WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing wind developments

  1. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  2. Flow visualization techniques, new developments and modernization of the existing Schlieren system in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PANAIT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schlieren flow visualization methods are an important part of high speed wind tunnel testing, being a fast and reliable method of graphically presenting complex dynamic phenomena that occur in high subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Images can be processed and effects of configuration changes can be understood faster. Quantitative variations of the Schlieren method enable CFD simulations to use real data, resulting in greater precision and thus help improve efficiency of the re-design phase for the aerodynamic object. A modification of the classic Schlieren system is proposed, that would enable extraction of such data with minimal costs

  3. Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.

    2002-12-01

    Primarily due to concerns generated from observed raptor mortality at the Altamont Pass (CA) wind plant, one of the first commercial electricity generating wind plants in the U.S., new proposed wind projects both within and outside of California have received a great deal of scrutiny and environmental review. A large amount of baseline and operational monitoring data have been collected at proposed and existing U.S. wind plants. The primary use of the avian baseline data collected at wind developments has been to estimate the overall project impacts (e.g., very low, low, moderate, and high relative mortality) on birds, especially raptors and sensitive species (e.g., state and federally listed species). In a few cases, these data have also been used for guiding placement of turbines within a project boundary. This new information has strengthened our ability to accurately predict and mitigate impacts from new projects. This report should assist various stakeholders in the interpretation and use of this large information source in evaluating new projects. This report also suggests that the level of baseline data (e.g., avian use data) required to adequately assess expected impacts of some projects may be reduced. This report provides an evaluation of the ability to predict direct impacts on avian resources (primarily raptors and waterfowl/waterbirds) using less than an entire year of baseline avian use data (one season, two seasons, etc.). This evaluation is important because pre-construction wildlife surveys can be one of the most time-consuming aspects of permitting wind power projects. For baseline data, this study focuses primarily on standardized avian use data usually collected using point count survey methodology and raptor nest survey data. In addition to avian use and raptor nest survey data, other baseline data is usually collected at a proposed project to further quantify potential impacts. These surveys often include vegetation mapping and state or

  4. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.; Morris, V.R.; Tomich, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites. 9 refs., 10 figs.,

  5. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  6. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the present mainstream development of the wind turbine technology at present. The turbine technology development trend is characterized by up-scaling to turbines with larger capacity for both onshore and offshore applications, larger rotors and new drivetrain solution...... turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  7. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  8. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  9. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  10. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...

  11. Challenges on wind power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianjin; Shi, Jingli

    2010-09-15

    Wind power has experienced exponential growth in China in the past five years, which exceeds the most optimistic expectations. The increasing penetration and aggressive future plan are arousing big concerns about its impact on operation and security of existing power networks. This paper introduces present condition of wind power development in China and the challenges on both grid integration and regulations. Most of these challenges are economical rather than technical. Feed-in tariff policies and grid code are the key countermeasures. Accurate wind forecast and economical mass energy storage are needed to guarantee compliance of wind power to the grid.

  12. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  13. Offshore wind energy developments

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kiil, Søren; Holbøll, Joachim; Piirainen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.

  14. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  15. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  16. Learning in wind turbine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Linda Manon

    2002-01-01

    Both the Netherlands and Denmark started to develop wind energy in the 1970s. Reasons were the oil crisis and the Club of Rome report, which warned of imminent shortages of traditional energy sources like oil and gas. Both countries started this development around 1975 and their governments gave

  17. Footprints in the wind? Environmental impacts of wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoha, P. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the environmental impacts of wind power development and examines noise generated by wind turbines, noise control methods, visual impacts and visibility, and the impact on wildlife and natural habitat. Details are given of other impacts such as electromagnetic interference and the disposal of materials used in the manufacture of parts of wind energy converters. Political issues and social costs of wind energy are considered.

  18. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  19. Wind Alliance for the Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Damarys Gonzalez [Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Executive Office of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    2012-09-30

    The Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration (PREAA) is actively engaged in the implementation of existing public policy for the conservation of energy and promotion of renewable energy to reduce consumer’s costs and reduce environmental impact. Puerto Rico is an island in where no own reserves of gas, oil or coal exists. This severe dependence in on foreign oil is reflected in the higher cost of electricity in Puerto Rico, which is significantly higher than most of the United States. Therefore, public energy policy of Puerto Rico places emphasis on diversification of energy sources and the use of renewable energy technologies. The Wind energy Alliance for the Sustainable Development project focused on the formation of a wind energy working group to educate and promote wind energy technologies; at the same time the evaluating the viability of wind energy in Puerto Rico. The educational outreach was performed through a series of wind energy workshops where interested parties such as, installers, sellers, engineers, general public even opposing groups participate from the activities.

  20. Wind Energy Career Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwen Andersen

    2012-03-29

    Saint Francis University has developed curriculum in engineering and in business that is meeting the needs of students and employers (Task 1) as well as integrating wind energy throughout the curriculum. Through a variety of approaches, the University engaged in public outreach and education that reached over 2,000 people annually (Task 2). We have demonstrated, through the success of these programs, that students are eager to prepare for emerging jobs in alternative energy, that employers are willing to assist in developing employees who understand the broader business and policy context of the industry, and that people want to learn about wind energy.

  1. Hydro developer catches the wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-09-01

    Canadian Hydro Developers have bought southern Alberta`s 18.9 MW Crowley Ridge wind farm, a purchase that rounds out the company as a renewable energy developer. The Calgary-based firm bought the shares of the farm`s owner, Canadian Niagara Wind Power Co., for $2.25 million. The name of the its new acquisition was changed to Crowley Ridge Wind Power Inc. Although all 52 turbines are operating, Canadian Hydro spent an estimated $1 million on capital repairs to the blades and gearboxes. The KVS-33 had a history of blade problems and those on the Crowley Ridge are showing signs of fatigue. The company has had a new set of blades made and will have a second set repaired. Tests will be carried out this winter to determine future needs. The wind plant has produced an average of 55 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually since going into service in 1994. All output from the Crowley Ridge is sold to TransAlta Utilities under long term contracts, signed as part of the Alberta Small Power Research and Development Program and lasting until 2014. The current price is 5.84 cents per kWh.

  2. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...

  3. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  4. Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.

  5. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. ... Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... Abstract. Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are ...

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  7. Development and validation of computational wind field model (Wind scape)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D.; Kim, B. -Y

    2012-01-01

    Wind field data is essential for the accurate prediction of forest fire spread. For the accurate prediction of local wind field we developed computational fluid dynamics simulation procedure. Using terrain and wind information as input data three dimensional computational mesh is automatically generated. GIS data of the format DEM(Digital Elevation Map) is directly converted to quad surface mesh and full hexahedral space mesh is automatically generated. Around this mesh we made extended compu...

  8. MOD-2 wind turbine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.; Andrews, J. S.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    The development of the Mod-2 turbine, designed to achieve a cost of electricity for the 100th production unit that will be competitive with conventional electric power generation is discussed. The Mod-2 wind turbine system (WTS) background, project flow, and a chronology of events and problem areas leading to Mod-2 acceptance are addressed. The role of the participating utility during site preparation, turbine erection and testing, remote operation, and routine operation and maintenance activity is reviewed. The technical areas discussed pertain to system performance, loads, and controls. Research and technical development of multimegawatt turbines is summarized.

  9. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Review of Existing Geospatial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report features the geospatial data component of a larger project evaluating logistical and infrastructure requirements for transporting oversized and overweight (OSOW) wind components. The goal of the larger project was to assess the status and opportunities for improving the infrastructure and regulatory practices necessary to transport wind turbine towers, blades, and nacelles from current and potential manufacturing facilities to end-use markets. The purpose of this report is to summarize existing geospatial data on wind component transportation infrastructure and to provide a data gap analysis, identifying areas for further analysis and data collection.

  10. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  11. Assessment of wind turbine seismic risk : existing literature and simple study of tower moment demand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Ian (University of California, San Diego, CA); Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    Various sources of risk exist for all civil structures, one of which is seismic risk. As structures change in scale, the magnitude of seismic risk changes relative to risk from other sources. This paper presents an introduction to seismic hazard as applied to wind turbine structures. The existing design methods and research regarding seismic risk for wind turbines is then summarized. Finally a preliminary assessment is made based on current guidelines to understand how tower moment demand scales as rated power increases. Potential areas of uncertainty in the application of the current guidelines are summarized.

  12. Using Quantile Regression to Extend an Existing Wind Power Forecasting System with Probabilistic Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    2006-01-01

    For operational planning it is important to provide information about the situation-dependent uncertainty of a wind power forecast. Factors which influence the uncertainty of a wind power forecast include the predictability of the actual meteorological situation, the level of the predicted wind....... An existing wind power forecasting system (Zephyr/WPPT) is considered and it is shown how analysis of the forecast error can be used to build a model of the quantiles of the forecast error. Only explanatory variables or indices which are predictable are considered, whereby the model obtained can be used...... speed (due to the non-linearity of the power curve) and the forecast horizon. With respect to the predictability of the actual meteorological situation a number of explanatory variables are considered, some inspired by the literature. The article contains an overview of related work within the field...

  13. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland.......The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  14. Wake models developed during the Wind Shadow Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ott, Søren; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    The Wind Shadow project has developed and validated improved models for determining the wakes losses, and thereby the array efficiency of very large, closely packed wind farms. The rationale behind the project has been that the existing software has been covering these types of wind farms poorly......, both with respect to the densely packed turbines and the large fetches needed to describe the collective shadow effects of one farm to the next. Further the project has developed the necessary software for the use of the models. Guidelines with recommendations for the use of the models are included...... in the model deliverables....

  15. Trends in Wind Energy Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Tande, John O.

    2011-01-01

    . The development of new and larger turbines to some extent stagnated, and costs even rose due to high demand and rising materials costs. We believe, however – and this is supported by recent trends – that the next decade will be a new period of technology development and further scale-up, leading to more cost......-effective, reliable and controllable wind turbines and new applications. This is partly due to increased international competition, but also because the industry is increasingly dominated by high-technology international companies. The move to install more capacity offshore also favours larger wind turbines....... The huge potential of wind, the rapid development of the technology and the impressive growth of the industry justify the perception that wind energy is changing its role to become the future backbone of a secure global energy supply. Between the mid-1980s, when the wind industry took off, and 2005 wind...

  16. DOE/NREL Advanced Wind Turbine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Smith, B.; Laxson, A.; Thresher, B. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Goldman, P. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Wind/Hydro/Ocean Technologies Div.)

    1993-05-01

    The development of technologically advanced, high-efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high-priority activity of the US wind industry. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute), sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine Program to assist the wind industry in the development of a new class of advanced wind turbines. The initial phase of the program focused on developing conceptual designs for near-term and advanced turbines. The goal of the second phase of this program is to use the experience gained over the last decade of turbine design and operation combined with the latest existing design tools to develop a turbine that will produce energy at $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in a 5.8-m/s (13-mph) wind site. Three contracts have been awarded, and two more are under negotiation in the second phase. The third phase of the program will use new innovations and state-of-the-art wind turbine design technology to produce a turbine that will generate energy at $0.04/kWh in a 5.8-m/s wind site. Details of the third phase will be announced in early 1993.

  17. Wind energy curriculum development at GWU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Stephen M [GWU

    2013-06-08

    A wind energy curriculum has been developed at the George Washington University, School of Engineering and Applied Science. Surveys of student interest and potential employers expectations were conducted. Wind industry desires a combination of mechanical engineering training with electrical engineering training. The curriculum topics and syllabus were tested in several graduate/undergraduate elective courses. The developed curriculum was then submitted for consideration.

  18. Wind energy for a sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    of both the wind energy related research activities and the wind energy industry, as installed capacity has been increasing in most of the developed and developing countries. The DTU Wind Energy department carries the heritage of the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy by leading the research......Wind energy is on the forefront of sustainable technologies related to the production of electricity from green sources that combine the efficiency of meeting the demand for growth and the ethical responsibility for environmental protection. The last decades have seen an unprecedented growth...... developments in all sectors related to planning, installing and operating modern wind farms at land and offshore. With as many as 8 sections the department combines specialists at different thematic categories, ranging from meteorology, aeroelastic design and composite materials to electrical grids and test...

  19. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  20. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  1. Wind technology development: Large and small turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thresher, R. W.; Hock, S. M.; Loose, R. R.; Goldman, P.

    1994-12-01

    Wind technology has developed rapidly over the last decade with the design and development of advanced systems with improved performance, higher reliability, and lower costs. During the past several years, substantial gains have been made in wind turbine designs, lowering costs to an average of $0.05/kWh while further technology development is expected to allow the cost to drop below $0.04/kWh by 2000. As a result, wind is expected to be one of the least expensive forms of new electric generation in the next century. This paper will present the technology developments for both utility-scale wind turbines and remote, small-village wind turbines that are currently available or in development. Technology innovations are being adapted for remote and stand-alone power applications with smaller wind turbines. Hybrid power systems using smaller 1 to 50 (kW) wind turbines are being developed for non-grid-connected electrical generation applications. These village power systems typically use wind energy, photovoltaics, battery storage, and conventional diesel generators to power remote communities. Smaller turbines are being explored for application as distributed generation sources on utility grids to supply power during periods of peak demand, avoiding costly upgrades in distribution equipment. New turbine designs now account for turbulence-induced loads, unsteady aerodynamic stall effects, and complex fatigue loads, making use of new technology developments such as advanced airfoils. The new airfoils increase the energy capture, improve the operating efficiency, and reduce the sensitivity of the airfoils to operation roughness. Electronic controls are allowing variable rotor speed operation; while aerodynamic control devices, such as ailerons and flaps, are used to modulate power or stop the rotor in high-speed conditions. These technology trends and future turbine configurations are being sponsored and explored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program.

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  3. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  4. Coping with climate change and China's wind energy sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of today's climate change. To address this problem, the world is in an era of new round energy transformation, and the existing energy structure is being reformed. In this paper, according to the Chinese government's action plan for coping with climate change, the China's wind energy sustainable development goals and development route are discussed, and the countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. Wind energy is currently a kind of important renewable energy with matured technology which can be scale-up developed and put into commercial application, and in this transformation, wind energy will play a key role with other non-fossil energy sources. The development and utilization of wind energy is a systematic project, which needs to be solved from the aspects of policy, technology and management. At present, China is in the stage of transferring from “large wind power country” to “strong wind power country”, opportunities and challenges coexist, and the advantages of China's socialist system could be fully used, which can concentrate power to do big things and make contribution in the process of realizing global energy transformation.

  5. GIS Method for Developing Wind Supply Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.; Heimiller, D.; Cowlin, S.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes work conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of the Wind Technology Partnership (WTP) sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This project has developed methods that the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) intends to use in the planning and development of China's 30 GW of planned capacity. Because of China's influence within the community of developing countries, the methods and the approaches here may help foster wind development in other countries.

  6. Development of Danish Wind Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency. In the early nineties favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid. As a result wind power was booming...... on the Danish home market and Danish turbines achieved a global market share of around 50 %....

  7. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  8. Wake models developed during the Wind Shadow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.; Ott, S.; Pena, A.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, M.; Rathmann, O.; Joergensen, H.

    2011-11-15

    The Wind Shadow project has developed and validated improved models for determining the wakes losses, and thereby the array efficiency of very large, closely packed wind farms. The rationale behind the project has been that the existing software has been covering these types of wind farms poorly, both with respect to the densely packed turbines and the large fetches needed to describe the collective shadow effects of one farm to the next. Further the project has developed the necessary software for the use of the models. Guidelines with recommendations for the use of the models are included in the model deliverables. The project has been carried out as a collaborative project between Risoe DTU, DONG, Vattenfall, DNV and VESTAS, and it has been financed by energinet.dk grant no. 10086. (Author)

  9. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  10. Kickoff of offshore wind power in China: playoffs for China wind power development

    OpenAIRE

    Xiliang, Zhang; Da, Zhang; Stua, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Year 2010 is the significant year of offshore wind power development in China. The first national offshore wind power project is connected to the grid, and the first round of concession projects marks the strong support from central government. It is foreseeable that offshore wind power capacity in China will expand rapidly in the future, and the understanding pattern of it is crucial for analyzing the overall wind market in China and global offshore wind power development. This paper firstly...

  11. Large-scale integration of wind power into the existing Chinese energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the ability of the existing Chinese energy system to integrate wind power and explores how the Chinese energy system needs to prepare itself in order to integrate more fluctuating renewable energy in the future. With this purpose in mind, a model of the Chinese energy system has...... have been discussed and suggestions proposed for the Chinese energy system to integrate large-scale renewable energy in the future. It is concluded that the model constructed by the use of EnergyPLAN can accurately simulate the Chinese energy system. Based on current regulations to secure grid...... of securing grid stability, was left primarily to large coal-fired power plants. There are at least three possible solutions for the Chinese energy system to integrate large-scale fluctuating renewable energy in the long term: Redesigning the regulations to secure grid stability by means of diversifying...

  12. Wind Turbine Development at Montana State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Douglas S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Riddle, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Nelson, Jared [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Peterson, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-23

    A survey of wind turbine blade manufacturers, repair companies, wind farm operators, and third party investigators has directed the focus of this investigation on several types of flaws commonly found in wind turbine blades: waviness and porosity/voids. Several commercial scale wind turbine blades were inspected for the development of metrics for the identification, analysis and disposition. Analysis of flaw geometries yielded metrics which utilize specific parameters to physically characterize a defect. Data as it relates flaw parameters to frequencies of occurrence have been complied. Basic statistical analysis shows that the frequency of flaw parameters generally follows standard distributions. A testing program was then developed around this flaw data. Results from static testing indicate that there is strong correlation between flaw parameters and mechanical response. Preliminary results from the in-field data collection effort and coupon level testing have established a protocol by which a defect in a blade can be characterized quantifiably. With this data it is possible to develop probabilistic analysis, damage progression models and criticality assessment tools that will enable improved blade design methodology and the development of a risk management framework which describes the probability of failure for blades with defects.

  13. Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation factors regarding wind energy development, an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gartman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries promoting renewable energies encounter a variety of phenomena that can challenge the implementation of further onshore wind energy development. Those challenges can be observed in many multi-level governance systems, as exhibited in the U.S., Germany, and Mexico, where various regulatory and institutional levels must agree on goals and responsibilities. This is a challenge, as both forms of governance (top-down and bottom-up dominated are present in wind energy planning and policy. (1 Political and market phenomena, (2 siting issues, (3 the green vs. green dilemma, and (4 social acceptance are selected challenges within the different levels of decision-making processes in wind energy implementation. (1 Political and financial factors can influence the development by implementing incentive- and market-based policies, command-and-control policies, and feed-in tariffs. However, success of these policy designs for renewable energies is based on different political environments, and their electricity markets nationally, regionally, or statewide. (2 Spatial limitations in planning are created based on limited land availability due to conflicts with other land uses such as aviation, nature reserves, residential areas, their respective buffers. (3 The "green vs. green" dilemma involves the incoherent relationship between policies promoting renewable energies with policies protection species and their environments, becoming a major point of concern during siting and operations of wind energy. (4 Lastly, while there is a general overall support for wind energy, social acceptance on a local level is influenced by institutional settings i.e. information availability, as well as public and stakeholder concerns. Involvement in decision-making as well as financial participation (e.g. community-ownership affects public participation and acceptance. This paper goes into detail on these phenomena and discusses case studies in Europe and North America

  14. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Geographically distributed wind farms - their future development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudway, R. [Nabarro Nathanson (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    The project began as a result of a conversation between Professor Roger Wooton and I about the prospects of windfarm development in the future. We talked about the fact that there are necessarily going to be a finite number of large sites for which planning permission will be obtainable for large windfarms; on the other hand the UK has one of the best wind resources in Europe and there are many smaller sites which taken together have huge potential. The problem as we saw it was that development of a number of individual small sites tends to be significantly more expensive than the development of large sites because of loss of economies of scale and difficulties in financing them as free standing projects. In this conversation the concept of the geographically distributed wind farm was born, in that it occurred to both of use that there was potential in researching how far it was possible to develop a single windfarm but physically to disperse the wind turbines over a wide area although still being owned, operated and financed as a single project. The idea developed into an application for funding under the ALTENER programme and funding was duly obtained with additional backing from the DTI. (author)

  16. Development of Wind Farm AEP Prediction Program Considering Directional Wake Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoungboo; Cho, Kyungho; Huh, Jongchul [Jeju Nat’l Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    For accurate AEP prediction in a wind farm, it is necessary to effectively calculate the wind speed reduction and the power loss due to the wake effect in each wind direction. In this study, a computer program for AEP prediction considering directional wake effect was developed. The results of the developed program were compared with the actual AEP of the wind farm and the calculation result of existing commercial software to confirm the accuracy of prediction. The applied equations are identical with those of commercial software based on existing theories, but there is a difference in the calculation process of the detection of the wake effect area in each wind direction. As a result, the developed program predicted to be less than 1% of difference to the actual capacity factor and showed more than 2% of better results compared with the existing commercial software.

  17. Wind power for the world international reviews and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Maegaard, Preben; Palz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction, Preben MaegaardAccelerated Global Expansion of the Renewable Energy Sector: the Example of Wind Energy, Preben MaegaardWind Power Development in the European Union, Wolfgang PalzWind Energy to the rescue of mankind from the menace of the Fossil Fuel burning hazards, Anil KaneBlack or Green Wind Power, Frede HvelplundWind Energy Development in China, He DexinNon-grid-connected Wind Power and Offshore "Three Georges of Wind Power" in China, Gu WeidongWind Power in Japan: Past, Present, and Future Prospect, Izumi UshiyamaWind Power Development in India, Jami HossainChallenges and Opportunities for Energy Paradigm Shifting in Ontario, Canada, Jose EtcheverryWind Power in Cuba's Energy Revolution, Conrado Moreno FigueredoWind Power in Argentina, Erico SpinadelThe Emergence of Wind Power in Brazil, Everaldo FeitosaWind Energy in Chile, Arturo KunstmannWind Power in Austria, Wolfgang HeinThe History of Wind Power in France, Jean-Louis BalHistory, State-of-the Art and Future of Wind Energy in France, Ma...

  18. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  19. Wind for Schools: Developing Education Programs to Train the Next Generation of the Wind Energy Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Flowers, L.; Kelly, M.; Barnett, L.; Miles, J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Wind for Schools project elements, including a description of host and collegiate school curricula developed for wind energy and the status of the current projects. The paper also provides focused information on how schools, regions, or countries can become involved or implement similar projects to expand the social acceptance and understanding of wind energy.

  20. Draft South African wind energy technology platform: preliminary wind energy research and development framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Wind Energy Technology Programme (SAWEP) Phase 1 aims to achieve two key strategic outputs that will guide South Africa on wind energy development. One of these outputs is the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) which will play a...

  1. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Wind Energy Educational Infrastructure (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-05-01

    Wind Powering America national technical director Ian Baring-Gould made this presentation about workforce development in the wind energy industry to an audience at the American Wind Energy Association's annual WINDPOWER conference in Anaheim. The presentation outlines job projections from the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report and steps to take at all levels of educational institutions to meet those projections.

  2. Superimposition of wind seas on pre-existing swells off Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Menon, H.B.; AshokKumar, K.; Cavaleri, L.

    ) the aerodynamic roughness length (the AWS is situated on top of the NIO building approximately 300 m away from the sea and the area is surrounded by low lying trees) and κ (=0.4) is the von Karman constant. Wind vectors of these reduced winds are plotted on a... to the local generation of light wind seas. This process has been frequently observed while measuring waves on an oceanographic tower in the Adriatic Sea. However, the present measurements do not contribute substantially to clarify this question, as the sea...

  3. Mod-2 wind turbine system development. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Progress in the design, fabrication, and testing of a wind turbine system is reported. The development of the MOD-2 wind turbine through acceptance testing and initial operational evaluation is documented. The MOD-2 project intends to develop early commercialization of wind energy. The first wind turbine farm (three MOD-2 units) are now being operated at the Bonneville Power Administration site near Goldendale, Washington.

  4. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  5. Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines......, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines......This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges...

  6. Optimization of Installation, Operation and Maintenance at Offshore Wind Projects in the U.S.: Review and Modeling of Existing and Emerging Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, Nick [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sevilla, Fernando [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Redfern, Robin [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Storey, Alexis [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kempenaar, Anton [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Elkinton, Chris [Garrad Hassan America, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant to GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) to investigate the logistics, opportunities, and costs associated with existing and emerging installation and operation and maintenance (O&M) activities at offshore wind projects as part of the DOE’s program to reduce barriers facing offshore wind project development in the United States (U.S.). This report (the Report) forms part of Subtopic 5.3 “Optimized Installation, Operation and Maintenance Strategies Study” which in turn is part of the “Removing Market Barriers in U.S. Offshore Wind” set of projects for the DOE. The purpose of Subtopic 5.3 is to aid and facilitate informed decision-making regarding installation and O&M during the development, installation, and operation of offshore wind projects in order to increase efficiency and reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCoE). Given the large area of U.S. territorial waters, the generally higher mean wind speeds offshore, and the proximity to the coast of many large U.S. cities, offshore wind power has the potential to become a significant contributor of energy to U.S. markets. However, for the U.S. to ensure that the development of offshore wind energy projects is carried out in an efficient and cost-effective manner, it is important to be cognizant of the current and emerging practices in both the domestic and international offshore wind energy industries. The U.S. can harness the experience gained globally and combine this with the skills and assets of an already sizeable onshore wind industry, as well as the resources of a mature offshore oil and gas industry, to develop a strong offshore wind sector. The work detailed in this report is aimed at assisting with that learning curve, particularly in terms of offshore specific installation and O&M activities. This Report and the Installation and O&M LCoE Analysis Tool, which were developed together by GL GH as part of this study, allow readers to identify, model

  7. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  8. Communicative Competence: Existing Concepts and Prospects for Further Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is set out to be of the eight key competences which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission 2004, p. 3). The success of the sustainable development of communicative competence requires existing concepts of communicative competence…

  9. Does the recent warming hiatus exist over northern Asia for winter wind chill temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Wind chill temperature (WCT) describes the joint effect of wind velocity and air temperature on exposed body skin and could support policy makers in designing plans to reduce the risks of notably cold and windy weather. This study examined winter WCT over northern Asia during 1973-2013 by analyzing in situ station data. The winter WCT warming rate over the Tibetan Plateau slowed during 1999-2013 (-0.04 °C/decade) compared with that during 1973-1998 (0.67 °C/decade). The winter WCT warming hiatus has also been observed in the remainder of Northern Asia with trends of 1.11 °C/decade during 1973-1998 but -1.02 °C/decade during 1999-2013, except for the Far East of Russia (FE), where the winter WCT has continued to heat up during both the earlier period of 1973-1998 (0.54 °C/decade) and the recent period of 1999-2013 (0.75 °C/decade). The results indicate that the influence of temperature on winter WCT is greater than that of wind speed over northern Asia. Atmospheric circulation changes associated with air temperature and wind speed were analyzed to identify the causes for the warming hiatus of winter WCT over northern Asia. The distributions of sea level pressure and 500 hPa height anomalies during 1999-2013 transported cold air from the high latitudes to middle latitudes, resulting in low air temperature over Northern Asia except for the Far East of Russia. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the increase in wind speed offset the increase in air temperature during 1999-2013. For the Far East, the southerly wind from the Western Pacific drove the temperature up during the 1999-2013 period via warm advection.

  10. Wind Resistant Design of Bridges in Japan Developments and Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Yozo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    For long-span bridges, wind action is a dominant factor in their safety and serviceability. A large number of long-span bridges have been built in Japan over the past 30 years, and tremendous amounts of research and technical development have been accomplished in wind resistant design. This book is a compilation of the results of active research and development. Wind resistant design standards generated in Japan are described in the first few chapters. Then comes information such as design wind speed, structural damping, wind tunnel tests, and analyses, which provide the basis of the design standards. Wind-induced vibrations and their control of girders, towers, cables, and other features are explained with examples of field measurements. Comprehensive listings of Japanese experience in vibration control are also presented. Because achieving particularly dynamic safety against wind is still not an easy task, these data and information will be valuable assets for the wind-engineering and bridge-engineering com...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  12. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  13. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  14. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  15. Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M. Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world’s best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas. PMID:22848505

  16. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  17. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  18. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...

  19. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  20. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  1. Towards a Joint Action Plan for Research and Development in the Offshore Wind Service Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Piirainen, Kalle A.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2015-01-01

    for offshore wind installations, and industry clusters based on OWS are emerging in regions around the North Sea. The JAP builds on a mapping (based on desk studies, patent analyses, and bibliometrics) of each of participating region’s existing capabilities, and on an overall strategic orientation and options......This paper presents a joint action plan (JAP) for research and development and innovation (RDI) in the offshore wind service industry in Denmark, Germany, Norway and the UK. Offshore wind servicing (OWS) is in this context defined as both assembly and installation of offshore wind farms as well...... for a innovation. The JAP is built on this foundation together with stakeholders from the four regions, comprising representatives from R&D and education, policy makers and offshore wind industry. Following the workshop, the ECOWindS consortium has been developing the proposed action plan further based...

  2. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  3. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegen, Maya, E-mail: jegen.maya@uqam.ca [Departement de science politique, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case postale 8888, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Audet, Gabriel [Departement de science politique, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case postale 8888, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: > We address social acceptance of wind energy. > We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. > Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. > Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. > Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  4. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  5. Development of superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors...... and production volumes prohibit a large scale impact on the wind sector. The low temperature superconductors are readily available, but will need more sophisticated cooling. Eventually the Cost of Energy from superconducting wind turbines, with particular emphasis on reliability, will determine if they become...

  6. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power......The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... partners. The next item has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and windfarm summation on the power quality of wind turbines, considering both wind turbines with fixed rotor speed(s) and wind turbines with variable speed drives....

  7. Development of mobile platform integrated with existing electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungAh; Kim, Sung Soo; Kang, Simon; Kim, Kyungduk; Kim, Jun

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) platform designed to manage and utilize the existing EMR and mobile application with optimized resources. We structured the mEMR to reuse services of retrieval and storage in mobile app environments that have already proven to have no problem working with EMRs. A new mobile architecture-based mobile solution was developed in four steps: the construction of a server and its architecture; screen layout and storyboard making; screen user interface design and development; and a pilot test and step-by-step deployment. This mobile architecture consists of two parts, the server-side area and the client-side area. In the server-side area, it performs the roles of service management for EMR and documents and for information exchange. Furthermore, it performs menu allocation depending on user permission and automatic clinical document architecture document conversion. Currently, Severance Hospital operates an iOS-compatible mobile solution based on this mobile architecture and provides stable service without additional resources, dealing with dynamic changes of EMR templates. The proposed mobile solution should go hand in hand with the existing EMR system, and it can be a cost-effective solution if a quality EMR system is operated steadily with this solution. Thus, we expect this example to be shared with hospitals that currently plan to deploy mobile solutions.

  8. Social contention in Denmark over alternative wind power development paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    . Wind energy projects on land in Denmark are increasingly subject to social contention. Research and policy are mostly directed towards understanding how 'public acceptance' of current market-driven ways of wind power development can be supported and less on exploring the potentiality of alternative...... paths or understanding processes of coalition formation and reasons for social contention that underlie socio-technical controversies over sustainable transitions. In this paper, we draw on case-study research, inquiring into the contested translation of a Danish wind farm site in the rural area......Through a case-study on the development of a contested wind farm project in the Northern part of Jutland in Denmark, this paper builds on an STS-approach to shed light on the contested acceptability of wind farm development, which has produced controversy and social contention over energy justice...

  9. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  10. China's experimental pragmatics of "Scientific development" in wind power: Algorithmic struggles over software in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study on the development of China's wind power market. As China's wind industry has experienced a quality crisis, the Chinese government has intervened to steer the industry towards a turn to quality, indicating a pragmatist and experimental mode of market development....... This increased focus on quality, to ensure the sustainable and scientific development of China's wind energy market, requires improved indigenous Chinese innovation capabilities in wind turbine technology. To shed light on how the turn to quality impacts upon the industry and global competition, this study...... adopts the micro-processual, socio-technical, relational and empiricist lens of Science & Technology Studies (STS). It illustrates how Sino-foreign collaborative relations around the core technology of software (in control systems and simulation tools) have become politicised, and how controversies...

  11. Using wind turbines in sky scrapers to develop the stable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore to protect the natural sources, reduction of environmental pollution and reduction of energy consumption, supplying the wind turbine has play the important role to produce wind energy and changing it to mechanical energy and also electricity to fulfill the stable development in the building section, so because in ...

  12. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  13. Development of a numerical wind atlas for South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennard, Christopher; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Two verified wind atlases have been developed for South Africa. The first adopted a statistical-dynamical approach and the second a novel, fully dynamical approach. We verify the atlases against an observational wind atlas generated from three years of data from 10 measurement masts...

  14. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systems requires a simplified digital simulator, especially for the development of a optimal control solution .The proposed work is to make a prototype of variable speed wind conversion system simulator for a required operational condition under variable wind speed. In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using ...

  15. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    moderately attractive to fish. Also investigations into the effects on fish and fish behaviour from electromagnetic fields were made at Nysted. Data documented some effects from the cable route on fish behaviour, with some species avoiding the cable, while other species were attracted. However, only flounder......The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could...... be that the studies and investigations were made during the early stages of colonisation of the turbine foundations at Horns Rev that constitute artificial reefs. At Nysted, the effect was weak, presumably because the benthic community consisted of a monoculture of large common mussels (Mytilus edulis) that are only...

  16. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  17. An overview of DOE's wind turbine development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxson, A.; Dodge, D.; Flowers, L.; Loose, R.; Goldman, P.

    1993-09-01

    The development of technologically advanced, higher efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high priority activity of the US wind industry. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting and sponsoring a range of programs aimed at assisting the wind industry with system design, development, and testing. The overall goal is to develop systems that can compete with conventional electric generation for $.05/kWh at 5.8 m/s (13 mph sites) by the mid-1990's and with fossil-fuel-based generators for $.04/kWh at 5.8 m/s sites by the year 2000. These goals will be achieved through several programs. The Value Engineered Turbine Program will promote the rapid development of US capability to manufacture wind turbines with known and well documented records of performance, cost, and reliability, to take advantage of near-term market opportunities. The Advanced Wind Turbine Program will assist US industry to develop and integrate innovative technologies into utility-grade wind turbines for the near-term (mid 1990's) and to develop a new generation of turbines for the year 2000. The collaborative Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/DOE Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program will deploy and evaluate commercial-prototype wind turbines in typical utility operating environments, to provide a bridge between development programs currently underway and commercial purchases of utility-grade wind turbines. A number of collaborative efforts also will help develop a range of small systems optimized to work in a diesel hybrid environment to provide electricity for smaller non-grid-connected applications.

  18. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  19. Geological and geotechnical characteristics of two prospective wind turbine development sites in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, L. [J.D. Mollard and Associates Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada); Adelman, T. [GE Ground Engineering Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    SaskPower International's Centennial Wind Power Project is located 25 km southeast of Swift Current, Saskatchewan and harnesses 150 megawatts of power from 83 Vestas V80 wind turbines. This paper presented the results of an evaluation of geological and geotechnical site characteristics at two potential wind turbine development sites in southwestern Saskatchewan prior to selecting the final development site. Bearing strength of sediments, variability in stratigraphy and groundwater conditions are important factors affecting the ideal foundation design configuration and design parameters. Potential sites were selected based primarily on wind energy potential and proximity to existing electrical transmission infrastructure. The paper discussed various components of the study including an office airphoto and geological assessment; test hole drilling, sampling and geotechnical testing; piezometer installation and monitoring; and, an assessment of foundation conditions. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  1. Piikani wind power project : sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Big Bull, W. [Piikuni Utilities Corp., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed the potential environmental impacts that a wind turbine array may have on the sacred way of life of the Piikuni Nation, an Aboriginal community living in Blackfoot Territory in Alberta and Saskatchewan. A map depicting the traditional land use area as delineated in an 1877 Treaty was presented. Companies that require access to the land must be aware of historic sites and utilize protocol to approach First Nations communities. The community consultation process is driven by a desire to embark in partnerships to ensure that best practice methods are used throughout the duration of the project. The Weather Dancer 1 is a 100 MW wind power joint venture project between the Piikani Utilities Corporation and EPCOR. Electricity is presently being sold to the city of Edmonton. figs.

  2. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Friis Pedersen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santier, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations and provide background for new standards for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been to verify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating partners. The next item has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines, considering both wind turbines with fixed rotor speed(s) and wind turbines with variable speed drives. (au)

  3. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  4. Technology Roadmaps: China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The report shows how China, already the world's largest wind market, could reach 1 000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.

  5. Prospects for development of wind turbines with orthogonal rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Krivospitsky, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The experimental data obtained previously on the investigation of power characteristics and the possibility of the self-start of the Darrieus rotor are anlysed. These results are used at the design of new two-tier wind turbines with straight blades. The full-scale tests of two design variants showed the prospects for the development of wind turbines with the Darrieus rotor. At a reasonable design, they do not need any devices for the rotor orientation and start-up, are little sensitive to wind gusts and can have a high level of power characteristics, which is not inferior to the best samples of the units of propeller type.

  6. China, Norway and offshore wind development. A win-win wind relationship?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslow, Rachel

    2010-03-15

    This study published by WWF Norway, outlines the status of offshore wind power development in China and looks at how the Norwegian offshore industry can contribute to speed it up. Today China is the world's fastest growing market for renewable energy. China's annual offshore wind energy generation potential is 11,000 TWh, similar to that of the North Sea. The study estimates that in the next decade China will install 30 GW of offshore wind energy generation capacity. This could mitigate 1.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} over the 20 year asset lifetime (more than the total Norwegian emissions forecast over the same period). To unleash China's potential and speed up development of offshore wind energy production, however, bridges must to be built between stakeholders with the relevant experience and the best available technology and policy makers and project developers in China. This study puts forward possible ways for future cooperation between China and Norway - a country with a world leading offshore industry cluster - in order to leverage mutual strengths to upscale and commercialize offshore wind technology for the global market. (Author)

  7. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  8. Policies and Market Factors Driving Wind Power Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Parsons, B.; Gagliano, T.; Brown, M.; Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24% annually during the past five years. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the policies and market factors that have been driving utility-scale wind energy development in the United States, particularly in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment in recent years. Although there are federal policies and overarching market issues that are encouraging investment nationally, much of the recent activity has resulted from state-level policies or localized market drivers. In this paper, we identify the key policies, incentives, regulations, and markets affecting development, and draw lessons from the experience of leading states that may be transferable to other states or regions. We provide detailed discussions of the drivers for wind development in a dozen leading states-California, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

  9. ProtoEXIST2: Advanced Wide-field Imaging CZT Detector Development For The HET On The Proposed EXIST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.; Gehrels, N.; Cook, W.; Kaye, S.; Harrison, F.

    2010-03-01

    We describe our development of ProtoEXIST2, the advanced CZT imaging detector and wide field telescope prototype for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission. EXIST is a multi-wavelength Medium class mission which would explore the early Universe using high redshift Gamma-ray Bursts and survey black holes on all scales. ProtoEXIST2 will demonstrate the feasibility of a large scale imaging module (256 cm2) with a close-tiled array of fine pixel (0.6 mm) CZT with a balloon flight test in 2010 or 2011. This second generation close-tiled CZT imager follows ProtoEXIST1, which had a recent successful balloon flight (see Allen et al in this meeting) using the same area CZT detector module (256 cm2) but with larger pixel size (2.5mm). For signal readout and event processing, we use the Direct-Bond (DB) ASIC, developed for the NuSTAR mission to be used in a close-tiled 2 x 2 array of 2x2 cm2 CZT detectors, each with 32x32 pixels. The DB-ASIC is attractive for a large scale implementation of tiled imaging CZT detectors given its low noise and power consumption (70uW/pixel). We are developing readout for the DB-ASIC that incorporates our back-end FPGA readout architecture developed for ProtoEXIST1 in order to accomplish the 256 cm2 detector module area with totally vertical integration (i.e. no auxialliary boards to the sides of the module. This is required to tile large numbers of modules into the very large total area (4.5m^2) proposed for the HET on EXIST. We review the design of the EXIST/HET and its optimum shielding in light of our ProtoEXIST1 balloon flight and our plan for future development of ProtoEXIST3, a final EXIST/HET detector module that would incorporate a still lower power version of the DB ASIC.

  10. Wind tunnel technology for the development of future commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szodruch, J.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for new technologies in the area of civil aircraft design are mainly related to the high cost involved in the purchase of modern, fuel saving aircraft. A second important factor is the long term rise in the price of fuel. The demonstration of the benefits of new technologies, as far as these are related to aerodynamics, will,for the foreseeable future, still be based on wind tunnel measurements. Theoretical computation methods are very successfully used in design work, wing optimization, and an estimation of the Reynolds number effect. However, wind tunnel tests are still needed to verify the feasibility of the considered concepts. Along with other costs, the cost for the wind tunnel tests needed for the development of an aircraft is steadily increasing. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of numerical aerodynamics and civil aircraft technology on the development of wind tunnels. Attention is given to the requirements for the wind tunnel, investigative methods, measurement technology, models, and the relation between wind tunnel experiments and theoretical methods.

  11. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  12. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  13. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware

  14. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the QC and splicing methodology for KSC's 50- and 915-MHz DRWP measurements that generates an extensive archive of vertically complete profiles from 0.20-18.45 km. The concurrent POR from each archive extends from April 2000 to December 2009. MSFC NE applies separate but similar QC processes to each of the 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives. DRWP literature and data examination provide the basis for developing and applying the automated and manual QC processes on both archives. Depending on the month, the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives retain 52-65% and 16-30% of the possible data, respectively. The 50- and 915-MHz DRWP QC archives retain 84-91% and 85-95%, respectively, of all the available data provided that data exist in the non- QC'ed archives. Next, MSFC NE applies an algorithm to splice concurrent measurements from both DRWP sources. Last, MSFC NE generates a composite profile from the (up to) five available spliced profiles to effectively characterize boundary layer winds and to utilize all possible 915-MHz DRWP measurements at each timestamp. During a given month, roughly 23,000-32,000 complete profiles exist from 0.25-18.45 km from the composite profiles' archive, and approximately 5,000- 27,000 complete profiles exist from an archive utilizing an individual 915-MHz DRWP. One can extract a variety of profile combinations (pairs, triplets, etc.) from this sample for a given application. The sample of vertically complete DRWP wind measurements not only gives launch vehicle customers greater confidence in loads and trajectory assessments versus using balloon output, but also provides flexibility to simulate different DOL situations across applicable altitudes. In addition to increasing sample size and providing more flexibility for DOL simulations in the vehicle design phase, the spliced DRWP database provides any upcoming launch vehicle program with the capability to utilize DRWP profiles on DOL to compute vehicle steering

  15. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Concepts development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Presently, high wind potentials in remote areas may not be utilized for electricity production due to limited grid transmission capacity and/or difficulties in matching the electricity production with the demand. The overall project objective is to helpovercome these bottlenecks, i.e. to identify...... for controlling the power output from a wind farm connected to aweak grid have been investigated. The investigation includes development of different control strategies, use of different storage types, development of a framework for comparing different options and tools needed as part of the framework...... technology in combination with wind farms can also contribute to the development of remote regions because such technology will improve theinfrastructure of the region and therefore increasing the conditions for local trade and industry...

  16. Applications of Systems Engineering to the Research, Design, and Development of Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Meadows, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Lunacek, M.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Musial, W.; Veers, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper surveys the landscape of systems engineering methods and current wind modeling capabilities to assess the potential for development of a systems engineering to wind energy research, design, and development. Wind energy has evolved from a small industry in a few countries to a large international industry involving major organizations in the manufacturing, development, and utility sectors. Along with this growth, significant technology innovation has led to larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and ever more complex designs for all major subsystems - from the rotor, hub, and tower to the drivetrain, electronics, and controls. However, as large-scale deployment of the technology continues and its contribution to electricity generation becomes more prominent, so have the expectations of the technology in terms of performance and cost. For the industry to become a sustainable source of electricity, innovation in wind energy technology must continue to improve performance and lower the cost of energy while supporting seamless integration of wind generation into the electric grid without significant negative impacts on local communities and environments. At the same time, issues associated with wind energy research, design, and development are noticeably increasing in complexity. The industry would benefit from an integrated approach that simultaneously addresses turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated in order to meet this diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs that exist between them. While potential exists today to integrate across different domains within the wind energy system design process, organizational barriers such as different institutional objectives and the importance of proprietary information have previously limited a system level approach to wind energy research, design, and

  17. Residents' Perceptions toward Utility-Scale Wind Farm Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joseph; Romich, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Increased development of wind farms in the U.S. has fostered debates surrounding the siting and support for the projects. Prior research demonstrates the importance of understanding the attitudes and opinions of community members when developing projects. This article reviews a case study of an Ohio community that integrated a local survey to…

  18. Challenges and solutions of remote sensing at offshore wind energy developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T A; West, T E; Davenport, J K

    2009-11-01

    Radar is becoming an important tool used to gather data on bird and bat activity at proposed and existing land-based wind energy sites. Radar will likely play an even more important role at the increasing development of wind energy offshore, given both the lack of knowledge about bird and bat activity offshore and the increased difficulty in obtaining offshore information. Most radar studies to date have used off-the-shelf or modified marine radars. However, there are several issues that continue to hinder the potential usefulness of radar at wind energy sites, with offshore sites providing a particular suite of challenges. We identify these challenges along with current or developing solutions.

  19. Development of air to air ejector for supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the development of design of new conception of ejector with twelve primary annular nozzles arranged around the inlet part of the mixing chamber. The ejector is proposed to be used for propulsion of supersonic experimental wind tunnel with variable test section, which is now in development. The ejector is considered to be placed on outlet of this wind tunnel. The original design of the ejector has been modified to ensure its manufacturability. Software Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used for numerical verification of earlier work. The new design and dissimilarities of numerical results are presented in this work.

  20. German support systems for onshore wind farms in the context of Polish acts limiting wind energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.

  1. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  2. Optimal application of climate data to the development of design wind speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Retief, Johan V.; Goliger, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate extreme wind statistics are important for the design of a safe and economic built environment. The recent revision of the South African Wind Loading Code for engineers (SANS 10160-3:2011) will also include a reassessment of design wind speed statistics. In addition, the Wind Atlas of South...... Africa (WASA project) focuses, amongst others, on the development of a Regional Extreme Wind Climate (REWC) for South Africa. Wind farms are planned for areas with relatively strong and sustained winds, with wind turbines classed according to their suitability for different wind conditions. The REWC...... statistics are used during the construction and design phase to make assumptions about the local strong wind climate that the wind turbines will be exposed to, with the local environment and topography as additional input. The simultaneous development of the REWC and revision of the extreme wind statistics...

  3. Myeloid sarcoma developing in pre-existing pyoderma gangrenosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Møller, Hanne; Kjaerskov, Mette Wanscher

    2009-01-01

    We report here a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing into myeloid sarcoma as a sign of transformation to acute leukaemia. The patient was treated successfully with intensive chemotherapy and achieved complete remission, and her otherwise expanding...

  4. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  5. Wind-energy Science, Technology and Research (WindSTAR) Consortium: Curriculum, Workforce Development, and Education Plan Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, James [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The purpose of the project is to modify and expand the current wind energy curriculum at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and to develop plans to expand the graduate program to a national scale. The expansion plans include the foundational steps to establish the American Academy of Wind Energy (AAWE). The AAWE is intended to be a cooperative organization of wind energy research, development, and deployment institutes and universities across North America, whose mission will be to develop and execute joint RD&D projects and to organize high-level science and education in wind energy

  6. Development of an online reputation monitor by using existing components

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, G.J.C.; Venter, W.C.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Customer opinion about companies are very important and companies often get customer feedback via surveys or other official methods. Some customers prefer to voice their opinion on the internet where they take comfort in anonymity. Currently this form of customer feedback is not closely monitored. This project aims to address this shortcoming by developing a system capable of monitoring various web and social networking sites for customer feedback http://tinyurl.com...

  7. Development of controller strategies for a robotized filament winding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Edgar; Machado, José; Mendonça, João P.

    2013-10-01

    The composites reinforced with continuous fibers of polymeric material are increasingly used in applications where it is essential to reduce weight, mainly due to their high ratio of strength/weight and rigidity/weight. A conventional application are pressure vessels, used for storing liquids or gases subjected to low or high pressure, where the tape continuous fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix material is wound around a mandrel defining the final geometry. In this context the filament winding process is a very attractive process for the production of composite components. For optimal structural performance, and greater weight saving, an optimal path should be adopted, resulting only in axial tension in the longitudinal direction (slip). Such path is the geodesic winding and diverse equipment may be used to guarantee the process automation of the winding. This work herein presented is focused on the study and development of the controller program for a robotized filament winding equipment, taking into account customization of possible trajectories controlling filament winding. The automation of the custom path according to user needs increases exponentially the capabilities, where the use of a robotized solution increases process flexibility and repeatability.

  8. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  9. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B.H.; Dam, J.J.D. van; Delft, D.R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  10. Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rashmi, R.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; John, M.P.

    . Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in these regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal distance (ID) between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal...

  11. Development of a wind converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 1: Technical description of the wind energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly, J. P.; Steinheber, R.

    1982-11-01

    A 10 kW wind energy converter was developed by using as far possible standard serial production parts. The design criteria and the description of the essential machinery components of the MODA 10 wind energy converter are discussed. For some special load cases the safety calculation of the important components is shown. The blade control system which qualified for small wind energy converters, is explained. Weight and cost of the MODA 10 are considered.

  12. ANEMOS: Development of a next generation wind power forecasting system for the large-scale integration of onshore and offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniotakis, G.; Anemos Team

    2003-04-01

    Objectives: Accurate forecasting of the wind energy production up to two days ahead is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Especially, in a liberalized electricity market, prediction tools enhance the position of wind energy compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. ANEMOS, is a new 3.5 years R&D project supported by the European Commission, that resembles research organizations and end-users with an important experience on the domain. The project aims to develop advanced forecasting models that will substantially outperform current methods. Emphasis is given to situations like complex terrain, extreme weather conditions, as well as to offshore prediction for which no specific tools currently exist. The prediction models will be implemented in a software platform and installed for online operation at onshore and offshore wind farms by the end-users participating in the project. Approach: The paper presents the methodology of the project. Initially, the prediction requirements are identified according to the profiles of the end-users. The project develops prediction models based on both a physical and an alternative statistical approach. Research on physical models gives emphasis to techniques for use in complex terrain and the development of prediction tools based on CFD techniques, advanced model output statistics or high-resolution meteorological information. Statistical models (i.e. based on artificial intelligence) are developed for downscaling, power curve representation, upscaling for prediction at regional or national level, etc. A benchmarking process is set-up to evaluate the performance of the developed models and to compare them with existing ones using a number of case studies. The synergy between statistical and physical approaches is examined to identify promising areas for further improvement of forecasting accuracy. Appropriate physical and statistical prediction models are also developed for

  13. Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-12-06

    (with spatial and/or temporal dependence). Statistical approaches to uncertainty forecasting basically consist of estimating the uncertainty based on observed forecasting errors. Quantile regression (QR) is currently a commonly used approach in uncertainty forecasting. In Chapter 3, we propose new statistical approaches to the uncertainty estimation problem by employing kernel density forecast (KDF) methods. We use two estimators in both offline and time-adaptive modes, namely, the Nadaraya-Watson (NW) and Quantilecopula (QC) estimators. We conduct detailed tests of the new approaches using QR as a benchmark. One of the major issues in wind power generation are sudden and large changes of wind power output over a short period of time, namely ramping events. In Chapter 4, we perform a comparative study of existing definitions and methodologies for ramp forecasting. We also introduce a new probabilistic method for ramp event detection. The method starts with a stochastic algorithm that generates wind power scenarios, which are passed through a high-pass filter for ramp detection and estimation of the likelihood of ramp events to happen. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the results of the application of ITL training criteria to deterministic WPF; Chapter 3 reports the study on probabilistic WPF, including new contributions to wind power uncertainty forecasting; Chapter 4 presents a new method to predict and visualize ramp events, comparing it with state-of-the-art methodologies; Chapter 5 briefly summarizes the main findings and contributions of this report.

  14. Does Informal Employment Exist in the United States and Other Developed Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos E

    2016-08-01

    This editorial argues that informal employment does exist in developed countries and needs to be studied as such to complement the existing literature mostly published on informal work in developing countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...

  16. Development of a site analysis tool for distributed wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Shawn [The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham MA (United States)

    2012-02-28

    The Cadmus Group, Inc., in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Encraft, was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a site analysis tool for distributed wind technologies. As the principal investigator for this project, Mr. Shawn Shaw was responsible for overall project management, direction, and technical approach. The product resulting from this project is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT), a software tool for analyzing proposed sites for distributed wind technology (DWT) systems. This user-friendly tool supports the long-term growth and stability of the DWT market by providing reliable, realistic estimates of site and system energy output and feasibility. DSAT-which is accessible online and requires no purchase or download of software-is available in two account types; Standard: This free account allows the user to analyze a limited number of sites and to produce a system performance report for each; and Professional: For a small annual fee users can analyze an unlimited number of sites, produce system performance reports, and generate other customizable reports containing key information such as visual influence and wind resources. The tool’s interactive maps allow users to create site models that incorporate the obstructions and terrain types present. Users can generate site reports immediately after entering the requisite site information. Ideally, this tool also educates users regarding good site selection and effective evaluation practices.

  17. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  18. Developments of the offshore wind turbine wake model Fuga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    features to Fuga and turn it into a useful tool for offshore wind farm developers. The new features consist in - Flexibility. Including the ability to cope with several types of turbines in the same project, thus making it possible to predict inter farm interactions. The graphical user interface has been...... from Horns Rev has been made in order to quantify the impact of non-stationarity of the wind direction. The results are generalized so as to account for the uncertainties imposed by a ten minute mean value trend as well as by the distance between turbines and the met mast. The old model has been......This is the final report of the project entitled Risø DTU Modelling Services carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly known as Risø National Laboratory) as part of the Carbon Trust's Offshore Wind Accelerator Stage 2 under a contract with Carbon Trust. The project is a follow-up to a Carbon Trust...

  19. Wind energy development as a part of Poland’s industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoerring Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland as an European Union (EU member state has to increase its share of renewable energy (RE in gross domestic energy consumption from 2.4% in 2003 to 12% in 2010. This paper discusses perspectives for wind energy development in Poland as a part of the industrial development given the political system supports RE. It shows that the fulfillment of the EU’s RE obligations could be used to the advantage of Poland’s sustainable development. Wind energy development may create a new industry that involves spare capacity of traditional Polish industries and generates new work places. This may help to overcome Poland’s main macro-economical problems: high unemployment and budget deficit. This paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing RE support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland. .

  20. China: an emerging offshore wind development hotspot. With a new assessment of China's offshore wind potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinvang, Rasmus; Enslow, Rachel; Beaumont, Hubert

    2010-08-15

    This study provides new and more detailed estimates of the offshore wind energy resources in China, with particular focus on Southern China. The study points out that the offshore wind industry is ramping up in China with at least 11.9GW in the development pipeline per April 2010. The study estimates the offshore wind potential of China (excluding Taiwan) to 11,580TWh/year. The study proves estimates and wind energy resource maps per province. Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan stand out with the highest offshore wind speeds in China while Guangdong also shows significant potential, with annual wind speed averages of 6.5-10.2m/s and an energy density range of 12-36GWh/km2. Even though current offshore wind development is mainly taking place in Fujian and Jiangsu, this study shows that the potential is likely even greater in other provinces. The study was developed by the Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA) and Sun Yat-sen University, and commissioned by WWF as part of a project funded by the Norwegian Agency of development Coopeartion (Norad). Methodology and constraints: The wind resource analysis improves upon previous studies in estimating the wind energy generation potential for offshore wind power in China, with available meteorological data adjusted for influence of typhoons. The study models how much energy offshore wind can produce along China's coast up to 100km from the shore by calculating the energy output of theoretical wind farms by applying the power curve of a 3MW turbine at a 100m hub height. In addition the study further expands by giving special consideration to the deep-sea offshore potential at +50m water depths. The study focuses particularly on the coastline from Shandong down to Hainan. The final results provide good indication of the offshore wind resource in China when comparing one area to the other. The report can therefore be used as a preliminary tool to identifying most interesting provinces and locations for offshore wind

  1. Territorial development and wind energy; Developpement territorial et filiere eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, C.; Cote, G. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the development of wind energy projects, with reference to social repercussions. Strategic planning tools used by project developers in Quebec were presented in terms of how project managers strive to balance many objectives such as socio-economic development and sustainable resource use. Some of the basic techniques used in conflict analysis and human impact evaluation were also discussed, such as environmental assessments, strategic environmental assessments, and direct measure of human impacts. The advantages, challenges, opportunities and risks in any given project must be evaluated prior to development. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development at NASA Langley Research Center for NASA Space-Based 3-D Winds Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the 20-plus years of pulsed transmit laser development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to enable a coherent Doppler wind lidar to measure global winds from earth orbit. We briefly also discuss the many other ingredients needed to prepare for this space mission.

  3. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  4. Cherokee Wind Energy Development - Feasibility and Pre-Construction Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Andy [Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC, Catoosa, OK (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Cherokee Nation Businesses (CNB) received a grant from the US Department of Energy to explore feasibility and pursue development of a wind power generation facility on Cherokee land in north-central Oklahoma. This project followed several years of initial study exploring the possibility of commercial-scale wind power generation on primarily agricultural land owned by the Cherokee Nation. This project produced detailed analysis of the legal, financial and market viability of such generation facilities, and encompassed a full technical evaluation of the engineering, environmental, and geotechnical aspects of installing this capacity. During the course of this project, information gleaned from this exploration changed CNB’s thinking about the best course of action for Cherokee participation in the development, eventually moving away from an equity-owner model and towards utilization of the land asset as a resource while mitigating Cherokee financial and operational risk.

  5. On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Rashmi, R.; Vethamony, P.; Menon, H.B.

    the post-monsoon season. NCEP reanalysis winds have been used to analyse active fetch available in the Indian Ocean, from where the predominant swells propagate to the west coast of India. A numerical model was set up to simulate waves in the Indian Ocean...

  6. Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

  7. Wind power integration in Alberta : a developer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindorff, C. [West WindEau Inc., Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The current status of wind energy development in Alberta was discussed along with some actions that are needed to alleviate the need for a cap on wind development from the perspective of West WindEau Inc., an Alberta-based wind developer. A wind energy plan for Alberta was presented along with comments on the Alberta Electricity System Operator's (AESO's) response to wind development in terms of providing a level playing field, power management and supply options. The wind industry in Alberta has changed significantly since deregulation. Approximately 350 MW of wind generation has been constructed in the province, with 110 MW currently under construction, 65 MW to begin construction and 375 MW waiting on transmission. It was argued that in the short-term, further accomplishments will slow due to the AESO's 900 MW cap on wind interconnections. Accomplishments will also slow in the long-term due to the lack of transmission capacity. The current challenges facing increased wind development in the electricity market centres around a lack of progress in establishing operating and market rules that will allow for widespread application of wind technology. It was emphasized that additional effort must go into integrating more wind into the Alberta electrical system. It was concluded that wind integration in the province of Alberta has stalled and should get back on track through the development of proactive renewable public policy and incentives that supports wind growth. tabs., figs.

  8. Cryogenic wind-tunnel model technology development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. P., Jr.; Bradshaw, J. F.; Rush, H. F., Jr.; Wallace, J. W.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current cryogenic wind-tunnel model technology development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These research and development activities are being conducted in support of the design and fabrication of models for the new National Transonic Facility (NTF). The scope and current status of major research and development work is described and where available, data are presented from various investigations conducted to date. In addition, design and fabrication experience for existing developmental models to be tested in the NTF is discussed.

  9. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  10. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Pocewicz

    Full Text Available Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  11. Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Brian; Manes, Robert; Kiesecker, Joseph; Fargione, Joseph; Sochi, Kei

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy, if improperly sited, can impact wildlife through direct mortality and habitat loss and fragmentation, in contrast to its environmental benefits in the areas of greenhouse gas, air quality, and water quality. Fortunately, risks to wildlife from wind energy may be alleviated through proper siting and mitigation offsets. Here we identify areas in Kansas where wind development is incompatible with conservation, areas where wind development may proceed but with compensatory mitigation for impacts, and areas where development could proceed without the need for compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate that approximately 10.3 million ha in Kansas (48 percent of the state) has the potential to provide 478 GW of installed capacity while still meeting conservation goals. Of this total, approximately 2.7 million ha would require no compensatory mitigation and could produce up to 125 GW of installed capacity. This is 1,648 percent higher than the level of wind development needed in Kansas by 2030 if the United States is to get 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Projects that avoid and offset impacts consistent with this analysis could be awarded “Green Certification.” Certification may help to expand and sustain the wind industry by facilitating the completion of individual projects sited to avoid sensitive areas and protecting the industry's reputation as an ecologically friendly source of electricity. PMID:22046333

  12. Development by design: mitigating wind development's impacts on wildlife in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Brian; Manes, Robert; Kiesecker, Joseph; Fargione, Joseph; Sochi, Kei

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy, if improperly sited, can impact wildlife through direct mortality and habitat loss and fragmentation, in contrast to its environmental benefits in the areas of greenhouse gas, air quality, and water quality. Fortunately, risks to wildlife from wind energy may be alleviated through proper siting and mitigation offsets. Here we identify areas in Kansas where wind development is incompatible with conservation, areas where wind development may proceed but with compensatory mitigation for impacts, and areas where development could proceed without the need for compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate that approximately 10.3 million ha in Kansas (48 percent of the state) has the potential to provide 478 GW of installed capacity while still meeting conservation goals. Of this total, approximately 2.7 million ha would require no compensatory mitigation and could produce up to 125 GW of installed capacity. This is 1,648 percent higher than the level of wind development needed in Kansas by 2030 if the United States is to get 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Projects that avoid and offset impacts consistent with this analysis could be awarded "Green Certification." Certification may help to expand and sustain the wind industry by facilitating the completion of individual projects sited to avoid sensitive areas and protecting the industry's reputation as an ecologically friendly source of electricity.

  13. Development by design: mitigating wind development's impacts on wildlife in Kansas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Wind energy, if improperly sited, can impact wildlife through direct mortality and habitat loss and fragmentation, in contrast to its environmental benefits in the areas of greenhouse gas, air quality, and water quality. Fortunately, risks to wildlife from wind energy may be alleviated through proper siting and mitigation offsets. Here we identify areas in Kansas where wind development is incompatible with conservation, areas where wind development may proceed but with compensatory mitigation for impacts, and areas where development could proceed without the need for compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate that approximately 10.3 million ha in Kansas (48 percent of the state has the potential to provide 478 GW of installed capacity while still meeting conservation goals. Of this total, approximately 2.7 million ha would require no compensatory mitigation and could produce up to 125 GW of installed capacity. This is 1,648 percent higher than the level of wind development needed in Kansas by 2030 if the United States is to get 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Projects that avoid and offset impacts consistent with this analysis could be awarded "Green Certification." Certification may help to expand and sustain the wind industry by facilitating the completion of individual projects sited to avoid sensitive areas and protecting the industry's reputation as an ecologically friendly source of electricity.

  14. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource......-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state...

  15. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource......-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state...

  16. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  17. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... In order to explore an alternate energy source, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a study to assess Ghana's wind energy potential. Some areas across the country were found to have enough wind resource for power generation. However, sites for wind farms are not wind speed ...

  18. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  19. Nonlinear development of shocklike structure in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Parks, G K; Wilber, M; Lin, N

    2009-07-17

    We report first in situ multispacecraft observations of nonlinear steepening of compressional pulses in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock. The magnetic field of a compressional pulse formed at the upstream edge of density holes is shown to suddenly break and steepen into a shocklike structure. During the early phase of development thermalization of ions is insignificant. Substantial thermalization of ions occurs as gyrating ions are observed at the steepened edge. These observations indicate that the mechanisms causing the dissipation of magnetic fields (currents) and ions are different in the early phase of shock development.

  20. Low Wind Speed Turbine Developments in Convoloid Gearing: Final Technical Report, June 2005 - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genesis Partners LP

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Genesis Partners LP as part of the United States Department of Energy Wind Energy Research Program to develop wind technology that will enable wind systems to compete in regions having low wind speeds. The purpose of the program is to reduce the cost of electricity from large wind systems in areas having Class 4 winds to 3 cents per kWh for onshore systems or 5 cents per kWh for offshore systems. This work builds upon previous activities under the WindPACT project, the Next Generation Turbine project, and Phase I of the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) project. This project is concerned with the development of more cost-effective gearing for speed increasers for wind turbines.

  1. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII...

  2. Catching the Wind in a Bottle: Collection Development for Wind Energy Technology Programs at Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Renvall, Poppy

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to assist information professionals in developing a resource collection that serves Wind Energy students in academic settings. Traditional as well as Internet resources should be utilized in order to meet the needs of this unique student population.

  3. Development of the building integrated ducted wind turbine module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannecker, R.; Varela, G. Quinonez; Grant, A. [Strathclyde Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Wind is now established as a major renewable energy resource, but its exploitation is generally confined to sparsely populated areas and may in future be increasingly limited by environmental constraints. The paper describes the development of a small axial flow turbine with vertical shaft, situated in a curved duct, which is intended to be completely integrated in a high rise building in an urban environment. The design is intended to make optimal use of the differential pressures which result from wind flow around a building. A small scale model and prototypes for field trials have been tested as free standing devices and their performance shown to be competitive with conventional small machines for low power applications. The aerodynamical response to different design options is subject to computational fluid dynamic analysis and will be used in conjunction with wind tunnel testing to refine rotor, stator and duct geometries. A trial deployment will shortly commence as a demonstration project on a newly refurbished building of historical significance in the center of Glasgow. (Author)

  4. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  5. Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.

    2009-02-01

    This report describes a three-bladed, upwind, variable-speed, variable blade-pitch-to-feather-controlled multimegawatt wind turbine model developed by NREL to support concept studies aimed at assessing offshore wind technology.

  6. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiliang, Zhang; Gan, Lin; Shuhua, Gu; Wenqiang, Liu

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building, and to international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development an...

  7. An ideal limit for the performance of a large, fully-developed wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, P.; Caulfield, C. P.

    2014-11-01

    Wind turbines are often deployed in arrays of hundreds of units, where interactions lead to drastic losses in power output. Remarkably, while the theoretical ``Betz'' maximum has long been established for the output of a single turbine, no corresponding theory appears to exist for a generic, large-scale energy extraction system, although models exist for specific turbine designs and layouts. Recent work with vertical-axis turbines indicates that large performance gains may be achievable (Dabiri 2011), making the search for a theoretical upper bound even more compelling. We develop a model for an array of energy-extraction devices of arbitrary design and layout, first focusing on the fully-developed regime. When tailoring the model to reflect current designs, the predicted power output is in good agreement with field measurements. Furthermore, by considering a suitable ideal limit, we establish an upper bound on the performance of a large wind farm. This is found to be several times larger than the output of existing arrays, thus supporting the notion that performance improvements may be possible. Finally, we extend our model to include spatially developing flows, as well as to account for the effect of atmospheric stability, finding good agreement with laboratory and field data.

  8. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  9. Study on development of Grid code and operation scheme of Jeju Island with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung-Il; Pyo, Gi-Chan; Park, Jin-Woo

    2010-09-15

    Lots of large-scale wind generation are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future in Jeju Island of Korea. The large-scale wind generation, however, could have adverse impacts on stable operation of power system. Accordingly for the stable operation of Jeju power system, the necessity to limit the wind installation is brought up recently and new wind power projects are restricted for now. To increase the wind penetration in Jeju Island, solutions in two respects is presented in this paper; Establishment of grid code for wind generation and development of coordinated operation schemes of Jeju power system.

  10. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Oshima Village (wind characteristics investigation); Oshimamura ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Oshima City, Fukuoka Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 6.7m/s at 20m above ground, reflecting the general trend in Japan's climate that wind is strong in the cold season and weak in the warm season. The wind direction occurrence rate is the highest of 13.2% in the ENE direction. Now that the occurrence of the NE, SW, and WSW directions occupying the same wind axis is also high throughout the year, Oshima Village is suitable for wind turbine installation. Since the wind speed is high in the high-occurrence NE-ESE directions, the relation between the wind direction occurrence rate and wind speed is said to be convenient. The conditions for a success in wind power development, that the wind speed be 5.8m/s or more and energy density 215W/m{sup 2} or more at an altitude of 20m above the ground, are satisfied at this observation station. As for the operation rate and capacity ratio of each of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW wind turbine models, they are all over the reference values. The site is highly promising as a wind power development site because all the wind turbine availability conditions, such as the annual average wind speed, annual wind energy density, operating rate, and capacity ratio are found to be better than the reference values.

  11. 77 FR 5545 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental... lessee to propose the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Virginia. Although the... specific interest in the acquisition of commercial wind lease(s) in some or all of the area and to...

  12. Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy utilization, especially onshore grid-connected wind power generation, has a history of 30 years in China. With the increasing attention to renewable energy development in recent years, wind energy has become the focus of academic research and policy-making. While the potential and

  13. Vertical-axis wind turbine development in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R. J.; Rangi, R. S.

    1983-12-01

    Recent Canadian progress in the development of the curved-blade Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. Cooperation between government, industry and power utilities in the conduct of field trials, over several years, has demonstrated improved performance and reliability of grid-coupled turbines of this type. The rated power of the VAWTs currently under test ranges from 30 kW, in a wind/diesel powerplant, to 230 kW, in an installation on an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Progress has also been made in understanding the basic aerodynamic behavior of the VAWT and theoretical methods for performance and load prediction have correspondingly improved. A brief description is given of 'Project EOLE', a cooperative project between the federal government and the utility Hydro-Quebec to develop and test, during the next two to three years, a 4 MW VAWT prototype, which will be coupled to the power grid at a location on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

  14. Sustainable community development and wind energy; Developpement territorial durable et filiere eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurtey, E. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Dept. Societes, Territoires et Developpement; Saucier, C. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Biologie

    2010-07-01

    This poster presentation reported on a study that reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's rapidly growing wind power industry. The purpose was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array, including the hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  16. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic Array Development for Wind Turbine Noise Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, S.; Roadman, J.; Moriarty, P.; Palo, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report discusses the design and use of a multi-arm, logarithmic spiral acoustic array by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for measurement and characterization of wind turbine-generated noise. The array was developed in collaboration with a team from the University of Colorado Boulder. This design process is a continuation of the elliptical array design work done by Simley. A description of the array system design process is presented, including array shape design, mechanical design, design of electronics and the data acquisition system, and development of post-processing software. System testing and calibration methods are detailed. Results from the initial data acquisition campaign are offered and discussed. Issues faced during this initial deployment of the array are presented and potential remedies discussed.

  18. WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a summary description of WEST-3, a new real-time wind turbine simulator developed by Paragon Pacific Inc. WEST-3 is an all digital, fully programmable, high performance parallel processing computer. Contained in the report are descriptions of the WEST-3 hardware and software. WEST-3 consists of a network of Computational Units (CUs) working in parallel. Each CU is a custom designed high speed digital processor operating independently of other CUs. The CU, which is the main building block of the system, is described in some detail. A major contributor to the high performance of the system is the use a unique method for transferring data among the CUs. The software aspects of WEST-3 covered in the report include the preparation of the simulation model (reformulation, scaling and normalization), and the use of the system software (Translator, Linker, Assembler and Loader). Also given is a description of the wind turbine simulation model used in WEST-3, and some sample results from a study conducted to validate the system. Finally, efforts currently underway to enhance the user friendliness of the system are outlined; these include the 32-bit floating point capability, and major improvements in system software.

  19. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  20. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  1. Least cost addition of power from hydroelectrical developments: Maximizing existing assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lafontant; Briand, Marie-Helene; Veilleux, Rheaume

    2010-09-15

    Hydroelectric developments built in the early 1900's are nearing their useful lifespan and require significant rehabilitation in order to meet modern safety and performance criteria. Also, global increasing energy costs represent a strong incentive for operators to find low-cost, environment-friendly solutions while increasing energy generation at existing facilities. Projects promoting innovative ways of recycling existing developments are great examples of sustainable development and represent win-win solutions for population and hydropower industry alike. The proposed presentation describes successful projects consisting in the rehabilitation or addition of power to existing hydroelectric. These recycling projects are very attractive from both economic and environmental.

  2. Wind energy development: methods for assessing risks to birds and bats pre-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Bennett, Victoria; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Braham, Melissa; Hale, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Wind power generation is rapidly expanding. Although wind power is a low-carbon source of energy, it can impact negatively birds and bats, either directly through fatality or indirectly by displacement or habitat loss. Pre-construction risk assessment at wind facilities within the United States is usually required only on public lands. When conducted, it generally involves a 3-tier process, with each step leading to more detailed and rigorous surveys. Preliminary site assessment (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tier 1) is usually conducted remotely and involves evaluation of existing databases and published materials. If potentially at-risk wildlife are present and the developer wishes to continue the development process, then on-site surveys are conducted (Tier 2) to verify the presence of those species and to assess site-specific features (e.g., topography, land cover) that may influence risk from turbines. The next step in the process (Tier 3) involves quantitative or scientific studies to assess the potential risk of the proposed project to wildlife. Typical Tier-3 research may involve acoustic, aural, observational, radar, capture, tracking, or modeling studies, all designed to understand details of risk to specific species or groups of species at the given site. Our review highlights several features lacking from many risk assessments, particularly the paucity of before-and-after-control- impact (BACI) studies involving modeling and a lack of understanding of cumulative effects of wind facilities on wildlife. Both are essential to understand effective designs for pre-construction monitoring and both would help expand risk assessment beyond eagles.

  3. Development of a reliable wind database for eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Navarro, J.; Jiménez, P. A.; García-Bustamante, E.; Hidalgo, A.; Beltrami, H.

    2010-09-01

    Any inferences resulting from the analysis of meteorological records lean on the robustness of the observational data. Uncertainties in the data can be roughly classified into three groups: uncertainties due to random, systematic errors and rough errors. Random errors are unavoidable and inherent to the very nature of the measurements as instrumental responses to various physical phenomena. Systematic errors are produced by scale shifts of the instruments or by some more or less persistent factor that is not accounted for. Rough errors are associated with a dysfunction of the sensor or mistakes introduced during the data processing, transmission, reception or storage. Therefore, it is essential to develop procedures that allow to identify and correct the observations for these errors, thereby improving the quality of the data sets. This work involves the compilation and quality assurance of a data set of wind variables from a wide area over eastern Canada (including the provinces of Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador), a subset of the adjacent ocean areas and a set of the northeastern USA (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont). The data set spans the period 1940-2009 and has been compiled from three different sources: a set of 414 land sites obtained from Environment Canada (1940-2009), a subset of 36 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes (1988-2008) provided by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and a subset of 259 land sites combining both eastern Canada and Northeast of the USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (1975-2007). After the compilation of the initial data set, quality assurance techniques are applied involving the detection and correction of random measurement errors, outliers as well as systematic changes (inhomogeneities) in sampling procedures. The impact of these corrections in the data set will be evaluated. This is the

  4. Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-07-15

    Proposed development of domestic energy resources, including wind energy, is expected to impact the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western United States. The greater sage-grouse relies on habitats within this ecosystem for survival, yet very little is known about how wind energy development may affect sage-grouse. The purpose of this report is to inform organizations of the impacts wind energy development could have on greater sage-grouse populations and identify information needed to fill gaps in knowledge.

  5. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  6. Japanese wind energy development policy: Grand plan or group think?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor, E-mail: scott.valentine@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-11-15

    This paper analyzes Japan's national power generation strategy with a view to explaining Japan's phlegmatic approach to wind energy development. The analysis concludes that Japan's current power generation strategy is not optimized to achieve the government's three strategic energy objectives of simultaneously enhancing economic security, national energy security and environmental security (3Es). To achieve long-run energy sustainability, Japan needs to strive to phase out nuclear power, which is the centerpiece of its current power generation strategy. The analysis concludes by offering four suggestions for a sustainable 3E power generation strategy: (1) internalize all external costs associated with power generation technologies in order to level the economic playing field, (2) increase feed-in mandates for renewable energy to 20%, (3) fully liberalize the power generation industry and (4) intensify R and D in energy storage technologies to support intermittent renewable technologies.

  7. Offshore Wind Power Technology Development and Testing of a Downscaled Pitch Controlled Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Frøland, Håvard; Bratbak, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave fornybar energi- Universitetet i Agder, 2015 The energy demand of the world increases day by day, and at the same time people become more aware of the impact fossil energy sources have on the climate. This leads to an increased focus on renewable energy sources, such as wind power, which has been pointed out as an important contributor to the production of renewable energy. In recent years the focus has shifted from land based wind farms towards the possibilities ...

  8. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J. [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  9. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind-Farm Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-09

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  10. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind Farm Design and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  11. Towards a Joint Action Plan for Research and Development in the Offshore Wind Service Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Piirainen, Kalle A.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    levelized cost of energy. Hence, reducing the cost of OWS is a major challenge for the wind industry. Furthermore, the North Sea is currently the most important site for offshore wind installations, and industry clusters based on OWSare emerging in regions around the North Sea.The JAP is a result......The poster presents a joint action plan (JAP) for research and development and innovation (RDI) in the offshore wind service industry in Denmark, Germany,Norway and the UK. Offshore wind servicing (OWS) is in this context defined as both assembly and installation of offshore wind farms as well...

  12. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  13. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Tim [Mackintosh Environmental Architecture Research Unit (MEARU), Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, G3 6RQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Proven, Gordon [Proven Energy Ltd. Wardhead Park, Stewarton, Ayrshire, KA3 5LH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  14. Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  15. Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  16. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  17. Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya

    2017-07-01

    Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.

  18. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  19. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  20. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  1. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Qiuwei, Wu

    2011-01-01

    variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  2. Estonian company develops an enhanced wind power generator

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti firmas Goliath Wind OÜ töötatakse välja uut tüüpi energiasäästlikku tuulegeneraatorit, mis võimaldaks tuuleenergia hinda alandada kuni viiendiku võrra. Vt. samas intervjuud Goliath Wind OÜ juhatuse liikme Lars Machiga

  3. Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely

  4. Planners to the rescue: spatial planning facilitating the development of offshore wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    The development of offshore wind energy has started to take place surprisingly quickly, especially in North European waters. This has taken the wind energy industry out of the territory of planning systems that usually govern the siting of wind farms on land, and into the world of departmental, sectoral regulation of marine activities. Although this has favoured the expansion of offshore wind energy in some respects, evidence suggests that the practice and principles of spatial planning can make an important contribution to the proper consideration of proposals for offshore wind arrays. This is especially so when a strategic planning process is put in place for marine areas, in which offshore wind is treated as part of the overall configuration of marine interests, so that adjustments can be made in the interests of wind energy. The current process of marine planning in the Netherlands is described as an illustration of this. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wind energy scenarios up to 2020. Developments in the Netherlands in the framework of the SDE regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoving, P.

    2009-04-15

    The Dutch government relies heavily on wind energy to reach the renewable energy target. Aim for the onshore installed capacity is 4,000 MW in 2020 and the offshore capacity target is 6,000 MW in 2020. In order to reach these targets, the so-called SDE subsidy mechanism exists. The regulation subsidises the financial gap of wind projects. It is unsure whether this SDE regulation, offers enough support to achieve the above targets. The main research question of this study was formulated as follows: Is it possible for the Dutch government to meet the 2020 targets for wind energy, as a part of the renewable energy targets, with the current SDE regulation or should the regulation be altered to create an improved contribution of wind energy? To answer this question, several sub-questions were formulated concerning cost developments, capacity developments, and possible supporting subsidy strategies and the implementation of other policy measures. The research questions were answered with help of a specific spreadsheet model. Cost and capacity developments are the main elements of the model. Cost developments depend on learning effects, material costs and economic aspects. Long term expectations of these aspects are combined to sketch cost developments. Together with the electricity price (APX day-ahead base load index), the costs determine the financial gap of wind energy, that needs to be subsidised. A distinction is made between different capacity categories: new onshore wind turbines, new offshore wind farms and repowering. Repowering is defined as a combination of renewal projects for older onshore turbines which are renovated or replaced at the end of their economic lifetime. The capacity categories differ on the cost aspect and required subsidy payments, but also the capacity potential that can be achieved. The results show that in the most favourable scenario, the targets can be reached with an annual budget equal to that of the 2008 budget (800 million euro). A

  6. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify...... the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases...... which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator...

  7. Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles: A selected, annotated bibliography to aid in the development of quiet wind tunnel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 298 citations arranged in chronological order. The citations were selected to be helpful to persons engaged in the design and development of quiet (low disturbance) nozzles for modern supersonic wind tunnels. Author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included to assist with the location of specific information.

  8. 2016 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Significant expansion of wind energy development will be required to achieve the scenarios outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s Wind Vision: 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% wind energy by 2050. Wind energy currently provides nearly 5% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. The wind industry and the DOE's Wind Energy Technologies Office are addressing technical wind energy challenges, such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability. The Office recognizes that public acceptance of wind energy can be challenging, depending on the proximity of proposed wind farms to local populations. Informed decision makers and communities equipped with unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy development are better prepared to navigate the sometimes contentious development process. In 2014, DOE established six Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) across the United States to communicate unbiased, credible information about wind energy to stakeholders through regional networks. The RRCs provide ready access to this information to familiarize the public with wind energy; raise awareness about potential benefits and issues; and disseminate data on siting considerations such as turbine sound and wildlife habitat protection. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development during 2016. RRC leaders provided a report of wind energy development in their regions, which was combined with findings from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers to provide an account of the state of the regions, as well as updates on developments in individual states. NREL researchers and state partners added updates for all states that are not directly supported by an RRC. Accounts for each region include updates on renewable portfolio standards, the Clean Power Plan, workforce development, manufacturing and economic development, and individual

  9. Win-win for wind and wildlife: a vision to facilitate sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesecker, Joseph M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R; Kunz, Thomas H; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Niemuth, Neal D

    2011-04-13

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation.

  10. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  11. Climate change: an amplifier of existing health risks in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, Maud; Martens, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is perceived as one of the biggest global health risks of the twenty-first century and a threat to the achievement of sustainable (economic) development; especially in developing countries, climate change is believed to further exacerbate existing vulnerability to disease and food

  12. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  13. Introducing life cycle thinking in product development – A case from Siemens Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference that this......How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference...

  14. Development and Verification of CFD Models for Modeling Wind Conditions on Forested Wind Turbine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Q.; Mortensen, Kasper; Nielsen, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed CFD model to simulate the wind conditions on a forested site. The model introduces porous subdomains representing the forests in the terrain. Obtained simulation values are compared to field measurements in- and outside a forest. Initial results are very promising...

  15. Wind energy development in China (WED) — The Danish-Chinese collaboration project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Rosenberg, H.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the large scale bilateral development program- the Danish-Chinese wind energy development program (WED). The paper starts with overview of electric energy production and consumption in the two counties with special focus on wind energy status. Next, the detailed objectives...

  16. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  17. Fully Coupled Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Withee, Jon

    2004-01-01

    ... have been developed and are being proposed for operation in offshore areas where environmental restrictions are less restrictive, large wind resources exist, and open sea areas are available for wind farm development...

  18. Development of a localisation strategy for the South African Wind Energy Industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available . This has been the case for many wind-energy companies and industry growth may happen through acquisitions, organic growth, mergers and other business processes. However, for such an evolutionary path to grow, a stable home market is required... promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. Lewis and Wiser first examined strategies for local industry development, including models for wind-turbine manufacturing, technology acquisition and incentives for technology transfers...

  19. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  20. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final...... of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment......The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970’s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine...

  1. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  2. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J., Brown; B., Hoen; E., Lantz; J., Pender; R., Wiser

    2011-07-25

    The objective is to address the research question using post-project construction, county-level data, and econometric evaluation methods. Wind energy is expanding rapidly in the United States: Over the last 4 years, wind power has contributed approximately 35 percent of all new electric power capacity. Wind power plants are often developed in rural areas where local economic development impacts from the installation are projected, including land lease and property tax payments and employment growth during plant construction and operation. Wind energy represented 2.3 percent of the U.S. electricity supply in 2010, but studies show that penetrations of at least 20 percent are feasible. Several studies have used input-output models to predict direct, indirect, and induced economic development impacts. These analyses have often been completed prior to project construction. Available studies have not yet investigated the economic development impacts of wind development at the county level using post-construction econometric evaluation methods. Analysis of county-level impacts is limited. However, previous county-level analyses have estimated operation-period employment at 0.2 to 0.6 jobs per megawatt (MW) of power installed and earnings at $9,000/MW to $50,000/MW. We find statistically significant evidence of positive impacts of wind development on county-level per capita income from the OLS and spatial lag models when they are applied to the full set of wind and non-wind counties. The total impact on annual per capita income of wind turbine development (measured in MW per capita) in the spatial lag model was $21,604 per MW. This estimate is within the range of values estimated in the literature using input-output models. OLS results for the wind-only counties and matched samples are similar in magnitude, but are not statistically significant at the 10-percent level. We find a statistically significant impact of wind development on employment in the OLS analysis for

  3. Economic Development from Gigawatt-Scale Wind Deployment in Wyoming (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2011-05-23

    This presentation provides an overview of economic development in Wyoming from gigawatt-scale wind development and includes a discussion of project context, definitions and caveats, a deployment scenario, modeling inputs, results, and conclusions.

  4. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Matsushima (wind characteristics investigation); Matsushima ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The test was conducted at Matsushima, Oseto Town, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, for a year. The annual average wind speed is 4.3m/s at 20m above ground, lower than the reference value (5.8m/s). Wind speed variation is great in the cold season and small in the warm season, which is typical of Japan's climate. A maximum instantaneous wind speed to exceed wind turbine system wind-resisting capacity is not likely to occur. At the site selected for investigation, there is no manifestly prevailing wind direction, and caution needs to be exercised relative to mutual interference in case plural wind turbine systems are built. The exponential value in the wind speed vertical distribution is 7.1. The turbulence intensity index is 0.14 (for 4.0m/s or higher), which indicates a relatively small scale. As for wind energy density, it is short of the level indicated by U.S. Department of Energy. Wind turbines of 150 kW, 300 kW, and 750 kW are assumed, and they all work beyond NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) indicated operating rates, and will also satisfy NEDO indicated capacity ratios when their wattage is higher than 300 kW. Although Matsushima is not necessarily an excellent place for wind power development in view of the annual average wind speed, it is concluded that possibilities are that Matsushima will satisfy the requisites for a wind power development site if large wind turbine systems with the hub positioned high are introduced. (NEDO)

  5. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  6. Design and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ponte, JD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors J.D. de Pont, F.F. Pieterse, P.M. Bidgood Abstract: In order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for wind tunnel balances, as expressed...

  7. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  8. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided...

  9. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  10. Guidebook of the wind farm developer; Guide du developpeur de parc eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this document is to give help to developers in their approach of setting up and realization of quality wind farm projects well-integrated in the human and natural environment. It gathers the existing administrative procedures and includes the new regulations enforced recently: by-law from June 8, 2001, law from January 3, 2003, by-law from March 7, 2003, decree from March 27, 2003, law from July 2, 2003, impact study decree from August 1, 2003, inter-ministry circular from September 10, 2003. This guidebook comprises a main text completed by technical files in appendix. Each file includes some expert testimonies and a list of available tools for additional information about the analyzed topic. (J.S.)

  11. Renewable wind and solar energy. Future technical development; Erneuerbare Energien Wind und Sonne. Wo geht es technisch hin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Hermann-Josef [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2015-05-01

    Germany is an international leader in the development and introduction of renewable energy, i.e. wind and solar (photovoltaic) energy. Both technologies already contribute more than 13 % to national electricity generation. The political support of renewable energies resulted in a variety of different technologies the development of which has not yet been exhausted. The paper describes the state of the art of these technologies as well as selected development tendencies. New technologies can be introduced in a highly developed society only if questions according to their environmental impact are also answered.

  12. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  13. Development of CFD-based icing model for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Cecilie; Martinez, Benjamin; Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Operation of wind turbines in cold climate areas is challenged by icing-induced problems, such as loss of production, safety issues and blade fatique. Production losses are especially a big issue in Sweden, and due to difficulties with on-site measurements, simulations are often used to get...... an understanding and to predict icing events. In this paper a case study of modeling icing using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is proposed. The case study aims to form the basic of a general CFD model for icing on wind turbine blade sections....

  14. Development of Laboratory Experimental System to Clarify Solar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism with TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Kanda, T.; Ishida, T.; Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.

    2012-06-01

    Significant fraction of the cosmic diffuse soft X-ray emission (0.1-1 keV) is caused by the Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) process between the solar wind ion (C q+, N q+, O q+ etc.) and the interplanetary neutral matter. It is difficult to identify spectral features of SWCX with the spectral resolution of existing X-ray astronomy satellites. We are developing a laboratory experimental system with transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters, in order to clarify the SWCX mechanism. This experiment is designed to measure Charge eXchange (CX) X-rays using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) that generates multi-charged ions. Emission lines (OVIII: 2p→1s; 654 eV) by CX between O8+ and neutral He atom is aimed to be measured with energy resolution better than 10 eV. The TES microcalorimeter is cooled by a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR), however, our TES microcalorimeter are not working potentially due to magnetic field contamination. This paper reports our experimental system, present results, and future prospects.

  15. Experimental Measurement and CFD Model Development of Thick Wind Turbine Airfoils with Leading Edge Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, David C.; White, Edward B.; Wilcox, Benjamin; Langel, Christopher M.; van Dam, C. P.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2016-09-01

    Leading edge erosion and roughness accumulation is an issue observed with great variability by wind plant operators, but with little understanding of the effect on wind turbine performance. In wind tunnels, airfoil models are typically tested with standard grit roughness and trip tape to simulate the effects of roughness and erosion observed in field operation, but there is a lack of established relation between field measurements and wind tunnel test conditions. A research collaboration between lab, academic, and industry partners has sought to establish a method to estimate the effect of erosion in wind turbine blades that correlates to roughness and erosion measured in the field. Measurements of roughness and erosion were taken off of operational utility wind turbine blades using a profilometer. The field measurements were statistically reproduced in the wind tunnel on representative tip and midspan airfoils. Simultaneously, a computational model was developed and calibrated to capture the effect of roughness and erosion on airfoil transition and performance characteristics. The results indicate that the effects of field roughness fall between clean airfoil performance and the effects of transition tape. Severe leading edge erosion can cause detrimental performance effects beyond standard roughness. The results also indicate that a heavily eroded wind turbine blade can reduce annual energy production by over 5% for a utility scale wind turbine.

  16. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  17. Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the loss of social justice reported by individuals living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs). References indicate that some individuals residing in proximity to IWT facilities experience adverse health effects. These adverse health effects are severe enough that some families have abandoned their homes.…

  18. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  19. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  20. High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments – Marine Habitats and Species Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, K; Tyler-Walters, H.; Jones, H.

    2002-01-01

    High level environmental screening study for offshore wind farm developments – marine habitats and species \\ud This report provides an awareness of the environmental issues related to marine habitats and species for developers and regulators of offshore wind farms. \\ud The information is also relevant to other offshore renewable energy developments. \\ud The marine habitats and species considered are those associated with the seabed, seabirds, and sea mammals. The report concludes that the fol...

  1. Wind turbine state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has the...

  2. Best Practices for Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Hummer, John; Haven, Celia

    2011-07-19

    This report offers a menu of 18 different, yet complementary, preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. Each best practice describes the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, academia, and federal, state and local government regulators. The practices were identified through a year-long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors. Optimally, a suite of these best practices would be applied in an appropriate combination to fit the conditions of a particular wind project or a set of wind projects within a given locality or region.

  3. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  4. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  5. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  6. DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES OF NEW STIRLING REFRIGERATING MACHINES ON THE BASIS OF EXISTING CONSTRUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    В.В. Кузнєцов; Кухаренко, В.М.

    2015-01-01

    In the given paper the possibility of new Stirling refrigerating machine development on the basis of existing design has been considered. For refrigerating machine process analysis the isothermal model of Stirling cycle and method of separate loss analysis were used. Ambient and cooling temperatures were assumed constant in equation for cooling capacity calculation. The dimensionless complexes, namely, ideal cooling capacity and complexes taking into account cooler regenerator losses due to n...

  7. Co-existence of GM, conventional and organic crops in developing countries: Main debates and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taube, Friedhelm; Taheri, Fatemeh

    2017-06-05

    The co-existence approach of GM crops with conventional agriculture and organic farming as a feasible agricultural farming system has recently been placed in the center of hot debates at the EU-level and become a source of anxiety in developing countries. The main promises of this approach is to ensure "food security" and "food safety" on the one hand, and to avoid the adventitious presence of GM crops in conventional and organic farming on the other, as well as to present concerns in many debates on implementing the approach in developing countries. Here, we discuss the main debates on ("what," "why," "who," "where," "which," and "how") applying this approach in developing countries and review the main considerations and tradeoffs in this regard. The paper concludes that a peaceful co-existence between GM, conventional, and organic farming is not easy but is still possible. The goal should be to implement rules that are well-established proportionately, efficiently and cost-effectively, using crop-case, farming system-based and should be biodiversity-focused ending up with "codes of good agricultural practice" for co-existence.

  8. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  9. The Inception of OMA in the Development of Modal Testing Technology for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George H., III; Carne. Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines are immense, flexible structures with aerodynamic forces acting on the rotating blades at harmonics of the turbine rotational frequency, which are comparable to the modal frequencies of the structure. Predicting and experimentally measuring the modal frequencies of wind turbines has been important to their successful design and operation. Performing modal tests on wind turbine structures over 100 meters tall is a substantial challenge, which has inspired innovative developments in modal test technology. For wind turbines, a further complication is that the modal frequencies are dependent on the turbine rotation speed. The history and development of a new technique for acquiring the modal parameters using output-only response data, called the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT), will be reviewed, showing historical tests and techniques. The initial attempts at output-only modal testing began in the late 1980's with the development of NExT in the 1990's. NExT was a predecessor to OMA, developed to overcome these challenges of testing immense structures excited with environmental inputs. We will trace the difficulties and successes of wind turbine modal testing from 1982 to the present. Keywords: OMA, Modal Analysis, NExT, Wind Turbines, Wind Excitation

  10. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  11. Development and Verification of a Fully Coupled Simulator for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines the development of an analysis tool capable of analyzing a variety of wind turbine, support platform, and mooring system configurations.The simulation capability was tested by model-to-model comparisons to ensure its correctness.

  12. Development of a cooling system for superconducting wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Okano, Makoto; Natori, Naotake; Yamasaki, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the cooling system for high-Tc superconducting (HTS) generators for large capacity wind turbines. We have proposed a cooling system with a heat exchanger and circulation pumps to cool HTS field windings designed for 10 MW-class superconducting generators. In the cooling system, the refrigerants in the stationary and rotational systems are completely separated; heat between the two systems exchanges using a rotational-stationary heat exchanger. The refrigerant in rotational system is circulated by highly reliable pumps. We designed the rotational-stationary heat exchanger based on a conventional shell-and tube type heat exchanger. We also demonstrated that heat exchange in cryogenic temperature is possible with a commercially available heat exchanger. We devised a novel and highly reliable cryogenic helium circulation pump with magnetic reciprocating rotation system and verified its underlying principle with a small-scale model.

  13. Technologies for production of electricity and heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 cEuro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 cEuro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7cEuro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the

  14. Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Great Lakes Commission; Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

    2011-07-19

    This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices include those that have been previously tested and proven effective, as well as new practices that were identified by experts in the field as needed for future wind developments. Each best practice includes information about the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, and federal, state and local government regulators. They were identified through a year long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors.

  15. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Feist, Chris [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  16. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  17. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  18. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-07-30

    So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  19. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2014-01-01

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site......Numerical wind atlas data at 5 km resolution have been used to map the wind resources of the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) domain in great detail: mean wind speed, mean wind power density, elevation and ruggedness index for every 250 metres over an area of 350,000 square kilometres. The wind......-climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...

  20. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site......Numerical wind atlas data at 5 km resolution have been used to map the wind resources of the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) domain in great detail: mean wind speed, mean wind power density, elevation and ruggedness index for every 250 metres over an area of 350,000 square kilometres. The wind......-climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...

  1. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Suman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide, and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP, decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  2. Potential for Jobs and Economic Development from Offshore Wind in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-02

    In California's future scenarios, energy demand increases with population growth and productivity. Decision-makers will have to make choices about which energy resources to utilize, and offshore wind offers one option for carbon-free electricity with the potential for increased local jobs. This presentation discusses results from an NREL report, Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios. Presenter Suzanne Tegen describes the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model and its results for two offshore wind scenarios in California. She discusses different assumptions and how they affect the scenarios.

  3. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  4. Session: Development and application of guidelines for siting, constructing, operating and monitoring wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manville, Albert; Hueckel, Greg

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The two papers were: 'Development and Application of USFWS Guidance for Site Evaluation, Siting, Construction, Operation and Monitoring of Wind Turbines' by Albert Manville and 'Wind Power in Washington State' by Greg Hueckel. The session provided a comparison of wind project guidelines developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in May 2003 and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife in August 2003. Questions addressed included: is there a need or desire for uniform national or state criteria; can other states learn from Washington State's example, or from the USFWS voluntary guidelines; should there be uniform requirements/guidelines/check-lists for the siting, operation, monitoring, and mitigation to prevent or minimize avian, bat, and other wildlife impacts.

  5. Summary of NASA/DOE Aileron-Control Development Program for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of aileron-control for wind turbines is discussed. Selected wind tunnel test results and full-scale rotor test results are presented for various types of ailerons. Finally, the current status of aileron-control development is discussed. Aileron-control was considered as a method of rotor control for use on wind turbines based on its potential to reduce rotor weight and cost. Following an initial feasibility study, a 20 percent chord aileron-control rotor was fabricated and tested on the NASA/DOE Mod-0 experimental wind turbine. Results from these tests indicated that the 20 percent chord ailerons regulated power and provided overspeed protection, but only over a very limited windspeed range. The next aileron-control rotor to be tested on the Mod-0 had 38 percent chord ailerons and test results showed these ailerons provided overspeed protection and power regulation over the Mod-0's entire operational windspeed range.

  6. Development and testing of new candidate psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires combining optimal questions from existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Walsh, Jessica; Haroon, Muhammad; FitzGerald, Oliver; Aslam, Tariq; Al Balushi, Farida; Burden, A D; Burden-Teh, Esther; Caperon, Anna R; Cerio, Rino; Chattopadhyay, Chandrabhusan; Chinoy, Hector; Goodfield, Mark J D; Kay, Lesley; Kelly, Stephen; Kirkham, Bruce W; Lovell, Christopher R; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; McHugh, Neil; Murphy, Ruth; Reynolds, Nick J; Smith, Catherine H; Stewart, Elizabeth J C; Warren, Richard B; Waxman, Robin; Wilson, Hilary E; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    Several questionnaires have been developed to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but head-to-head studies have found limitations. This study aimed to develop new questionnaires encompassing the most discriminative questions from existing instruments. Data from the CONTEST study, a head-to-head comparison of 3 existing questionnaires, were used to identify items with a Youden index score of ≥0.1. These were combined using 4 approaches: CONTEST (simple additions of questions), CONTESTw (weighting using logistic regression), CONTESTjt (addition of a joint manikin), and CONTESTtree (additional questions identified by classification and regression tree [CART] analysis). These candidate questionnaires were tested in independent data sets. Twelve individual questions with a Youden index score of ≥0.1 were identified, but 4 of these were excluded due to duplication and redundancy. Weighting for 2 of these questions was included in CONTESTw. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that involvement in 6 joint areas on the manikin was predictive of PsA for inclusion in CONTESTjt. CART analysis identified a further 5 questions for inclusion in CONTESTtree. CONTESTtree was not significant on ROC curve analysis and discarded. The other 3 questionnaires were significant in all data sets, although CONTESTw was slightly inferior to the others in the validation data sets. Potential cut points for referral were also discussed. Of 4 candidate questionnaires combining existing discriminatory items to identify PsA in people with psoriasis, 3 were found to be significant on ROC curve analysis. Testing in independent data sets identified 2 questionnaires (CONTEST and CONTESTjt) that should be pursued for further prospective testing. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, H.; Laxson, A.; Smith, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Goldman, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The development of technologically-advanced wind turbines continues to be a high priority of the US wind industry. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a range of projects that assist the wind industry to design, develop, and test new wind turbines. The overall goal is to develop turbines that can compete with conventional electric generation with a cost of energy (COE) of 5 cents/kWh at 5.8 m/s (13 mph sites) by the mid-1990s and with a cost of energy of 4 cents/kWh or less at 5.8 m/s sites by the year 2000. These goals will be supported through the DOE Turbine Development Program. The Turbine Development Program uses a two-path approach. The first path assists US industry to develop and integrate innovative technologies into utility-grade wind turbines for the near-term (mid-1990s). The second path assists industry to develop a new generation of turbines for the year 2000. This paper describes present and planned projects under the Turbine Development Program.

  8. Development of a plastic rotary heat exchanger for room-based ventilation in existing apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    for single-room ventilation based on thermal design theory. Performance is predicted from correlations of dimensionless groups for regenerative heat exchangers, and this guides the selection of a polycarbonate honeycomb with small circular channels. Experiments quantify flows and determine temperature......The existing building stock will likely undergo widespread energy renovations to meet future emissions targets. Single-room ventilation may enable the process due to its simple installation, low fan power, and potential for local heat recovery. A short plastic rotary heat exchanger is developed...... efficiencies at several ventilation rates while accounting for heat gains from motors and air leakage. The measured and modelled temperature efficiencies show adequate agreement and exceed 80% for a balanced nominal ventilation rate of 28m3/h. This result meets the development criteria but cannot validate...

  9. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  10. International wind energy development. World market update 2012. Forecast 2013-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The BTM wind report, World Market Update 2012, published by Navigant Research, is the eighteenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2013?2017 and highlighted trends for the wind market through 2022. The report delivers several views on the fast?growing wind market, including: 1) More than 285 GW of wind power now installed globally; 2) 45GW of new capacity added in 2012, including 1.1 GW from offshore wind; 3) The United States surpassed China as the largest market in terms of new installations in 2012; 4) Europe lost its position as the largest world region in terms of new installations; 5) Wind installations in the Americas grew by 12.3 percent compared with 2011; 6) Big shake?up in the top ten wind turbine supplier ranking; 7) Strong Chinese presence among top 15 wind owner?operators; 8) Wind market structures continue to evolve; 9) The penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply has reached 2.62 percent; 10) Offshore wind more than doubled the capacity added in 2011, with more than 4 GW currently under construction. With the addition of 44,951 MW in new installations in 2012, world wind power capacity grew to around 285,700 MW, an increase in the total wind power installation base of 18.6 percent. Market growth year-over-year in 2012, though a modest 7.8 percent, was still higher than in 2011. Average annual growth for the past five years has been 17.8 percent, achieved during the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, with traditionally large markets for wind power in economic recession in America and Europe. The wind power industry continues to demonstrate its ability to rapidly evolve to meet new demands in markets that face a variety of challenges. The focus on product diversification grows with wind turbine vendors designing machines for maximum energy production in low wind speed

  11. Development and application of incrementally complex tools for wind turbine aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Christopher H.

    Advances and availability of computational resources have made wind farm design using simulation tools a reality. Wind farms are battling two issues, affecting the cost of energy, that will make or break many future investments in wind energy. The most significant issue is the power reduction of downstream turbines operating in the wake of upstream turbines. The loss of energy from wind turbine wakes is difficult to predict and the underestimation of energy losses due to wakes has been a common problem throughout the industry. The second issue is a shorter lifetime of blades and past failures of gearboxes due to increased fluctuations in the unsteady loading of waked turbines. The overall goal of this research is to address these problems by developing a platform for a multi-fidelity wind turbine aerodynamic performance and wake prediction tool. Full-scale experiments in the field have dramatically helped researchers understand the unique issues inside a large wind farm, but experimental methods can only be used to a limited extent due to the cost of such field studies and the size of wind farms. The uncertainty of the inflow is another inherent drawback of field experiments. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, strategically validated using carefully performed wind farm field campaigns, are becoming a more standard design practice. The developed CFD models include a blade element model (BEM) code with a free-vortex wake, an actuator disk or line based method with large eddy simulations (LES) and a fully resolved rotor based method with detached eddy simulations (DES) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). To create more realistic simulations, performance of a one-way coupling between different mesoscale atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models and the three microscale CFD solvers is tested. These methods are validated using data from incrementally complex test cases that include the NREL Phase VI wind tunnel test, the Sexbierum wind farm and the

  12. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  13. What kinds of scientific concepts exist? Concept construction and intellectual development in college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Alkhoury, Souheir; Benford, Russell; Clark, Brian R.; Falconer, Kathleen A.

    2000-11-01

    Previous research has found that scientific concepts can be meaningfully classified as descriptive (i.e., concepts such as predator and organism with directly observable exemplars) or theoretical (i.e., concepts such as atom and gene without directly observable exemplars). Previous research has also found that developing understanding of descriptive and theoretical concepts is linked to students' developmental levels, presumably because the procedural knowledge structures (i.e., reasoning patterns) that define developmental levels are needed for concept construction. The present study extends prior theory and research by postulating the existence of an intermediate class of concepts called hypothetical (i.e., concepts such as subduction and evolution with exemplars that cannot in practice be observed due to limits on the normal observational time frame). The hypothesis that three kinds of scientific concepts exist was tested by constructing and administering a test on concepts introduced in a college biology course. As predicted, descriptive concept questions were significantly easier than hypothetical concept questions, than were theoretical concept questions. Further, because concept construction presumably depends in part on developmental level, students at differing developmental levels (levels 3, 4, and 5, where level 5 is conceptualized as post-formal in which hypotheses involving unseen entities can be tested) were predicted to vary in the extent to which they succeeded on the concepts test. As predicted, a significant relationship (p < 0.001) was found between conceptual knowledge and developmental level. This result replicates previous research, and therefore provides additional support for the hypothesis that procedural knowledge skills associated with levels of intellectual development play an important role in declarative knowledge acquisition and in concept construction. The result also supports the hypothesis that intellectual development continues

  14. An approach to the development and analysis of wind turbine control algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.C.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the capability of symbolically generating an analytical model of a wind turbine for studies of control systems. This report focuses on a theoretical formulation of the symbolic equations of motion (EOMs) modeler for horizontal axis wind turbines. In addition to the power train dynamics, a generic 7-axis rotor assembly is used as the base model from which the EOMs of various turbine configurations can be derived. A systematic approach to generate the EOMs is presented using d`Alembert`s principle and Lagrangian dynamics. A Matlab M file was implemented to generate the EOMs of a two-bladed, free yaw wind turbine. The EOMs will be compared in the future to those of a similar wind turbine modeled with the YawDyn code for verification. This project was sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories as part of the Adaptive Structures and Control Task. This is the final report of Sandia Contract AS-0985.

  15. Development of a slicer integral field unit for the existing optical spectrograph FOCAS: progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Hattori, Takashi; Mitsui, Kenji; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Norio; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Tsuzuki, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    We are developing an integral field unit (IFU) with an image slicer for the existing optical spectrograph, Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS), on the Subaru Telescope. The slice width is 0.43 arcsec, the slice number is 23, and the field of view is 13.5 × 9.89 arcsec2. Sky spectrum separated by about 5.7 arcmin from an object field can be simultaneously obtained, which allows us precise background subtraction. Slice mirrors, pupil mirrors and slit mirrors are all glass, and their mirror surfaces are fabricated by polishing. Our IFU is about 200 mm × 300 mm × 80 mm in size and 1 kg in weight. It is installed into a mask storage in FOCAS along with one or two mask plates, and inserted into the optical path by using the existing mask exchange mechanism. This concept allow us flexible operation such as Targets of Opportunity observations. High reflectivity of multilayer dielectric coatings offers high throughput (>80%) of the IFU. In this paper, we will report a final optical layout, its performances, and results of prototyping works.

  16. Development of short-term forecast quality for new offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, M.; Lange, B.

    2014-06-01

    As the rapid wind power build-out continues, a large number of new wind farms will come online but forecasters and forecasting algorithms have little experience with them. This is a problem for statistical short term forecasts, which must be trained on a long record of historical power production - exactly what is missing for a new farm. Focus of the study was to analyse development of the offshore wind power forecast (WPF) quality from beginning of operation up to one year of operational experience. This paper represents a case study using data of the first German offshore wind farm "alpha ventus" and first German commercial offshore wind farm "Baltic1". The work was carried out with measured data from meteorological measurement mast FINO1, measured power from wind farms and numerical weather prediction (NWP) from the German Weather Service (DWD). This study facilitates to decide the length of needed time series and selection of forecast method to get a reliable WPF on a weekly time axis. Weekly development of WPF quality for day-ahead WPF via different models is presented. The models are physical model; physical model extended with a statistical correction (MOS) and artificial neural network (ANN) as a pure statistical model. Selforganizing map (SOM) is investigated for a better understanding of uncertainties of forecast error.

  17. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report `International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996` every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  18. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  19. Psychological Contract Development: An Integration of Existing Knowledge to Form a Temporal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Windle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract has received substantial theoretical attention over the past two decades as a popular framework within which to examine contemporary employment relationships. Previous research mostly examines breach and violation of the psychological contract and its impact on employee organization outcomes. Few studies have employed longitudinal, prospective research designs to investigate the psychological contract and as a result, psychological contract content and formation are incompletely understood. It is argued that employment relationships may be better proactively managed with greater understanding of formation and changes in the psychological contract. We examine existing psychological contract literature to identify five key factors proposed to contribute to the formation of psychological contracts. We extend the current research by integrating these factors for the first time into a temporal model of psychological contract development.

  20. North Sea Offshore Wind Power Variability in 2020 and 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is currently the most promising renewable technology and is expected to contribute significantly to achieving the “20-20-20” target set by EU - 20% reduction of greenhouse gases and 20% share of renewables by 2020. The development potential of wind power, especially offshore, is huge....... The experience with large offshore wind farms so far has clearly shown that the offshore wind power is significantly more variable than the on-shore wind power, first of all because offshore wind power is more concentrated geographically than existing on-shore wind power. The focus is on time scales of interest...... for power system operation, thus ranging from minutes to hours. The simulations are based on the offshore wind power development plans developed in the TWENTIES project and includes details such as installed capacity and coordinates for each wind farm existing or planned to be installed in North Europe...

  1. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  2. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  3. Likelihood of a marine vessel accident from wind energy development in the Atlantic: Likelihood of shipping accident from wind energy in the Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Breithaupt, Stephen [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Whiting, Jonathan [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Grear, Molly [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Tagestad, Jerry [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Shelton, Gregory [Shelton International, Seattle Washington USA

    2015-11-02

    Offshore wind energy development is planned for areas off the Atlantic coast. Many of the planned wind development areas fall within traditional commercial vessel routes. In order to mitigate possible hazards to ships and to wind turbines, it is important to understand the potential for increased risk to commercial shipping from the presence of wind farms. Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, historical shipping routes between ports in the Atlantic were identified, from Maine to the Florida Straits. The AIS data were also used as inputs to a numerical model that can simulate cargo, tanker and tug/towing vessel movement along typical routes. The model was used to recreate present day vessel movement, as well as to simulate future routing that may be required to avoid wind farms. By comparing the present and future routing of vessels, a risk analysis was carried out to determine the increased marginal risk of vessel collisions, groundings, and allisions with stationary objects, due to the presence of wind farms. The outcome of the analysis showed little increase in vessel collisions or allisions, and a decrease in groundings as more vessels were forced seaward by the wind farms.

  4. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Leonard, T. M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a buildable blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  5. Development of methods for assessing the vulnerability of Australian residential building stock to severe wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Ginger, John; Holmes, John; Sandland, Carl; Edwards, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of the degree of damage to residential structures expected from severe wind is used to study the benefits from adaptation strategies developed in response to expected changes in wind severity due to climate change. This study will inform government, the insurance industry and provide emergency services with estimates of expected damage. A series of heuristic wind vulnerability curves for Australian residential structures has been developed. In order to provide rigor to the heuristic curves and to enable quantitative assessment to be made of adaptation strategies, work has commenced to produce a simulation tool to quantitatively assess damage to buildings from severe wind. The simulation tool accounts for variability in wind profile, shielding, structural strength, pressure coefficients, building orientation, component self weights, debris damage and water ingress via a Monte Carlo approach. The software takes a component-based approach to modelling building vulnerability. It is based on the premise that overall building damage is strongly related to the failure of key components (i.e. connections). If these failures can be ascertained, and associated damage from debris and water penetration reliably estimated, scenarios of complete building damage can be assessed. This approach has been developed with varying degrees of rigor by researchers around the world and is best practice for the insurance industry.

  6. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  7. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miles, J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Zammit, D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Loomis, D. [Great Lakes Wind Network, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  8. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  9. Development of a Probabilistic Tornado Wind Hazard Model for the Continental United States Volume I: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnade, A; Hossain, Q; Kimball, J

    2000-07-20

    Since the mid-l980's, assessment of the wind and tornado risks at the Department of Energy (DOE) high and moderate hazard facilities has been based on the straight wind/tornado hazard curves given in UCRL-53526 (Coats, 1985). These curves were developed using a methodology that utilized a model, developed by McDonald, for severe winds at sub-tornado wind speeds and a separate model, developed by Fujita, for tornado wind speeds. For DOE sites not covered in UCRL-53526, wind and tornado hazard assessments are based on the criteria outlined in DOE-STD-1023-95 (DOE, 1996), utilizing the methodology in UCRL-53526; Subsequent to the publication of UCRL53526, in a study sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed tornado wind hazard curves for the contiguous United States, NUREG/CR-4461 (Ramsdell, 1986). Because of the different modeling assumptions and underlying data used to develop the tornado wind information, the wind speeds at specified exceedance levels, at a given location, based on the methodology in UCRL-53526, are different than those based on the methodology in NUREG/CR-4461. In 1997, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was funded by the DOE to review the current methodologies for characterizing tornado wind hazards and to develop a state-of-the-art wind/tornado characterization methodology based on probabilistic hazard assessment techniques and current historical wind data. This report describes the process of developing the methodology and the database of relevant tornado information needed to implement the methodology. It also presents the tornado wind hazard curves obtained from the application of the method to DOE sites throughout the contiguous United States.

  10. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelowa Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15% despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  11. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  12. Distinct septin heteropolymers co-exist during multicellular development in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yainitza Hernández-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Septins are important components of the cytoskeleton that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play major roles in cytokinesis, patterning, and many developmental processes. Septins form heteropolymers which assemble into higher-order structures including rings, filaments, and gauzes. In contrast to actin filaments and microtubules, the molecular mechanism by which septins assemble is not well-understood. Here, we report that in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, four core septins form heteropolymeric complexes. AspE, a fifth septin lacking in unicellular yeasts, interacts with only one of the core septins, and only during multicellular growth. AspE is required for proper localization of three of the core septins, and requires this same subset of core septins for its own unique cortical localization. The ΔaspE mutant lacks developmentally-specific septin higher-order structures and shows reduced spore production and slow growth with low temperatures and osmotic stress. Our results show that at least two distinct septin heteropolymer populations co-exist in A. nidulans, and that while AspE is not a subunit of either heteropolymer, it is required for assembly of septin higher-order structures found in multicellular development.

  13. [Statistical analysis of existing ancient medical works in Japan and Korea and the development value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Jun; Li, Chun-Mei; Quan, Shi-Yu; Zhou, Min

    2011-03-01

    The category, number, date of writing, circulated copies and library collection situation of 12275 Japanese medical works before 1912 and 416 Korean medical works before 1910 were analyzed. Most of these medical books are clinical books, which reflected the emphasis on clinical practice and conclusions in the two countries. Japanese medical books were mainly completed between the 17 - 19th century and nearly all of them are conserved as copies, while in Korea the number is 39.6% and we don't know the time that more than half of Korean medical books were completed. The existing books in Japan are collected in more than 500 libraries, especially in 19 public and private libraries., such as Kyoto University Library, Tokyo University Library, Japan Library of Congress. In Korea, most of the books are conserved in Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies in Seoul National University. It is necessary for scholars of China, Japan and Korea to work together to study and utilize the ancient medical books of the three countries and to make them play a more important role in the development of Eastern traditional medicine.

  14. Scheduling Coordinator’s Flat Rate Service for Wind Energy Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Prondziński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the electricity market has made the energy industry an attractive investment for many businesses. In recent years, the electricity market has been going through the process of liberalization, which has contributed to the provision of new services for investors interested in the development of the energy industry. Recently, one of the most rapidly growing sources of electricity has been wind farms. Few investors are aware of the consequences of connecting wind farms to the national power grid, as well as of the subsequent exploitation of these resources. After the Electricity Sales Contract has been concluded, investors agree to predict electrical capacity generation within the span of 24 hours with a daily advance. The specific nature of wind farm functioning makes the prediction of electrical capacity generation difficult and, consequently, the owners bear the costs of deviations on the electricity balancing market. The resulting costs may result in the lack of liquidity of the project owner and, ultimately, in bankruptcy. In such a case, the Scheduling Coordinator’s flat rate service is a solution for the owner of a wind farm. The paper presents an analysis of selected forecasting models used to predict the electrical capacity of wind farms, as well as the Scheduling Coordinator’s service.

  15. Synthesis of wind energy development and potential impacts on wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, there is growing public interest in and policy pressure for developing alternative and renewable sources of energy. Wind energy facilities in the Pacific Northwest expanded rapidly over the past decade, as a result of state policies that encourage wind energy development. While much of the development thus far has occurred on private lands, there is...

  16. Development and Application of an Objective Tracking Algorithm for Tropical Cyclones over the North-West Pacific purely based on Wind Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Kruschke, Tim; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2017-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones over East Asia have huge socio-economic impacts due to their strong wind fields and large rainfall amounts. Especially, the most severe events are associated with huge economic losses, e.g. Typhoon Herb in 1996 is related to overall losses exceeding 5 billion US (Munich Re, 2016). In this study, an objective tracking algorithm is applied to JRA55 reanalysis data from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific. For this purpose, a purely wind based algorithm, formerly used to identify extra-tropical wind storms, has been further developed. The algorithm is based on the exceedance of the local 98th percentile to define strong wind fields in gridded climate data. To be detected as a tropical cyclone candidate, the following criteria must be fulfilled: 1) the wind storm must exist for at least eight 6-hourly time steps and 2) the wind field must exceed a minimum size of 130.000km2 for each time step. The usage of wind information is motivated to focus on damage related events, however, a pre-selection based on the affected region is necessary to remove events of extra-tropical nature. Using IBTrACS Best Tracks for validation, it is found that about 62% of all detected tropical cyclone events in JRA55 reanalysis can be matched to an observed best track. As expected the relative amount of matched tracks increases with the wind intensity of the event, with a hit rate of about 98% for Violent Typhoons, above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons and about 75% for Typhoons. Overall these results are encouraging as the parameters used to detect tropical cyclones in JRA55, e.g. minimum area, are also suitable to detect TCs in most CMIP5 simulations and will thus allow estimates of potential future changes.

  17. Effects of wind energy development on nesting ecology of greater prairie-chickens in fragmented grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-08-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before-after control-impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (β = 0.03, 95% CI = -1.2-1.3) or nest survival (β = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6-0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...... statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on long term power system planning for future wind farms as well as short term forecasting for existing wind farms. Currently, wind power fluctuation models are either purely statistical or integrated with NWP models of limited...... resolution. With regard to the latter, one such simulation tool has been developed at the Wind Energy Division, Risø DTU, intended for long term power system planning. As part of the PSO project the inferior NWP model used at present will be replaced by the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting...

  19. The development of cryogenic wind tunnels and their application to maneuvering aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Boyden, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic wind tunnel and its potential for advancing maneuvering aircraft technology is discussed. A brief overview of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and the capabilities and status of the Langley cryogenic facilities is given, as is a review of the considerations leading to the selection of the cryogenic concept such as capital and operating costs of the tunnel, model and balance construction implications, and test condition. Typical viscous, compressibility and aeroelastic effects encountered by maneuvering aircraft are illustrated and the unique ability of the cryogenic wind tunnels to isolate and investigate these parameters while simulating full scale conditions is discussed. The status of the Langley cryogenic wind tunnel facilities is reviewed and their operating envelopes described in relation to maneuvering aircraft research and development requirements. The status of cryogenic testing technology specifically related to aircraft maneuverability studies including force balances and buffet measurement techniques is discussed. Included are examples of research carried out in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel to verify the various techniques.

  20. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady...

  1. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  2. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  3. Using Doppler SODAR for wind resource assessment : a developer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindorff, C. [Superior Wind Energy Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation outlined the value of SODAR and its use in site assessments prior to developing the wind resource. SODAR is a ground-based remote sensing tool that acts as a virtual 200 metre tower. It is a tool that allows for a better understanding of the structure of the lower atmosphere. Its main use over the past 25 years has been to measure air quality. It is suitable for remote sites that have a 60 W power requirement. SODAR emits acoustic noise and the returned echoes help determine the vertical wind structure, in terms of air flow, rotor winds, vertical flow and turbulence levels. It also measures speed in a volume of air. A summary of field studies was presented along with future plans for SODAR. figs.

  4. The Use of Design Models of Wind-Electric Set with a Horizontal Axis of Rotation of the Wind Wheel for Dynamic Calculations at Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of modern urban development raise a significant question about an environmental cleanliness of progressing cities. Energy sources which are running on fuel cause tremendous harm to the atmosphere. Therefore, special attention is paid to the rational use of natural renewable resources such as wind and solar energy. Wind-electric sets, or wind turbines, are able to work autonomously, which is also important for the development of modern “smart” cities. Currently, the most commonly used design of wind turbines is the system which has the form of a tower of circular cross section (also called pipe, which carries at the upper end a nacelle with wind wheel. When such a system is being designed in urban conditions the wind pulsation and seismic calculations are added to the standard calculations. These added calculations are dynamic loads. It is known that in the process of solution of dynamic tasks design models of various levels of approximation can be used. It occurs due to stages of the design and other factors. The question of errors, which are associated with the use of a dissected, or partitioned, design scheme, raises.

  5. Development and validation of a method to estimate the potential wind erosion risk in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Roger; Deumlich, Detlef; Völker, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of the Cross Compliance (CC) regulations for soil protection resulted in the demand for the classification of the the wind erosion risk on agricultural areas in Germany nationwide. A spatial highly resolved method was needed based on uniform data sets and validation principles, which provides a fair and equivalent procedure for all affected farmers. A GIS-procedure was developed, which derives the site specific wind erosion risk from the main influencing factors: soil texture, wind velocity, wind direction and landscape structure following the German standard DIN 19706. The procedure enables different approaches in the Federal States and comparable classification results. Here, we present the approach of the Federal State of Brandenburg. In the first step a complete soil data map was composed in a grid size of 10 x 10 m. Data were taken from 1.) the Soil quality Appraisal (scale 1:10.000), 2.) the Medium-scale Soil Mapping (MMK, 1:25.000), 3.) extrapolating the MMK, 4.) new Soil quality Appraisal (new areas after coal-mining). Based on the texture and carbon content the wind erosion susceptibility was divided in 6 classes. This map was combined with data of the annual average wind velocity resulting in an increase of the risk classes for wind velocities > 5 ms-1 and a decrease for wind from each direction was used as a weighting factor and multiplied with the numerical values of the shadowed cells. Depending on the distance to the landscape element the shadowing effect was combined with the risk classes. The results show that the wind erosion risk is obviously reduced by integrating landscape structures into the risk assessment. After the renewed classification for the entire Federal State, about 60% of the area in the highest, and 40% in the medium risk classes changed into lower classes. The area of the highest potential risk class decreased from 40% to 17% in relation to the total area. A validation of this approach was made by data of the

  6. 11kW Stand Alone Wind Turbine Based on Proven Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik; Wodstrup, Jens; Andersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The paper will present the rationale behind the design of a stand-alone version of a existing 11kW wind turbine that has been installed at 100 sites mainly in Denmark. The wind turbine has been developed as a part of the Danish household wind turbine programme that included certification......, and a measurement programme. The positive operational experience with the turbine has motivated the development of a stand-alone version. The stand-alone version uses the standard version of the wind turbine combined with a back-to-back converter arrangement in order to decouple the wind turbine from the grid...

  7. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  8. Wind Tunnel Test Technique and Instrumentation Development at LaRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1999-01-01

    LaRC has an aggressive test technique development program underway. This program has been developed using 3rd Generation R&D management techniques and is a closely coordinated program between suppliers and wind tunnel operators- wind tunnel customers' informal input relative to their needs has been an essential ingredient in developing the research portfolio. An attempt has been made to balance this portfolio to meet near term and long term test technique needs. Major efforts are underway to develop techniques for determining model wing twist and location of boundary layer transition in the NTF (National Transonic Facility). The foundation of all new instrumentation developments, procurements, and upgrades will be based on uncertainty analysis.

  9. Wind power forecasting system EOlienne SPEO : development, preliminary results and integration at Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcione, A.; Roberge, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ; Yu, W.; Glazer, A.; Benoit, R.; Plante, A.; Tran, L.D.; Chardon, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wind generation forecasting at Hydro-Quebec was discussed with particular reference to the collaborative efforts between the utility's Research Institute and Environment Canada in developing the Systeme de Prevision EOlienne (SPEO). The European ANEMOS platform was installed at Hydro-Quebec Distribution in 2006. Operational forecasts using the Global Environmental Multi-scale model (GEM) from the Canadian Meteorological Centre served as input for SPEO. This presentation evaluated the performance of the forecasting model, and presented best approaches for long term use and continuous improvement. SPEO was developed to forecast wind and other atmospheric variables, and not generated power. The development of the software began in September 2006 with the development and integration of necessary components, followed by the calibration of the system, 15 months of operational forecasts, experimentation and final analysis in 2008. The GEM-global model provides 10 days and 240 hours of hourly forecasts with 35 km resolution, while the GEM-regional model provides 2 days and 48 hours of hourly forecasts with 15 km resolution. It was shown that the development of a good forecasting system depends entirely on the availability of a maximum number of observation sources, which for SPEO includes 13 Environment Canada stations and wind farm masts. The final value of a wind forecasting system also depends on compatibility with the electric system management tools and processes. Research is ongoing to improve SPEO through validation tools, integration of newly available observations, recalibration and experimentation. Future tasks will be to extend the 48 hour horizon, to optimize the number crunching efficiency and to characterize wind farms more precisely. figs.

  10. Identifying predictors of attitudes towards local onshore wind development with reference to an English case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard [Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TP (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The threats posed by climate change are placing governments under increasing pressure to meet electricity demand from low-carbon sources. In many countries, including the UK, legislation is in place to ensure the continued expansion of renewable energy capacity. Onshore wind turbines are expected to play a key role in achieving these aims. However, despite high levels of public support for onshore wind development in principle, specific projects often experience local opposition. Traditionally this difference in general and specific attitudes has been attributed to NIMBYism (not in my back yard), but evidence is increasingly calling this assumption into question. This study used multiple regression analysis to identify what factors might predict attitudes towards mooted wind development in Sheffield, England. We report on the attitudes of two groups; one group (target) living close to four sites earmarked for development and an unaffected comparison group (comparison). We found little evidence of NIMBYism amongst members of the target group; instead, differences between general and specific attitudes appeared attributable to uncertainty regarding the proposals. The results are discussed with respect to literature highlighting the importance of early, continued and responsive community involvement in combating local opposition and facilitating the deployment of onshore wind turbines. (author)

  11. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  12. Comparing the ecological impacts of wind and oil & gas development: a landscape scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan F; Pejchar, Liba

    2013-01-01

    Energy production in the United States is in transition as the demand for clean and domestic power increases. Wind energy offers the benefit of reduced emissions, yet, like oil and natural gas, it also contributes to energy sprawl. We used a diverse set of indicators to quantify the ecological impacts of oil, natural gas, and wind energy development in Colorado and Wyoming. Aerial imagery was supplemented with empirical data to estimate habitat loss, fragmentation, potential for wildlife mortality, susceptibility to invasion, biomass carbon lost, and water resources. To quantify these impacts we digitized the land-use footprint within 375 plots, stratified by energy type. We quantified the change in impacts per unit area and per unit energy produced, compared wind energy to oil and gas, and compared landscapes with and without energy development. We found substantial differences in impacts between energy types for most indicators, although the magnitude and direction of the differences varied. Oil and gas generally resulted in greater impacts per unit area but fewer impacts per unit energy compared with wind. Biologically important and policy-relevant outcomes of this study include: 1) regardless of energy type, underlying land-use matters and development in already disturbed areas resulted in fewer total impacts; 2) the number and source of potential mortality varied between energy types, however, the lack of robust mortality data limits our ability to use this information to estimate and mitigate impacts; and 3) per unit energy produced, oil and gas extraction was less impactful on an annual basis but is likely to have a much larger cumulative footprint than wind energy over time. This rapid evaluation of landscape-scale energy development impacts could be replicated in other regions, and our specific findings can help meet the challenge of balancing land conservation with society's demand for energy.

  13. Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the co-existence of natural and supernatural explanations for illness and disease transmission, from a developmental perspective. The participants (5-, 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults; N = 366) were drawn from 2 Sesotho-speaking South African communities, where Western biomedical and traditional healing frameworks were…

  14. Wind Tunnel Database Development using Modern Experiment Design and Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; DeLoach, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment for characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a research model airplane is described. The model airplane called the Free-flying Airplane for Sub-scale Experimental Research (FASER), is a modified off-the-shelf radio-controlled model airplane, with 7 ft wingspan, a tractor propeller driven by an electric motor, and aerobatic capability. FASER was tested in the NASA Langley 12-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel, using a combination of traditional sweeps and modern experiment design. Power level was included as an independent variable in the wind tunnel test, to allow characterization of power effects on aerodynamic forces and moments. A modeling technique that employs multivariate orthogonal functions was used to develop accurate analytic models for the aerodynamic and propulsion force and moment coefficient dependencies from the wind tunnel data. Efficient methods for generating orthogonal modeling functions, expanding the orthogonal modeling functions in terms of ordinary polynomial functions, and analytical orthogonal blocking were developed and discussed. The resulting models comprise a set of smooth, differentiable functions for the non-dimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients in terms of ordinary polynomials in the independent variables, suitable for nonlinear aircraft simulation.

  15. Development of wind turbines for safe operation in alpine environments - Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.; Abhari, R.

    2009-08-15

    prevention systems could be substantially more efficient if their effectiveness was tailored for the outboard 5% of the blade (measured from the blade tip). Additionally, a new dedicated Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe measuring system has been installed at the test facility. Initial measurements prove its ability to resolve key flow features behind the wind turbine rotor. Part (3) of the project involves the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the defined ice geometries on the rotor blades. The changes in performance match well with the experimental measurements. It is found that flow separation over the entire blade span is the cause for the major losses in power measured for the 'extreme' ice shape. A predictive tool that developers of wind energy projects located in regions that are highly susceptible to icing can use for project development, which identifies the locations where 'extreme' ice formation is a risk, would be highly beneficial to wind farm developers in Switzerland. It is recommended that heating systems should specifically target the outboard 5% of the blade in a localised manner such as with electric heating. (authors)

  16. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  17. The Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO): Developing an Atmospheric Wind Analysis Tool for Space Launch Vehicles Using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric winds are an important driver of the design and operation of space launch vehicles. Multiple types of weather balloons and Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), that are capable of measuring atmospheric winds. Meteorological data gathered by these instruments are being used in the design of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and other space launch vehicles, and will be used during the day-of-launch (DOL) of SLS to aid in loads and trajectory analyses. For the purpose of SLS day-of-launch needs, the balloons have the altitude coverage needed, but take over an hour to reach the maximum altitude and can drift far from the vehicle's path. The DRWPs have the spatial and temporal resolutions needed, but do not provide complete altitude coverage. Therefore, the Natural Environments Branch (EV44) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO) to combine balloon profiles and profiles from multiple DRWPs, filter the spliced profile to a common wavelength, and allow the operator to generate output files as well as to visualize the inputs and the spliced profile for SLS DOL operations. PRESTO was developed in Python taking advantage of NumPy and SciPy for the splicing procedure, matplotlib for the visualization, and Tkinter for the execution of the graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes in detail the Python coding implementation for the splicing, filtering, and visualization methodology used in PRESTO.

  18. The wind power state of the art and development outlooks; L'energie eolienne etat de l'art et perspectives de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document presented during the Physics Summer school, deals with the wind power situation in Europe. The wind energy conversion in electric power is explained as the management and implementing of a wind site. The author discusses also the economy of the wind power and the market and development outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  19. [Acquired drives. The cortical mechanism responsible to the emergence and development of social existence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    József, Knoll

    2007-10-01

    when any group of cortical neurons will be influenced by enhancer substances on the level already inseparable from conscious perception. Thus, as the totality of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 works continuously on an unconscious level, there is a steadily operating, chaotic background noise in the human telencephalon. Even in the active state ("fight or flight" behavior, goal-seeking), when the actually dominant drive determines the rational goal to be reached, the noise is suppressed, but cannot cease to exist. But it never endangers the function of the actually dominant innate or acquired drive. From this situation it follows that the rational brain activity is necessarily amalgamated with an irrational brain activity and we live through every moment of our life experiencing the totality of order and chaos in our brain. Human society the maintenance of which has always required the proper manipulation of the brain of its members still finds itself in a state of development. It seeks its final equilibrium: namely, that state in which behavioral modification induced by the home/school/society triad will be based, from birth until death, on the exact knowledge of the natural laws that keep the brain and its self going. In this way, members of the community will understand that simultaneity of order and chaos in their brain is the physiological reality that determines human activity, and will consciously try to find the acquired drives that optimally fit their natural endowments. For the time being those who have been lucky enough to acquire the best fitting drives in due time, in the early uphill period of life, have had fair chances for success and happiness. In contrast, those who for any reason have missed this opportunity will remain frustrated and look for 'ersatz'. It seems reasonable to conclude that order and chaos are of equal importance in our brain. Without the ability to adapt ourselves to the concrete (science), we would not be able to

  20. On-line analysis capabilities developed to support the AFW wind-tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of on-line analysis tools were developed to support two active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel tests. These tools were developed to verify control law execution, to satisfy analysis requirements of the control law designers, to provide measures of system stability in a real-time environment, and to provide project managers with a quantitative measure of controller performance. Descriptions and purposes of the developed capabilities are presented along with examples. Procedures for saving and transferring data for near real-time analysis, and descriptions of the corresponding data interface programs are also presented. The on-line analysis tools worked well before, during, and after the wind tunnel test and proved to be a vital and important part of the entire test effort.

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  2. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  3. Development and validation of a multicriteria indicator for the assessment of objective aesthetic impact of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Sibille, Ana del Carmen; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin [Dpto. Proyectos de Ingenieria,Valencia University of Technology, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022Valencia (Spain); Darton, Richard [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Wind energy represents one of the most important renewable resources. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, they frequently encounter public resistance. One of the main criticisms of wind farm construction projects is directed at their poor aesthetic integration into the landscape. This work develops an indicator to assess the magnitude of the objective aesthetic impact on the landscape caused by the installation of the wind farm. The indicator combines measures of visibility, colour, fractality and continuity which can be taken from photographs. Value functions are constructed for each variable and incorporated into the indicator. This indicator has been used to calculate the objective aesthetic impact of five wind farms. Comparison of the indicator results with a population survey shows that the indicator correctly represents the order of impact as perceived by the population sample, and is thus an appropriate objective measure of aesthetic impact of wind farms. (author)

  4. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Loss, Scott R; Johnson, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and management

  5. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  6. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  7. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  8. Development and testing of vortex generators for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyatt, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vortex generators (VGs) for a small (32 ft diameter) horizontal axis wind turbine, the Carter Model 25, have been developed and tested. Arrays of VGs in a counterrotating arrangement were tested on the inbound half-span, outboard half-span, and on the entire blade. VG pairs had their centerlines spaced at a distance of 15% of blade chord, with a spanwise width of 10% of blade chord. Each VG had a length/height ratio of 4, with a height of between 0.5% and 1.0% of the blade chord. Tests were made with roughness strips to determine whether VGs alleviated the sensitivity of some turbines to an accumulation of bugs and dirt on the leading edge. Field test data showed that VGs increased power output up to 20% at wind speeds above 10 m/s with only a small (less than 4%) performance penalty at lower speeds. The VGs on the outboard span of the blade were more effective than those on inner sections. For the case of full span coverage, the energy yearly output increased almost 6% at a site with a mean wind speed of 16 mph. The VGs did reduce the performance loss caused by leading edge roughness. An increase in blade pitch angle has an effect on the power curve similar to the addition of VGs. VGs alleviate the sensitivity of wind turbine rotors to leading edge roughness caused by bugs and drift.

  9. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  10. Velocity Data in a Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Results are reported from an experimental study of an array of porous disks simulating offshore wind turbines. The disks mimic power extraction of similarly scaled wind turbines via drag matching, and the array consists of 19x5 disks of 0.25 m diameter. The study was conducted in the UNH Flow Physics Facility (FPF), which has test section dimensions of 6.0 m wide, 2.7 m high and 72.0 m long. The FPF can achieve a boundary layer height on the order of 1 m at the entrance of the wind turbine array which puts the model turbines in the bottom third of the boundary layer, which is typical of field application. Careful consideration was given to an expanded uncertainty analysis, to determine possible measurements in this type of flow. For a given configuration (spacing, initial conditions, etc.), the velocity levels out and the wind farm approaches fully developed behavior, even within the maintained growth of the simulated atmospheric boundary layer. Benchmark pitot tube data was acquired in vertical profiles progressing streamwise behind the centered column at every row in the array.

  11. On the impact of wind on the development of wave field during storm Britta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsen, Søren

    2017-11-01

    The observation of extreme waves at FINO 1 during storm Britta on the 1st November 2006 has initiated a series of research studies regarding the mechanisms behind. The roles of stability and the presence of the open cell structures have been previously investigated but not conclusive. To improve our understanding of these processes, which are essential for a good forecast of similarly important events offshore, this study revisits the development of storm Britta using an atmospheric and wave coupled modeling system, wind and wave measurements from ten stations across the North Sea, cloud images and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. It is found here that a standard state-of-the-art model is capable of capturing the important characteristics of a major storm like Britta, including the storm path, storm peak wind speed, the open cells, and peak significant wave height ( H s ) for open sea. It was also demonstrated that the impact of the open cells has negligible contribution to the development of extreme H s observed at FINO 1. At the same time, stability alone is not sufficient in explaining the development of extreme H s . The controlling conditions for the development of Britta extreme H s observed at FINO 1 are the persistent strong winds and a long and undisturbed fetch over a long period.

  12. TradeWind. Integrating wind. Developing Europe's power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    Based on a single European grid and power market system, the TradeWind project explores to what extent large-scale wind power integration challenges could be addressed by reinforcing interconnections between Member States in Europe. Additionally, the project looks at the conditions required for a sound power market design that ensures a cost-effective integration of wind power at EU level. In this way, the study addresses two issues of key importance for the future integration of renewable energy, namely the weak interconnectivity levels between control zones and the inflexibility and fragmented nature of the European power market. Work on critical transmission paths and interconnectors is slow for a variety of reasons including planning and administrative barriers, lack of public acceptance, insufficient economic incentives for TSOs, and the lack of a joint European approach by the key stakeholders. (au)

  13. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  14. Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

  15. The Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA): A tool to aid developers and decision makers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabille, E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Why is a wind atlas important for South Africa? This presentation recommends that a dedicated wind energy measurement programme needs to be undertaken to confirm the true wind energy potential in South Africa....

  16. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  17. Potential market of wind farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengfei Shi [Hydropower Planning General Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources are abundant in China, in southeast coast area along with the rapid economic growth, electricity demand has been sharply increased, due to complex terrain detailed assessments are in urgent need. Advanced methodology and computer model should be developed. In this paper the existing wind farms, installed capacity, manufacturers share and projects in the near future are presented. For further development of wind farm in large scale, different ways of local manufacturing wind turbine generators (WTG) are going on. Current policy and barriers are analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Val-Eo and Algonquin Power : innovative partnership for win-win relationship between community and wind developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, P. [Val-Eo, St. Bruno, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation outlined the basic success factors for a successful partnership between a community and a wind developer. Val-Eo has invested more than $400,000 in wind resource development. This community business owns the wind rights to more than 58 farms near St. Bruno, Quebec, representing thousands of hectares. Algonquin Power is an established energy company with a portfolio of 66 generating projects focused on renewable energy, including a 104 MW wind farm. This presentation described the general framework of agreement between Algonquin Power Income Fund and Vale-Eo. Val-Eo's strategy for high community involvement in a wind resource development plan was emphasized along with other issues such as investment; risk; economic benefit; required expertise; and social acceptability. Algonquin Power has experience with hydroelectric power, cogeneration, alternative fuels, and infrastructure. The company holds 3 values, notably that wind rights and the control of the wind resource belongs to the community on which the resource lies; since the community is the legitimate owner of the resource, it has the right to manage and exploit the resource; and, the participation of local investors in a wind project can be beneficial to all participants. figs.

  19. The Development of Modal Testing Technology for Wind Turbines: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George H., III; Carne, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Wind turbines are very large, flexible structures, with aerodynamic forces on the rotating blades producing periodic forces with frequencies at the harmonics of the rotation frequency. Due to design consideration, these rotational frequencies are comparable to the modal frequencies; thus avoiding resonant conditions is a critical consideration. Consequently, predicting and experimentally validating the modal frequencies of wind turbines has been important to their successful design and operation. Performing modal tests on flexible structures over 120 meters tall is a substantial challenge, which has inspired innovative developments in modal test technology. A further trial to the analyst and experimentalist is that the modal frequencies are dependent on the turbine rotation speed, so testing a parked turbine does not fully validate the analytical predictions. The history and development of this modal testing technology will be reviewed, showing historical tests and techniques, ranging from two-meter to 100-meter turbines for both parked and rotating tests. The NExT (Natural Excitation Technique) was developed in the 1990's, as a predecessor to OMA to overcome these challenges. We will trace the difficulties and successes of wind turbine modal testing over the past twenty-five years from 1982 to the present.

  20. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  1. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  2. Measuring Transit Oriented Development of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population in Indian cities is encouraging auto reliance and having unsafe economic, social and environmental consequences. Land-use-change patterns are the outcome of the complex relations between the human and the physical surroundings. To address these issues the planners are moving beyond land use planning to a sustainable development. Transit and Land use planning are important components to achieve sustainable future of urban development. TOD is a planning tool to encourage this integration. This paper discusses the land use scenario and opportunity around four Metro transit stations in Faridabad city. Different methods and various sets of indicators are considered to evaluate and measure TOD index in this study. This study will evaluate and measure the Faridabad city in the context of land use around Metro Stations to support TOD. This paper seeks to answer how to promote walkable communities, compact and transit-oriented development (TOD that incorporates mixed land use development, including neighbourhood schools, retail and business related space and a mix range of housing types within walkable distance. This paper concludes that the stations area which had a low TOD score needs to have policy for improvement. If planned efficiently, TODs can realize the sustainable development with considerable change in the urban development that focuses on pedestrian based neighbourhood planning.

  3. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A; Brooks, Robert P; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, David; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Duerr, Adam; Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework can be applied across multiple spatial scales to understand and mitigate impacts of industry on wildlife. We estimated risk to Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from wind energy development in 3 topographically distinct regions of the central Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania (United States) based on models of resource selection of wind facilities (n = 43) and of northbound migrating eagles (n = 30). Risk to eagles from wind energy was greatest in the Ridge and Valley region; all 24 eagles that passed through that region used the highest risk landscapes at least once during low altitude flight. In contrast, only half of the birds that entered the Allegheny Plateau region used highest risk landscapes and none did in the Allegheny Mountains. Likewise, in the Allegheny Mountains, the majority of wind turbines (56%) were situated in poor eagle habitat; thus, risk to eagles is lower there than in the Ridge and Valley, where only 1% of turbines are in poor eagle habitat. Risk within individual facilities was extremely variable; on average, facilities had 11% (SD 23; range = 0-100%) of turbines in highest risk landscapes and 26% (SD 30; range = 0-85%) of turbines in the lowest risk landscapes. Our results provide a mechanism for relocating high-risk turbines, and they show the feasibility of this novel and highly adaptable framework for managing risk of harm to wildlife from industrial development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Wind energy conversion - An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1983-12-01

    System integration studies indicate that existing utility grid systems could accept a contribution of about 20 percent of their total power from wind turbines. Similar percentages in fuel savings are envisioned for wind/diesel electricity generation systems in remote areas. An assessment of recent wind turbine development advancements indicates that 20-40 m diameter turbines, with 50-500 kW power ratings, offer the most attractive economics for land-based applications in the near future, yielding energy costs of the order of 2.8-5.6 p/kWh at sites where the annual average wind speed is 5.5 m/sec. In windier locations, the cost will be even lower. Further operational experience is required, however, to demonstrate that reliable operation can be sustained over periods of many years. As experience accumulates and economies of scale associated with mass production become available, the wind turbine market is expected to grow rapidly.

  5. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  6. Paroxetine attenuates the development and existing pain in a rat model of neurophatic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Malek; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh

    2014-01-01

    P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a purinoceptor expressed in activated spinal microglia, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Spinal nerve injury induces up-regulation of P2X4R on activated microglia in the spinal cord, and blockade of this receptor can reduce neuropathic pain. The present study was undertaken to determine whether paroxetine, an inhibitor of P2X4R, could attenuate allodynia and hyperalgesia in chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain when used preemptively or after the sciatic nerve injury. Male Wistar rats (150-200 g, n = 6) were divided into 3 different groups: 1- CCI vehicle-treated group, 2- Sham group, and 3- CCI paroxetine-treated group. Paroxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 1 h before surgery and continued daily until day 14. In other part of the study, paroxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered at day 7 post injury and continued daily until day 14. von Frey filaments for mechanical allodynia and analgesia meter for thermal hyperalgesia were used to assay pain behavior. In a preventive paradigm, paroxetine significantly attenuated both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia (Pparoxetine on existing allodynia (Pparoxetine can attenuate pain behavior when administered before and also after sciatic nerve injury in CCI model of neuropathic pain.

  7. Development of NEXRAD Wind Retrievals as Input to Atmospheric Dispersion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Pengfei; Copeland, Jeffrey H.; Sun, Jenny

    2007-03-06

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility that routinely collected data from the Doppler radars can appropriately be used in Atmospheric Dispersion Models (ADMs) for emergency response. We have evaluated the computational efficiency and accuracy of two variational mathematical techniques that derive the u- and v-components of the wind from radial velocities obtained from Doppler radars. A review of the scientific literature indicated that the techniques employ significantly different approaches in applying the variational techniques: 2-D Variational (2DVar), developed by NOAA¹s (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's) National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We designed a series of numerical experiments in which both models employed the same horizontal domain and resolution encompassing Oklahoma City for a two-week period during the summer of 2003 so that the computed wind retrievals could be fairly compared. Both models ran faster than real-time on a typical single dual-processor computer, indicating that they could be used to generate wind retrievals in near real-time. 2DVar executed ~2.5 times faster than VDRAS because of its simpler approach.

  8. Wind turbine blade fatigue tests: lessons learned and application to SHM system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeong, Hyomi [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jang, JaeKyung [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    This paper presents experimental results of several structural health monitoring (SHM) methods applied to a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. It underwent harmonic excitation at its first natural frequency using a hydraulically actuated resonant excitation system. The blade was initially excited at 25% of its design load, and then with steadily increasing loads until it failed. Various data were collected between and during fatigue loading sessions. The data were measured over multiple frequency ranges using a variety of acquisition equipment, including off-the-shelf systems and specially designed hardware developed by the authors. Modal response, diffuse wave-field transfer functions, and ultrasonic guided wave methods were applied to assess the condition of the wind turbine blade. The piezoelectric sensors themselves were also monitored using a sensor diagnostics procedure. This paper summarizes experimental procedures and results, focusing particularly on fatigue crack detection, and concludes with considerations for implementing such damage identification systems, which will be used as a guideline for future SHM system development for operating wind turbine blades.

  9. Long-term impact of wind generation on development of Croatian power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaksic, D.; Tot, M.; Maricic, S.A. [Hrvoje Pozar Energy Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper analyzed the long-term impacts of wind power developments on power generation systems in Croatia until the year 2020. Impacts on generation expansion planning were considered in relation to investment costs, fuel and operating costs, maintenance, security of supply, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions reductions. Scenarios of future electricity generation assumed a perfect electricity market. The aim of the study was to determine methods of minimizing total electricity generation costs in Croatia and develop an optimized generation expansion plan that fully considered constraints such as fuel availability and price, and other environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) WASP 4 model was used to conduct the expansion planning simulation. The WASP model used probabilistic estimation and linear programming techniques to determine the optimal dispatch of generating units. Dynamic programming was used to compare the costs of alternative system expansion policies. Scenarios were used to consider energy prices, expansion of different energy systems. Results of the simulations demonstrated that the addition of wind power plants reduced fuel consumption and decreased load factors for thermal power plants. Wind power plants will play a significant role in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the region. It was concluded that the model can be used to conduct market analyses for power systems.19 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Development of an anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades in multibody system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Branner, Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades is developed and implemented into the aeroelastic nonlinear multibody code, HAWC2, intended to be used to investigate if use of anisotropic material layups in wind turbine blades can be tailored for improved...... performance such as reduction of loads and/or increased power capture. The element stiffness and mass matrices are first derived based on pre-calculated anisotropic beam properties, and the beam element is subsequently put into a floating frame of reference to enable full rigid body displacement and rotation...... of the beam. This derivation provides the mass and stiffness properties and the fictitious forces needed for implementation into HAWC2. The implementation is subsequently validated by running three validation cases which all show good agreement with results obtained by other authors. Further, a parametric...

  11. Index of manufacturers, researchers, and distributors currently involved in the development of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This index or manufacturers, distributors, researchers and others was prepared by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) under contract to Rockwell International Corporation. Rockwell International, in turn, is contracted with the Department of Energy to provide management and technical support for the development of wind systems for farm and rural use. The index is organized into two sections. The first section lists only names of individuals and organizations by category of interest: Manufacturer, distributor, researcher or other. Where a respondent listed more than one category that respondent's name appears under each. The second section is a compilation of all information supplied by respondents to the questionnaire. Entries are in alphabetical order by organization or individual name.

  12. On the impact of wind on the development of wave field during storm Britta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    our understanding of these processes, which are essential for a good forecast of similarly important events offshore, this study revisits the development of storm Britta using an atmospheric and wave coupled modeling system, wind and wave measurements from ten stations across the North Sea, cloud......The observation of extreme waves at FINO 1 during storm Britta on the 1st November 2006 has initiated a series of research studies regarding the mechanisms behind. The roles of stability and the presence of the open cell structures have been previously investigated but not conclusive. To improve...... images and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. It is found here that a standard state-of-the-art model is capable of capturing the important characteristics of a major storm like Britta, including the storm path, storm peak wind speed, the open cells, and peak significant wave height (H s ) for open sea...

  13. Development of an AD/RANS model for predicting wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    methods together. The simulations are performed by using the in-house flow solver EllipSys3D coupled with the actuator disc (AD) methodology. The main objective of the proposed model is to control the turbulence decay caused by the intrinsic property of the two-equation turbu-lence model and further...... increasing the pre-dicted turbulence intensity through correct-ing the destruction terms. To validate the proposed method, comparisons are carried out between measurements and other nu-merical simulations for the Nibe B wind tur-bine. Results show that the newly developed model can provide satisfactory...... predictions for the wind speed deficit and the turbulence intensity....

  14. [Diagnostics of thyroid cancer: limitations of the existing methods and perspectives for future developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharova, N P; Sumedi, I R; Astakhova, T M; Plekhanova, A S; Liupina, Iu V; Shashova, E E; Kondakova, I V; Rodoman, G V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to the development of a precise method of intraoperative diagnostics of thyroid cancer has been proposed on the basis of fundamental study of proteasomes in malignant tumors of mammals and human. The method is based on estimation of proteasome activity in small fragments of the tumor and adjacent tissues.

  15. Implementation of an INTEL 8080 microprocessing development system using existing minicomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Horne, P J

    1977-01-01

    The INTEL 8080 has become one of the two most widely used microprocessors ( mu P's) at CERN, the other being the MOTOROLA 6800. Even though this is the case, there has been up to date only rudimentary facilities available for aiding the development of application programs fro this mu P. An ideal development system is one which has a sophisticated editing and filing capability, an assembler /compiler, and access to the mu P application. In many instances one also requires access to a PROM programmer as the application may utilized only PROMs for program storage. An INTEL 8080 mu P development system was implemented in the PS Division at CERN. While any other minicomputer would be suitable, this system utilizes a PDP-11/45 minicomputer as the editing and file-handling machine, and an MCS 8/MOD 80 mu P development system for assembling, PROM programming, and debugging user programs at run time. The two computers are linked by a CAMAC crate system, which provides the means of access to mu P applications in CAMAC ...

  16. Development of an English Education Course from an Examination of the Existential Concept of Authentic Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ernest Wright

    Since the central concerns of existentialism are the same as the central concerns of education in a democratic society, namely the fullest and freest development of the individual, existential thought was examined for the help it could give educators in more fully realizing this aim. Specifically, the central existential concept of authenticity…

  17. Rethinking the Development of "Nonbasic" Emotions: A Critical Review of Existing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Reddy, Vasudevi; Costall, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explores current theories of emotional development in order to identify the assumptions that could explain the strong antagonism toward early nonbasic emotions. Draws on the contrasting and polarity of viewpoints to examine the logical implications of these viewpoints for the very possibility of early nonbasic emotions and their reciprocal…

  18. The influence of wind farm development on the hydrochemistry and ecology of an upland stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millidine, K J; Malcolm, I A; McCartney, A; Laughton, R; Gibbins, C N; Fryer, R J

    2015-08-01

    Despite perceptions of pristine condition, upland environments are increasingly subject to a range of anthropogenic pressures including air pollution, climate change, land-use change and evolving land management strategies. Although they have received little attention to date, the large-scale development of upland wind farms also has the potential to disturb vegetation and soils, alter hydrology and water quality and, thus, impact freshwater ecosystems. This paper presents the findings of a 5-year study of the impacts of wind farm construction on the freshwater environment. Data on water quality, invertebrate and fish populations were collected for 2 years before construction and for the following 3 years covering the construction period and the initial period of the farm's operation. In contrast to previous studies, the impacts of the wind farm development were assessed for a suite of potentially affected hydrochemical variables using a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis that allowed separation of construction effects from spatial and temporal variability in hydroclimatological conditions, thereby providing an improved, more robust evidence base. There was a small but significant negative effect of construction on pH, alkalinity (Alk) and acid neutralising capacity (ANC) in the upper part of the treatment catchment, which was where the wind farm was situated. The effects were more marked under higher flow conditions. It is hypothesised that this reflects changes in hydrological processes with increased near-surface runoff or organic acid mobilisation. There was no indication that either invertebrate community structure or fish densities were impacted by construction and the resulting effects on water quality.

  19. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Space Exploration Technologies Developed through Existing and New Research Partnerships Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The Space Partnership Development Program of NASA has been highly successful in leveraging commercial research investments to the strategic mission and applied research goals of the Agency through industry academic partnerships. This program is currently undergoing an outward-looking transformation towards Agency wide research and discovery goals that leverage partnership contributions to the strategic research needed to demonstrate enabling space exploration technologies encompassing both robotic spacecraft missions and human space flight. New Space Partnership Initiatives with incremental goals and milestones will allow a continuing series of accomplishments to be achieved throughout the duration of each initiative, permit the "lessons learned" and capabilities acquired from previous implementation steps to be incorporated into subsequent phases of the initiatives, and allow adjustments to be made to the implementation of the initiatives as new opportunities or challenges arise. An Agency technological risk reduction roadmap for any required technologies not currently available will identify the initiative focus areas for the development, demonstration and utilization of space resources supporting the production of power, air, and water, structures and shielding materials. This paper examines the successes to date, lessons learned, and programmatic outlook of enabling sustainable exploration and discovery through governmental, industrial, academic, and international partnerships. Previous government and industry technology development programs have demonstrated that a focused research program that appropriately shares the developmental risk can rapidly mature low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to the demonstration level. This cost effective and timely, reduced time to discovery, partnership approach to the development of needed technological capabilities addresses the dual use requirements by the investing partners. In addition, these partnerships

  1. Developing Best Practices for Capturing As-Built Building Information Models (BIM) for Existing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Works. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names...2D CAD or image editing software (such as Adobe Photoshop CS4) to remove extraneous annotations. Save each individual floor plan as a PDF file, and...7). Inventory of Study Equipment 1. Survey Form Development Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended Adobe Photoshop CS4 Microsoft Excel (COBIE

  2. Existing Fortran interfaces to Trilinos in preparation for exascale ForTrilinos development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Young, Mitchell T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prokopenko, Andrey V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heroux, Michael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the current state of Fortran interfaces to the Trilinos library within several key applications of the Exascale Computing Program (ECP), with the aim of informing developers about strategies to develop ForTrilinos, an exascale-ready, Fortran interface software package within Trilinos. The two software projects assessed within are the DOE Office of Science's Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) atmosphere component, CAM, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's core-simulator portion of VERA, a nuclear reactor simulation code. Trilinos is an object-oriented, C++ based software project, and spans a collection of algorithms and other enabling technologies such as uncertainty quantification and mesh generation. To date, Trilinos has enabled these codes to achieve large-scale simulation results, however the simulation needs of CAM and VERA-CS will approach exascale over the next five years. A Fortran interface to Trilinos that enables efficient use of programming models and more advanced algorithms is necessary. Where appropriate, the needs of the CAM and VERA-CS software to achieve their simulation goals are called out specifically. With this report, a design document and execution plan for ForTrilinos development can proceed.

  3. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  4. Wind energy development by STEG : realities and perspectives; Le developpement de l'energie eolienne par STEG : realites et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Arfa, O. [STEG, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The Societe Tunisienne de l'Electricite et du Gaz (STEG), promotes and implements economic development programs. This article stated that STEG chooses to diversify its energy production capabilities in order to maintain security of fuel supply while seeking to improve the efficiency of power stations. In response to environmental concerns, STEG is considering new technological choices that include the use of natural gas and wind energy. Although STEG first explored wind energy in the 1990s, its full potential remained to be evaluated in terms of investment, environmental impact, and stability of Tunisia's electrical network. The first wind powered station was installed in 2000 with a power generating capacity of 11 MW. Another extension was installed in 2003 with a capacity of approximately 9 MW. A third station at Sidi Daoud was operational in July 2008, with a capacity of 35 MW, bringing the total wind generating capacity of Tunisia to 55 MW, with an annual rate of energy of 140 GWh. STEG has introduced a research program for future sites to examine infrastructure, the interconnections relating to the existing network and availability of the terrain. The analysis of these potential sites include details regarding average annual wind speed, with the total power of 40 to 100 per cent of nominal power of wind powered turbines. The economic viability of these projects is influenced by the site considered by way of cost per kW, the fuel saved, financial profitability depending on finance conditions, the integration of local industry, and direct and indirect job creations in Tunisia. 2 figs.

  5. Wind Energy Research in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eecen, P.

    2011-07-01

    perspective of the research community and provides alternative insights as would be provided by existing historic overviews that focus on the implementation of wind energy and the development of support mechanisms. The description of research activities, the developed advanced design tools, developed knowledge, and intellectual property may provide an alternative source for further activities to reduce the cost of energy of wind power. The author uses 22 references along with ten schematics, figures, pictures, and tables to augment the professional and scholastic treatment of the subject.

  6. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day-of-launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program and NASA's Ground Systems Development and Operations Program. They currently do not have the capability to display and overlay profiles of upper-level observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50 MHz tropospheric wind profiling radar, KSC Shuttle Landing Facility 915 MHz boundary layer wind profiling radar and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Processing System (AMPS) radiosondes, and then overlay forecast wind profiles from the model point data including the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model, Rapid Refresh (RAP) model and Global Forecast System (GFS) model to assess the performance of these models. The AMU developed an Excel-based tool that provides an objective method for the LWOs to compare the model-forecast upper-level winds to the KSC wind profiling radars and CCAFS AMPS observations to assess the model potential to accurately forecast changes in the upperlevel profile through the launch count. The AMU wrote Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts to automatically retrieve model point data for CCAFS (XMR) from the Iowa State University Archive Data Server (http://mtarchive.qeol.iastate.edu) and the 50 MHz, 915 MHz and AMPS observations from the NASA/KSC Spaceport Weather Data Archive web site (http://trmm.ksc.nasa.gov). The AMU then developed code in Excel VBA to automatically ingest and format the observations and model point data in Excel to ready the data for generating Excel charts for the LWO's. The resulting charts allow the LWOs to independently initialize the three models 0

  7. Oral leukoplakia development in patients with pre-existing oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainani-Wu, Nita; Purnell, Daniel M; Silverman, Sol

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus are conditions that have the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. This article describes a series of nine patients with an initial clinical-microscopic diagnosis of lichen planus. During close follow-up, these patients developed localized areas of leukoplakia at intervals ranging from one and a half to six and a half years. While both conditions may present with white and red oral mucosal changes, their management differs with leukoplakia requiring surgical intervention, therefore accurate diagnosis is imperative.

  8. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Van Zandt

    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  9. Development and Performance Test of a Micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Engr. Muhammad Shuwa,; Dr. Garba Mohammed Ngala

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and experimental studies performed to investigate the performance of a 1.5 m long Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine blade on a 4meter tower using 8o as an angle of attack. The blade was design using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), blade parameters such as the chord length, angle of attack, Tip Speed Ratio, Rotor diameter, Lift and Drag force were determined. The designed blade profile was developed and tested on an open field at Maidugur...

  10. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Van Zandt

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  11. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  12. Structural Composites Industries 4 kilowatt wind system development. Phase I: design and analysis, technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkine, N.; Bottrell, G.; Weingart, O.

    1981-05-01

    A 4 kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) has been designed for residential applications in which relatively low (10 mph) mean annual wind speeds prevail. The objectives were to develop such a machine to produce electrical energy at 6 cents per kWh while operating in parallel with a utility grid or auxiliary generator. The Phase I effort began in November, 1979 and was carried through the Final Design Review in February 1981. During this period extensive trade, optimization and analytical studies were performed in an effort to provide the optimum machine to best meet the objectives. Certain components, systems and manufacturing processes were tested and evaluated and detail design drawings were produced. The resulting design is a 31-foot diameter horizontal axis downwind machine rated 5.7 kW and incorporating the following unique features: Composite Blades; Free-Standing Composite Tower; Torque-Actuated Blade Pitch Control. The design meets or exceeds all contract requirements except that for cost of energy. The target 6 cents per kWh will be achieved in a mean wind speed slightly below 12 mph instead of the specified 10 mph.

  13. Model Development and Loads Analysis of a Wind Turbine on a Floating Offshore Tension Leg Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matha, D.; Fischer, T.; Kuhn, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. Models in this code are of greater fidelity than most of the models that have been used to analyze floating turbines in the past--which have neglected important hydrodynamic and mooring system effects. The report provides a description of the development process of a TLP model, which is a modified version of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology design derived from a parametric linear frequency-domain optimization process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the International Electrotechnical Commission offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. Response statistics, extreme event tables, fatigue lifetimes, and selected time histories of design-driving extreme events are analyzed and presented. Loads for the wind turbine on the TLP are compared to those of an equivalent land-based turbine in terms of load ratios. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  14. Avoidance behavior by prairie grouse: implications for development of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Christin L; Patten, Michael A; Wolfe, Donald H

    2009-10-01

    New wind-energy facilities and their associated power transmission lines and roads are being constructed at a rapid pace in the Great Plains of North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the possible negative effects these anthropogenic features might have on prairie birds, one of the most threatened groups in North America. We examined radiotelemetry tracking locations of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) in two locations in Oklahoma to determine whether these birds avoided or changed movement behavior near power lines and paved highways. We tracked 463 Lesser Prairie-Chickens (15,071 tracking locations) and 216 Greater Prairie-Chickens (5,750 locations) for 7 and 3 years, respectively. Individuals of both species avoided power lines by at least 100 m and Lesser Prairie-Chickens avoided one of the two highways by 100 m. Prairie-chickens crossed power lines less often than expected if birds moved randomly (p 0.05). In addition, home ranges of Lesser Prairie-Chickens overlapped the power line less often than would be expected by chance placement of home ranges; this result was supported by kernel-density estimation of home ranges. It is likely that new power lines (and other tall structures such as wind turbines) will lead to avoidance of previously suitable habitat and will serve as barriers to movement. These two factors will likely increase fragmentation in an already fragmented landscape if wind energy development continues in prairie habitats.

  15. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.

    1982-06-01

    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  16. Benthic-Pelagic Coupling in Biogeochemical and Climate Models: Existing Approaches, Recent developments and Roadblocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments are key components in the Earth System. They host the largest carbon reservoir on Earth, provide the only long term sink for atmospheric CO2, recycle nutrients and represent the most important climate archive. Biogeochemical processes in marine sediments are thus essential for our understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles and climate. They are first and foremost, donor controlled and, thus, driven by the rain of particulate material from the euphotic zone and influenced by the overlying bottom water. Geochemical species may undergo several recycling loops (e.g. authigenic mineral precipitation/dissolution) before they are either buried or diffuse back to the water column. The tightly coupled and complex pelagic and benthic process interplay thus delays recycling flux, significantly modifies the depositional signal and controls the long-term removal of carbon from the ocean-atmosphere system. Despite the importance of this mutual interaction, coupled regional/global biogeochemical models and (paleo)climate models, which are designed to assess and quantify the transformations and fluxes of carbon and nutrients and evaluate their response to past and future perturbations of the climate system either completely neglect marine sediments or incorporate a highly simplified representation of benthic processes. On the other end of the spectrum, coupled, multi-component state-of-the-art early diagenetic models have been successfully developed and applied over the past decades to reproduce observations and quantify sediment-water exchange fluxes, but cannot easily be coupled to pelagic models. The primary constraint here is the high computation cost of simulating all of the essential redox and equilibrium reactions within marine sediments that control carbon burial and benthic recycling fluxes: a barrier that is easily exacerbated if a variety of benthic environments are to be spatially resolved. This presentation provides an integrative overview of

  17. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  18. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  19. Feasibility determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonsky, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the feasibility study, economic analysis, and information relevant to reactivation of the dam in Bethelehem, NH. It outlines a plan of development which calls for sale of the power to a local utility for the first few years of the project and then predominately on-site use of the power in an innovative plan for controlled-environment agriculture. The economic analyses indicate that reactivation of the dam would be a successful venture based on the present market value of 4.5 cents/kWh. The success of the second phase in the dam's use rests on the increasing financial attractiveness of locally grown produce in a state that currently imports over 90% of its food and is experiencing the spiraling costs of food, energy, and inflation. The best-suited turbine package for the site is an Ossberger 750-kW unit which would provide 4,014,000 kWh per year with a plant factor of 61%. The total capital costs of the project are $827,935.

  20. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring - An Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Yang, W.

    2013-07-01

    High operation and maintenance costs still hamper the development of the wind industry despite its quick growth worldwide. To reduce unscheduled downtime and avoid catastrophic failures of wind turbines and their components have been and will be crucial to further raise the competitiveness of wind power. Condition monitoring is one of the key tools for achieving such a goal. To enhance the research and development of advanced condition monitoring techniques dedicated to wind turbines, we present an overview of wind turbine condition monitoring, discuss current practices, point out existing challenges, and suggest possible solutions.

  1. Development of tiled imaging CZT detectors for sensitive wide-field hard X-ray surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 cm 2 close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2×2×0.5 cm 3. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8×8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October, 2009, as the ProtoEXIST1 payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtoEXIST2, with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32×32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  2. Peatland vulnerability to energy-related developments from climate change policy in Ireland: the case of wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ireland enjoys a wet and windy climate which is highly suitable for both peatlands and wind farms. There are currently 73 wind farms in Ireland, 39 of which are located on upland peatland - the oldest one on an industrially extracted blanket bog. The national and local (county level policy in relation to wind farms is to promote renewable energy in order to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change by reducing carbon emissions from non-renewable energy sources, whilst taking account of statutory obligations for planning and sustainable development. Lessons learned from past developments and ongoing monitoring have been applied in adapting guidelines for planning authorities and environmental impact assessment. However, although the vulnerability of peatland habitats is emphasised in the guideline documents, wind farm proposals for sensitive upland peatland sites continue to appear. Any development that involves drainage and fragmentation of peatlands has irreversible impacts on these ecosystems. Furthermore, the perceived ‘green profile’ of wind farms means that they tend to be viewed in a different light from other developments. It is proposed that any development on the nationally and internationally significant peatland resource of Ireland should undergo rigorous examination and impact assessment, and that degraded peatlands such as the industrial peat extraction areas in the Irish Midlands be selected as alternative locations for wind farm development.

  3. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.J.; Watson, G.M. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  4. New energy technology development related database construction survey (wind power generation); Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (furyoku hatsuden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To arrange systematic data relating to new energy, the latest published data relating to the wind energy conversion systems have been collected and arranged. For the overview of wind energy conversion system, wind turbines with horizontal axis and vertical axis, specification of wind turbine, and conceptual figure of wind energy conversion systems are illustrated. For the installation examples, introduction development of wind energy conversion systems in the world is described for Japan, the USA, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, India, and Belgium. For the relevant legislation and support plan, relevant legislation for the introduction of wind energy conversion in Japan, support plan in Japan, and support plans in foreign countries are described. Prices of wind turbines by wind turbine makers in the world, construction cost by Japanese makers, basic term, and subsidiary company and organization are shown

  5. Impact of Complex Orography on Wake Development: Simulation Results for the Planned WindForS Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Thorsten; Schulz, Christoph; Letzgus, Patrick; Rettenmeier, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    In Southern Germany a test site will be erected in complex terrain. The purpose is to enable detailed scientific studies of terrain impact on the characteristics of two research wind turbines and to demonstrate new technologies. Within preparatory studies an appropriate site was identified and examined by field tests and numerical studies in more detail. The present paper summarizes CFD analyses on the impact of the local test site orography on the wake development of a virtual wind turbine. The effects of the orography are identified by comparative simulations for the same turbine using comparative wind situation in flat terrain.

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  7. Assessing the Importance of Nonlinearities in the Development of a Substructure Model for the Wind Turbine CAE Tool FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Song, H.

    2013-03-01

    Design and analysis of wind turbines are performed using aero-servo-elastic tools that account for the nonlinear coupling between aerodynamics, controls, and structural response. The NREL-developed computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool FAST also resolves the hydrodynamics of fixed-bottom structures and floating platforms for offshore wind applications. This paper outlines the implementation of a structural-dynamics module (SubDyn) for offshore wind turbines with space-frame substructures into the current FAST framework, and focuses on the initial assessment of the importance of structural nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects include: large displacements, axial shortening due to bending, cross-sectional transverse shear effects, etc.

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  9. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  10. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  11. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW Wind lens turbines and a 100 kW Wind lens turbine. In addition to the enhanced output power, Wind lens turbine is quiet. The technology is now used in an offshore experiment with a hexagonal float 18 meters in diameter set off the coast of Hakata Bay in Fukuoka City. Moreover, we are now pursuing larger size Wind lens turbines through multi-rotor design consisting of multiple Wind lens turbines in a same vertical plane to embody larger total power output.

  12. The role of technology transfer for the development of a local wind component industry in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, Ana, E-mail: anapueyo@hotmail.com [Technical University of Madrid (UPM)-Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Rodrigo [Centro de Energias Renovables (CER), Santiago de Chile (Chile); Mendiluce, Maria [World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Geneva (Switzerland); Morales, Dario [InnovaChile-CORFO Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    This paper contributes to the debate about climate change technology transfer by analysing barriers and enablers for a Chilean company starting up the production of wind blades. Literature on the role of technology transfer for the development and deployment of local renewable energy technologies in developing countries often refers to success stories in Brazil, India and China. Instead, this case study highlights the different challenges faced by smaller emerging economies. The paper argues that successful technology transfer in a smaller economy like Chile requires: a minimum internal demand and access to regional markets to attract foreign knowledge providers; a focus in the types of technologies where the recipient country or company have a competitive advantage; and active learning processes by the recipient company. Lessons are drawn for improving the design and implementation of technology-push and market-pull policies in small or medium emerging economies. - Highlights: > We analyse the case of a Chilean company starting up wind blades production. > Technology transfer is required as the relevant knowledge is not available in the country. > We examine the factors that enable technology transfer to draw policy conclusions. > We highlight the particularities of medium sized developing countries.

  13. Development of a CMAQ Subroutine for Wind-blown Dust Emission Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.

    2011-12-01

    A subroutine for calculating the wind-blown dust emission in the framework of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) has been developed. This new subroutine, called WDEMIS, is analogous in its use to the recently added sea-salt emission subroutine SSEMIS. To make use of WDEMIS, the subroutine AERO_EMIS has to be modified so that WDEMIS (just like SSEMIS) is called by AERO_EMIS. The threshold friction velocity for smooth dry surface, the drag partitioning effect by non-erodible surface roughness elements, the soil moisture effect, the positive feedback of the saltating soil particles to the friction velocity, the saltation scheme calculating the horizontal soil flux, and the sandblasting scheme calculating the vertical dust emission flux are accounted for in WDEMIS. In order to supply soil characteristics required for wind-blown dust emission calculation, i.e., soil moisture content, land use fraction, and soil texture, the Pleim-Xiu land-surface model [Xiu and Pleim, 2001] is used by the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) combined with MCIP version 3.6. CMAQ modelling using WDEMIS was performed to simulate an Asian dust storm episode that occurred in April 2006 to evaluate the wind-blown dust emission prediction by WDEMIS. Sensitivity analysis showed that the accuracy of land use data and soil property supplied to WDEMIS is critical to performance of WDEMIS. Appropriate size fractioning is considered one of the most important improvement required in the future. Xiu, A., and J.E. Pleim, Development of a land surface model. Part I: Application in a mesoscale meteorology model, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 40, 192-209, 2001.

  14. Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Suganthi

    A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also

  15. Development of Tiled Imaging CZT Detectors for Sensitive Wide-Field Hard X-Ray Surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 sq cm close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2 x 2 x 0.5 cubic cm. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8 x 8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October. 2009, as the ProtoEX1STl payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtcEXIST2. with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32 x 32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  16. Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D.; Naughton, B.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.

  17. Offshore coastal wind speed gradients: Issues for the design and development of large offshore windfarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Badger, Jake; Pryor, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations, from mesoscale numerical models, and analyses of in-situ and remote sensing data from offshore wind farms in Denmark, are used to examine both horizontal and vertical gradients of wind speeds in the coastal zone. Results suggest that the distance from the coastline over which wind...... and 70 km. The width of the coastal zone, and the wind's vertical (shear) and horizontal gradients within the coastal zone, depend on atmospheric stability. Although vertical wind speed profiles above 50 m are likely responding to additional factors such as the height of the boundary-layer, using...... a stability correction improves predictions of wind speed compared with the logarithmic profile. Modelling indicates that within the coastal zone, wind speeds at typical turbine hub-heights can change by 2 m/s over the horizontal extent of a large wind farm, depending on stability. However, if the fetch...

  18. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  19. Flight in low-level wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of studies of wind shear hazard to aircraft operation are summarized. Existing wind shear profiles currently used in computer and flight simulator studies are reviewed. The governing equations of motion for an aircraft are derived incorporating the variable wind effects. Quantitative discussions of the effects of wind shear on aircraft performance are presented. These are followed by a review of mathematical solutions to both the linear and nonlinear forms of the governing equations. Solutions with and without control laws are presented. The application of detailed analysis to develop warning and detection systems based on Doppler radar measuring wind speed along the flight path is given. A number of flight path deterioration parameters are defined and evaluated. Comparison of computer-predicted flight paths with those measured in a manned flight simulator is made. Some proposed airborne and ground-based wind shear hazard warning and detection systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of systems are discussed.

  20. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  1. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is low-cost and compact - enhancing the potential of lidar wind sensors for mass production. This paper describes two embodiments of the patented wind lidar technology and presents experimental results that evaluate the wind sensors' performance. Due to compactness, portability and cost-efficiency, SL...

  2. Improved Tools for Wind Resource Assessment with Remote Sensing Sodar Device: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-09-363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with the Participant to characterize wind resource assessment measurement systems needed for the design, construction, and integration of wind energy conversion systems to produce electricity for utility grid applications. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development of hardware and software systems needed to advance wind energy resource assessment technology at speed and scale for use by electric utilities and wind power system integrators.

  3. Development of Wind Operated Passive Evaporative Cooling Structures for Storage of Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A Wind operated passive evaporative cooler was developed. Two cooling chambers were made with clay container (cylindrical and square shapes. These two containers were separately inserted inside bigger clay pot inter- spaced with clay soil of 7 cm (to form pot-in-pot and wall-in wall with the outside structure wrapped with jute sack. The soil and the jute sacks were wetted with salt solution. Five blades were constructed inside the cooling chambers with aluminium material which were connected with a shaft to a vane located on a wooden cover outside the cooling chamber. The vanes (made of aluminium were to be powered by the wind which in turn rotates the blades inside the cooling chamber. The total volume of 40500cm3 and storage capacity of 31500cm3 were recorded for the square structures while total volume of 31792.5cm3 and storage capacity of 24727.5cm3 were recorded for the cylindrical structures. During the test period, the average temperatures of 27.07oC, 27.09oC and 33.6oC were obtained for the pot-in-pot (cylindrical, wall-in-wall (square and the ambient respectively. The average relative humidity of 92.27%, 91.99% and 69.41% were obtained for the pot-in-pot (cylindrical, wall-in-wall (square and the ambient respectively. The average minimum and maximum wind speed recorded for the month of October was 2.5m/s and 2.6m/s respectively

  4. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    modeling to develop procedures and best practices for satellite based wind resource assessment offshore. All existing satellite images from the Envisat Advanced SAR sensor by the European Space Agency (2002-12) have been collected over a domain in the South China Sea. Wind speed is first retrieved from...... description in order to calculate the mean wind climate at different levels up to 100 m. Time series from coarser-resolution satellite wind products i.e. the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data are used to calculate the long-term temporal variability of the wind climate. This can be used...

  5. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  6. Technology application: the role of the economic developer in improving the competitiveness of existing industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This AEDC Educational Foundation handbook presents for the economic developer insights into the decision-making processes of business as a basis for determining appropriate roles for the economic developer to assist business in applying technology. The focus of assistance from the economic developer to existing business is on technology application as a means to improve the competitive market position of a business. The multiple facets of technology include (but are not necessarily limited to): expertise and knowledge (including that embedded in qualified, experienced staff), hardware and software; application in manufacturing processes, in products, themselves, in marketing, management, distribution and virtually all aspects of a business; and the most-sophisticated, state-of-the-art, or pacing developments as well as the apparently more-mundane, proven technology.

  7. SHAPE Project Vortex Bladeless: Parallel multi-code coupling for Fluid-Structure Interaction in Wind Energy Generation

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Cajas

    2016-01-01

    Vortex-Bladeless is a Spanish SME whose objective is to develop a new concept of wind turbine without blades called Vortex or vorticity wind turbine. This design represents a new paradigm in wind energy and aims to eliminate or reduce many of the existing problems in conventional generators. Due to the significant difference in the project concept, its scope is different from conventional wind turbines. It is particularly suitable for offshore configuration and it could be exploited in wind f...

  8. Development of an aeroelastic code based on three-dimensional viscous–inviscid method for wind turbine computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic and structural dynamic performance analysis of modern wind turbines are routinely estimated in the wind energy field using computational tools known as aeroelastic codes. Most aeroelastic codes use the blade element momentum (BEM) technique to model the rotor aerodynamics and a modal...... Code Comparison Collaboration Project. Simulation tests consist of steady wind inflow conditions with different combinations of yaw error, wind shear, tower shadow and turbine-elastic modeling. Turbulent inflow created by using a Mann box is also considered. MIRAS-FLEX results, such as blade tip......, multi-body or the finite-element approach to model the turbine structural dynamics. The present work describes the development of a novel aeroelastic code that combines a three-dimensional viscous–inviscid interactive method, method for interactive rotor aerodynamic simulations (MIRAS...

  9. Summary Report: The Shadow effect of large wind farms: measurements, data analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Rathmann, Ole

    : • Measurements were carried out at the Nysted and Horns Rev demonstration wind farms for several years. Doing so included design, installation and operation of the measurement system • A data base was built from the incoming data. The data have been organized to facilitate verification of the models developed......It was the goal of the project – by means of data from the demonstration wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted, analyses of these data and modelling – to facilitate prediction of the power losses from a wind farm should a new wind farm be built upwind relative to the prevailing wind direction....... Or conversely, predict with adequate accuracy the production of a new wind farm built downwind of an existing wind farm. The project should be seen in the perspective of the two existing demonstration wind farms that extend 5-10 km in each direction. In order to e.g. use the existing electrical infrastructure...

  10. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  11. To Re-Explore the Causality between Barriers to Renewable Energy Development: A Case Study of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ching Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of wind energy in developing countries has its limitations. This study adapted quantitative approaches to explore the causality relationships among these barriers. It was found that different areas of obstacles did affect one another; by barrier inference we learned that a lack of national policy caused other disorders, and that the occurrence of these disorders eventually resulted either directly or indirectly in high investment costs. Thus, the question of how to effectively reduce the investment cost of wind energy development is the most important issue to developing countries. Furthermore, the results of this study clarified that wind intermittency would not be the main reason hindering short and mid-term wind power development. However, from a long-term perspective, the impact of intermittency still cannot be treated lightly, as it was found that for each standard deviation unit improvement of the intermittency, the investment cost-effectiveness improvement increased by 0.185 σ, which was 1.78 times higher than the impact from national policies. Therefore, aside from strengthening the national policies in establishing a suitable institutional framework, we recommend that policy-makers should also emphasize the establishment of an economic assessment of available sites, a detailed wind resource assessment and improved forecasting of technical applications.

  12. Development of Delta Wing Aerodynamics Research in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabudin Mat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind tunnel experiment on two delta wing configurations which are differentiated by their leading edge profiles: sharp and round-edged wings. The experiments were performed as a part of the delta wing aerodynamics research development in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, low speed tunnel (UTM-LST. Steady load balance and flow visualization tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 × 106, respectively. The flow measurement at low Reynolds number was also performed at as low as speed of 5 m/s. During the experiments, laser with smoke flow visualizations test was performed on both wings. The study has identified interesting features of the interrelationship between the conventional leading edge primary vortex and the occurrence and development of the vortex breakdown above the delta wings. The results conclude the vortex characteristics are largely dependent on the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge radii of the wing.

  13. Joint Evaluation of the Wave and Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to assess the global wind and wave resources in the vicinity of some developing countries by evaluating 16-year of data (2001–2016, coming from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. Until now, not much work has been done to evaluate and use the renewable energy sources from these marine environments. This is because most of the attention was focused on more promising areas, such as the European coasts, which are more advanced in terms of technical and economical aspects. A general perspective of the current energy market from the selected target areas is first presented, indicating at the same time the progresses that have been reported in the field of the renewable energy. Besides the spatial and seasonal variations of the marine resources considered, the results also indicate the energy potential of these coastal environments as well as the performances of some offshore wind turbines, which may operate in these regions.

  14. Wind energy development and perceived real estate values in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Walker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on public concerns about real estate value loss in communities in the vicinity of wind turbines. There are some conflicting results in recent academic and non-academic literatures on the issue of property values in general—yet little has been studied about how residents near turbines view the value of their own properties. Using both face-to-face interviews (n = 26 and community survey results (n = 152 from two adjacent communities, this exploratory mixed-method study contextualizes perceived property value loss. Interview results suggest a potential connection between perceived property value loss and actual property value loss, whereby assumed property degradation from turbines seem to lower both asking and selling prices. This idea is reinforced by regression results which suggest that felt property value loss is predicted by health concerns, visual annoyances and community-based variables. Overall, the findings point to the need for greater attention to micro-level local, and interconnected impacts of wind energy development.

  15. Development and testing of a unique carousel wind tunnel to experimentally determine the effect of gravity and the interparticle force on the physics of wind-blown particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R. N.; Greeley, Ronald; White, Bruce R.; Iversen, James D.

    1987-01-01

    In the study of planetary aeolian processes the effect of gravity is not readily modeled. Gravity appears in the equations of particle motion along with the interparticle forces but the two are not separable. A wind tunnel that perimits multiphase flow experiments with wind blown particles at variable gravity was built and experiments were conducted at reduced gravity. The equations of particle motion initiation (saltation threshold) with variable gravity were experimentally verified and the interparticle force was separated. A uniquely design Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) allows for the long flow distance in a small sized tunnel since the test section if a continuous loop and develops the required turbulent boundary layer. A prototype model of the tunnel where only the inner drum rotates was built and tested in the KC-135 Weightless Wonder 4 zero-g aircraft. Future work includes further experiments with walnut shell in the KC-135 which sharply graded particles of widely varying median sizes including very small particles to see how interparticle force varies with particle size, and also experiments with other aeolian material.

  16. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  17. Development and preliminary validation of a leadership competency instrument for existing and emerging allied health professional leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Hui-Gek; Koh, Jeremy Meng-Yeow; Lee, Jeffrey; Pua, Yong-Hao

    2016-02-19

    No instruments, to our knowledge, exist to assess leadership competency in existing and emerging allied health professional (AHP) leaders. This paper describes the development and preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of a leadership competency instrument for existing and emerging AHP leaders and examines (i) its factor structure, (ii) its convergent validity with the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), and (iii) its discriminative validity in AHPs with different grades. During development, we included 25 items in the AHEAD (Aspiring leaders in Healthcare-Empowering individuals, Achieving excellence, Developing talents) instrument. A cross-sectional study was then conducted in 106 high-potential AHPs from Singapore General Hospital (34 men and 72 women) of different professional grades (49 principal-grade AHPs, 41 senior-grade AHPs, and 16 junior-grade AHPs) who completed both AHEAD and LPI instruments. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the theoretical structure of AHEAD. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the convergent validity of AHEAD with LPI. Using proportional odds regression models, we evaluated the association of grades of AHPs with AHEAD and LPI. To assess discriminative validity, the c-statistics - a measure of discrimination - were derived from these ordinal models. As theorized, factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, where "skills" and "values" formed separate factors. Internal consistency of AHEAD was excellent (α-values > 0.88). Total and component AHEAD and LPI scores correlated moderately (Spearman ρ-values, 0.37 to 0.58). The c-index for discriminating between AHP grades was higher for AHEAD than for the LPI (0.76 vs. 0.65). The factorial structure of AHEAD was generally supported in our study. AHEAD showed convergent validity with the LPI and outperformed the LPI in terms of discriminative validity. These results provide initial evidence for the use of AHEAD to assess leadership

  18. Institutional dynamics and barriers in wind energy development. A case study of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesh, Anumakonda

    1999-09-01

    In India, there was a boom in 1995-96 when 282 MW windfarms were set up in Tamil Nadu and the capacity in Andhra Pradesh increased by 39 MW. Then there was a steady decline in the windfarm development in both states. The case study described in this report attempts to trace the reasons for the boom and the factors that have contributed to the slump in windfarm development in these two states. The role of institutions in determining the effectiveness of national and regional public sector initiatives to promote and disseminate wind energy in the two states is discussed. The study also examines the financial, technical, transaction and institutional barriers, which inhibit the diffusion of wind energy in the states. It is suggested that important measures must be taken if wind energy is to develop rapidly in the two states. The result of the case study may be used to improve public policy intervention in disseminating wind energy in India. It may also be relevant to multilateral and bilateral aid agencies in their projects and/or programmes to promote cost-effective wind energy technology dissemination in developing countries. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before–after control–impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (β = 0.03, 95% CI = −1.2–1.3) or nest survival (β = −0.3, 95% CI = −0.6–0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. Efectos del Desarrollo de la Energía Eólica sobre la Ecología de Anidación de Gallinas de la Gran Pradera en Pastizales Fragmentados Resumen Se calcula que la energía eólica aportará el 20% de las necesidades energéticas de los Estados Unidos para el 2030, pero nuevos sitios para el desarrollo de energía renovable pueden traslaparse con hábitats importantes de poblaciones declinantes de aves de pastizal. La gallina de la Gran Pradera (Tympanuchus cupido) es una especie de ave obligada de pastizal que se pronostica responderá negativamente al desarrollo energético. Usamos un diseño ADCI modificado para probar los impactos del desarrollo de la energía e

  20. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  1. How to identify existing literature on patients' knowledge, views, and values: the development of a validated search filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Monique; Hielkema, Lian; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2016-10-01

    The research sought to establish validated search filters for retrieval of studies on patients' knowledge and values. Two nonprofit organizations in the Netherlands were studied for guideline development. An existing filter was adapted to three bibliographic interfaces. After defining the scope, a reference database was built for the development of the new filters. The performance of the new filters was validated in different disease categories. Sensitivity, specificity, precision, negative predictive value, and accuracy were (%): 90.5/98/77/99.2/97 (MEDLINE-Ovid), 90.1/98.8/79.3/99.5/98.3 (PubMed), and 93.1/98.4/81.8/99.6/98.7 (Embase). The filters provide pragmatic tools for searching for patients' issues. Further optimization and validation is recommended.

  2. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, Torben S.

    This poster presents the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on short term...... forecasting for existing wind farms, as well as long term power system planning for future wind farms....

  3. Prediction Interval Development for Wind-Tunnel Balance Check-Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Drew; Toro, Kenneth G.; Commo, Sean A.; Lynn, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the Facility Analysis Verification and Operational Reliability project revealed a critical gap in capability in ground-based aeronautics research applications. Without a standardized process for check-loading the wind-tunnel balance or the model system, the quality of the aerodynamic force data collected varied significantly between facilities. A prediction interval is required in order to confirm a check-loading. The prediction interval provides an expected upper and lower bound on balance load prediction at a given confidence level. A method has been developed which accounts for sources of variability due to calibration and check-load application. The prediction interval method of calculation and a case study demonstrating its use is provided. Validation of the methods is demonstrated for the case study based on the probability of capture of confirmation points.

  4. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    Electricity generation from wind energy has rapidly increased for the last five years worldwide. In many countries, wind energy targets have been set in the range of 20% to 50% of all electricity generation due to the concerns of CO2 emissions, fossil fuel costs, and energy efficiency. In order...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... is developed for the wind integration studies. For the inertial response study, a new control method is proposed which improves the existing control concepts in terms of reducing the released energy and peak active power of WPPs. It is also shown that when the capability of WPPs considered proposed control...

  5. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  6. Development of Distributed Simulation Platform for Power Systems and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The study of wind power system strongly relies on simulations in all kinds of methods. In industry, the feasibility and efficiency of wind power projects also will be verified by simulations at first. However, taking time cost and economy into consideration, simulations in large scales often sacr...... and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management System (EMS), etc. to realize non-real-time semiphysical simulation for wind farm and power system control researches....

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  8. Wind Power Development and Energy Storage under China’s Electricity Market Reform—A Case Study of Fujian Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunguo Mou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on the Fujian provincial 500 kV grid and part of the 220 kV grid and the key power plants, including hydro, coal, nuclear, gas, wind and pumping and storage hydro powers (PSHP connected to the grid, constructs an independent electricity market model. Using data that are very close to reality about coal fired power production costs, along with data about power plants’ technical constraints, this paper studies the effect of wind power on Fujian’s provincial electricity market. Firstly, the paper analyzes the relationship between wind speed and wind power output and the effects of short-term power output fluctuation on frequency modulation and voltage regulation. Secondly, under supposition of the production costs following quadratic functions, the paper analyzes the effects of changes in wind power output on the electricity supply costs under optimal power flow. Thirdly, using the bidding model in the Australian Electricity Market Operator for reference and supposing that, in a competitive market, coal fired power plants can bid 6 price bands according to their capacity, the paper analyzes effects of wind power on electricity prices under optimal power flow, the stabilizing effects of PSHP and the minimum PSHP capacity needed to stabilize the electricity market. Finally, using a daily load curve, this paper simulates the electricity prices’ fluctuation under optimal power flow and PSHP’s stabilizing effect. The results show that, although PSHP has a large external social welfare effect, it can hardly make a profit. In the end, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions for Fujian province’s wind and nuclear power development, PSHP construction and electricity market development.

  9. Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Development. Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, R. Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halvorsen, Michele B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duberstein, Corey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matzner, Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, Kara M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stavole, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy projects are not well understood, and regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. To examine the environmental risks associated with OSW developments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) focused on the following four priority research areas in FY 2012: • Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) - Followed project developments on the two OSW projects that PNNL screened in FY 2011 for environmental consequence: Fishermen’s Energy off the coast of Atlantic City, NJ and LEEDCo. near Cleveland, OH in Lake Erie. • Tethys - Developed a smart knowledge base which houses environmental research, data and information pertaining to OSW energy: • Technical Assessment - Produced a new software to create an automated process of identifying and differentiating between flying organism such as birds and bats by using thermal imagery; and • North Atlantic Right Whales - Developed an environmental risk management system to mitigate the impacts on North Atlantic Right Whales (NARW) during installation and piledriving stages of OSW developments. By identifying and addressing the highest priority environmental risks for OSW devices and associated installations the ERES process assists project proponents, regulators, and stakeholders to engage in the most efficient and effective siting and permitting pathways.

  10. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  11. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  12. Development of advanced winding condition control technology of electric motors based on pulsed method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Mytnikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 percent of all electrical energy customers are electric motors. Therefore one of the prospects of resource-effective technologies in power industry is control of rotating electric equipment condition. Winding defects are one of the main causes of electric motor failures. Reliable control of winding condition is an urgent task of modern electrical engineering technology. The present article is devoted to the research of pulsed method application of transformer winding control for electric motor winding condition control. The procedure of winding condition control technology is described. The proposed method is based on the known pulsed method. The essential difference between the two methods is that only one probing impulse is used which is a probing impulse and response signal at once. The results of diagnostic procedure research at different winding defects are given. It is established that the place of winding damage corresponds to characteristic impulse changes. The defect of definite types causes specific changes of the probing impulse form. Therefore, different winding defects could be found with high accuracy along winding.

  13. A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre Tchakoua; Rene Wamkeue; Mohand Ouhrouche; Tommy Andy Tameghe; Gabriel Ekemb

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, models can significantly reduce design, development and optimization costs. This paper proposes a novel equivalent electrical model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (DTVAWTs...

  14. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data...

  15. Assessment of the sustainable offshore wind potential in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, P; Simões, T.; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable offshore wind potential for the west and south coasts of Portugal is presented. Results were carried out using an atmospheric mesoscale model and GIS tools. Unlike previous common opinions, the preliminary results show the existence of interesting areas for the developing of offshore wind parks.

  16. Loads on Wind Turbines Access Platforms with Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with loads on wind turbine access platforms. The many planned new wind turbine parks together with the observed damages on platforms in several existing parks make the topic very important. The paper gives an overview of recently developed design formulae for different typ...

  17. Design and Development of a Deep Acoustic Lining for the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Schmitz, Fredric H.; Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Sacco, Joe N.; Mosher, Marianne; Hayes, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this report has made effective use of design teams to build a state-of-the-art anechoic wind-tunnel facility. Many potential design solutions were evaluated using engineering analysis, and computational tools. Design alternatives were then evaluated using specially developed testing techniques, Large-scale coupon testing was then performed to develop confidence that the preferred design would meet the acoustic, aerodynamic, and structural objectives of the project. Finally, designs were frozen and the final product was installed in the wind tunnel. The result of this technically ambitious project has been the creation of a unique acoustic wind tunnel. Its large test section (39 ft x 79 ft x SO ft), potentially near-anechoic environment, and medium subsonic speed capability (M = 0.45) will support a full range of aeroacoustic testing-from rotorcraft and other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft to the take-off/landing configurations of both subsonic and supersonic transports.

  18. Development of a HFE program for an operating NPP: Balancing between existing design practices and human factors standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Leena [Nuclear and Thermal Power, Fortum (Finland); Savioja, Paula [Human Factors in Complex Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fortum (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes HFE program development project conducted at a Finnish power company Fortum. The aim of developing a formal HFE program was to improve integration of human factors issues in design of technical systems and to systematically document the HFE process of the company. As Fortum has a long tradition of designing control room solutions, the starting point of the HFE program development was the existing own design practices. On the other hand, the aim was to create a program which would comply with international guidelines such as NUREG-0711. The program development was conducted by tracing the HFE design practices in an on-going I and C modernization project. This empirical work was carried out by interviews of designers and other HFE key stake holders. After the explication of the current practices, the gaps, overlaps and differences in relation to the international standards and guidelines were identified. Based on an analysis of current practices and guidelines and standards a new HFE process model was created. The design process model can be followed in modifications which concern systems with human user interfaces of any kind. The model consists of five separate phases which comply with the general engineering design process model utilized at the company. The HFE program is intended to be both a practical guide on how to take human factors issues into consideration in the design of NPP systems and also a tool for the management of HFE activities.

  19. Wind Power Today: Federal Wind Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  20. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  1. Using wind turbines in high-rise buildings in the development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf and coasts of this region are great places for installing wind turbines, in this regard, this study by studying documents and field studies to evaluate how the use of wind energy in high-rise buildings of these areas in order to maintain the environmental and energy efficiency leads ...

  2. O&M Modeling of Offshore Wind Farms - State of the Art and Future Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the state of the art in O&M models for O&M cost estimation of offshore wind farms is discussed and then, a case study for O&M cost estimation of an 800 MW reference offshore wind farm is given. Moreover, a framework for an ideal O&M strategy optimizer to achieve the maximum possible...

  3. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  4. From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian; Shaw, Chris; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind technology has recently undergone rapid deployment in the UK. And yet, up until recently, the UK was considered a laggard in terms of deploying renewable energy. How can this burst of offshore wind activity be explained? An economic analysis would seek signs for newfound

  5. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Dimitris P.; Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous ...

  6. Accurate treatments of electrostatics for computer simulations of biological systems: A brief survey of developments and existing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sha-Sha; Pan, Cong; Hu, Zhong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Modern computer simulations of biological systems often involve an explicit treatment of the complex interactions among a large number of molecules. While it is straightforward to compute the short-ranged Van der Waals interaction in classical molecular dynamics simulations, it has been a long-lasting issue to develop accurate methods for the longranged Coulomb interaction. In this short review, we discuss three types of methodologies for the accurate treatment of electrostatics in simulations of explicit molecules: truncation-type methods, Ewald-type methods, and mean-field-type methods. Throughout the discussion, we brief the formulations and developments of these methods, emphasize the intrinsic connections among the three types of methods, and focus on the existing problems which are often associated with the boundary conditions of electrostatics. This brief survey is summarized with a short perspective on future trends along the method developments and applications in the field of biological simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91127015 and 21522304) and the Open Project from the State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and the Innovation Project from the State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials.

  7. Session: Non-fatality and habitat impacts on birds from wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Dale

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was consisted of one paper presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The session focused on discussion of non-collision impacts of wind energy projects on birds, primarily impacts to habitat. The presentation included information about the impacts of habitat fragmentation, disturbance, and site avoidance from wind turbines, as well as from roads, transmission facilities, and other related construction at wind project sites. Whether birds habituate to the presence of turbines and the influence of regional factors were also addressed. The paper given by Dale Strickland was titled ''Overview of Non-Collision Related Impacts from Wind Projects''.

  8. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  9. Development of a mobile Doppler lidar system for wind and temperature measurements at 30-70 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoai; Hu, Xiong; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Shangyong; Cheng, Yongqiang; Gong, Jiancun; Yue, Jia

    2017-02-01

    A mobile Doppler lidar system has been developed to simultaneously measure zonal and meridional winds and temperature from 30 to 70 km. Each of the two zonal and meridional wind subsystems employs a 15 W power, 532 nm laser and a 1 m diameter telescope. Iodine vapor filters are used to stabilize laser frequency and to detect the Doppler shift of backscattered signal. The integration method is used for temperature measurement. Experiments were carried out using the mobile Doppler lidar in August 2014 at Qinghai, China (91°E, 38°N). The zonal wind was measured from 20 to 70 km at a 3 km spatial resolution and 2 h temporal resolution. The measurement error is about 0.5 m/s at 30 km, and 10 m/s at 70 km. In addition, the temperature was measured from 30 to 70 km at 1 km spatial resolution and 1 h temporal resolution. The temperature measurement error is about 0.4 K at 30 km, and 8.0 K at 70 km. Comparison of the lidar results with the temperature of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER), the zonal wind of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Re-search and Applications (MERRA), and radiosonde zonal wind shows good agreement, indicating that the Doppler lidar results are reliable.

  10. Development and design of a semi-floater substructure for multi-megawatt wind turbines at 50+ m water depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    A semi-floater concept as a substructure for multi-megawatt wind turbines is developed herein for installation at 50þ m water depths. The semi-floater concept is a hybrid between a fixed monopile type support structure and a floating spar buoy. The configuration of the substructure is composed...... turbine components, and to exhibit low platform displacement at the mean sea level. Finally, the overall performance of the structure related to energy production is similar to that of a reference wind turbine situated on land....

  11. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  12. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  13. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  14. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  15. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  16. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  17. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2014-01-01

    These data represent locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 2012. We assigned each wind turbine to a wind farm and, in these data, provide information about each turbine’s potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, the status of the land ownership where the turbine exists, the county each turbine is located in, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with each wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some of the attributes are estimates based on the information we found via the American Wind Energy Association and other on-line reports. The locations are derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2009 and 2012) true color aerial photographs and have a positional accuracy of approximately +/-5 meters. These data will provide a planning tool for wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Fort Collins Science Center and other government and non-government organizations. Specifically, we will use these data to support quantifying disturbances of the landscape as related to wind energy as well as to quantify indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set represents an update to a previous version by O’Donnell and Fancher (2010).

  18. Minimizing collision risk between migrating raptors and marine wind farms: development of a spatial planning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisner, Anette Jaegerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Olgaard; Desholm, Mark

    2010-11-01

    An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

  19. Challenges faced by China compared with the US in developing wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Peng, Wei; Liu, Shiyang; Nielsen, Chris P.; Wang, Haikun

    2016-06-01

    In the 21st Conference of the Parties held in Paris in December 2015, China pledged to peak its carbon emissions and increase non-fossil energy to 20% by 2030 or earlier. Expanding renewable capacity, especially wind power, is a central strategy to achieve these climate goals. Despite greater capacity for wind installation in China compared to the US (145.1 versus 75.0 GW), less wind electricity is generated in China (186.3 versus 190.9 TWh). Here, we quantify the relative importance of the key factors accounting for the unsatisfactory performance of Chinese wind farms. Different from the results in earlier qualitative studies, we find that the difference in wind resources explains only a small fraction of the present China-US difference in wind power output (-17.9% in 2012); the curtailment of wind power, differences in turbine quality, and delayed connection to the grid are identified as the three primary factors (respectively -49.3%, -50.2%, and -50.3% in 2012). Improvements in both technology choices and the policy environment are critical in addressing these challenges.

  20. Development of flow separation control system to reduce the vibration of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2017-04-01

    The size of wind turbine blade has been continuously increased. Large-scale wind turbine blades induce loud noise, vibration; and maintenance difficulty is also increased. It causes the eventual increases of the cost of energy. The vibration of wind turbine blade is caused by several reasons such as a blade rotation, tower shadow, wind shear, and flow separation of a wind turbine blade. This wind speed variation changes in local angle of attack of the blades and create the vibration. The variation of local angle of attack influences the lift coefficient and causes the large change of the lift. In this study, we focus on the lift coefficient control using a flow control device to reduce the vibration. DU35-A15 airfoil was employed as baseline model. A plasma actuator was installed to generate the upwind jet in order to control the lift coefficient. Wind tunnel experiment was performed to demonstrate of the performance of the plasma actuator. The results show the plasma actuator can induce the flow separation compared with the baseline model. In addition, the actuator can delay the flow separation depending on the input AC frequency with the same actuator configuration.

  1. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... to variations in the constituent materials and the manufacturing process. Additionally, methods for estimating failure of composites are subjected to significant uncertainties. The reliability of wind turbine blades are assessed in both ultimate and fatigue limit states. In the ultimate limit state...... the extreme load effects well and more consistent than the existing methods. Blades for wind turbines are normally made of composite material which consists of fiber and matrix materials. The material properties of structures made by composite materials are often subjected to a significant uncertainty due...

  2. North Antelope Highlands Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlson, Matthew [Citizens Energy Corporation (CEC), Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This is the final report on the Wind Energy Development of 190 Mw on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in collaboration with Citizens Energy Corporation. The report discusses all pre-development activities since July of 2010 when award was granted. A systems impact study along with wind data accumulated over the past 5 years is contained in this report. We have responded to several RFPs concerning the sale of energy to certain offtakers, but we have failed to win a Power Purchase Agreement due to existing wind farms that won and the interconnection costs were already included in a previous PPAs, which we don't have that luxury. We continue this effort and hopefully in the near future we will win an RFP.

  3. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  4. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yajima Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yajimamachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed at Yajima Town, Akita Prefecture, in the period November 1997 through October 1998. The wind speeds are 5.4m/s and 4.5m/s at altitudes of 20m and 10m above the ground, respectively. They are high in winter and the seasonal difference is great. The wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the WNW and next in the W under the 16 compass point system, and the two directions prevail except in July and September. The wind direction occurrence rates on the wind axis total as high as 74.0%, offering great convenience to the installation of multiple wind turbine systems. The occurrence rate up to the wind speed of 6m/s or more occupies 10% or more, and the wind speed is higher in wind directions that occur oftener. The intensity of turbulence in wind speed is 0.22 where the average wind speed is 2m/s or higher, and 0.19 where it is 4m/s or higher. The annual operation rate of wind turbines are reckoned to be 65% or higher. The amounts of energy to be collected by the 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW machines are, respectively, 356,563kWh, 837,822kWh, and 2,178,380kWh. Their annual capacity ratios are to be 27.6%, 32.4%, and 33.7%. The figures are rather low for wind turbines on the Japan Sea side of the Tohoku district, but service operation is feasible, dependent upon conditions. It is expected that the installation of wind turbines will do but a little harm on the environment they find themselves in. (NEDO)

  5. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional anemometer cup technology. • During storms, mean Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) increases with height above water; • Sufficient wind resources exist over Lake Michigan to generate 7,684 kWh of power using a 850 kW rated turbine at elevations between 90 - 125 meters, a height lower than originally anticipated for optimum power generation; • Based on initial assessments, wind characteristics are not significantly different at distant (thirty-two mile) offshore locations as compared to near-shore (six mile) locations; • Significant cost savings can be achieved in generation wind energy at lower turbine heights and locating closer to shore. • Siting must be sufficiently distant from shore to minimize visual impact and to address public sentiment about offshore wind development; • Project results show that birds and bats do frequent the middle of Lake Michigan, bats more so than birds; • Based on the wind resource assessment and depths of Lake Michigan encountered during the project, future turbine placement will most likely need to incorporate floating or anchored technology; • The most appropriate siting of offshore wind energy locations will enable direct routing of transmission cables to existing generating and transmission facilities located along the Michigan shoreline; • Wind turbine noise propagation from a wind energy generating facility at a five mile offshore location will not be audible at the shoreline over normal background sound levels.

  6. Development of a Fast Fluid-Structure Coupling Technique for Wind Turbine Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    , multi-body, or finite-element approach to model the turbine structural dynamics. The present paper describes a novel fluid-structure coupling technique which combines a threedimensional viscous-inviscid solver for horizontal-axis wind-turbine aerodynamics, called MIRAS, and the structural dynamics model......Fluid-structure interaction simulations are routinely used in the wind energy industry to evaluate the aerodynamic and structural dynamic performance of wind turbines. Most aero-elastic codes in modern times implement a blade element momentum technique to model the rotor aerodynamics and a modal...

  7. IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF EXISTING FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan LAZÃR

    2010-01-01

    In the human history, the energy was the key development of human civilization, thus its future lies under the sway of energetic resources, a future that we can’t perceive separated from that of energy. The coal, oil and atom are a huge source of pollution or a significant threat to the future history of mankind. In this context, on the background of scientific and technical research development have been developed forms of energy derived from renewable natural resources (sun, water, wind), w...

  8. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  9. Overview of offshore wind farm configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Wu, B.; Xu, D.; Zargari, N. R.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind energy has been attracting great attention. Compared with onshore wind power systems, offshore wind power applications present significantly greater economic challenges mainly due to the required bulky and costly offshore substation. To lower the cost of offshore wind power systems, various configurations are proposed in both industry and academia. The present work investigates existing offshore wind farm configurations.

  10. Developing a GIS-Based Visual-Acoustic 3D Simulation for Wind Farm Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyoky, Madeleine; Wissen Hayek, Ulrike; Heutschi, Kurt; Pieren, Reto; Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    .... However, the visual sense provides only partial information about our environment. Especially when it comes to wind farm assessments, noise produced by the rotating turbine blades is another major impact factor...

  11. Development of a High Energy Amplifier for an Airborne Coherent Wind Turbulence Lidar Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capacity of coherent LIDAR systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in...

  12. Wind power development in France from January 2011 to June 2012 with some comparisons with Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, B. [BCCONSULT (France)

    2012-08-15

    Availability of detailed and public data on wind power statistics and on real field performance is a very interesting advantage in order to analyze and to compare wind profiles, wind production and wind productivity ratios within a country and between European countries, as shown here for France and Germany. Expanding this transparency policy and standardizing the related methodologies and detailed public results to all other European countries and to all renewable technologies for electricity production would facilitate comparisons and monitoring of progress towards the national and European Union 2020 targets of the April 2009 directive on renewable energy. Related potentially required changes in national and European related policies would also benefit from this kind of analysis. (orig.)

  13. Current and future plans for wind energy development on San Clemente Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Cable, S.B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Navy is considering possible ways to maximize the use of wind energy technology for power supply to their auxiliary landing field and other facilities on San Clemente Island. A summary of their past analysis and future considerations is presented. An analysis was performed regarding the technical and economic feasibility of installing and operating a sea-water pumped hydro/wind energy system to provide for all of the island`s electric power needs. Follow-on work to the feasibility study include wind resource monitoring as well as procurement and preliminary design activities for a first-phase wind-diesel installation. Future plans include the consideration of alternative siting arrangements and the introduction of on-island fresh water production. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Wind power in areas with limited export capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matevosyan, Julija

    2004-03-01

    existing work and further concentrates on development of the methods for estimation of wind energy curtailment and evaluation of wind energy storage possibility in hydro reservoirs. Methods similar to probabilistic production cost simulation are developed for estimation of wind energy curtailment. The developed methods are applicable to discrete variables (measurements) and also generalized for continuous variables with known distribution. For evaluation of wind energy storage possibility the optimization problem is formulated, the objective of this evaluation is to minimize the costs for power production under consideration of the future water value. The developed method allows us to analyze previous years of operation of the power system (e.g. dry, wet and normal year) and evaluate physical possibilities for wind energy storage. The developed methods are than tested for Swedish power system and the results are also summarized in this thesis.

  15. Significant role of MUC1 in development of resistance to currently existing anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Leila; Merikhian, Parnaz; Jalili, Neda; Darvishi, Behrad; Majidza, Keivan

    2017-06-23

    As an extensively glycosylated transmembrane protein of epithelium, Mucin1 (MUC1) mostly protects cells from tensions induced by external milieu. Physiologically, during stress condition, MUC1 separates into MUC1-N and MUC1-C moieties, resulting in transduction of inward survival signals, essential for maintaining cell's functionality. Recent studies have proposed a significant correlation between MUC1 overexpression and amplification of cancer cell's proliferation and metastasis through modulation of multiple signaling pathways and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. It has been shown that MUC1- Cytoplasmic Domain (MUC1-CD) accelerates development of resistance to several anti-cancer therapeutic agents including bortezomib, trastuzumab and tamoxifen. Furthermore, MUC1-CD is also involved in promoting expression of multi drug resistance (MDR) genes and finally, silencing MUC1 expression was together with resensitization of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) and/or estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer cells to bortezomib, trastuzumab and tamoxifen respectively. In this review, we briefly describe the role of MUC1 proto-oncogene in cancer cell's survival, tumor progression and metastasis and then continue with mentioning the mechanisms through which MUC1 induce resistance to various currently existing therapeutic agents in market including bortezomib, trastuzumab and tamoxifen. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Fast development of wind power raises legal problems; Schneller Ausbau der Windenergie wirft rechtliche Fragen auf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesner, Verena; Meininger, Frank; Ries, Gerhard; Kircher, Steffen [Menold Bezler Rechtsanwaelte Partnerschaft, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    In Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg, new legal boundary conditions are to promote wind power. Nordrhein-Westfalen, too, recently decided to break a taboo and provide funds for wind power plants in forest sites. Communities and project managers are under pressure. Many problems must be solved quickly, from site selection and acquisition to public participation to award procedures. The contribution presents strategies for action that will help to avoid political pitfalls.

  17. Prognosticating fault development rate in wind turbine generator bearings using local trend models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Palou, Jonel; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2016-01-01

    Generator bearing defects, e.g. ball, inner and outer race defects, are ranked among the most frequent mechanical failures encountered in wind turbines. Diagnosis and prognosis of bearing faults can be successfully implemented using vibration based condition monitoring systems, where tracking...... of vibration trends from multi-megawatt wind turbine generators are presented, showing the effectiveness of the suggested approach on the calculation of the RUL and fault progression rate....

  18. Results of a utility survey of the status of large wind turbine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A.; Quraeshi, S.; Rowley, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    Wind energy conversion systems were surveyed from a utility viewpoint to establish the state of the art with regard to: (1) availability of the type of machines; (2) quality of power generation; (3) suitability for electrical grid; (4) reliability; and (5) economics. Of the 23 designs discussed, 7 have vertical axis wind turbines, 9 have upwind horizontal axis turbines, and 7 have downwind horizontal axis turbines.

  19. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Songsore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED. Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  20. Ontario's Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-07-06

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada's leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario's WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario's media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario's media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  1. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED. PMID:27399738

  2. Development of wind energy in Morocco; Developpement de l'energie eolienne au Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzili, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables de Maroc, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs.

  3. A developing opportunity for wind : international and domestic carbon credit markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A.E. [Miller Thomson LLP, London, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An emissions trading system is now being considered as a means of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The system is expected to allow for the most efficient use of resources in reducing carbon emissions, and has been developed as a result of international initiatives including the Kyoto Protocol. Federal initiatives will require specific and identifiable actions resulting in the net reduction of GHGs. An intensity-based cap and trade regime has been designed to allow for offset credit trading. It is expected that offset credits will have a duration of 8 years. Quantification processes will be used to measure offset effectiveness using a mandated measurement protocol. Alberta's offset requirements will include the establishment of ownership and compliance with regulations. The province will require that facilities with 100,000 tonnes of GHG emissions be required to reduce emissions intensities by 12 per cent. Offsets must also be Alberta-based. A verification process will ensure that planned projects have emission reductions that are eligible for credits in a particular credit regime. Verification must be completed by third parties registered with regulatory agencies. A certification process will be required to ensure that regulators conform to requirements and that credits can be traded within the regime. External assistance for developers may come from quantification protocol developers; verifiers; and aggregators. While aggregators may require offset providers with less than 10,000 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} equivalent, they may also allow for higher prices for larger quantities based on lower transaction costs. It was concluded that the implementation of a carbon credit system is unlikely to ensure the creation of more wind farms in Canada. tabs., figs.

  4. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  5. Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan. Zimmerling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated impacts on birds from the development and operation of wind turbines in Canada considering both mortality due to collisions and loss of nesting habitat. We estimated collision mortality using data from carcass searches for 43 wind farms, incorporating correction factors for scavenger removal, searcher efficiency, and carcasses that fell beyond the area searched. On average, 8.2 ± 1.4 birds (95% C.I. were killed per turbine per year at these sites, although the numbers at individual wind farms varied from 0 - 26.9 birds per turbine per year. Based on 2955 installed turbines (the number installed in Canada by December 2011, an estimated 23,300 birds (95% C.I. 20,000 - 28,300 would be killed from collisions with turbines each year. We estimated direct habitat loss based on data from 32 wind farms in Canada. On average, total habitat loss per turbine was 1.23 ha, which corresponds to an estimated total habitat loss due to wind farms nationwide of 3635 ha. Based on published estimates of nest density, this could represent habitat for ~5700 nests of all species. Assuming nearby habitats are saturated, and 2 adults displaced per nest site, effects of direct habitat loss are less than that of direct mortality. Installed wind capacity is growing rapidly, and is predicted to increase more than 10-fold over the next 10-15 years, which could lead to direct mortality of approximately 233,000 birds / year, and displacement of 57,000 pairs. Despite concerns about the impacts of biased correction factors on the accuracy of mortality estimates, these values are likely much lower than those from collisions with some other anthropogenic sources such as windows, vehicles, or towers, or habitat loss due to many other forms of development. Species composition data suggest that < 0.2% of the population of any species is currently affected by mortality or displacement from wind turbine development. Therefore, population level impacts are unlikely

  6. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool.

  7. Wind Power Today: (2002) Wind Energy Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2002 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2002, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  8. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  9. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, MooHyun [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  10. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  11. Wind speed dynamical model in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model for wind speed in a wind farm. The basic purpose of the paper is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine in a farm. In this regard the governing equations of flow will be solved for the whole wind farm. In ideal circumstances......, the dynamic model for wind flow will be established. The state space variables are determined based on a fine mesh defined for the farm. The end goal of this method is to assist the development of a dynamical model of a wind farm that can be engaged for better wind farm control strategies....

  12. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  13. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  14. Developing Methods for Detection of Munitions and Explosives of Concern in Offshore Wind Energy Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, J. K.; Carton, G.

    2016-12-01

    Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC) have been acknowledged globally as a topic of concern. Increasing use of coastal and continental shelf environments for renewable energy development and other activities has and continues to place humans in contact with legacy military munitions. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recognized the need to develop guidance concerning methods for MEC detection in the case of offshore energy development. The study was designed to identify the most likely MEC to be encountered in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Wind Energy Areas (WEA), review available technologies and develop a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for their detection. The process for selecting and optimizing technologies and methods for detection of MEC in BOEM OCS WEAs was developed and tested through the synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. To test the selected approach, designated personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations, tested and optimized the selected methodology. The effectiveness of a methodology will be related to ease of detection and other associated parameters. The approach for the in-field trial consists of a combination of wide-area assessment surveying by vessel mounted 230/550 kHz Edgetech 6205 Phase Measuring sonar and near-seafloor surveying using a Teledyne Gavia autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with high-resolution 900/1800 kHz Marine Sonics side-scan sonar, Geometrics G880-AUV cesium-vapor magnetometer, and 2 megapixel Point Grey color camera. Survey parameters (e.g. track-line spacing, coverage overlap, AUV altitude) were varied to determine the optimal survey methods, as well as simulate MEC burial to test magnetometer range performance. Preliminary results indicate the

  15. A Novel Wind Speed Forecasting Model for Wind Farms of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Zhou; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Wind resources are becoming increasingly significant due to their clean and renewable characteristics, and the integration of wind power into existing electricity systems is imminent. To maintain a stable power supply system that takes into account the stochastic nature of wind speed, accurate wind speed forecasting is pivotal. However, no single model can be applied to all cases. Recent studies show that wind speed forecasting errors are approximately 25% to 40% in Chinese wind farms. Presently, hybrid wind speed forecasting models are widely used and have been verified to perform better than conventional single forecasting models, not only in short-term wind speed forecasting but also in long-term forecasting. In this paper, a hybrid forecasting model is developed, the Similar Coefficient Sum (SCS) and Hermite Interpolation are exploited to process the original wind speed data, and the SVM model whose parameters are tuned by an artificial intelligence model is built to make forecast. The results of case studies show that the MAPE value of the hybrid model varies from 22.96% to 28.87 %, and the MAE value varies from 0.47 m/s to 1.30 m/s. Generally, Sign test, Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test, and Morgan-Granger-Newbold test tell us that the proposed model is different from the compared models.

  16. Technology Roadmap: Wind Energy. 2013 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The IEA Wind Power Technology Roadmap 2013 Edition recognises the very significant progress made since the first edition was published in 2009. The technology continues to improve rapidly, and costs of generation from land-based wind installations continue to fall. Wind power is now being deployed in countries with good resources without any dedicated financial incentives. The 2013 Edition targets an increased share (15% to 18%) of global electricity to be provided by wind power in 2050, compared to 12% in the original roadmap of 2009. However, increasing levels of low-cost wind still require predictable, supportive regulatory environments and appropriate market designs. The challenges of integrating higher levels of variable wind power into the grid need to be addressed. For offshore wind, much remains to be done to develop appropriate large-scale systems and to reduce costs. The 2013 Wind Power Roadmap also provides updated analysis on the barriers that exist for the technology and suggests ways to address them, including legal and regulatory recommendations.

  17. Wind power on the march. Sri Lanka intends to develop its wind power potential. One project is in the planning stage, and up to 200 MW may follow in the next few years.; Der Wind kommt. Sri Lankas Energieversorgung will das Windpotenzial der Insel erschliessen. Ein Projekt ist geplant, bis zu 200 Megawatt koennten in den kommenden Jahren folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, M.

    2005-08-01

    With high oil prices, political stability and cheap credits: Sri Lanka's power supply industry intends to develop the island's wind power potential. A 30 MW wind park is in the projecting stage, and 100 - 200 MW may follow in the next few years. (orig.)

  18. Questions - answers on the development areas of the wind energy (ZDE); Questions - reponses sur les zones de developpement de l'eolien (ZDE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document answers some questions on the wind energy development in the following topics: the regulation of the little power wind energy, the offshore sites, the administrative procedures, the environmental impacts and the regulations, the administrative delays, the economic impacts. (A.L.B.)

  19. Eco-forecasting see different for or against the big wind power sites development; Ecoprospective voir autrement pour ou contre le developpement des grands sites eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallut, J.M.; Bal, J.L

    2002-07-01

    The wind energy is the most economical and technological developed industry of the renewable energy, but it is not perhaps the best way to fight with the greenhouse gases. The pro and the con of the wind power are discussed in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  20. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.