment, environmental values, visual attractiveness of wind turbines, and issues relating to perceived fairness and equity. The results have implications for Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) - and in particular the assessment of Cumulative Landscape and Visual Impacts (CLVI) - and support calls for greater community involvement in decisions regarding proposed schemes. - Highlights: → Research seeks to identify predictors of the scale of local wind development people will tolerate. → Research conducted in region of the UK subject to nine wind-farm applications (2008). → Predictors found to include issues of perceived fairness and equity. → Results hold implications for cumulative effects assessment and development practices.

  14. When is enough, enough? Identifying predictors of capacity estimates for onshore wind-power development in a region of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.jones@shef.ac.uk [Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TP (United Kingdom); Orr, Barry J.; Eiser, J. Richard [Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TP (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The level of 'wind-prospecting' presently occurring in the UK is increasing the likelihood that new wind-power developments will conflict with other existing and/or proposed schemes. This study reports multiple-regression analyses performed on survey data obtained in a region of the UK (i.e. Humberhead Levels, near Doncaster) simultaneously subject to nine wind-farm proposals (September 2008). The aim of the analysis was to identify which survey-items were predictors of respondents' estimates of the number of wind turbines they believed the region could reasonably support (i.e. capacity estimates). The results revealed that the majority of respondents would endorse some local development; however, there was substantial variability in the upper level that was considered acceptable. Prominent predictors included general attitude, perceived knowledge of wind power, community attachment, environmental values, visual attractiveness of wind turbines, and issues relating to perceived fairness and equity. The results have implications for Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) - and in particular the assessment of Cumulative Landscape and Visual Impacts (CLVI) - and support calls for greater community involvement in decisions regarding proposed schemes. - Highlights: > Research seeks to identify predictors of the scale of local wind development people will tolerate. > Research conducted in region of the UK subject to nine wind-farm applications (2008). > Predictors found to include issues of perceived fairness and equity. > Results hold implications for cumulative effects assessment and development practices.

  15. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  16. Introducing life cycle thinking in product development – A case from Siemens Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference that this......How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference...

  17. Effects of offshore wind energy developments on navigation and commercial shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petts, J W

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the impact of the development of offshore wind farms on commercial shipping and navigation in the area of the UK continental shelf. The study methodology is described, and a review of previous studies is carried out. Technological and current developments, wind farm layout and physical limitations, interaction with marine users, and a quantitative assessment are examined, and the protection of offshore wind farms is considered. Appendices give details of admiralty charts and publications, maps, and chart markings for wind turbines. (UK)

  18. Wind energy development in China (WED) — The Danish-Chinese collaboration project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Rosenberg, H.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the large scale bilateral development program- the Danish-Chinese wind energy development program (WED). The paper starts with overview of electric energy production and consumption in the two counties with special focus on wind energy status. Next, the detailed objectives...

  19. Development of a localisation strategy for the South African Wind Energy Industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available was undertaken to establish the economics of South African wind energy projects and scenarios for local manufacture were developed. It is beneficial to the South African economy that as much of the wind farm development costs are spent in South Africa as possible...

  20. Development of Microcontroller-Based Inverter Control Circuit for Residential Wind Generator Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad Zaidi; Riza Muhida; Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi; Sazali Yaacob; Nur Hidayah Ahmad Zaidi

    2011-01-01

    The current usage level of wind power as alternative source of energy in Malaysia is very low. Ironically, some areas particularly coastal area has steady wind energy supply that is potential to generate electricity for residential use. There is urgent need to locally develop the low cost wind turbine generator that has the capability to not only supply electricity to respective household but can be connected to power grid so that excess power could be sold back to the local utility company. ...

  1. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the ...

  2. Assessing the impacts of wind energy development on bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.

  3. Public perceptions of wind energy developments: Case studies from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jessica B. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Stephenson, Janet R. [Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)], E-mail: janet.stephenson@otago.ac.nz; Smith, Inga J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2009-09-15

    Although the public generally hold positive attitudes towards wind energy, proposals for the construction of new wind farms are often met with strong resistance. In New Zealand, where the government has recently introduced ambitious policy targets for renewable energy generation, negative perceptions of wind farms are increasingly evident and have the potential to prevent the achievement of these targets. This research sets out to examine what influences social resistance to wind farms in New Zealand. Drawing from public submissions on three wind farm proposals, a framework developed by Devine-Wright [Devine-Wright, P., 2005a. Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy. Wind Energy 8, 125-139.] was used as the basis for identification of factors affecting public perceptions of wind farms. The research found firstly that there was no apparent relationship between the proximity of submitters to a proposed wind farm and their likelihood of having a negative perception of the proposal. A wide range of factors written in submissions appeared to have affected the submitter's decision to support or oppose the wind farm proposal. Some of these were consistent with Devine-Wright's findings, but ten further factors were added to the framework to adequately cover the aspects raised in submissions. The findings have implications for the achievement of New Zealand's energy policy aspirations.

  4. Public perceptions of wind energy developments. Case studies from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jessica B.; Smith, Inga J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Stephenson, Janet R. [Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2009-09-15

    Although the public generally hold positive attitudes towards wind energy, proposals for the construction of new wind farms are often met with strong resistance. In New Zealand, where the government has recently introduced ambitious policy targets for renewable energy generation, negative perceptions of wind farms are increasingly evident and have the potential to prevent the achievement of these targets. This research sets out to examine what influences social resistance to wind farms in New Zealand. Drawing from public submissions on three wind farm proposals, a framework developed by Devine-Wright [Devine-Wright, P., 2005a. Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy. Wind Energy 8, 125-139.] was used as the basis for identification of factors affecting public perceptions of wind farms. The research found firstly that there was no apparent relationship between the proximity of submitters to a proposed wind farm and their likelihood of having a negative perception of the proposal. A wide range of factors written in submissions appeared to have affected the submitter's decision to support or oppose the wind farm proposal. Some of these were consistent with Devine-Wright's findings, but ten further factors were added to the framework to adequately cover the aspects raised in submissions. The findings have implications for the achievement of New Zealand's energy policy aspirations. (author)

  5. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yakumachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Yakushima Young Travellers' Village of the above-named town, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is between 1.6 and 4.7, or 3.5 on the average, relatively small due probably to the peculiar terrain and causing no trouble in the development. Turbulence intensity is 0.16 at when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, low enough to meet the reference value (0.30 or less). The total occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis (SSE-NNW) is 48%, falling short of the reference value (60% or more). The average wind speed in the prevalent wind direction is high and the wind energy density concentrates on the prevalent wind axis, this showing that the site is good for wind power development. The annual average wind speed is 5.6m/s, slightly lower than the reference value (5.8m/s or more). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining the wind endurance level for the wind turbine design. The annual wind energy density is 325W/m{sup 2}, fully meeting the reference value (215W/m{sup 2} or more). The annual operation rates of the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 61/65/80%, and these meet the reference value (45% or more). Their annual capacity ratios are 24.5/26.6/27.7%, and these again meet the reference value (17% or more). (NEDO)

  6. Conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany - Legal framework, research results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Joerg; Schlegelmilch, Kai; Schulze, Karsten; Abromeit, Carolin; Jensen, Lars Bie; Svendsen, Anne; Schwebel, Olivier; Huebner, Gundula; Heidmann, Roger; Piet, Olivier; Roudil, Jean-Philippe; Fuchs, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 170 participants exchanged views on the actual policies, on the offshore potentialities of both countries and on the recent logistics, services, training and software innovations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Opening talk by Joerg Schulz, Bremerhaven's Major; 2 - The Future of the Offshore Wind energy in Germany - Key elements of the German energy Concept (Kai Schlegelmilch); 3 - Offshore wind farms: A commercial perspective - Offshore projects profitability (Karsten Schulze); 4 - Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ - experiences with the German Approval Procedure: criteria for a successful approval procedure (Carolin Abromeit); 5 - Offshore Wind Parks and fishery in Denmark - Involvement and compensation of commercial fishery in Denmark (Lars Bie Jensen); 6 - Tourism, property value, residents interest and offshore parks - Usage conflicts or regional development? (Anne Svendsen); 7 - Logistics for offshore wind projects - classic ports usable? An overview (Roger Heidmann); 8 - Offshore wind energy and French harbours (Olivier Piet); 9 - French offshore wind power market and component suppliers (Jean-Philippe Roudil); 10 - Trident software - the Offshore Wind Manager. Review and Forecast after one year of construction (Tina Fuchs)

  7. Technical characteristic analysis of wind energy conversion systems for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BoroumandJazi, G.; Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identifying the required technical characteristics of sustainable wind power system. ► Observing Weibull probability function and artificial neural networks for reliability. ► Daily/monthly generation data are used to investigate the system’s availability. - Abstract: Wind energy as a clean, environmentally friendly and cost effective renewable energy resource, is taken into consideration by many developed and developing countries as a promising means to provide electrical energy. In feasibility study stage of the wind energy systems, the sustainability analysis is one of the main issues that can assure the investors and stockholders to invest in this renewable energy. Since a system can be truly sustainable by achieving the energetic, ecological and economic sustainability, the present study will focus on the technical characteristics and performance analysis of the wind energy systems. The relations between reliability, availability, energy and exergy efficiency, risk management and the environmental impact of the wind energy systems are investigated in the context of this study. It is concluded that the wind characteristics data and the wind speed are the main effective parameters on its reliability and availability. It is also revealed that considering the system loss, exergy efficiency results of the wind energy systems are more reliable than the energy efficiencies. Due to avoid future failure of the systems, the causes of the failure are investigated and it was concluded that the structural failures caused by storms and strong winds are known as the most prevalent failures

  8. Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ► A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ► Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ► Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ► Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

  9. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  10. Development of an advanced noise propagation model for noise optimization in wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand in renewable energy has resulted in large wind energy deployment. Even though wind turbines are among the most environmentally friendly way of generating electricity, the noise emitted by them is one of the main obstacles for further installation. Wind farm developers rely...... wind directions or time of the day). The latter causes turbines to be located at less resourceful sites in advance. Both of these scenarios increase the cost of energy. Hence there is a need for more accurate noise mapping tools. The thesis addresses this issue via development of a new tool based...... field sound pressure levels are addressed both in steady and unsteady manner. Enhanced far fields amplitude modulation is observed and associated with the wake dynamics and the rotating blades. Lastly, the developed tool is used for an onshore wind farm noise prediction taking the terrain and the flow...

  11. 77 FR 5545 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... development of the offshore wind energy industry, offshore wind energy projects, and associated supply chain... to chart a path forward to provide for reliable energy supplies at reasonable rates and increase the..., including endangered leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempi) and green...

  12. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  13. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F; Bej, A [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1996-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  14. Development of an anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades in multibody system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Branner, Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades is developed and implemented into the aeroelastic nonlinear multibody code, HAWC2, intended to be used to investigate if use of anisotropic material layups in wind turbine blades can be tailored for improved...

  15. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A.

    1995-01-01

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  16. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  17. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  18. Eco-forecasting see different for or against the big wind power sites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallut, J.M.; Bal, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The wind energy is the most economical and technological developed industry of the renewable energy, but it is not perhaps the best way to fight with the greenhouse gases. The pro and the con of the wind power are discussed in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  19. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  20. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  1. Development of a methodology to assess the climate evolution and its impacts on wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simard, I. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada); Yu, W. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Meteorological Research Div.; Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). K.C. Irving Chair in Sustainable Development

    2010-07-01

    Maps of wind resources were used to develop a method of evaluating climatic changes and their potential impacts on wind energy resources. Global IPCC climate change scenarios were used to predict climatic conditions for the future, while past wind resource availability was simulated and validated using NCEP and NCAR reanalysis data as well as observed meteorological data from Environment Canada. The simulations were used to compare each 5-year period with a 50-year reference period. Regional scale climate change impacts were evaluated using a statistical dynamic down-scaling method. Advanced meteorological models were used to predict wind flow patterns across specific landscapes. The evolution of past wind resource availability was then simulated. Five-year wind resource simulations for a 50-year period were simulated at 25 km{sup 2} wind speeds at 80 m above the ground. Average wind speed variations were then evaluated. The method has been used to simulate 5-year periods within a 50-year reference period in New Brunswick. Further studies will be conducted to simulate future wind resources availability. tabs., figs.

  2. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  3. Wind energy in Vietnam: Resource assessment, development status and future implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the technical potential of wind energy in Vietnam and discuss strategies for promoting the market penetration of wind energy in the country. For the wind resource assessment, a geographical information system (GIS)- assisted approach has been developed. It is found that Vietnam has a good potential for wind energy. About 31,000 km 2 of land area can be available for wind development in which 865 km 2 equivalents to a wind power of 3572 MW has a generation cost less than 6 US cents/kWh. The study also proves that wind energy could be a good solution for about 300,000 rural non-electrified households. While wind energy brings about ecological, economic and social benefits, it is only modestly exploited in Vietnam, where the main barrier is the lack of political impetus and a proper framework for promoting renewable energy. The priority task therefore is to set a target for renewable energy development and to find instruments to achieve such a target. The main instruments proposed here are setting feed-in tariff and providing investment incentives

  4. Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu Yonglong; Zhang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy utilization, especially onshore grid-connected wind power generation, has a history of 30 years in China. With the increasing attention to renewable energy development in recent years, wind energy has become the focus of academic research and policy-making. While the potential and advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, many questions regarding the effectiveness of policies and performances of current practices remain unanswered. This paper takes Inner Mongolia, the province that has the most abundant wind energy resources in China, as a case to assess the performance of Chinese onshore wind power projects, focusing on the institutional setting, economic and technological performance, as well as environmental and social impacts. Results show that China is experiencing a rapid growth in wind power generation, which brings China great environmental, energy security and social benefits. However, for a full development of wind energy in China a number of barriers need to be removed: high generation cost, low on-grid price, and stagnating development of domestic manufacture. These findings lead to three policy recommendations.

  5. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  6. Co-existence of GM, conventional and organic crops in developing countries: Main debates and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taube, Friedhelm; Taheri, Fatemeh

    2017-06-05

    The co-existence approach of GM crops with conventional agriculture and organic farming as a feasible agricultural farming system has recently been placed in the center of hot debates at the EU-level and become a source of anxiety in developing countries. The main promises of this approach is to ensure "food security" and "food safety" on the one hand, and to avoid the adventitious presence of GM crops in conventional and organic farming on the other, as well as to present concerns in many debates on implementing the approach in developing countries. Here, we discuss the main debates on ("what," "why," "who," "where," "which," and "how") applying this approach in developing countries and review the main considerations and tradeoffs in this regard. The paper concludes that a peaceful co-existence between GM, conventional, and organic farming is not easy but is still possible. The goal should be to implement rules that are well-established proportionately, efficiently and cost-effectively, using crop-case, farming system-based and should be biodiversity-focused ending up with "codes of good agricultural practice" for co-existence.

  7. Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenqiang Liu; Xiliang Zhang; Lin Gan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of wind farm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power development should be subject to rational policy change and institutional adjustment. It discusses the incentive mechanisms and institutional frameworks for future development. Particular importance is attributed to market incentives for wind power to reach the objectives of industrialization and commercialization. A number of cost-competitive incentive measures and policies are recommended: (i) introducing market based mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) establishing effective investment policies and regulations to attract private investment; (iii) promoting localization of wind turbine production; (iv) adjusting tax and subsidy policies; and (v) reforming governmental institutions to make clear rules and responsibilities for policymaking, and enhancing communication/coordination between relevant government agencies in order to formulate uniform and effective policies. (Author)

  8. Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Gagliano, Troy; Wiser, Ryan; Brown, Matthew; Parsons, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. During 2003, development activity has remained strong, with an estimated 1600 MW of capacity installed. With this growth, an increasing number of States are experiencing investment in wind energy projects: currently about half of all States host at least one wind power project. This paper explores the key factors at play in the 12 States in which a substantial amount of wind energy capacity has been developed or planned. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), Federal and State financial incentives; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules

  9. Using wind turbines in sky scrapers to develop the stable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily increasing and irregular consumption of fossil fuels as the limited energy source and its destructive effect on the environment has attracted all people attention to use the renewable energies and in this extend, application of renewable energies like wind is one of the frequent options in all around the world in order ...

  10. Assessing the potential of wind energy projects. Notes for developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide some initial guidance for people who may be considering installing a wind power project. It sets out some key points which should be considered in a preliminary feasibility study and economic assessment of a project. (author)

  11. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  12. Development of CFD-based icing model for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Cecilie; Martinez, Benjamin; Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Operation of wind turbines in cold climate areas is challenged by icing-induced problems, such as loss of production, safety issues and blade fatique. Production losses are especially a big issue in Sweden, and due to difficulties with on-site measurements, simulations are often used to get an un...

  13. Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the loss of social justice reported by individuals living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs). References indicate that some individuals residing in proximity to IWT facilities experience adverse health effects. These adverse health effects are severe enough that some families have abandoned their homes.…

  14. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Ghana's wind power potential both on-shore and off-shore. ..... such as forest and game reserves, tourist sites, etc. (iv) Siting in lakes is restricted. (v) Slopes greater than 30° ... Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 km along the.

  15. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yugawara Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yugawaramachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed in the period November 1997 through October 1998 at Yugawara Town, Kanagawa Prefecture. The average wind speed is 5.1m/s and 5.0m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, suggesting that the difference in altitude causes but a very small difference in wind speed and that a large wind speed component exists in the vertical direction. Under the 16 compass point system, the wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the NE direction and the second highest in the W direction. The two directions are prevalent, and their occurrence rates on the wind axes total 62.6%. The occurrence rate of wind speeds of not less than 5m/s is 40%. Turbulence intensity is 0.23 and 0.17 for the average wind speed of not less than 2m/s and for the average wind speed of not less than 4m/s, respectively, suggesting but a little impact of air current turbulence. The amounts of energy to be acquired by wind turbine systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are estimated at 301,363kWh, 651,593kWh, and 1,668,825kWh, respectively. Their annual capacity ratios are 22.9%, 24.8%, and 25.4%, respectively. Since difference in wind speed due to difference in altitude is small, it is supposed that the wind speed at the hub altitude is not so high. It is inferred consequently that service operation will be quite difficult to realize. Difficulties will be also encountered in relation to the route of turbine system transportation, power distribution line, and the distance to a transformation station. (NEDO)

  16. Social responses to wind energy development in Ontario: The influence of health risk perceptions and associated concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the role of health risk perceptions and other associated concerns of wind energy development (henceforth WED) in Ontario. Drawing on the risk society framework, we conduct a longitudinal media content analysis to document and analyze perceptions of and responses to WED over a nine year period. Attention is paid to temporal variations in responses relative to Ontario's Green Energy Act (2009) (henceforth GEA); legislation aimed at the rapid expansion of renewable energy. The study reveals that the most radical forms of resistance to WED on health grounds are driven by perceived injustices in the treatment of potential at-risk citizens and citizens with health concerns. The GEA is fuelling these perceptions of injustices in subtle and nuanced ways, particularly by acting as a major confounder to health risk concerns. Contrary to several existing studies, we problematize the use of financial incentives to foster the development of wind energy. We also provide policy recommendations which include the need for increased public engagement in the WED process, the importance of using third party health and environmental assessments to inform developments as well as the need for post-development strategies to address ongoing community concerns. - Highlights: • We analyze health risk perception-based responses to wind energy development. • Health risks concerns are a major driver of public resistance to wind energy. • Perceptions of injustices strongly fuel resistance to wind energy on health grounds. • Acceptance of turbines does not imply successful coexistence with turbines. • Using financial benefits to promote social acceptance could be problematic

  17. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  18. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  19. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  20. U.S. small wind market 2010 report: developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Larry

    2011-01-01

    As changes occur in the economy and in government policy, significant changes will also take place in the renewable energy market. In this presentation, the American Wind Energy Association discusses small wind developments that took place in the United States in 2010. The analysis included in the presentation illustrated that a shift had taken place from small wind to larger wind turbines connected to the grid. There were many other changes in the small wind sector in the United States, including the development of the institutional framework, the setting up of four wind test centers, and the adoption of a number of federal and state policies. Some of these policy changes included tax credits, grants, net metering, certifications, and incentives. The American Wind Energy Association also recognized that the small wind industry is facing a number of challenges, including the entry into the market of non-certified turbines, planning and zoning ordinances, resistance from the utilities, and a loss of environmental focus on the part of the public.

  1. Sustainable development of the wind power industry in a complex environment: a flexibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Jiang; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    As a new and developing green energy business in emerging economies such as China, the wind power industry chain faces some complex issues that are further compounded by turbulent internal and external environments. To deal with the complex environment, the wind power industry needs to improve its level of flexibility so that it can become more adaptable to the changing environment. Hence it is important to explore the dynamics of the wind power industry chain flexibility with respect to the ever changing environment. This study uses questionnaire surveys and expert interviews to identify the influential flexibility components of the wind power industry chain. Subsequently a fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) methodology was used to establish a flexibility operating mechanism model. The research found that special attention should be paid to competition flexibility, technology flexibility, and intellectual property and talent flexibility. Policies play a pivotal role in regulating the driving effects of these components of flexibility with the aim being long term sustainability of a healthy level of overall flexibility of the wind power industry chain. This should in turn facilitate the sustainable development of the industry. - Highlights: • Wind power industry shall improve flexibility to deal with complex environment. • Critical components of flexibility of wind power industry chain were identified. • An operating mechanism model for flexibility of wind power industry is proposed. • Fuzzy cognitive mapping method is employed to model the dynamics of flexibility. • Policies play a pivotal role in fostering an industry environment toward flexibility

  2. Best Practices for Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Hummer, John; Haven, Celia

    2011-07-19

    This report offers a menu of 18 different, yet complementary, preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. Each best practice describes the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, academia, and federal, state and local government regulators. The practices were identified through a year-long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors. Optimally, a suite of these best practices would be applied in an appropriate combination to fit the conditions of a particular wind project or a set of wind projects within a given locality or region.

  3. The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO 2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

  4. Development and Application of Advanced Weather Prediction Technologies for the Wind Energy Industry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. P.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.; Myers, W.; Johnson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Wind energy decision makers are required to make critical judgments on a daily basis with regard to energy generation, distribution, demand, storage, and integration. Accurate knowledge of the present and future state of the atmosphere is vital in making these decisions. As wind energy portfolios expand, this forecast problem is taking on new urgency because wind forecast inaccuracies frequently lead to substantial economic losses and constrain the national expansion of renewable energy. Improved weather prediction and precise spatial analysis of small-scale weather events are crucial for renewable energy management. In early 2009, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) began a collaborative project with Xcel Energy Services, Inc. to perform research and develop technologies to improve Xcel Energy's ability to increase the amount of wind energy in their generation portfolio. The agreement and scope of work was designed to provide highly detailed, localized wind energy forecasts to enable Xcel Energy to more efficiently integrate electricity generated from wind into the power grid. The wind prediction technologies are designed to help Xcel Energy operators make critical decisions about powering down traditional coal and natural gas-powered plants when sufficient wind energy is predicted. The wind prediction technologies have been designed to cover Xcel Energy wind resources spanning a region from Wisconsin to New Mexico. The goal of the project is not only to improve Xcel Energy’s wind energy prediction capabilities, but also to make technological advancements in wind and wind energy prediction, expand our knowledge of boundary layer meteorology, and share the results across the renewable energy industry. To generate wind energy forecasts, NCAR is incorporating observations of current atmospheric conditions from a variety of sources including satellites, aircraft, weather radars, ground-based weather stations, wind profilers, and even wind sensors on

  5. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  6. Prevention, development, and control of psychophysical false reactions in cases of imminent or existing catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickenstein, R.

    1981-01-01

    If a random group of people or a solid community feel threatened in their economical, ideologic-religious, or physical existences, individual reactions which occur frequently, such as pathologically increased fear, dread can become new common symptoms, the so-called summation phenomenous. Especially general uneasiness, emotional conditions indicating crises and tendency to panic belong to these symptoms. In a mass of people, all preconditions of the development of a panic are existing. This can be acute in the abortive form, but also chronic. Measures of preventing or controlling a panic can be successful only if they take into consideration the genesis and the art of the different sorts of panic. Therefore, it is urgently necessary for any organisatory or political or military leader to know these in order to be able to prevent a catastrophe. (orig.) [de

  7. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  8. Diffusing wind energy : a review of best-practice development in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, C.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Public and community acceptance of large-scale wind development will play a large role in its deployment and growth in Canada. However, proponents must consider the socio-economic and environmental impacts of wind power on communities in order to ensure the industry's continued growth. Best practices are needed ensure that all wind power projects develop constructive relationships with governments, public utilities, and communities. Wind power proponents must learn to engage with the emotional, environmental, and economic needs of communities. Developers must consider the fact that many members of the public are misinformed about potential noise levels and the impacts of wind turbines on local wildlife. Successful wind power projects have worked to establish trust and open communications with communities who have been fully informed of the scale of the development and its potential economic and environmental consequences. It was concluded that unsuccessful projects have relied solely on governments and utilities to inform community members about the impacts of wind power, and have tended to focus almost exclusively on issues related to technology and construction. tabs., figs.

  9. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  10. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative...... to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability...... of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment...

  11. Development of an updated fundamental basic wind speed map for SANS 10160-3

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available winds is of car- dinal importance to the built environment, and should be updated as new information becomes available. A review of the historical development of climatic data for wind load design in South Africa is provided by Goliger et al (2017..., Goliger AM. Development of an updated fundamental basic wind speed map for SANS 10160-3. J. S. Afr. Inst. Civ. Eng. 2017:59(4), Art. #1739, 14 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8775/2017/v59n4a2 TECHNICAL PAPER Journal of the South african in...

  12. GIS-based Multi-Criteria Analysis of Wind Farm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2005-01-01

    Due to the negative impact on the environment of traditional powergenerating methods, especially coal and oil-fired power stations wind power has increased in popularity. Achieving the goal set by the EU due to the implementation of the Kyoto protocol will require further expansion, and in order...... to facilitate this process around the Baltic Sea. A project – Wind Energy in the Baltic Sea Region - financed by EU / INTERREG III B was initiated in order to develop methods and tools to support spatial planning in relation to wind energy. The aim of the current study is to develop multi-criteria evaluations...

  13. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  14. Development and Verification of a Fully Coupled Simulator for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines the development of an analysis tool capable of analyzing a variety of wind turbine, support platform, and mooring system configurations.The simulation capability was tested by model-to-model comparisons to ensure its correctness.

  15. Technologies for production of electricity and heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 cEuro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 cEuro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7cEuro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the

  16. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study.

  17. Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Great Lakes Commission; Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

    2011-07-19

    This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices include those that have been previously tested and proven effective, as well as new practices that were identified by experts in the field as needed for future wind developments. Each best practice includes information about the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, and federal, state and local government regulators. They were identified through a year long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors.

  18. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study

  19. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Suman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide, and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP, decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  20. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Rajesh Kumar; Ray Mohanty, Ipseeta; Borde, Manjusha K; Maheshwari, Ujwala; Deshmukh, Y A

    2016-01-01

    Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide), and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP), decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  1. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Feist, Chris [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  2. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luethi, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.luethi@unisg.ch [University of St. Gallen, 9000 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Praessler, Thomas [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: > Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. > It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. > Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. > Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  3. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  4. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  5. On the concept and legal nature of sustainable development: Does 'environmental law' exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has developed within the triangular framework of economic, social and environmental policy. It has been the result of man's endeavor in the course of development of mankind to harmonize the relations between economy and ecology for the purpose of satisfying the present needs but without endangering the prospects of future generations to satisfy their own needs. The principle of sustainable development has been present in the international legislation for the past 40 years. The antagonism between economy and ecology has never ceased. Quite the reverse, at the beginning of the 21st century, mankind has encountered the dramatic effects of the rampant global politics and the unpromising prospects of man's subsistence and development. The reason is certainly to be found in the fact that the environment protection policy does not have an adequate legal framework, which is not a matter of legal technique but a matter of substance in global politics. Consequently, this discussion on the legal nature of sustainable development takes us from technique to substance. First, the author analyzes the international legislation and judicature on the issues of sustainable development; thereupon, the author concludes that the principle of sustainable development has not obtained the rank and the outreach of a legal principle (source of law in the international law, which ultimately makes the very existence of environmental law highly disputable. If sustainable development as a fundamental principle (supra-principle does not have the power of a binding principle, the existing international legal sources concerning certain aspects of the living environment are nothing but arable land covered by sand. Actually, the significant feature of the existing international sources on sustainable development is 'the legal ideology' which, being an instrument of environmental policy rather than an instrument of environmental law, actually

  6. Development and testing of new candidate psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires combining optimal questions from existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Walsh, Jessica; Haroon, Muhammad; FitzGerald, Oliver; Aslam, Tariq; Al Balushi, Farida; Burden, A D; Burden-Teh, Esther; Caperon, Anna R; Cerio, Rino; Chattopadhyay, Chandrabhusan; Chinoy, Hector; Goodfield, Mark J D; Kay, Lesley; Kelly, Stephen; Kirkham, Bruce W; Lovell, Christopher R; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; McHugh, Neil; Murphy, Ruth; Reynolds, Nick J; Smith, Catherine H; Stewart, Elizabeth J C; Warren, Richard B; Waxman, Robin; Wilson, Hilary E; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    Several questionnaires have been developed to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but head-to-head studies have found limitations. This study aimed to develop new questionnaires encompassing the most discriminative questions from existing instruments. Data from the CONTEST study, a head-to-head comparison of 3 existing questionnaires, were used to identify items with a Youden index score of ≥0.1. These were combined using 4 approaches: CONTEST (simple additions of questions), CONTESTw (weighting using logistic regression), CONTESTjt (addition of a joint manikin), and CONTESTtree (additional questions identified by classification and regression tree [CART] analysis). These candidate questionnaires were tested in independent data sets. Twelve individual questions with a Youden index score of ≥0.1 were identified, but 4 of these were excluded due to duplication and redundancy. Weighting for 2 of these questions was included in CONTESTw. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that involvement in 6 joint areas on the manikin was predictive of PsA for inclusion in CONTESTjt. CART analysis identified a further 5 questions for inclusion in CONTESTtree. CONTESTtree was not significant on ROC curve analysis and discarded. The other 3 questionnaires were significant in all data sets, although CONTESTw was slightly inferior to the others in the validation data sets. Potential cut points for referral were also discussed. Of 4 candidate questionnaires combining existing discriminatory items to identify PsA in people with psoriasis, 3 were found to be significant on ROC curve analysis. Testing in independent data sets identified 2 questionnaires (CONTEST and CONTESTjt) that should be pursued for further prospective testing. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Developing wind energy in Ireland - consequences for our biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, David; Stout, Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In response to climate change, the EU has set a target to achieve 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC). Consequently, Ireland has set targets of 40, 10 and 12% of energy coming from renewable sources for electricity, transport and heat, respectively, by 2020. Wind energy is expected to contribute significantly to achieving these targets given Ireland.s large onshore and offshore wind potential. However, the potential impacts of these wind farm developments on Ireland.s biodiversity remain largely un quantified. The SIMBIOSYS (www.SIMBIOSYS.ie) project was set up to investigate the impacts of a range of sectors on biodiversity and ecosystem services, with part of the project.s focus on those measures that may help mitigate the effects of climate change. In this paper we aim to assess the potential positive and negative impacts of wind farms on Ireland.s marine and terrestrial biodiversity, highlighting potential conflicts concerning the spatial distribution of our wind and biodiversity resources. To help make these assessments an extensive review of the national and international scientific literature is used to highlight the potential positive and negative impacts of wind farm developments on biodiversity to date. Using GIS, spatial analyses are then used to quantify the extent to which wind resources and current and future wind farm developments overlap with biodiversity, using indicators such as Natura 2000 sites and Red Data List Plants. The outputs of these analyses are combined to help make recommendations on the sustainable future planning and management of wind farms in Ireland. Appropriate impact assessment and careful spatial planning will help ensure the direct benefits of green house gas emission reduction are maximised without compromising the protection of biodiversity in Ireland. (Author)

  8. An integrated methodology on the suitability of offshore sites for wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Galanis, George; Péray, Marie; Filipot, Jean-François; Kalogeri, Christina; Spyrou, Christos; Diamantis, Dimitris; Kallos, Gerorge

    2016-04-01

    During, the last decades the potential and interest in wind energy investments has been constantly increasing in the European countries. As technology changes rapidly, more and more areas can be identified as suitable for energy applications. Offshore wind farms perfectly illustrate how new technologies allow to build bigger, more efficient and resistant in extreme conditions wind power plants. The current work proposes an integrated methodology to determine the suitability of an offshore marine area for the development of wind farm structures. More specifically, the region of interest is evaluated based both on the natural resources, connected to the local environmental characteristics, and potential constrains set by anthropogenic or other activities. State of the art atmospheric and wave models and a 10-year hindcast database are utilized in conjunction with local information for a number of potential constrains, leading to a 5-scale suitability index for the whole area. In this way, sub regions are characterized, at a high resolution mode, as poorly or highly suitable for wind farm development, providing a new tool for technical/research teams and decision makers. In addition, extreme wind and wave conditions and their 50-years return period are analyzed and used to define the safety level of the wind farms structural characteristics.

  9. From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian; Shaw, Chris; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind technology has recently undergone rapid deployment in the UK. And yet, up until recently, the UK was considered a laggard in terms of deploying renewable energy. How can this burst of offshore wind activity be explained? An economic analysis would seek signs for newfound competitiveness for offshore wind in energy markets. A policy analysis would highlight renewable energy policy developments and assess their contribution to economic prospects of offshore wind. However, neither perspective sheds sufficient light on the advocacy of the actors involved in the development and deployment of the technology. Without an account of technology politics it is hard to explain continuing policy support despite rising costs. By analysing the actor networks and narratives underpinning policy support for offshore wind, we explain how a fairly effective protective space was constructed through the enroling of key political and economic interests. - Highlights: • UK is world leader in offshore wind deployment. • Article explains boom in deployment by looking at the politics of renewable energy policy. • Offshore wind is supported by a variety of actors with aligned political and economic interests. • Analysis highlights the importance of a system builder

  10. Development of a plastic rotary heat exchanger for room-based ventilation in existing apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    The existing building stock will likely undergo widespread energy renovations to meet future emissions targets. Single-room ventilation may enable the process due to its simple installation, low fan power, and potential for local heat recovery. A short plastic rotary heat exchanger is developed...... for single-room ventilation based on thermal design theory. Performance is predicted from correlations of dimensionless groups for regenerative heat exchangers, and this guides the selection of a polycarbonate honeycomb with small circular channels. Experiments quantify flows and determine temperature...... efficiencies at several ventilation rates while accounting for heat gains from motors and air leakage. The measured and modelled temperature efficiencies show adequate agreement and exceed 80% for a balanced nominal ventilation rate of 28m3/h. This result meets the development criteria but cannot validate...

  11. Wind power - research and development. The wind turbine industry's view of the promotion of state-supported research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, S.

    1995-10-01

    The windmill industry in Denmark is currently confronted with making a choice between competing technologies so that the role of the stimulus of state subsidies for research has lately increased in importance. The Ministry of Energy, it is claimed, must be aware of this as possibilities for making use of research results are dictated by the market and competition. The industry is not sympathetic to the idea of state research contracts with specified goals for which manufacturers must produce a technical solution. Consultancy firms should work towards solving general problems which could help the industry as a whole. Wind turbines which are cheap to produce and operate are of more interest to industry than those which are technologically advanced or of a lighter construction. It is not thought to be advantageous to concentrate the allocation of subsidies on one key project chosen by the Ministry itself, such as the current intense interest in turbine blades. Aerodynamics, noise pollution and materials are considered as more vital areas for research. A special interest in smaller windmills is not currently relevant. Evaluations of the quality of research projects demanding subsidies should be more critical. A detailed list of subjects within this field which are considered as being relevant for research is given. The Danish windmill industry advises a centralized wind power research institution and a gradual shift of the test station at Risoe National Laboratory to Jutland as wind conditions at Risoe are not considered satisfactory. A better communication between Risoe test station and the wind power industry is recommended. (AB)

  12. Potential for Jobs and Economic Development from Offshore Wind in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-02

    In California's future scenarios, energy demand increases with population growth and productivity. Decision-makers will have to make choices about which energy resources to utilize, and offshore wind offers one option for carbon-free electricity with the potential for increased local jobs. This presentation discusses results from an NREL report, Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios. Presenter Suzanne Tegen describes the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model and its results for two offshore wind scenarios in California. She discusses different assumptions and how they affect the scenarios.

  13. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  15. Side event from the Coordination office at Warsaw: Latest developments on the French Wind Power Market: New rules, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; Elfassi, Paul; Froeding, Veronique; Petit, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    At the occasion of the 2010 edition of the European Wind energy Conference (EWEC 2010), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Side event on the latest developments of the French Wind Power Market. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The new regulatory framework under the 'Grenelle' laws: Wind energy planning. French National Action Plan: the wind energy challenge (Fabrice Cassin); 2 - The upcoming enforcement of the dangerous installations rules (ICPe) to wind power plants (Veronique Froeding); 3 - New tax system for wind energy projects and local acceptance (Jean-Francois Petit)

  16. Development of a wind farm noise propagation prediction model - project progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.; Bullmore, A.; Bass, J.; Sloth, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a twelve month measurement campaign which is part of a European project (CEC Project JOR3-CT95-0051) with the aim to substantially reduce the uncertainties involved in predicting environmentally radiated noise levels from wind farms (1). This will be achieved by comparing noise levels measure at varying distances from single and multiple sources over differing complexities of terrain with those predicted using a number of currently adopted sound propagation models. Specific objectives within the project are to: establish the important parameters controlling the propagation of wind farm noise to the far field; develop a planning tool for predicting wind farm noise emission levels under practically encountered conditions; place confidence limits on the upper and lower bounds of the noise levels predicted, thus enabling developers to quantify the risk whether noise emission from wind farms will cause nuisance to nearby residents. (Author)

  17. An extensive evaluation of wind resource using new methods and strategies for development and utilizing wind power in Mah-shahr station in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedaei, Mojtaba; Assareh, Ehsanolah; Biglari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research, results suggest that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. • The compatibility of the wind data with three methods of estimating Weibull parameters was assessed. • An extreme analysis of wind in Mah-shahr was done to determine the maximum gust wind speeds over a 50-year return period. • An extensive economic evaluation of installing a wind park was performed on RETScreen® software. - Abstract: In this study, the 10-min period measured short-term wind speed data at 10 m and 40 m heights for Mah-shahr station in Iran was statistically analyzed to determine the potential of wind power generation. In addition in this paper different distribution functions are compared to each other in order to find the best distribution in Mah-shahr which is compatible with the wind data. It is found that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. It should also be mentioned that the different methods for calculating Weibull parameters were used and compared to each other. Moreover an extreme analysis of wind data in Mah-shahr was carried out to determine the maximum gust wind speed over a 50-year return period (Ve50). Using the method of “periodic maxima” for analysis of extreme winds, it was revealed that the 50-year wind speed at 80 m in Mah-shahr which is 39.5 m/s is lower than usual values of Ve50 limits for different wind turbines. This means that the risk of extreme wind gusts in Mah-shahr might not be a problem for installation of wind turbines. From the primary evaluation of wind data in Mah-shahr it is found the studied site has an acceptable potential of wind power for electricity generation. Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights is determined. Then a simple economic evaluation carried out to determine whether studied site is suitable for development of commercial or small and residential wind turbines. It became clear

  18. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  19. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Shashidhar; K. Bhanupriya; P. Alluvada; Bandana; J. B. V. Subrahmanyam

    2012-01-01

    Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, le...

  20. 2017 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, Frank A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baranowski, Ruth E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Edward I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-13

    This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development during 2017. Regional Resource Center (RRC) leaders provided a report of wind energy development in their regions, which was combined with findings from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers to provide an account of the state of the regions, as well as updates on developments in individual states. NREL researchers and state partners added updates for all states that are not directly supported by an RRC. Accounts for each region include updates on renewable portfolio standards, workforce development, manufacturing and economic development, and individual state updates for installed wind capacity, ongoing policy developments, planned projects and their status, transmission progress reports, etc. This report also highlights the efforts of the RRCs to engage stakeholders in their individual regions.

  1. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  2. Existing contradictions and problems in China's current economic and social development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tongsan

    2014-01-01

    Since the 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China (CPC),China has made important achievements and headway in economic and social development.However,now more than ever the focus should be on the conflicts and problems that continue to exist in China's economy.This paper examines six of them:(1) lack of a firm foundation for sustaining steady economic growth;(2) risks and hidden dangers in the financial,banking,and real estate sectors and massive overcapacity in some industries;(3) increasing difficulty in increasing agricultural production and raising rural incomes;(4) severe air,water,and soil pollution in certain regions and the arduous task of energy conservation and emissions reduction;(5) major structural problems constraining employment;and (6) issues of people's livelihood that have been the source of dissatisfaction for many Chinese citizens.

  3. Psychological Contract Development: An Integration of Existing Knowledge to Form a Temporal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Windle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract has received substantial theoretical attention over the past two decades as a popular framework within which to examine contemporary employment relationships. Previous research mostly examines breach and violation of the psychological contract and its impact on employee organization outcomes. Few studies have employed longitudinal, prospective research designs to investigate the psychological contract and as a result, psychological contract content and formation are incompletely understood. It is argued that employment relationships may be better proactively managed with greater understanding of formation and changes in the psychological contract. We examine existing psychological contract literature to identify five key factors proposed to contribute to the formation of psychological contracts. We extend the current research by integrating these factors for the first time into a temporal model of psychological contract development.

  4. International wind energy development. World market update 2012. Forecast 2013-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The BTM wind report, World Market Update 2012, published by Navigant Research, is the eighteenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2013?2017 and highlighted trends for the wind market through 2022. The report delivers several views on the fast?growing wind market, including: 1) More than 285 GW of wind power now installed globally; 2) 45GW of new capacity added in 2012, including 1.1 GW from offshore wind; 3) The United States surpassed China as the largest market in terms of new installations in 2012; 4) Europe lost its position as the largest world region in terms of new installations; 5) Wind installations in the Americas grew by 12.3 percent compared with 2011; 6) Big shake?up in the top ten wind turbine supplier ranking; 7) Strong Chinese presence among top 15 wind owner?operators; 8) Wind market structures continue to evolve; 9) The penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply has reached 2.62 percent; 10) Offshore wind more than doubled the capacity added in 2011, with more than 4 GW currently under construction. With the addition of 44,951 MW in new installations in 2012, world wind power capacity grew to around 285,700 MW, an increase in the total wind power installation base of 18.6 percent. Market growth year-over-year in 2012, though a modest 7.8 percent, was still higher than in 2011. Average annual growth for the past five years has been 17.8 percent, achieved during the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, with traditionally large markets for wind power in economic recession in America and Europe. The wind power industry continues to demonstrate its ability to rapidly evolve to meet new demands in markets that face a variety of challenges. The focus on product diversification grows with wind turbine vendors designing machines for maximum energy production in low wind speed

  5. Development and application of incrementally complex tools for wind turbine aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Christopher H.

    Advances and availability of computational resources have made wind farm design using simulation tools a reality. Wind farms are battling two issues, affecting the cost of energy, that will make or break many future investments in wind energy. The most significant issue is the power reduction of downstream turbines operating in the wake of upstream turbines. The loss of energy from wind turbine wakes is difficult to predict and the underestimation of energy losses due to wakes has been a common problem throughout the industry. The second issue is a shorter lifetime of blades and past failures of gearboxes due to increased fluctuations in the unsteady loading of waked turbines. The overall goal of this research is to address these problems by developing a platform for a multi-fidelity wind turbine aerodynamic performance and wake prediction tool. Full-scale experiments in the field have dramatically helped researchers understand the unique issues inside a large wind farm, but experimental methods can only be used to a limited extent due to the cost of such field studies and the size of wind farms. The uncertainty of the inflow is another inherent drawback of field experiments. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, strategically validated using carefully performed wind farm field campaigns, are becoming a more standard design practice. The developed CFD models include a blade element model (BEM) code with a free-vortex wake, an actuator disk or line based method with large eddy simulations (LES) and a fully resolved rotor based method with detached eddy simulations (DES) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). To create more realistic simulations, performance of a one-way coupling between different mesoscale atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models and the three microscale CFD solvers is tested. These methods are validated using data from incrementally complex test cases that include the NREL Phase VI wind tunnel test, the Sexbierum wind farm and the

  6. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  7. Application of a fuzzy cognitive map based on a structural equation model for the identification of limitations to the development of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Yen-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researchers having investigating the development of wind power, the correlation between the elements influencing wind power development has often been ignored. Hence, this research hopes to incorporate both structural equation model (SEM) and fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) to identify a mutual relationship between the various elements, so as to provide feasible recommendations for management strategies. Initially, SEM is used for identification of correlation between the elements and indicating their direction and strength. A standardized causal coefficient from SEM was then used to create an FCM illustrating the effect of the status of one component on the status of another component. The research results pointed out that “policy” would be the major challenge faced by wind power development, as well as the main cause for other obstructions. Therefore, under the objective of maximizing economic benefits, short-term strategies can adopt suitable measures for the two dimensions of “technology” and “environment”; and while mid-term strategies must consider the indirect influences from “social” dimension, long-term strategies must work on “policy”. - Highlights: • Apply SEM to explain interrelationships between the obstacles of wind power. • Adopt ‘what if’ simulation analysis to explore the optimal management strategies. • Intermediary variables were existed in the potential paths. • The results prove that correlations do exist between the obstacles. • The “policy aspect” is the main obstacle faced by wind power

  8. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  9. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  10. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  11. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report `International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996` every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  12. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report 'International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996' every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  13. Development of the inventory for existing and future radioactive wastes in Switzerland. ISRAM and MIRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxeiner, Harald; Vespa, Marika; Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Caruso, Stefano; Mueller, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Switzerland arises from the 5 nuclear power plants and from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research. The waste has to be conditioned for interim storage and later deep geological disposal, which requires extensive research and development work. The production of waste packages is supported by quality assurance checks and characterisation and inventorying programmes. The management of all produced waste packages together with the associated key data is done with the computer-based 'Information System for Radioactive Materials (ISRAM)'. This also ensures complete tracking of all existing waste packages from their production to their final disposal in a deep geological repository. For planning purposes and for design studies for the planned repositories in Switzerland, waste that will arise in the future also has to be taken into consideration. Using ISRAM as a basis, a 'Model Inventory for Radioactive Materials (MIRAM)' was also developed; this contains all the key data required for safety analysis and facility planning. Together, these tools (ISRAM und MIRAM) form the basis for complete and comprehensive documentation and tracking of radioactive wastes up to the time of their geological disposal. (orig.)

  14. On developing a prospecting tool for wind industry and policy decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, Charles; Adelaja, Adesoji; Calnin, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the rudiments of a Wind Prospecting Tool designed to inform private and public decision makers involved in wind industry development in reducing transaction costs associated with identifying areas of mutual focus within a state. The multiple layer decision support framework has proven to be valuable to industry, state government and local decision makers. Information on wind resources, land availability, potential land costs, potential NIMBYism concerns and economic development potential were integrated to develop a framework for decision support. The paper also highlights implications for decision support research and the role of higher education in providing anticipatory science to enhance private and public choices in economic development. - Research Highlights: →In this paper we explore the building and value of a wind industry location decision support tool. →We examine the development process from the industry perspective. →We discuss the creation of a decision support tool that was designed for industry, state policy makers and local decision makers. →We build a model framework for wind prospecting decision support. →Finally we discuss the impact on local and state decision making as a result of being informed by science based decision support.

  15. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  16. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.L.; Pollock, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds

  17. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  18. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  19. How to correct for long-term externalities of large-scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of recent renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply: it necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development in the presence of either subsidized or market driven development scenarios. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on prices and reliability of supply. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalised for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. - Highlights: • We model power market players’ investment decisions incorporating wind power. • We examine two market designs: an energy-only market and a capacity mechanism. • We test two types of wind power development paths: subsidised and market-driven. • Capacity mechanisms compensate for the externalities of wind power developments

  20. Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yong; Li Jing; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Government policy continues to play a crucial role in the development of wind power industry in China. The 2005 “Renewable Energy Law” and related policies have driven the rapid increase in wind power installed capacity in China over the past half-decade, with capacity doubling annually since 2005. However, a large number of wind farms generate electricity well below their installed capacity, resulting in considerable wastage of resources. Non-grid-connected wind power theory proposes that large-scale wind power output does not necessarily have to be fed into the grid, but can be used directly in industrial production. Thus, the use of the theory can promote the sustainable development of the wind power industry by obviating the need for power grid. In this paper we analyze the influence of government policy on wind power industry from the perspective of institutional change, by employing the basic theories of new institutional economics. A development model for non-grid-connected wind power is proposed in order to implement institutional change in accordance with the specific characteristics of wind power industry in China. This model requires the government to play an active role in institutional development by increasing economic efficiency in order to promote the sustainable development of wind power. - Highlights: ► New institutional economics-based analysis paradigm for wind power policy proposed. ► Policies for China's wind power industry analyzed according to the paradigm. ► Hybrid development mode of institutional change is the best pathway for wind power. ► Potential development policy for China's wind power industry recommended.

  1. International wind energy development. World market update 1998. Forecast 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the fourth issue of the annual World Market Update from BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1998. All figures in the status part refer to end of the year 1998, the past 3 years development is also assessed and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. The most significant figures and trends in 1998 were: The marketplace - The annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 55% resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1998 of 10.153 MW. 1.766 MW was installed in Europe and the region is still the leading market regarding utilization of wind energy. The US market took a rapid pace and installed 577 MW during the year. The large Enron Wind Corp has taken the larger part of this market. On the supply side Danish NEG Micon A/S has consolidated the position as being the supplier of the most MW wind capacity in the world and the company has a world market share of 23,5 per cent. The company acquired the Danish Wind World af 1997 A/S which was among the larger companies in 1997. Also the Dutch manufacturer NedWind B.V. was acquired by NEG Micon A/S curing 1998. The group of 'other' manufactureres represents a minor percentage of deliveries than earlier and concentration in the industry seems to continue. The liberalized Energy Market and how to position the industry in this different economic environment will be a challenge for the wind industry way into the next century. In Europe, the European Commission's draft Directive with proposal for an outline of common rules for support of among other renewables wind energy has been set on another route which seems to delay the paper. In the US there are still hopes for a new period with PTC (Production Tax Credit). There are in some States hopes among the wind energy people that the 'Green Market Programs' will play a more dominant role in the future. In Asia the crises seems to halt the wind power development. Forecast and Technical trends - Based on the positive trends in the markets for wind power

  2. Maximizing your wind farm development value in the eyes of the investor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrigle, P. [Solas Energy Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    While there are now a significant number of wind power projects on the market, few buyers have access to sufficient capital funds to build. This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of maximizing the value of wind farm development projects in order to attract investors. The poor investment climate was attributed to low power and natural gas prices, as well as to the high cost of wind farms and a shortage of capital. Factors that influence the value of a wind power project included the quality of the asset, project risks, project size, and the stage of development. Developers must demonstrate to investors that transmission access is ensured, that there is sufficient stakeholder support and adequate wind resources. The ability to develop and expand on an initial project should also be demonstrated. Investors require documentation in relation to transmission information, stakeholder consultation work, and constraint maps with industry standard setbacks. Information must be consistent and credible. The use of qualified, experienced consultants was recommended. tabs., figs.

  3. Maximizing your wind farm development value in the eyes of the investor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrigle, P.

    2010-01-01

    While there are now a significant number of wind power projects on the market, few buyers have access to sufficient capital funds to build. This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of maximizing the value of wind farm development projects in order to attract investors. The poor investment climate was attributed to low power and natural gas prices, as well as to the high cost of wind farms and a shortage of capital. Factors that influence the value of a wind power project included the quality of the asset, project risks, project size, and the stage of development. Developers must demonstrate to investors that transmission access is ensured, that there is sufficient stakeholder support and adequate wind resources. The ability to develop and expand on an initial project should also be demonstrated. Investors require documentation in relation to transmission information, stakeholder consultation work, and constraint maps with industry standard setbacks. Information must be consistent and credible. The use of qualified, experienced consultants was recommended. tabs., figs.

  4. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  5. Offshore wind energy development in France and Germany: what role for territories? Final dissertation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douteau, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    'Pays du Bessin au Virois' is a French association of cities. The association is concerned by projects of offshore wind farms. It wants to think about the consequences of the offshore wind farms on the territory, and the integration in the local activities. For that reason the association wanted to learn from the German experience of offshore development. To compare the French and the German situation, this report raises the question of the relationship between an offshore wind farm and a territory. Thanks to the characteristics of an offshore wind farm and of a territory, I built a method to analyze the relationship between a park and a territory. I studied two cases: the French territory Pays du Bessin au Virois related to the three projects of offshore wind parks in the Baie de Seine, and the German territory Ostfriesland, close to the first offshore wind park in Germany, Alpha Ventus. The two cases showed that important topics could be studied for every territory. There are differences between French and German situation. However the comparison sets on interesting actions for the Pays du Bessin au Virois. Another comparison can be realized with Denmark or United Kingdom, which offshore strategy is closer to the French situation. (author) [fr

  6. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Guo, Yi [National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Gao, Zhen [Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Moan, Torgeir [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  7. Possibilities for Further Wind Power Development in Croatia According to Natura 2000 Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juratek, I.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of power plants on the environment has become an essential element of planning and development of the power sector considering the increase of environmental awareness in recent years. Therefore, environmental acceptability is often more important than the energy and economic values of the particular power plant. Renewable energy sources play significant role in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and constitute key part of the Climate and Energy Policy. Despite their importance, the development of renewables is still faced with many obstacles. Nowadays, there are 19 wind power plants in Croatia and a Contract to Purchase Electricity for 10 more plants has been signed with the authorized operator (HROTE). In addition to the possibilities of connecting to the electricity grid, further development of the wind power projects will largely depend on successful issuance of the approval by the Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Republic of Croatia, which entitles the developer to proceed with the project. Stopping the development of wind power projects due to the impact on the ecological network has already become a reality. Such scenario seems increasingly likely for the development of new projects due to cumulative impact of the wind farms on the environment. Since it is evident that the county's spatial plans have too many locations intended for the wind power projects, this paper provides both spatial and environmental analysis of the possibilities for further wind power development in regards to the target species and habitats, as well as the integrity of the NATURA 2000 area. The paper is concluded with several recommendations.(author).

  8. Development of large scale wind energy conservation system. Development of large scale wind energy conversion system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of large scale wind energy conversion system. The study on technological development of key components evaluates performance of, and confirms reliability and applicability of, hydraulic systems centered by those equipped with variable pitch mechanisms and electrohydraulic servo valves that control them. The study on blade conducts fatigue and crack-propagation tests, which show that the blades developed have high strength. The study on speed-increasing gear conducts load tests, confirming the effects of reducing vibration and noise by modification of the gear teeth. The study on NACELLE cover conducts vibration tests to confirm its vibration characteristics, and analyzes three-dimensional vibration by the finite element method. Some components for a 500kW commercial wind mill are fabricated, including rotor heads, variable pitch mechanisms, speed-increasing gears, YAW systems, and hydraulic control systems. The others fabricated include a remote supervisory control system for maintenance, system to integrate the wind mill into a power system, and electrical control devices in which site conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and lightening, are taken into consideration.

  9. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Leonard, T. M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a buildable blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  10. Potential role of power authorities in offshore wind power development in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanju, Amardeep; Firestone, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how power authorities could facilitate and manage offshore wind power development in US coastal waters. The power authority structure is an American 20th century institution for managing energy resources-a form of a public authority or public corporation dedicated to creating, operating and maintaining electric generation and transmission infrastructure. Offshore wind power is characterized by high capital costs but no fuel costs and thus low operating costs. Therefore a power authority, by virtue of its access to low-cost capital and managerial flexibility, could facilitate offshore wind power development by reducing financial risk of developing and lowering debt payments, thus improving the risk profile and lowering the cost of electricity production. Additionally, power authorities can be made up of multiple states, thus opening the possibility for joint action by neighboring coastal states. Using primary and secondary data, we undertake an in-depth analysis of the potential benefits and shortcomings of a power authority approach. - Highlights: → Proposes an institutional solution in the form of power authority for offshore wind power. → Power authority structure can significantly lower the cost of capital. → Tax-free bond financing available to power authority can significantly reduce the cost of energy. → It can enhance regional collaboration among coastal states to harness the offshore wind potential.

  11. Development of methods for assessing the vulnerability of Australian residential building stock to severe wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Martin; Sandland, Carl; Edwards, Mark; Ginger, John; Holmes, John

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree of damage to residential structures expected from severe wind is used to study the benefits from adaptation strategies developed in response to expected changes in wind severity due to climate change. This study will inform government, the insurance industry and provide emergency services with estimates of expected damage. A series of heuristic wind vulnerability curves for Australian residential structures has been developed. In order to provide rigor to the heuristic curves and to enable quantitative assessment to be made of adaptation strategies, work has commenced to produce a simulation tool to quantitatively assess damage to buildings from severe wind. The simulation tool accounts for variability in wind profile, shielding, structural strength, pressure coefficients, building orientation, component self weights, debris damage and water ingress via a Monte Carlo approach. The software takes a component-based approach to modelling building vulnerability. It is based on the premise that overall building damage is strongly related to the failure of key components (i.e. connections). If these failures can be ascertained, and associated damage from debris and water penetration reliably estimated, scenarios of complete building damage can be assessed. This approach has been developed with varying degrees of rigor by researchers around the world and is best practice for the insurance industry.

  12. What hinder the further development of wind power in China?—A socio-technical barrier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Rui-Dong; Chen, Yu-Long

    2016-01-01

    Promoting wind power is a long-term strategy of China to respond to both energy shortage and environmental pollution. Stimulated by various incentive policies, wind power generation in China has achieved tremendous growth, with the cumulative installed capacity being the largest worldwide for five consecutive years since 2010. However, obstructed by various barriers, wind power provides only 2.6% of national electricity generation in China, despite the strong support from the government. From a socio-technical transition perspective, this paper aims to systematically analyze the barriers hindering the further development of China's wind power. A wind power niche model is established to illustrate the complex interactions among actors in the wind power industry and electricity supply regime. Then, qualitative content analysis is adopted to process the related evidence and data, and four categories of socio-technical barriers are identified, including technology, governance, infrastructure and culture barriers. The study shows that various interrelated barriers form a blocking mechanism which prohibits the further development of wind power in China. Policy suggestions are proposed to eliminate the barriers and further empower the wind power niche. The lesson learned from China can offer useful references for other economies to promote wind power industries of their own. - Highlights: • Use wind power niche model to illustrate the interactions among actors in the industry. • Analyze technological, governance, infrastructural and cultural barriers. • Multidimensionality and interconnectedness of the barriers are illustrated. • Policy suggestions are proposed to deal with the wind power development barriers.

  13. Large scale development of wind power. Consequences for the national grid and the need for load balancing; Storskalig utbyggnad av vindkraft. Konsekvenser foer stamnaetet och behovet av reglerkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    Wind power is expected to growth rapidly in Sweden. The existing certificate system gives economic incentives for development of 17 TWh from renewable energy sources until 2016, compared to the 2002 level. The Swedish Energy Agency estimates that 9 TWh wind power will be built by 2020, given the present certificate system. However, a new planning goal of 30 TWh wind energy by 2020 has been proposed by the Agency. It is very important for Svenska Kraftnaet to follow the development in order to take the right actions to adapt the national grid to the increased share of wind power. The total increased need for balancing power is estimated to be: 1 400-1 800 MW for 10 TWh added wind power, and 4 300-5 300 MW for 30 TWh. About 15% of the increased balancing need must be assigned to automatically frequency regulating generation. The rest can be made up of sources that can be regulated on a minute- or hour-scale. The planned wind power risks to replace generation with regulating capacity, and it is important to continuously analyze if and how this happens, and which the consequences will be for the balancing capacity. The socio-economic effects for the national grid include increased investment cost and increased costs foe balancing and regulating. Massive expansion in North Sweden is the most costly alternative, with a capitalized cost estimated to 25 000 MSEK (about 4 000 MUSD) at an expansion of 30 TWh wind power. This can be compared to the estimated investment cost for the wind power expansion of 150 000 MSEK

  14. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  15. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  16. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miles, J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Zammit, D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Loomis, D. [Great Lakes Wind Network, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  17. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  18. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    years, with each year simulated with five random seeds, leading to a total of 25 annual wind power time series for six large offshore wind farms, summing up to a little over 330 wind turbines. Two storm control strategies were used. The analysis involved several aspects inspired from reliability studies....... The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production......Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five...

  19. Development of a Probabilistic Tornado Wind Hazard Model for the Continental United States Volume I: Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnade, A; Hossain, Q; Kimball, J

    2000-01-01

    Since the mid-l980's, assessment of the wind and tornado risks at the Department of Energy (DOE) high and moderate hazard facilities has been based on the straight wind/tornado hazard curves given in UCRL-53526 (Coats, 1985). These curves were developed using a methodology that utilized a model, developed by McDonald, for severe winds at sub-tornado wind speeds and a separate model, developed by Fujita, for tornado wind speeds. For DOE sites not covered in UCRL-53526, wind and tornado hazard assessments are based on the criteria outlined in DOE-STD-1023-95 (DOE, 1996), utilizing the methodology in UCRL-53526; Subsequent to the publication of UCRL53526, in a study sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed tornado wind hazard curves for the contiguous United States, NUREG/CR-4461 (Ramsdell, 1986). Because of the different modeling assumptions and underlying data used to develop the tornado wind information, the wind speeds at specified exceedance levels, at a given location, based on the methodology in UCRL-53526, are different than those based on the methodology in NUREG/CR-4461. In 1997, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was funded by the DOE to review the current methodologies for characterizing tornado wind hazards and to develop a state-of-the-art wind/tornado characterization methodology based on probabilistic hazard assessment techniques and current historical wind data. This report describes the process of developing the methodology and the database of relevant tornado information needed to implement the methodology. It also presents the tornado wind hazard curves obtained from the application of the method to DOE sites throughout the contiguous United States

  20. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelowa Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15% despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  1. Wind tunnel testing of scaled models of a newly developed Darrieus-style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scungio, M.; Arpino, F.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind tunnel investigations of Darrieus-style VAWT with auxiliary blades have been made. • Results have been compared with those from standard Darrieus VAWT. • Static and dynamic power and torque coefficients were measured and evaluated. • The auxiliary airfoils have demonstrated to give more torque at the lower wind speeds. • The proposed VAWT configuration is able to work in a wide range of wind speeds. - Abstract: Renewable sources of energy, needed because of the increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in wind energy. Among the different typologies, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, wind tunnel investigations about the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds, has been made on scaled models. The micro turbine under investigation consists of three pairs of airfoils. Each pair consists of a main and auxiliary airfoil with different chord lengths. A standard Darrieus configuration, consisting of three single airfoils, was also tested for comparison. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). Measured data were reported in terms of dimensionless power and torque coefficients for dynamic performance analysis and static torque coefficient for static performance analysis. The adoption of auxiliary airfoils has demonstrated to give more dynamic torque at the lower wind speeds with respect to a standard Darrieus rotor, resulting in better performance for all the wind speeds considered. In terms of dynamic power coefficient, the standard Darrieus

  2. Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson Willmott, Julia; Forcey, Greg M; Hooton, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    A scarcity of baseline data is a significant barrier to understanding and mitigating potential impacts of offshore development on birds and bats. Difficult and sometimes unpredictable conditions coupled with high expense make gathering such data a challenge. The Acoustic and Thermographic Offshore Monitoring (ATOM) system combines thermal imaging with acoustic and ultrasound sensors to continuously monitor bird and bat abundance, flight height, direction, and speed. ATOM's development and potential capabilities are discussed, and illustrated using onshore and offshore test data obtained over 16 months in the eastern USA. Offshore deployment demonstrated birds tending to fly into winds and activity declining sharply in winds >10 km h(-1). Passerines showed distinct seasonal changes in flight bearing and flew higher than non-passerines. ATOM data could be used to automatically shut down wind turbines to minimize collision mortality while simultaneously providing information for modeling activity in relation to weather and season.

  3. Development of a graphical user interface and graphics display for the WIND system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, B.L.; Fast, J.D.; Suire, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced graphical user interface (GUI) and improved graphics for transport calculations have been developed for the Weather Information and Display System (WINDS). Two WINDS transport codes, Area Evac and 2DPUF, have been ported from their original VAX/VMS environment to a UNIX operating system and reconfigured to take advantage of the new graphics capability. A developmental prototype of this software is now available on a UNIX based IBM 340 workstation in the Dose Assessment Center (DAC). Automatic transfer of meteorological data from the WINDS VAX computers to the IBM workstation in the DAC has been implemented. This includes both regional National Weather Service (NWS) data and SRS tower data. The above developments fulfill a FY 1993 DOE milestone

  4. Development and comparisons of wind retrieval algorithms for small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Zielke, B. S.; Klein, P. M.; Leeman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) as platforms for conducting fundamental and applied research in the lower atmosphere due to their relatively low cost and ability to collect samples with high spatial and temporal resolution. Concurrent with this development comes the need for accurate instrumentation and measurement methods suitable for small meteorological UASs. Moreover, the instrumentation to be integrated into such platforms must be small and lightweight. Whereas thermodynamic variables can be easily measured using well aspirated sensors onboard, it is much more challenging to accurately measure the wind with a UAS. Several algorithms have been developed that incorporate GPS observations as a means of estimating the horizontal wind vector, with each algorithm exhibiting its own particular strengths and weaknesses. In the present study, the performance of three such GPS-based wind-retrieval algorithms has been investigated and compared with wind estimates from rawinsonde and sodar observations. Each of the algorithms considered agreed well with the wind measurements from sounding and sodar data. Through the integration of UAS-retrieved profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic parameters, one can investigate the static and dynamic stability of the atmosphere and relate them to the state of the boundary layer across a variety of times and locations, which might be difficult to access using conventional instrumentation.

  5. Wind energy development: Methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dalthorp, Daniel; Miller, T J; Bruns, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fatalities at wind energy facilities after they have been constructed can provide valuable information regarding impacts of wind power development on wildlife. The objective of this monitoring is to estimate abundance of a super-population of carcasses that entered the area within a designated period of time. By definition, the population is not closed and carcasses can enter as they are killed through collision with turbines, and leave as they are removed by scavengers or decompose to a point where they are not recognizable. In addition, the population is not inherently mobile, but can only change location through some external force. A focus on number of animal carcasses comprising the super-population, combined with peculiar traits that resist classic assumptions, distinguish fatality estimation at wind-power facilities from more classic abundance estimates that can be addressed through mark-recapture techniques or other well-known abundance estimators. We review the available methods to estimate the super-population of carcasses at wind power facilities. We discuss the role of these estimates in determining appropriate levels of minimization and mitigation of impacts to individual species of concern. We discuss the potential to extrapolate these measurements to reflect the cumulative effect of the industry on individual species. Finally, we suggest avenues of research needed to strengthen our understanding of the effect wind power development has, and might have in the future, on wildlife on this continent and worldwide.

  6. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  7. An over painted oriental arts: Evaluation of the development of the Chinese renewable energy market using the wind power market as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, James; Ji, Fuxing; Zhang Ling; Chen Yushou

    2009-01-01

    China is now the largest CO 2 polluter in the world. However, the renewable energy policies in China are controversial and one can easily draw the wrong conclusions that Chinese renewable energy development has taken off from a surface assessment of the policies. By investigating and summarizing the first-hand experiences of participation in the Chinese renewable market (mainly wind farm development) in the past five years, this paper provides another dimension of policy analysis and independent review of the current issues facing the market. An investigation of policy changes and consequences clearly demonstrates the transformation of the Chinese renewable market. The domestic manufacturing quality and unprofessional design of wind farms made most developers' financial returns unrealistic in the wind market. Despite the difficulties and inconsistency in the system, China is tackling environmental issues seriously and heading in the right direction. With centrally controlled management, the Chinese strategies do not have to be justified financially. It is envisioned by the authors that re-organizing over 70 existing Chinese wind turbine manufacturers is unavoidable. Establishment of an internal renewable market, such as Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) system in the UK whose effectiveness is another subject of debate, would be an effective means by which the Chinese government in their post-2012 strategy could make the wind market more financially viable.

  8. 风力发电发展现状及前景浅析%Analysis of Development Status and Prospect of Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长泉

    2016-01-01

    This paper expounds the present development situation of wind turbines, points out the problems existed in the wind turbines industry in China, and puts forward relevant proposals, in order to realize more effective development and utilization of wind energy resources, which has very important significance to improve the efficiency of wind power generation, reduce costs, enhance the awareness of environmental protection and ease the pressure of energy. This paper also prospects for the development of wind power industry in China.%论述了风力发电的发展现状,在此基础上指出了我国在风力发电行业中存在的不足,并提出了相关的解决建议,以此来更有效地开发利用风能资源,这对提高风力发电效率、降低成本、增强环保意识以及缓解能源压力等方面具有十分重要的意义。展望了我国风力发电事业的发展前景。

  9. Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, G; Osma, G; Vergara, P; Rey, J

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m 2 , equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m 2 /day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures

  10. Synthesis of wind energy development and potential impacts on wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, there is growing public interest in and policy pressure for developing alternative and renewable sources of energy. Wind energy facilities in the Pacific Northwest expanded rapidly over the past decade, as a result of state policies that encourage wind energy development. While much of the development thus far has occurred on private lands, there is...

  11. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  12. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  13. Effects of wind energy development on nesting ecology of greater prairie-chickens in fragmented grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-08-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before-after control-impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (β = 0.03, 95% CI = -1.2-1.3) or nest survival (β = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6-0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Decision making and risk analysis during the development of wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhaesebroeck, M.

    2004-11-01

    This study aims at determining a methodology or criteria which can be used as decision making tools for the development of wind power projects and for the objective profitability comparison between several projects. In the first part, the different steps of the development of a wind power project in France are described. For each step, the cost of the studies, the related approaches and the main risks of abandonment are precised. The potential time drifts in the planning of the project are identified on the basis of the experience feedback of the first years of wind power development in France. In the second part, the possibilities of using classical investment choice techniques are analyzed. The characteristics having more impact on the project profitability are identified. In the third part, the sequential models with increasing information are used to evaluate a project, whatever its level of development. Finally, a concrete case is considered to see how these models can be used as decision making tools during key steps of wind farms development. (J.S.)

  15. Applications of wind turbines in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S; Templin, R J

    1977-01-01

    There are differing views as to the role of wind energy in the overall requirements. While some people tend to ignore it there are others who think that wind could be a major source of energy. In this paper an effort has been made to determine the wind power potential and also the amount that is economically usable. From the existing wind data a map showing the distribution of wind power density has been prepared. This map shows that the maritime provinces and the west coast of Hudson Bay have high wind power potential. These figures show that the wind power potential is of the same order as the installed electrical generating capacity in Canada (58 x 10/sup 6/kW in 1974). However, in order to determine how much of this power is usable the economics of adding wind energy to an existing system must be considered. A computer program has been developed at NRC to analyze the coupling of wind turbines with mixed power systems. Using this program and making certain assumptions about the cost of WECS and fuel the maximum amount of usable wind energy has been calculated. It is shown that if an installed capacity of 420 megawatts of wind power was added to the existing diesel capacity it would result in a savings of 60,000,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. On the other hand it is shown that if the existing installed hydro electric capacity of 37,000 megawatts (1976) was increased to 60,000 megawatts without increasing the average water flow rate, an installed capacity of 60,000 megawatts of wind power could be added to the system. This would result in an average of 14,000 megawatts from the wind. Using projected manufacturing costs for vertical axis wind turbines, the average cost of wind energy could be in the range of 1.4 cents/kwh to 3.6 cents/kwh.

  16. A platform for development and evaluation of real - time wind energy conversion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccaceli, G; Cendoya, M; Battaiotto, P

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising power generation alternatives, and one of the most dynamic scenarios for novel control strategies. The particular characteristics of each geographical zone, and the inherent randomness of the wind impose important constrains for the evaluation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). This is particularly true for wind turbines and their associated instrumentation. A wind turbine emulator (WTE) can be used to help in the evaluation of hardware-software alternatives, avoiding difficult field tests by recreating real environments on a controlled testbed. It consists of an electrical machine driven by a solid-state converter. WTEs are controlled to provide a desired dynamic Torque-Speed characteristic, equivalent to a real wind turbine under prescribed external conditions. The control system provides a desired torque value as a function of wind and turbine shaft speeds. This work presents the hardware / software development of a WECS emulator to be used in analysis and design of Real-Time control strategies for different types of electric generators. The proposed system is composed by a wind turbine emulator connected to an AC generator. The Wind Turbine Emulator consists of a direct current (DC) motor that is driven by a four-quadrant DC/DC converter or chopper. It is made of a MOSFET H-Bridge, with a current control loop. The generator block consists of an asynchronous AC machine, driven by static converters tailored to particular applications (autonomous or grid-connected WECS).With the objective to have a versatile system, the control of WTE and WECS generator is carried out by a Pentium PC equipped with an I/O multifunction acquisition board. It generates reference values for the current control loop driving the chopper and measures the shaft rotation speed using an incremental optical encoder. Software for the PC is developed in MatLab/Simulink, using Real Time WorkShop (RTW) and Real Time Windows Target (RTWT). This

  17. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  18. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  19. Sustainable development of the today accommodation; Developpement durable de l'habitat existant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)

  20. Development and validation of a new fallout transport method using variable spectral winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    A new method was developed to incorporate variable winds into fallout transport calculations. The method uses spectral coefficients derived by the National Meteorological Center. Wind vector components are computed with the coefficients along the trajectories of falling particles. Spectral winds are used in the two-step method to compute dose rate on the ground, downwind of a nuclear cloud. First, the hotline is located by computing trajectories of particles from an initial, stabilized cloud, through spectral winds to the ground. The connection of particle landing points is the hotline. Second, dose rate on and around the hotline is computed by analytically smearing the falling cloud's activity along the ground. The feasibility of using spectral winds for fallout particle transport was validated by computing Mount St. Helens ashfall locations and comparing calculations to fallout data. In addition, an ashfall equation was derived for computing volcanic ash mass/area on the ground. Ashfall data and the ashfall equation were used to back-calculate an aggregated particle size distribution for the Mount St. Helens eruption cloud

  1. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  2. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  3. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided...... in this paper includes an overview of the laminate construction and initial data for the monotonic tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior and tension-tension fatigue life of panels formed by hot-pressing. In addition, a discussion of fracture resistance of the bamboo-poplar laminate, under Mode I...

  4. The Use of Design Models of Wind-Electric Set with a Horizontal Axis of Rotation of the Wind Wheel for Dynamic Calculations at Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of modern urban development raise a significant question about an environmental cleanliness of progressing cities. Energy sources which are running on fuel cause tremendous harm to the atmosphere. Therefore, special attention is paid to the rational use of natural renewable resources such as wind and solar energy. Wind-electric sets, or wind turbines, are able to work autonomously, which is also important for the development of modern “smart” cities. Currently, the most commonly used design of wind turbines is the system which has the form of a tower of circular cross section (also called pipe, which carries at the upper end a nacelle with wind wheel. When such a system is being designed in urban conditions the wind pulsation and seismic calculations are added to the standard calculations. These added calculations are dynamic loads. It is known that in the process of solution of dynamic tasks design models of various levels of approximation can be used. It occurs due to stages of the design and other factors. The question of errors, which are associated with the use of a dissected, or partitioned, design scheme, raises.

  5. Factors of the uneven regional development of wind energy projects (a case of the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Kunc, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2010), s. 183-199 ISSN 0016-7193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB700860801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : wind energy * diffusion of innovation * social acceptance * uneven development Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.

    1997-01-01

    The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is

  7. Planning and development of wind farms: Environmental impact and grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given by DTUWind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to planning procedures, environmental impact assessments, and grid connection....

  8. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady......-state design code, aeroelastic simulations were performed in turbulent wind conditions to simulate the pitch system dynamics. Physical testing of the full turbine was not completed, however the hub sub-assembly was tested on its own to validate the passive pitch characteristics and showed good agreement...

  9. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  10. Development of a test facility for PV-Wind hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Mustafa [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Ege Tech., Electronics Technolgy; Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the potential for performance improvements of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy systems, a test facility has been installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University. Hybrid system consist of a wind turbine, PV array, battery, AC and DC loads, inverters, charge regulators and a data logging and control unit. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using a data logging unit. The LABVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed data logging and control unit permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility in the case of changes, while it can be easily extended for controlling the of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system operation. (orig.)

  11. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  12. Social acceptance of wind energy development and planning in rural communities of Australia: A consumer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Clare; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.

    2014-01-01

    Social acceptance is necessary for widespread adoption of new renewable energy technologies. A lack of social acceptance by local community residents is a barrier to increasing the renewable energy mix and targets in Australia. This study empirically evaluated predictor importance of key constructs of social acceptance, using responses from a sample of 226 survey respondents in Australia. Regression analysis suggest that ‘Concerns with wind turbines’ was the predictor most strongly correlated with Social Acceptance, followed by ‘Annoyance with wind turbines’, and then ‘Consultation with stakeholders’. Implications of the study and recommendations for consideration by various interest groups (such as policy makers, and potential entrepreneurs) are discussed. This research contributes to theory building rather than theory testing of social acceptance of wind energy development

  13. Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the co-existence of natural and supernatural explanations for illness and disease transmission, from a developmental perspective. The participants (5-, 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults; N = 366) were drawn from 2 Sesotho-speaking South African communities, where Western biomedical and traditional healing frameworks were…

  14. International wind energy development. World marked update 1999. Forecast 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This is the fifth issue of the annual World Market Update by BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1999. All figures in the status refer to the end of year 1999. It is the last update from the 20th century, in which wind energy developed during the last two decades to become a very serious part of the world electricity supply. As in previous reports, the past 3 years' development in the wind energy sector is assessed, and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. Wind power is the world's fastest growing energy source, with an average annual growth rate of 40 % over the last five years. Wind energy is a clean and abundant energy source, and it is becomming a preferred source of energy not only due to the environmental benefits, but also because it has become increasingly cost competitive in the world energy markets. One of the most significant figures and trends from this fast growing market during 1999 was that the annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 51 %, resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1999 of 13,932 MW. The growth rates in the wind industry can easily be compared to the growth rates in the IT sector, although the growth differ much from country to country. The high growth rates are still very much influenced by political and economical issues, but the continuously improved technology and thus also the redused cost of energy becomes more and more significant, and there are hardly any arguments left why wind energy should not play a very significant role in the electricity supply. Approximately 81 % of the new capacity of 3,922 were installed in Europe, emphasizing that this region is still the major market place. The US market picked up close to the PTC expiry date (Production Tax Credit) on June 30, 1999. In terms of single markets it was, however, the German market which once again took the lead with installed capacity of 1,568 MW. Germany thereby consolidated the position as the leading wind energy country in the world. Spain

  15. Impact of the Clean Development Mechanism on wind energy investments in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunc, Murat; Pak, Ruhan [Yeditepe Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Systems Engineering Dept.

    2012-12-01

    As carbon trading continues to be implemented on both a national and an international scale, it is becoming an important factor in renewable energy investment decisions. Turkey, with continuous growth of carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption since 2001, ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2009 and began registration of projects with greenhouse gas reductions in 2010. In light of these developments, wind energy resources with a potential of 48,000 MW are among the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy in Turkey. The aim of our study is to reveal the importance of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol on wind energy investment decisions. A broad review of wind energy in Turkey is given, and then, a comprehensive feasibility study of a wind energy firm with a valuation model including Certified Emission Reduction (CER) prices is applied to a case study, the Mega Metallurgy Power. With a holistic and interdisciplinary system engineering approach, results are obtained using comprehensive analysis of technology, emission, and power generation of a wind energy firm linked to a valuation model. This comprehensive model sets the investment decision-making criteria, the enterprise value comparison with total financing. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is run to show that the enterprise value is positively correlated with CER prices. Based on these results, it is concluded that if the world's largest carbon offsetting program, the CDM, prevails after 2012, CER prices will have a positive impact on wind energy firm valuations and related investment decisions. (orig.)

  16. Possibility of star (pyramid) dune development in the area of bimodal wind regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biejat, K.

    2012-04-01

    Star (pyramid) dunes are the largest aeolian landforms. They can occur in three types - simple, complex and compound. Development of this type of dunes is usually connected with multidirectional or complex wind regimes. The aim of this study was to verify a hypothesis that the star dunes can also develop by a bimodal wind regime and by local modifications of nearsurface wind flow directions. Field study was performed on Erg Chebbi, in southern Morocco. Several star and transverse dunes were selected for the study of their shape. The star dunes were analysed concerning their type and position in the dune field. This erg contains all of three types of star dunes together with transverse dunes. The regional wind data show that there are two dominant wind directions - NE (Chergui) and SW (Saheli). To determine the difference in shape of star dunes, we performed topographic surveying by GPS RTK. The results allowed to create 3D models of star dunes. The models were used to determine metric characteristics of star dunes, including area of dune basis, volume, and slope angles. On the basis of 3D models, primary, secondary and, on the compound dunes, tertiary arms were determined. Primary arms on each type of star dunes, as well as crestlines of transverse dunes, have dominant orientation NW-SE, perpendicular to two dominant wind directions. This clearly confirms that star dunes of Erg Chebbi develop by a bimodal wind regime In contrast to primary arms, subsidiary (secondary and tertiary) arms are not connected to general wind regime. The secondary arms of star dunes occur to be differentially developer. There are more subsidiary arms on SW sides in comparison to the E sides of the dunes where inclination of slopes is constant. It can be therefore inferred that sand has been supplied predominantly from SW direction. This is supported by distribution of the dunes on the erg. Most compound star dunes compose a chain along the E margin of the erg. Comparison of compound star

  17. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  18. Identifying predictors of attitudes towards local onshore wind development with reference to an English case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard

    2009-01-01

    The threats posed by climate change are placing governments under increasing pressure to meet electricity demand from low-carbon sources. In many countries, including the UK, legislation is in place to ensure the continued expansion of renewable energy capacity. Onshore wind turbines are expected to play a key role in achieving these aims. However, despite high levels of public support for onshore wind development in principle, specific projects often experience local opposition. Traditionally this difference in general and specific attitudes has been attributed to NIMBYism (not in my back yard), but evidence is increasingly calling this assumption into question. This study used multiple regression analysis to identify what factors might predict attitudes towards mooted wind development in Sheffield, England. We report on the attitudes of two groups; one group (target) living close to four sites earmarked for development and an unaffected comparison group (comparison). We found little evidence of NIMBYism amongst members of the target group; instead, differences between general and specific attitudes appeared attributable to uncertainty regarding the proposals. The results are discussed with respect to literature highlighting the importance of early, continued and responsive community involvement in combating local opposition and facilitating the deployment of onshore wind turbines.

  19. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  20. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Feasibility study on development of new technologies for wind power generation (Study on the development of wind power generation); 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu. Furyoku hatsuden shingijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa (furyoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kansuru kaihatsu doko chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey is designed to analyze, e.g., current status of large-scale wind power generation devices/system technologies and development trends worldwide, and to make predictions about future developments, in an effort to contribute to advancements in new technology for wind power generation systems in Japan. The international R and D cooperation programs promoted by IEA and EU have helped the participants produce a number of good results at lower costs. The European countries have developed the wind power generation industries in each area, promoted by the governmental subsidy policies, and are leading the world. The system is becoming larger, from around an average unit capacity of 250kW in the beginning of the 90's to 600kW now, reducing the cost by the scale merit. The improved computer capacity has made it possible to more easily analyze the complicated rotor aerodynamics, structural dynamics, wind characteristics and other factors related to wind power generation systems. The future R and D directions will include world standards for large-scale wind turbines, advancements in wind farm technologies, offshore wind power generation systems, advancement in design technologies, and new concepts for wind power turbine designs, e.g., floating wind turbine. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Feasibility study on development of new technologies for wind power generation (Study on the development of wind power generation systems for small-scale power grids); 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Furyoku hatsuden shingijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa (shokibo keito ni okeru furyoku hatsuden system ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey includes the characteristics of small-scale power grids, feasibility studies on introduction of wind turbines in these grids, and statuses of application of wind turbines to isolated islands or the like in the advanced countries, in order to promote introduction of wind power generation systems in isolated islands or the like. It is concluded that small-capacity wind power generation systems can be possibly introduced in the intermediate- to large-scale grids in isolated islands, 1,500kW or larger in capacity, in the Tokyo, Kyushu and Okinawa Electric Power Companies' areas. A scheduled steamer ship for isolated islands can carry up to 10 ton track, and introduction of a small-scale wind turbine is more advantageous viewed from the transportation cost. Some foreign countries have the sites which have achieved a high percentage of grid connection of wind power units by stabilizing wind conditions and connecting them to the main high-voltage grids in different manners from those adopted in Japan. For developing wind turbine bodies, most of the foreign countries surveyed are concentrating their efforts on development and manufacture of large-size units, paying little attention on development of small-size wind turbines for isolated islands. For the future prospects, the promising concepts include adoption of wind turbines small in capacity and easy to transport and assemble, and hybrid systems combined with power storage units. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Feasibility study on development of new technologies for wind power generation (Study on the development of wind power generation systems for small-scale power grids); 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Furyoku hatsuden shingijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa (shokibo keito ni okeru furyoku hatsuden system ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey includes the characteristics of small-scale power grids, feasibility studies on introduction of wind turbines in these grids, and statuses of application of wind turbines to isolated islands or the like in the advanced countries, in order to promote introduction of wind power generation systems in isolated islands or the like. It is concluded that small-capacity wind power generation systems can be possibly introduced in the intermediate- to large-scale grids in isolated islands, 1,500kW or larger in capacity, in the Tokyo, Kyushu and Okinawa Electric Power Companies' areas. A scheduled steamer ship for isolated islands can carry up to 10 ton track, and introduction of a small-scale wind turbine is more advantageous viewed from the transportation cost. Some foreign countries have the sites which have achieved a high percentage of grid connection of wind power units by stabilizing wind conditions and connecting them to the main high-voltage grids in different manners from those adopted in Japan. For developing wind turbine bodies, most of the foreign countries surveyed are concentrating their efforts on development and manufacture of large-size units, paying little attention on development of small-size wind turbines for isolated islands. For the future prospects, the promising concepts include adoption of wind turbines small in capacity and easy to transport and assemble, and hybrid systems combined with power storage units. (NEDO)

  3. [Acquired drives. The cortical mechanism responsible to the emergence and development of social existence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    József, Knoll

    2007-10-01

    when any group of cortical neurons will be influenced by enhancer substances on the level already inseparable from conscious perception. Thus, as the totality of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 works continuously on an unconscious level, there is a steadily operating, chaotic background noise in the human telencephalon. Even in the active state ("fight or flight" behavior, goal-seeking), when the actually dominant drive determines the rational goal to be reached, the noise is suppressed, but cannot cease to exist. But it never endangers the function of the actually dominant innate or acquired drive. From this situation it follows that the rational brain activity is necessarily amalgamated with an irrational brain activity and we live through every moment of our life experiencing the totality of order and chaos in our brain. Human society the maintenance of which has always required the proper manipulation of the brain of its members still finds itself in a state of development. It seeks its final equilibrium: namely, that state in which behavioral modification induced by the home/school/society triad will be based, from birth until death, on the exact knowledge of the natural laws that keep the brain and its self going. In this way, members of the community will understand that simultaneity of order and chaos in their brain is the physiological reality that determines human activity, and will consciously try to find the acquired drives that optimally fit their natural endowments. For the time being those who have been lucky enough to acquire the best fitting drives in due time, in the early uphill period of life, have had fair chances for success and happiness. In contrast, those who for any reason have missed this opportunity will remain frustrated and look for 'ersatz'. It seems reasonable to conclude that order and chaos are of equal importance in our brain. Without the ability to adapt ourselves to the concrete (science), we would not be able to

  4. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers. During launch operations, the payload/launch team sometimes asks the LWOs if they expect the upper-level winds to change during the countdown. The LWOs used numerical weather prediction model point forecasts to provide the information, but did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or adequately display the upper-level observations and compare them directly in the same display to the model point forecasts to help them determine which model performed the best. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) rawinsondes with point forecast wind profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM), Rapid Refresh (RAP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models to assess the performance of these models. The AMU suggested adding observations from the NASA 50 MHz wind profiler and one of the US Air Force 915 MHz wind profilers, both located near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, to supplement the AMPS observations with more frequent upper-level profiles. Figure 1 shows a map of KSC/CCAFS with the locations of the observation sites and the model point forecasts.

  5. International wind energy development. World market update 2002. Forecast 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report highlights the development of the international wind power market during 2002 and the new forecast up to 2007. The data presented includes both supply side and demand side information. With 7,227 MW of new installations the total installed capacity of wind power grew to over 32,000 MW. This is the highest figure ever in a single year. The growth rate of 6% over 2001, however, was the lowest since 1996. In spite of this modest figure, the average growth rate over the past five years (from 1997) has been much higher, at 35.7%, and last year's record growth (2001 over 2000) was 52%. The key features of development during 2002 were: 7,227 MW new installed wind power; cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2002 had reached 32,037 MW, consisting of around 61,500 wind turbines dispersed over more than 40 countries; A major share of new installations took place in Europe, with 85.4% of the total. Germany accounted for 53% of the European total; America fell back form its peak level of 1,745 MW in 2001 to a modest 494 MW in 2002, with the majority installed in the USA; Development in Asia was lower than in 2001; Of the emerging markets in the Far East/Pacific, China and Australia were the only two markets to show growth over 2001; The Top Ten markets in the world are headed by Germany, Spain, Denmark and the USA. Newcomers to the Top Ten markets ranking were Australia and the Netherlands; In terms of cumulative installation, the German market passed the 10,000 MW milestone and is by far the largest market in the world. There were 12,000 MW installed in Germany by end of 2002. Spain became No. 2 with 5,042 MW; Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply had reached 0.4% by end of 2002. Ten of the world's roughly 25 suppliers of wind turbines are responsible for more than 90% of total supply in the global market. This trend is continuing, with the Top Ten manufacturers in 2002 delivering 95% of the total record installation. Vestas Wind

  6. Development of Active Flutter Suppression Wind Tunnel Testing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    inch stainless steel precision haft ng out to the aileron surfaces. Torque was then transmitted aft through another crank-pushrod linkage...NMMltetiM Clllir llllisi Sl> ptT »I»" CmrN StiiiH tli!ii<ti> »ir|wu ŗK kUfej •*! AFFDL-TR-74-126 o 00 DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE FLUTTER...Installations . . 28 14. Outboard Aileron Installation 30 15. Airplane FMCS Block Diagram 35 16. Model FMCS Block Diagram 36 17. Model FMCS

  7. Comparing the ecological impacts of wind and oil & gas development: a landscape scale assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F Jones

    Full Text Available Energy production in the United States is in transition as the demand for clean and domestic power increases. Wind energy offers the benefit of reduced emissions, yet, like oil and natural gas, it also contributes to energy sprawl. We used a diverse set of indicators to quantify the ecological impacts of oil, natural gas, and wind energy development in Colorado and Wyoming. Aerial imagery was supplemented with empirical data to estimate habitat loss, fragmentation, potential for wildlife mortality, susceptibility to invasion, biomass carbon lost, and water resources. To quantify these impacts we digitized the land-use footprint within 375 plots, stratified by energy type. We quantified the change in impacts per unit area and per unit energy produced, compared wind energy to oil and gas, and compared landscapes with and without energy development. We found substantial differences in impacts between energy types for most indicators, although the magnitude and direction of the differences varied. Oil and gas generally resulted in greater impacts per unit area but fewer impacts per unit energy compared with wind. Biologically important and policy-relevant outcomes of this study include: 1 regardless of energy type, underlying land-use matters and development in already disturbed areas resulted in fewer total impacts; 2 the number and source of potential mortality varied between energy types, however, the lack of robust mortality data limits our ability to use this information to estimate and mitigate impacts; and 3 per unit energy produced, oil and gas extraction was less impactful on an annual basis but is likely to have a much larger cumulative footprint than wind energy over time. This rapid evaluation of landscape-scale energy development impacts could be replicated in other regions, and our specific findings can help meet the challenge of balancing land conservation with society's demand for energy.

  8. Comparing the Ecological Impacts of Wind and Oil & Gas Development: A Landscape Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan F.; Pejchar, Liba

    2013-01-01

    Energy production in the United States is in transition as the demand for clean and domestic power increases. Wind energy offers the benefit of reduced emissions, yet, like oil and natural gas, it also contributes to energy sprawl. We used a diverse set of indicators to quantify the ecological impacts of oil, natural gas, and wind energy development in Colorado and Wyoming. Aerial imagery was supplemented with empirical data to estimate habitat loss, fragmentation, potential for wildlife mortality, susceptibility to invasion, biomass carbon lost, and water resources. To quantify these impacts we digitized the land-use footprint within 375 plots, stratified by energy type. We quantified the change in impacts per unit area and per unit energy produced, compared wind energy to oil and gas, and compared landscapes with and without energy development. We found substantial differences in impacts between energy types for most indicators, although the magnitude and direction of the differences varied. Oil and gas generally resulted in greater impacts per unit area but fewer impacts per unit energy compared with wind. Biologically important and policy-relevant outcomes of this study include: 1) regardless of energy type, underlying land-use matters and development in already disturbed areas resulted in fewer total impacts; 2) the number and source of potential mortality varied between energy types, however, the lack of robust mortality data limits our ability to use this information to estimate and mitigate impacts; and 3) per unit energy produced, oil and gas extraction was less impactful on an annual basis but is likely to have a much larger cumulative footprint than wind energy over time. This rapid evaluation of landscape-scale energy development impacts could be replicated in other regions, and our specific findings can help meet the challenge of balancing land conservation with society’s demand for energy. PMID:24312296

  9. Winding through the WNT pathway during cellular development and demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Chong, Z Z; Maiese, K

    2006-01-01

    In slightly over a period of twenty years, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the Wnt signaling pathway continue to unfold. The Wnt proteins were initially implicated in viral carcinogenesis experiments associated with mammary tumors, but since this period investigations focusing on the Wnt pathways and their transmembrane receptors termed Frizzled have been advanced to demonstrate the critical nature of Wnt for the development of a variety of cell populations as well as the potential of the Wnt pathway to avert apoptotic injury. In particular, Wnt signaling plays a significant role in both the cardiovascular and nervous systems during embryonic cell patterning, proliferation, differentiation, and orientation. Furthermore, modulation of Wnt signaling under specific cellular influences can either promote or prevent the early and late stages of apoptotic cellular injury in neurons, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. A number of downstream signal transduction pathways can mediate the biological response of the Wnt proteins that include Dishevelled, beta-catenin, intracellular calcium, protein kinase C, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Interestingly, these cellular cascades of the Wnt-Frizzled pathways can participate in several neurodegenerative, vascular, and cardiac disorders and may be closely integrated with the function of trophic factors. Identification of the critical elements that modulate the Wnt-Frizzled signaling pathway should continue to unlock the potential of Wnt pathway for the development of new therapeutic options against neurodegenerative and vascular diseases.

  10. Challenges and options for large scale integration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav Giaever

    2006-01-01

    Challenges and options for large scale integration of wind power are examined. Immediate challenges are related to weak grids. Assessment of system stability requires numerical simulation. Models are being developed - validation is essential. Coordination of wind and hydro generation is a key for allowing more wind power capacity in areas with limited transmission corridors. For the case study grid depending on technology and control the allowed wind farm size is increased from 50 to 200 MW. The real life example from 8 January 2005 demonstrates that existing marked based mechanisms can handle large amounts of wind power. In wind integration studies it is essential to take account of the controllability of modern wind farms, the power system flexibility and the smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms. Modern wind farms contribute to system adequacy - combining wind and hydro constitutes a win-win system (ml)

  11. Pre-existing high glucocorticoid receptor number predicting development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Vermetten, Eric; Maas, Mirjam; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is influenced by preexisting vulnerability factors. The authors aimed at identifying a preexisting biomarker representing a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. To that end, they determined whether the dexamethasone binding

  12. International wind energy development. World market update 2001. Forecast 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In the year 2001, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the addition of 6,824 MW of new generating capacity. This is 2,329 MW more than the record set in year 2000. Growth in new capacity is up from 15% in year 2000 to 52% in 2001. This confirmed that the trend of wind energy being the preferred technology over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe is the leading region for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2001, 4,527 MW was installed in Europe. Germany once more shows this country's potential as the single most active market with the installation of 2,627 MW in new capacity, nearly 1,000 MW more than in the previous year. Germany consolidated its position as the world's leading developer of wind energy. The market in the US is once again the second largest wind energy market ahead of Spain. The expiration of the PTC at the end of the year 2001 gave some rush in the installation at the end of the year. The Danish market is on a deroute and lost pace completely in a changed political climate which means that the development of windpower is slowing down. Denmark has a very high penetration of windpower. On the supplier side Vestas Wind Systems A/S maintained its position as being the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines. Vestas Wind Systems is now followed by Enercon GmbH. Without counting the US market figures Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Enercon has become the very closed in terms of sold MW. In the 3rd place is the Danish company NEG Micon A/S. Newcomers in the Top Ten list are Mitsubishi (JP) and REpower (GE). The most significant technological trend in the market is the continuing upscaling of machines. From year 2001 the average size of WTGs is 915 kW (in 2000: 800kW). In the very near future there will be erected wind turbines mainly dedicated for the upcoming offshore market of 4.5-5.0 MW. On Offshore there is only 10 MW installed during the year 2001

  13. Development of wind turbines for safe operation in alpine environments - Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.; Abhari, R.

    2009-08-15

    prevention systems could be substantially more efficient if their effectiveness was tailored for the outboard 5% of the blade (measured from the blade tip). Additionally, a new dedicated Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe measuring system has been installed at the test facility. Initial measurements prove its ability to resolve key flow features behind the wind turbine rotor. Part (3) of the project involves the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the defined ice geometries on the rotor blades. The changes in performance match well with the experimental measurements. It is found that flow separation over the entire blade span is the cause for the major losses in power measured for the 'extreme' ice shape. A predictive tool that developers of wind energy projects located in regions that are highly susceptible to icing can use for project development, which identifies the locations where 'extreme' ice formation is a risk, would be highly beneficial to wind farm developers in Switzerland. It is recommended that heating systems should specifically target the outboard 5% of the blade in a localised manner such as with electric heating. (authors)

  14. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  15. The Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA): A tool to aid developers and decision makers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabille, E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ): A tool to aid developers and decision makers Eugene Mabille The WASA Project Team SANEDI South African National Energy Development Institute • executing agency – contracting the implementing partners • coordination and dissemination UCT... to produce wind atlas for generalised surface conditions (uniform terrain and roughness). Files compatible with WAsP software.  Used for the first WASA published in 2012.  KAMM/WAsP method, numerically very cheap, gives good results  underestimation...

  16. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  17. How to correct long-term system externality of large scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply. It necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development either in the presence of either subsidised wind production or in market-driven development. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for the long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on the system reliability. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalized for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. (authors)

  18. Study on development system of increasing gearbox for high-performance wind-power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbin; Yan, Kejun; Zhao, Junyu

    2005-12-01

    Based on the analysis of the development potentiality of wind-power generator and domestic manufacture of its key parts in China, an independent development system of the Increasing Gearbox for High-performance Wind-power Generator (IGHPWG) was introduced. The main elements of the system were studied, including the procedure design, design analysis system, manufacturing technology and detecting system, and the relative important technologies were analyzed such as mixed optimal joint transmission structure of the first planetary drive with two grade parallel axle drive based on equal strength, tooth root round cutting technology before milling hard tooth surface, high-precise tooth grinding technology, heat treatment optimal technology and complex surface technique, and rig test and detection technique of IGHPWG. The development conception was advanced the data share and quality assurance system through all the elements of the development system. The increasing Gearboxes for 600KW and 1MW Wind-power Generator have been successfully developed through the application of the development system.

  19. Wind energy conversion 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, G.

    1995-01-01

    At the British Wind Energy Association's 16th Annual Conference, held in Stirling, over 60 high quality papers were presented, including a session devoted to 'Wind Energy in Scotland'. Under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) wind energy has experienced rapid growth in England and Wales and with Scotland now having its own 'Scottish Renewables Obligation' (SRO) the opportunity to tap one of Europe's most important renewable energy resources now exists. The main contemporary issues concerning wind farming today, namely technical, social, economic and environmental were examined in the Geoff Pontin Memorial Lecture, which focused on these aspects in the context of grid integrated wind energy development. The remaining conference themes included machine development, aerodynamics and control, small machines, fatigue and dynamics, public attitudes, noise emissions, electrical integration, resource measurement, and standards, safety and planning. (author)

  20. The wind power state of the art and development outlooks; L'energie eolienne etat de l'art et perspectives de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document presented during the Physics Summer school, deals with the wind power situation in Europe. The wind energy conversion in electric power is explained as the management and implementing of a wind site. The author discusses also the economy of the wind power and the market and development outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  1. Towards a Joint Action Plan for Research and Development in the Offshore Wind Service Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Piirainen, Kalle A.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2015-01-01

    as their operation and maintenance during their lifetime.Earlier studies have indicated that over the life cycle of an offshore farm OWS can be up to 46% of the life cycle cost of the farm including up-front investment and installation, while the O&M cost is estimated to be of the order of 25-28% of the total...... of an ongoing project ECOWindS, funded by the EU FP7. The overall aim of ECOWindS is to reduce OWS’s contribution to the cost of offshore wind energy production by strengthening the cooperation in the existing regional networks within OWS....

  2. The Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO): Developing an Atmospheric Wind Analysis Tool for Space Launch Vehicles Using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric winds are an important driver of the design and operation of space launch vehicles. Multiple types of weather balloons and Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), that are capable of measuring atmospheric winds. Meteorological data gathered by these instruments are being used in the design of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and other space launch vehicles, and will be used during the day-of-launch (DOL) of SLS to aid in loads and trajectory analyses. For the purpose of SLS day-of-launch needs, the balloons have the altitude coverage needed, but take over an hour to reach the maximum altitude and can drift far from the vehicle's path. The DRWPs have the spatial and temporal resolutions needed, but do not provide complete altitude coverage. Therefore, the Natural Environments Branch (EV44) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO) to combine balloon profiles and profiles from multiple DRWPs, filter the spliced profile to a common wavelength, and allow the operator to generate output files as well as to visualize the inputs and the spliced profile for SLS DOL operations. PRESTO was developed in Python taking advantage of NumPy and SciPy for the splicing procedure, matplotlib for the visualization, and Tkinter for the execution of the graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes in detail the Python coding implementation for the splicing, filtering, and visualization methodology used in PRESTO.

  3. Model Development for Power System Analysis with a Substantial Wind Energy Capacity Installed in the Nordic grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Ola; Perdana, Abram; Chen, Peiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide development of wind power installations now includes planning and construction of large-scale wind farms ranging in magnitudes of 1000 MW and more. As part of the planning and design of such systems, it is well established that the transient and dynamic stability of the electrical...... power system needs to be studied. Modelling work of the electrical behaviour of wind turbines and wind farms as well as model validation by measurements have been important parts of this project work. The models have been used to study dynamic phenomena during normal operation and fault occasions...... in the electric system. Fault Ride Through (FRT) measurements have been carried out on new wind parks connected to Estonian power grid and in all of them FRT tests were made. In several wind parks the tests were not successful and the tests will be repeated. In Finland measurements have carried out in 6 MW...

  4. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  5. Developing a new ultrasonic method to assess diaphragm movement and comparing the accuracy with existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Skaarup, Søren; Løkke, Anders; Laursen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle. Movement can be evaluated with ultrasound. Currently two different methods are used, M-mode and B-mode. However, diaphragm movement is complex.Aim: We hypothesized that the two existing methods are imprecise as they only measure...... film clips independently to assess inter-rater variability.Results: We found a linear correlation between FVC and diaphragmatic movement. M-mode had Pearson r=0.84 (95%CI 0.76-0.89), B-mode had r=0.68 (95%CI 0.55-0.79) and Area-measurement had r=0.84 (95%CI 0.77-0.90). Inter-rater agreement was r=0...

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  7. A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the

  8. Wind energy. Market prospects to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckle, R.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly significant source in the energy portfolio of most countries. Several sources of renewable energy are now being pursued commercially and wind energy is the most advanced in terms of installed electricity generation capacity. Of all types of renewable energy wind energy is the one with which there is the greatest experience - wind wheels and windmills have been used in various forms for hundreds of years. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the market study. Chapter 2 begins with a review of the wind energy industry. Topics included here are the case for wind energy (sustainability, security, non-polluting etc), market structure (the relationship between developers, operators, manufacturers, consortia etc) and environmental issues. This is followed by a discussion of the wind energy market for major countries in terms of installed wind power capacity. Within each country market there is an account of government policy, major wind energy programmes, major projects with information on developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A market analysis is given which includes an economic review, wind energy targets (where they exist) and forecasts to 2006. Chapter 3 is a review of wind turbine applications covering electricity generation for public supply networks, stand alone/community applications, water pumping and water desalination. Chapter 4 provides the basic principles of wind turbine operation and associated technologies. A brief account is given of the development of wind turbines and the main components such as the tower, rotor blades, gearbox, generator and electrical controls. Electricity generation and control are outlined and the challenge of electricity storage is also discussed. Meteorological factors (wind speed etc) and the move towards off-shore wind farms are also covered. Chapter 5 contains profiles of leading wind project developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A selection of existing and proposed wind farms

  9. Prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Loss, Scott; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species’ distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species’ conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson’s hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and

  10. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Beston

    Full Text Available Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future

  11. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Loss, Scott R; Johnson, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and management

  12. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  13. A comparative multi-disciplinary policy review in wind energy developments in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytilinou, V.; Kolios, A. J.; Di Lorenzo, G.

    2017-09-01

    Over recent decades, European Union countries have committed to increasing their electricity production from renewable energy sources (RESs). Wind energy plays a significant role in a sustainable future. This paper presents a political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental analysis. Although these countries have made many improvements in their legal frameworks aiming to attract investors and boost the RE sector, there are still challenges. The UK focuses on offshore wind energy, adjusts the economic strategy and changes the legislation context. Germany has the healthiest economic conditions, as it keeps following its initiative to design a new programme for an energy transition from conventional to RESs with emphasis on the onshore. Greece has only a few installations and much room for development but needs to make further changes in the legislation and economy so as to attract more investors in the long term. The purpose of this research is to analyse, highlight and discuss vital aspects of these countries as well as the European environment, with reference to their current wind energy activities. Ultimately, it attempts to give a wider perspective and to serve as a guide for future studies on the wind energy sector.

  14. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  15. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  16. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  17. Implementing existing theories in developing a gastronomic tourism destination : case Kyrö Distillery Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Lahti, Erkka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's thesis was to provide points of development for the subject company Kyrö Distillery Company in the developing of a gastronomic tourism destination. The subject company mainly operates as a distillery, but it has promising tourism potential in the field of gastronomic tourism. The company and the restaurant located in the destination, Kyrönmaan matkailunedistämiskeskus, also operate as a tourism destination providing tours and tastings of the company. The objecti...

  18. TradeWind. Integrating wind. Developing Europe's power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    Based on a single European grid and power market system, the TradeWind project explores to what extent large-scale wind power integration challenges could be addressed by reinforcing interconnections between Member States in Europe. Additionally, the project looks at the conditions required for a sound power market design that ensures a cost-effective integration of wind power at EU level. In this way, the study addresses two issues of key importance for the future integration of renewable energy, namely the weak interconnectivity levels between control zones and the inflexibility and fragmented nature of the European power market. Work on critical transmission paths and interconnectors is slow for a variety of reasons including planning and administrative barriers, lack of public acceptance, insufficient economic incentives for TSOs, and the lack of a joint European approach by the key stakeholders. (au)

  19. Measuring Transit Oriented Development of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population in Indian cities is encouraging auto reliance and having unsafe economic, social and environmental consequences. Land-use-change patterns are the outcome of the complex relations between the human and the physical surroundings. To address these issues the planners are moving beyond land use planning to a sustainable development. Transit and Land use planning are important components to achieve sustainable future of urban development. TOD is a planning tool to encourage this integration. This paper discusses the land use scenario and opportunity around four Metro transit stations in Faridabad city. Different methods and various sets of indicators are considered to evaluate and measure TOD index in this study. This study will evaluate and measure the Faridabad city in the context of land use around Metro Stations to support TOD. This paper seeks to answer how to promote walkable communities, compact and transit-oriented development (TOD that incorporates mixed land use development, including neighbourhood schools, retail and business related space and a mix range of housing types within walkable distance. This paper concludes that the stations area which had a low TOD score needs to have policy for improvement. If planned efficiently, TODs can realize the sustainable development with considerable change in the urban development that focuses on pedestrian based neighbourhood planning.

  20. Pharmacokinetic modeling of gentamicin in treatment of infective endocarditis: Model development and validation of existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Lars; Proost, Johannes H.; Sinha, Bhanu; Touw, Daan J.

    2017-01-01

    Gentamicin shows large variations in half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) within and between individuals. Thus, monitoring and accurately predicting serum levels are required to optimize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Currently, two population pharmacokinetic models are applied for predicting gentamicin doses in adults. For endocarditis patients the optimal model is unknown. We aimed at: 1) creating an optimal model for endocarditis patients; and 2) assessing whether the endocarditis and existing models can accurately predict serum levels. We performed a retrospective observational two-cohort study: one cohort to parameterize the endocarditis model by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis, and a second cohort to validate and compare all three models. The Akaike Information Criterion and the weighted sum of squares of the residuals divided by the degrees of freedom were used to select the endocarditis model. Median Prediction Error (MDPE) and Median Absolute Prediction Error (MDAPE) were used to test all models with the validation dataset. We built the endocarditis model based on data from the modeling cohort (65 patients) with a fixed 0.277 L/h/70kg metabolic clearance, 0.698 (±0.358) renal clearance as fraction of creatinine clearance, and Vd 0.312 (±0.076) L/kg corrected lean body mass. External validation with data from 14 validation cohort patients showed a similar predictive power of the endocarditis model (MDPE -1.77%, MDAPE 4.68%) as compared to the intensive-care (MDPE -1.33%, MDAPE 4.37%) and standard (MDPE -0.90%, MDAPE 4.82%) models. All models acceptably predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin in endocarditis patients. However, these patients appear to have an increased Vd, similar to intensive care patients. Vd mainly determines the height of peak serum levels, which in turn correlate with bactericidal activity. In order to maintain simplicity, we advise to use the existing intensive-care model in clinical practice to avoid

  1. Pharmacokinetic modeling of gentamicin in treatment of infective endocarditis: Model development and validation of existing models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gomes

    Full Text Available Gentamicin shows large variations in half-life and volume of distribution (Vd within and between individuals. Thus, monitoring and accurately predicting serum levels are required to optimize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Currently, two population pharmacokinetic models are applied for predicting gentamicin doses in adults. For endocarditis patients the optimal model is unknown. We aimed at: 1 creating an optimal model for endocarditis patients; and 2 assessing whether the endocarditis and existing models can accurately predict serum levels. We performed a retrospective observational two-cohort study: one cohort to parameterize the endocarditis model by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis, and a second cohort to validate and compare all three models. The Akaike Information Criterion and the weighted sum of squares of the residuals divided by the degrees of freedom were used to select the endocarditis model. Median Prediction Error (MDPE and Median Absolute Prediction Error (MDAPE were used to test all models with the validation dataset. We built the endocarditis model based on data from the modeling cohort (65 patients with a fixed 0.277 L/h/70kg metabolic clearance, 0.698 (±0.358 renal clearance as fraction of creatinine clearance, and Vd 0.312 (±0.076 L/kg corrected lean body mass. External validation with data from 14 validation cohort patients showed a similar predictive power of the endocarditis model (MDPE -1.77%, MDAPE 4.68% as compared to the intensive-care (MDPE -1.33%, MDAPE 4.37% and standard (MDPE -0.90%, MDAPE 4.82% models. All models acceptably predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin in endocarditis patients. However, these patients appear to have an increased Vd, similar to intensive care patients. Vd mainly determines the height of peak serum levels, which in turn correlate with bactericidal activity. In order to maintain simplicity, we advise to use the existing intensive-care model in clinical practice to

  2. Reduction of Environmental Impact Effect of Disposing Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Wind power industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources inthe world. The growth specially focuses on growing industries and markets, because ofeconomical condition for wind power development besides political decisions.According to growth of wind turbine industries, wind turbine blades are growing fast in both sizeand number. The problem that now arises is how to deal with the blades at the end of their lifecycle. This Master Thesis describes existing methods...

  3. Geophysical Mapping of the South Carolina Offshore for Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, D.; Knapp, C. C.; Battista, B.; Stone, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has identified potential Wind Energy Areas (WEA's) on the continental shelf of South Carolina characterized by good wind resource potential and minimal environmental and societal use conflicts based on existing regional data sets. A multi-sensor geophysical survey has been initiated to provide a more thorough determination of the shallow geologic framework and bottom habitat and cultural resources potential to further refine future wind farm siting. The most recent phase of deposition (Pleistocene; type, seafloor roughness and geomorphology, potential sites of cultural resources and features such as active and inactive faults, filled channels, and potential slope instabilities which would have a considerable potential impact on sitting installations for wind energy. The study is focused on the inner shelf from 18 to 26 km offshore of North Myrtle Beach, SC. The collaborative effort is generating multibeam, and side scan sonar, CHIRP sub-bottom and magnetometer data. Across the region a thin veneer of sediments overlies indurated Tertiary deposits. The Tertiary geologic section is locally scoured and influenced small channels and probable karstification and enduring fluid exchange across the sea floor which has been previously identified in the region. The sea floor exhibits large-scale (100s of meters) low relief shore-perpendicular bedforms similar to those found within the shoreface and innermost shelf though the SC Coastal Erosion Study. Post-processed bathymetry shows a radial distribution of coast-perpendicular features that transition between two coastal processes: 1) there is the sediment distribution caused by the longshore currents and wave energy, and 2) there are areas related to the coastal inlets that disrupt the primary sedimentation patterns and impose patterns of terrestrial sedimentation such as those from rivers, deltas and estuaries.

  4. Development of a procedure to model high-resolution wind profiles from smoothed or low-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The derivation of simulated Jimsphere wind profiles from low-frequency rawinsonde data and a generated set of white noise data are presented. A computer program is developed to model high-resolution wind profiles based on the statistical properties of data from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Comparison of the measured Jimsphere data, rawinsonde data, and the simulated profiles shows excellent agreement.

  5. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  6. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  7. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, L.L.; Bastian, F.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering], e-mail: ledjane@metalmat.ufrj.br; Calado, V.M.A. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexible, steel catenary risers (SCRs) and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. Besides, composite materials present some attractive attributes for the offshore service, such as: high specific strength and stiffness. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of a polymer matrix (epoxy) and of material composite (epoxy/fiber glass), which will be used in a development for composites risers by the filament winding process (wet winding). (author)

  8. Aquatic carbon export from peatland catchments recently undergone wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Waldron, Susan; Henderson, Andrew; Flowers, Hugh; Gilvear, David

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's peat landscapes are desirable locations for wind-based renewables due to high wind resources and low land use pressures in these areas. The environmental impact of sitting wind-based renewables on peats however, is unknown. Globally, peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores. Given the topical nature of carbon-related issues, e.g. global warming and carbon footprints, it is imperative we help mitigate their degradation and maintain carbon sequestration. To do so, we need to better understand how peatland systems function with regards to their carbon balance (export versus sequestration) so we can assess their resilience and adaptation to hosting land-based renewable energy projects. Predicting carbon lost as a result of construction of wind farms built on peatland has not been fully characterised and this research will provide data that can supplement current 'carbon payback calculator' models for wind farms that aim to reinforce their 'green' credentials. Transfer of carbon from the terrestrial peatland systems to the aquatic freshwater and oceanic systems is most predominant during periods of high rainfall. It has been estimated that 50% of carbon is exported during only 10% of highest river flows, (Hinton et al., 1998). Furthermore, carbon export from peatlands is known to have a seasonal aspect with highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) found mostly in late summer months of August and September and lowest in December and January, (Dawson et al., 2004). Event sampling, where high intensity sample collection is carried out during high river flow periods, offers a better insight, understanding and estimation of carbon aquatic fluxes from peatland landscapes. The Gordonbush estate, near Brora, has an extensive peatland area where a wind farm development has recently been completed (April 2012). Investigations of aquatic carbon fluxes from this peatland system were started in July 2010, in conjunction with the start of

  9. Development of Delta Wing Aerodynamics Research in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Shabudin Mat; I. S. Ishak; Tholudin Mat Lazim; Shuhaimi Mansor; Mazuriah Said; Abdul Basid Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Shukeri Mohd. Kamaludim; Romain Brossay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents wind tunnel experiment on two delta wing configurations which are differentiated by their leading edge profiles: sharp and round-edged wings. The experiments were performed as a part of the delta wing aerodynamics research development in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, low speed tunnel (UTM-LST). Steady load balance and flow visualization tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 × 106, respectively. The flow measurement at low Reynolds number was also per...

  10. Potential market of wind farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengfei Shi [Hydropower Planning General Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources are abundant in China, in southeast coast area along with the rapid economic growth, electricity demand has been sharply increased, due to complex terrain detailed assessments are in urgent need. Advanced methodology and computer model should be developed. In this paper the existing wind farms, installed capacity, manufacturers share and projects in the near future are presented. For further development of wind farm in large scale, different ways of local manufacturing wind turbine generators (WTG) are going on. Current policy and barriers are analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Development of Virtual Reality Industry - Analysis of Existing Businesses in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz, Bohdana

    2017-01-01

    This thesis analyses the development of virtual reality industry. The theoretical part of this paper is dedicated to the evolution of virtual reality industry throughout the years, it identifies main reasons why virtual reality did not become viral in the past and provides a correlation between the prices for VR headsets and level of technology adoption. Also, it describes which stage of industry life cycle virtual reality is and compares it with the technology adoption process. In this part ...

  12. International wind energy development. World market update 2006. Forecast 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The report covers development in the international wind power market during 2006 and the new Forecast until 2011. Furthermore a long term Prediction is made up to 2016. With 15,016 MW of new installations, the total installed capacity of wind power grew to around 74,300 MW. This was an increase in cumulative installation of 25%. Looking at the annual installation of 15,016 MW there was an increase of 30%. This is on top of a 2005 growth of 42%. The key figures for development during 2006 were: a) 15,016 MW of newly installed wind power capacity. b)Cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2006 reached 74,306 MW, consisting of around 10,600 wind turbines dispersed in 36 countries. c) Europe maintained its role as the largest wind power continent. 51% of all new installation in 2006 took place in Europe. d) The Americas had a record year thanks to the development in the US, where 2,454 MW of new capacity was added. The reason is the PTC (Production Tax Credit) in the US market in force again and will be so until end of 2008. The Americas accounted for 23.4% of the world's installation in 2006. e) Asia showed significant growth. Including OECD Pacific, Asia doubled its installation, from 7,890 MW in 2005 to 11.601 MW by the end of 2006. India was by far the leading country, with 1,840 MW of new capacity in 2006. China also showed strong progress, with almost 1,334 MW of new installation. The region as a whole accounted for 24.7% of the year's world wide total. f) Among the Top Ten markets USA maintained its position as largest market in 2006. Germany, the world's largest market for a decade, increased its installation from 2005 to installing 2.233 MW, after three year on decline. It is, however, enough to maintain their position as no. 2 market in the world. France and Portugal showed remarkable growth. Spain is still No.2 market in Europe, with 1,587 MW of new installation. g) Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply reached 0.82% by the end of

  13. Existing Fortran interfaces to Trilinos in preparation for exascale ForTrilinos development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Young, Mitchell T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prokopenko, Andrey V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heroux, Michael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the current state of Fortran interfaces to the Trilinos library within several key applications of the Exascale Computing Program (ECP), with the aim of informing developers about strategies to develop ForTrilinos, an exascale-ready, Fortran interface software package within Trilinos. The two software projects assessed within are the DOE Office of Science's Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) atmosphere component, CAM, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's core-simulator portion of VERA, a nuclear reactor simulation code. Trilinos is an object-oriented, C++ based software project, and spans a collection of algorithms and other enabling technologies such as uncertainty quantification and mesh generation. To date, Trilinos has enabled these codes to achieve large-scale simulation results, however the simulation needs of CAM and VERA-CS will approach exascale over the next five years. A Fortran interface to Trilinos that enables efficient use of programming models and more advanced algorithms is necessary. Where appropriate, the needs of the CAM and VERA-CS software to achieve their simulation goals are called out specifically. With this report, a design document and execution plan for ForTrilinos development can proceed.

  14. Development of a standardised cup anemometer suited to wind energy applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Gustavsson, J.; Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Westermann, D. [German Wind Energy Inst., Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Errors associated with the measurements and interpretation of the measured wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well calibrated anemometers of different types often show significant and not acceptable differences. The objective were to determine the optimum design for a cup anemometer which should be free from the design faults associated with all of the instruments currently commercially available. The objective were also to prepare a classification system for cup anemometers which will allow users of anemometry in the wind energy field to rank and select anemometers suited to specific required applications. The extensive experiments including tests in wind tunnels, of more than 500 anemometer configurations, fields tests and tests in laboratories together with the assessment and modelling work have helped to build up a thorough knowledge of the importance of different design parameters in terms of various behavioural effects. Influenced by trends from the international standardisation work, an early decision was made to focus on a vector, 3D, (angle-insensitive anemometer) cup-anemometer and to focus on conical cups since their sensitivity to vertical velocity components appeared to be less sensitive to the wind speed. The key measures taken to develop the new design consisted of an appropriate selection of the detailed design of the cup geometry's and mounting the cups at appropriate radius on a slender symmetric body. The development finally ended with an anemometer that gave a very good flat response within 1 % over the range from -45 deg to +35 deg and had a good linear calibration curve. Four prototypes of the anemometer optimised for flat response were produced. The flat response was also confirmed by field tests over the range {+-}20 deg. A patent application of the new anemometer was filed on the 6th of October 2000. By the time the project was initiated there was a

  15. Report on field test project for wind power development at Onejime Athletic Park. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Onejime Undo Koen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Onejime Athletic Park, Kimotsugu-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at a wasteland beside the park and, in the period October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The wind axis along which the wind direction occurrence rate was the highest ran WNW-ESE at an occurrence rate of 65.8%. Turbulence intensity was 0.23 at wind speeds of 2m/s and more, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was 40m/s, all these fully satisfying the evaluation levels set forth by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). On the other hand, the average wind speed was 3.48m/s and wind energy density was 69W/m{sup 2}, these failing to satisfy the levels indicated by NEDO. Studies were made on the assumption that 150, 300, and 750kW-class wind turbines would be introduced, and then it was found that their annual operating factors and facility availability rates both failed to meet the NEDO standards concerned and that therefore the site in question was not fit for wind power generation. (NEDO)

  16. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  17. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  18. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2014-01-01

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site...

  19. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A; Brooks, Robert P; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, David; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Duerr, Adam; Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework can be applied across multiple spatial scales to understand and mitigate impacts of industry on wildlife. We estimated risk to Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from wind energy development in 3 topographically distinct regions of the central Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania (United States) based on models of resource selection of wind facilities (n = 43) and of northbound migrating eagles (n = 30). Risk to eagles from wind energy was greatest in the Ridge and Valley region; all 24 eagles that passed through that region used the highest risk landscapes at least once during low altitude flight. In contrast, only half of the birds that entered the Allegheny Plateau region used highest risk landscapes and none did in the Allegheny Mountains. Likewise, in the Allegheny Mountains, the majority of wind turbines (56%) were situated in poor eagle habitat; thus, risk to eagles is lower there than in the Ridge and Valley, where only 1% of turbines are in poor eagle habitat. Risk within individual facilities was extremely variable; on average, facilities had 11% (SD 23; range = 0-100%) of turbines in highest risk landscapes and 26% (SD 30; range = 0-85%) of turbines in the lowest risk landscapes. Our results provide a mechanism for relocating high-risk turbines, and they show the feasibility of this novel and highly adaptable framework for managing risk of harm to wildlife from industrial development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Research of wind turbines for storm worthy and easy construction; 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu. Taikyofu kensetsu yoigata fusha ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research and development statuses in various countries are surveyed, to have useful information to draw the future R and D directions for wind turbines resistant to storms and easy construction. Greece has sites suitable for wind power generation in mountainous districts, and is developing the systems while taking the characteristic weather conditions into consideration. The country provides information regarding aerodynamic/structural design methods for wind turbine blades applicable to turbulent wind generated by complex terrain, and wind assessment and analyses in complex terrain. In India, on-the-spot surveys are made at the cyclone-attacked wind farms. One of the areas on which the USA is putting emphasis is development of small-size wind turbines and wind-diesel hybrid systems for developing countries and independent grid systems in remote areas. Australia is constructing wind-diesel hybrid systems to be connected to a number of independent grid systems in its western area. In Europe, information is collected for the advanced aerodynamic analysis, construction of offshore wind turbines, and production engineering and facilities for blades and other components from Vestas and N.E.G. Micon as the leading wind turbine makers. (NEDO)