WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing systems review

  1. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  2. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people’s interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people’s interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health

  3. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people's interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people's interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health system

  4. A practical model for pressure probe system response estimation (with review of existing models)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2018-04-01

    The accurate estimation of the unsteady response (bandwidth) of pneumatic pressure probe systems (probe, line and transducer volume) is a common practical problem encountered in the design of aerodynamic experiments. Understanding the bandwidth of the probe system is necessary to capture unsteady flow features accurately. Where traversing probes are used, the desired traverse speed and spatial gradients in the flow dictate the minimum probe system bandwidth required to resolve the flow. Existing approaches for bandwidth estimation are either complex or inaccurate in implementation, so probes are often designed based on experience. Where probe system bandwidth is characterized, it is often done experimentally, requiring careful experimental set-up and analysis. There is a need for a relatively simple but accurate model for estimation of probe system bandwidth. A new model is presented for the accurate estimation of pressure probe bandwidth for simple probes commonly used in wind tunnel environments; experimental validation is provided. An additional, simple graphical method for air is included for convenience.

  5. System Aspects of Black Liquor Gasification. A review of existing reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) is one of the high-prioritized RandD areas in Sweden. Research work is going on in the national program BLG-Programme. The main aims with the present study are to: - Identify larger projects dealing with energy oriented system aspects of BLG - Make a synthesis on system aspects results in these projects - Identify need for further work, e.g. as a part of a second period of the BLG Programme. No new work or calculations have been performed, the aim has been only to compile and draw conclusions from existing information. The focus has been on system studies. Most of the research on BLG has been technically, chemically and component oriented. These areas are not included in this report. In Chapter 2 basics for BLG are presented and in Chapter 3 important system aspects of this technology are discussed. Future opportunities for energy savings in mills are crucial for a BLG system, both technically and economically. Therefore present knowledge for such opportunities is presented in Chapter 4. In section 1.4 the report/projects included in this report are introduced and in Chapter 5-13 Summaries, especially on system aspects, of these reports are given. In order to keep the report at a reasonable size only major projects dealing with system aspects during the last 10 year period have been included. In Chapter 14 a synthesis of system aspects dealt with in the different reports is presented and in Chapter 15 suggestions for further work are given. In Chapter 16 references are given and finally in the Attachment a brief overview of different BLG technologies is presented

  6. Existence and control of Legionella bacteria in building water systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, John P; Yocavitch, Liana

    2017-02-01

    Legionellae are waterborne bacteria which are capable of causing potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease (LD), as well as Pontiac Fever. Public concern about Legionella exploded following the 1976 outbreak at the American Legion conference in Philadelphia, where 221 attendees contracted pneumonia and 34 died. Since that time, a variety of different control methods and strategies have been developed and implemented in an effort to eradicate Legionella from building water systems. Despite these efforts, the incidence of LD has been steadily increasing in the U.S. for more than a decade. Public health and occupational hygiene professionals have maintained an active debate regarding best practices for management and control of Legionella. Professional opinion remains divided with respect to the relative merits of performing routine sampling for Legionella, vs. the passive, reactive approach that has been largely embraced by public health officials and facility owners. Given the potential risks and ramifications associated with waiting to assess systems for Legionella until after disease has been identified and confirmed, a proactive approach of periodic testing for Legionella, along with proper water treatment, is the best approach to avoiding large-scale disease outbreaks.

  7. Deficiencies in the transfer and availability of clinical trials evidence: a review of existing systems and standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkenhoef Gert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions concerning drug safety and efficacy are generally based on pivotal evidence provided by clinical trials. Unfortunately, finding the relevant clinical trials is difficult and their results are only available in text-based reports. Systematic reviews aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence in a specific area, but may not provide the data required for decision making. Methods We review and analyze the existing information systems and standards for aggregate level clinical trials information from the perspective of systematic review and evidence-based decision making. Results The technology currently used has major shortcomings, which cause deficiencies in the transfer, traceability and availability of clinical trials information. Specifically, data available to decision makers is insufficiently structured, and consequently the decisions cannot be properly traced back to the underlying evidence. Regulatory submission, trial publication, trial registration, and systematic review produce unstructured datasets that are insufficient for supporting evidence-based decision making. Conclusions The current situation is a hindrance to policy decision makers as it prevents fully transparent decision making and the development of more advanced decision support systems. Addressing the identified deficiencies would enable more efficient, informed, and transparent evidence-based medical decision making.

  8. What is the existing evidence supporting the efficacy of compression bandage systems containing both elastic and inelastic components (mixed-component systems)? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    To analyse current evidence on the efficacy of bandage systems containing both elastic and inelastic components (mixed-component systems). International consensus on the efficacy of types of compression systems is difficult to achieve; however, mixed-component systems are being promoted as combining the best properties of both elastic and inelastic bandage systems and increasingly being used to treat venous leg ulcers in practice. A systematic literature review. Search terms such as venous leg ulcer, varicose ulcer, leg ulcer, compression, bandage, elastic, inelastic, short stretch, healing rate, interface pressure, mixed component, two-layer, four-layer and multi-layer were used in database and hand searches in several combinations. Limits were set for years 2005-March 2015 and English-language publications. A total of 475 studies were identified at initial search, and following elimination from abstract and title, this was reduced to 7. A further study was identified on Google Scholar, bringing the final number of studies fitting inclusion criteria to 8. The following subgroups relating to outcomes of efficacy were identified: ulcer healing, maintenance of interface pressure, slippage, ease of application and patient quality of life. Mixed-component systems were found to have comparable ulcer healing rates to alternative compression systems and be easy to apply; have similar abilities to maintain pressure as four-layer bandages and better abilities than short-stretch bandages; have less slippage than alternative systems; and to be significantly associated with several favourable quality of life outcomes. Clinician skill in bandage application was an uncontrolled variable in all eight papers included in the review, which may limit reliability of findings. This review synthesises existing evidence on the efficacy of mixed-component systems and encourages clinicians to regard them as an effective alternative to purely elastic or inelastic compression systems

  9. Transgender Parenting: A Review of Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...

  10. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  11. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  12. PASSCLAIM - Synthesis and review of existing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P; Affertsholt, Tage; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Ake; Grossklaus, Rolf; Howlett, John; Pannemans, Daphne; Ross, Richard; Verhagen, Hans; Viechtbauer, Volker

    2003-03-01

    Several approaches to the use of health claims on foods have been made around the world, and the common theme is that any health claim will require scientific validation and substantiation. There is also broad consensus that any regulatory framework should protect the consumer, promote fair trade and encourage innovation in the food industry.This paper is based on a critical evaluation of existing international approaches to the scientific substantiation of health claims, with a view to identifying common new ideas, definitions, best practice and a methodology to underpin current and future developments. There is a clear need to have uniform understanding, terminology and description of types of nutrition and health claims. Two broad categories were defined: Nutrition Claims, i. e. what the product contains, and Health Claims, i. e. relating to health, well-being and/or performance, including well-established nutrient function claims, enhanced function claims and disease risk reduction claims. Such health claims relate to what the food or food components does or do. The categories of health claims are closely and progressively related and are, in practice, part of a continuum. Provision is also made for "generic" or well-established, generally accepted claims and for "innovative" or "product-specific" claims. Special attention was paid to reflect the health-promoting properties of a food or food component in such a way as to facilitate the making of risk reduction claims outside the medical scope of the term prevention. The paper sets out basic principles and guidelines for communication of health claims and principles of nutritional safety. The main body of the work examines the process for the assessment of scientific support for health claims on food and emphasises an evidence-based approach consisting of: Identification of all relevant studies exploring the collection of evidence, data searches, the nature of the scientific evidence, sources of scientific data

  13. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  14. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  15. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  16. Integrating existing software toolkits into VO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Wang, Xiaoqian; Sang, Jian; Luo, Ze

    2004-09-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools. Taking advantages of the latest information technologies, it aims to provide a data-intensively online research environment for astronomers all around the world. A large number of high-qualified astronomical software packages and libraries are powerful and easy of use, and have been widely used by astronomers for many years. Integrating those toolkits into the VO system is a necessary and important task for the VO developers. VO architecture greatly depends on Grid and Web services, consequently the general VO integration route is "Java Ready - Grid Ready - VO Ready". In the paper, we discuss the importance of VO integration for existing toolkits and discuss the possible solutions. We introduce two efforts in the field from China-VO project, "gImageMagick" and "Galactic abundance gradients statistical research under grid environment". We also discuss what additional work should be done to convert Grid service to VO service.

  17. Existence crises of actual financial management systems

    OpenAIRE

    SVASTA Mihai

    2009-01-01

    The present financial management systems reflects only partially the economic reality and they are no longer able to act as an instrument for the management. It is absurd that an economy populated by business models based on 21st century technology to use financial management systems based mainly on the same principles formalised by Luca Paciolli in 1494. Therefore, one of the causes of the current economic crisis could be the lack of coordination between the evolution of the business models ...

  18. Management of Existing Funding Systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxeiner, H.

    2006-01-01

    1 - Funds for D and D and Waste disposal: Producers pay principle: Producers of radioactive waste are responsible for financing its safe disposal. Two independent funds supervised by the Confederation: Decommissioning fund for nuclear facilities (Secure financial resources for D and D and for disposal of the resulting waste (not SF), Established January 1, 1984 as a public law entity, Berne); Disposal fund for nuclear power plants (Cover costs for management of operational waste and SF after decommissioning, Established April 1, 2000, Repositories: 2020 - 2050). Decommissioning fund: Calculation of contributions based on Estimated D and D costs (taking account of cost development (first studies 1984, latest studies 2000/2001), Disposal of waste arising from D and D, Administration costs Latest decommissioning studies: Costs amount to 1.9 Billion CHF; Annual contributions based on 40 years operation time. Disposal fund: Calculation of contributions based on Management of operational waste and SF following the decommissioning, Transport/storage containers, transport, reprocessing and/or direct disposal of SF, conditioning and interim storage, deep geological disposal, Administration costs. Latest studies: Costs amount to 12 Billion CHF. Annual contributions based on 40 years operation time. 2 - Organisation and payments: Contributions to the decommissioning fund: Contributions required up to the assumed decommissioning date are converted into annual amounts; Assumed inflation rate 3%, capital projected on a basis of 5% (net return 2%); Annual contributions reviewed every 5 years (shorter periods possible in case of unforeseen events), if new operators enter or a facility is decommissioned. Fund organisation: Executive bodies: Management Committee and Secretariat, MC nominated by Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications, Sub committees set up by MC (Investment Committee, Cost Committee). Management committee: 9 members (4 operators

  19. Integration of existing systematic reviews into new reviews: identification of guidance needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937

  20. Twelve recommendations for integrating existing systematic reviews into new reviews: EPC guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated a multi-parameter corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures in chloride-laden service environments. The system was fabricated based on a prototype concrete corrosion measurement system that : had bee...

  2. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  3. 76 FR 56128 - Retrospective Review of Existing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... markets are dynamic and fast-moving, the regulations affecting those markets and participants in these... review processes obtain and consider data and analyses that address the benefits of our rules in...

  4. Health systems around the world - a comparison of existing health system rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Acevedo, Paula N Marin; Flahault, Antoine

    2018-06-01

    Existing health systems all over the world are different due to the different combinations of components that can be considered for their establishment. The ranking of health systems has been a focal points for many years especially the issue of performance. In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) performed a ranking to compare the Performance of the health system of the member countries. Since then other health system rankings have been performed and it became an issue of public discussion. A point of contention regarding these rankings is the methodology employed by each of them, since no gold standard exists. Therefore, this review focuses on evaluating the methodologies of each existing health system performance ranking to assess their reproducibility and transparency. A search was conducted to identify existing health system rankings, and a questionnaire was developed for the comparison of the methodologies based on the following indicators: (1) General information, (2) Statistical methods, (3) Data (4) Indicators. Overall nine rankings were identified whereas six of them focused rather on the measurement of population health without any financial component and were therefore excluded. Finally, three health system rankings were selected for this review: "Health Systems: Improving Performance" by the WHO, "Mirror, Mirror on the wall: How the Performance of the US Health Care System Compares Internationally" by the Commonwealth Fund and "the Most efficient Health Care" by Bloomberg. After the completion of the comparison of the rankings by giving them scores according to the indicators, the ranking performed the WHO was considered the most complete regarding the ability of reproducibility and transparency of the methodology. This review and comparison could help in establishing consensus in the field of health system research. This may also help giving recommendations for future health rankings and evaluating the current gap in the literature.

  5. Resuspension of the transuranium elements - a review of existing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.

    1978-08-01

    Resuspension is an important mechanism in the transfer to man of transuranium elements deposited on surfaces in the environment. In this report the data on resuspension are reviewed, including the limited number of relevant measurements which have been made in the United Kingdom. The various models developed to represent the resuspension process are reviewed and the most appropriate, when site specific data are absent, for application in UK conditions are identified. Recommendations are made on the main areas where further environmental studies are required to enable more reliable predictive models to be developed for application in these conditions. (author)

  6. The perfect gymnast: does he exist? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Visscher; Marije Elferink-Gemser; L. Louer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to create an all-round profile of the elite artistic gymnast. Therefore, an extended literature search was performed in PubMed and PsycINFO databases. The main inclusion criteria were that the content of the article was about artistic gymnastics and that the gymnasts were

  7. Existence and multiplicity results for homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Nien Chen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Homoclinic orbits play an important role in the study of qualitative behavior of dynamical systems. Such kinds of orbits have been studied since the time of Poincare. In this paper, we discuss how to use variational methods to study the existence of homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  9. Analyzing the security of an existing computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Most work concerning secure computer systems has dealt with the design, verification, and implementation of provably secure computer systems, or has explored ways of making existing computer systems more secure. The problem of locating security holes in existing systems has received considerably less attention; methods generally rely on thought experiments as a critical step in the procedure. The difficulty is that such experiments require that a large amount of information be available in a format that makes correlating the details of various programs straightforward. This paper describes a method of providing such a basis for the thought experiment by writing a special manual for parts of the operating system, system programs, and library subroutines.

  10. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan

    2015-01-01

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator

  11. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W. [Multimedia unit, Department of Computer System and Technology Faculty of Computer Science & IT, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator.

  12. Does asymptomatic septal agenesis exist? A review of 34 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhocine, Ouardia; Andre, Christine; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Radiology Department, Paris (France)

    2005-04-01

    Primary septal agenesis (PSA) is a rare brain malformation that can be isolated or part of developmental brain abnormalities (holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia or cortical malformation). Such associated malformation can be subtle, leading to difficulties in the prenatal management of PSA. Moreover, the neurological prognosis of isolated PSA remains debatable. The aims of the study were to specify the patterns and frequency of brain malformations associated with septal agenesis (SA), to identify the clinical prognosis, and to discuss the aetiology of PSA with the new insights provided by molecular genetics. The study consisted of a 14-year retrospective review of brain MRI in 34 patients having PSA (mean age, 5 years). Chiasm and optic nerves were not evaluated. Post-hydrocephalus SA or incomplete data were excluded. The clinical data were correlated to the MRI patterns. The study disclosed 82.5% associated lesions with MRI (28/34): 11 neuronal migration disorders, 9 holoprosencephalies (HP), 7 pituitary stalk interruptions, 1 corpus callosum partial agenesis; 17.5% (6/34) of cases were apparently isolated PAS. Clinically, the patients had motor dysfunction in 68% (23/34), mental retardation in 65% (22/34), blindness in 24% (8/34), endocrinological defects in 21% (7/34) and epilepsy in 18% (6/34) of cases. Nine percent of patients (3/34) were neurologically normal (including one with scoliosis and two infants younger than 2 years at the last follow-up). Patients with bilateral cortical anomalies and HP (even if mild) had the worst neurological prognosis. A severe motor impairment was present without evidence of hemispheric anomaly in 12% of patients (4/34). Interestingly, the frontal lobes were involved in 90% of cortical anomalies and HP, supporting the malformative aetiology of PSA. PSA rarely appears isolated and severe psychomotor impairment may occur in apparently isolated forms. These unfavourable results should be highlighted and need to be confirmed

  13. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  15. Improvements of existing early warning system in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisa, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma radiation early warning system in Croatia was established in 1993. The first configuration contained 3 measuring stations connected to the monitoring center and up today the system is expanded with 5 additional locations. Each location is equipped with the MFM202 gamma-monitor and additional equipment that is not unique for all locations. This difference in remote equipment configuration caused by different communication medium used, is the reason to improve existing system trough equipment unification introducing PLC unit in the standard configuration. Such configuration enables additional functions such as automatic alerting and collecting meteorological data. (author)

  16. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  17. Malta: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha; Calleja, Neville; Calleja, Antoinette; Cylus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe. Nevertheless, non-communicable diseases pose a major concern with obesity being increasingly prevalent among both adults and children. The health system faces important challenges including a steadily ageing population, which impacts the sustainability of public finances. Other supply constraints stem from financial and infrastructural limitations. Nonetheless, there exists a strong political commitment to ensure the provision of a healthcare system that is accessible, of high quality, safe and also sustainable. This calls for strategic investments to underpin a revision of existing processes whilst shifting the focus of care away from hospital into the community. World Health Organization 2014 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  18. 34 CFR 99.12 - What limitations exist on the right to inspect and review records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What limitations exist on the right to inspect and... EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY What Are the Rights of Inspection and Review of Education Records? § 99.12 What limitations exist on the right to inspect and review records? (a) If the education records of a student...

  19. Modeling and validation of existing VAV system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The optimization of supervisory control strategies and local-loop controllers can improve the performance of HVAC (heating, ventilating, air-conditioning) systems. In this study, the component model of the fan, the damper and the cooling coil were developed and validated against monitored data of an existing variable air volume (VAV) system installed at Montreal's Ecole de Technologie Superieure. The measured variables that influence energy use in individual HVAC models included: (1) outdoor and return air temperature and relative humidity, (2) supply air and water temperatures, (3) zone airflow rates, (4) supply duct, outlet fan, mixing plenum static pressures, (5) fan speed, and (6) minimum and principal damper and cooling and heating coil valve positions. The additional variables that were considered, but not measured were: (1) fan and outdoor airflow rate, (2) inlet and outlet cooling coil relative humidity, and (3) liquid flow rate through the heating or cooling coils. The paper demonstrates the challenges of the validation process when monitored data of existing VAV systems are used. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Retrofit of new digital control systems in existing power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.E.; Baird, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    With the notable exception of the Canadian CANDU nuclear power stations, little use has been made of digital control in North American nuclear stations. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in such systems within the nuclear industry in response to demands for better ergonomics in control room design and the obsolescence of control equipment whose fundamental design has changed little in 20 yr. Early in 1985, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was asked by New Brunswick Power to advise on the redesign of the control systems for two fossil-fired generating stations, Coleson Cove and Courtenay Bay Unit 4. Coleson Cove is to be converted from oil to coal firing with consequent extensive control system changes and Courtenay Bay Unit 4 required a low-cost solution to the problem of relocating its control room from the existing isolated location to the combined control center used by units 1, 2, and 3. In both cases, the recommended solution involves the retrofit of state-of-the-art digital control systems. Although the units involved are nonnuclear the experience is applicable

  1. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  2. Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Stearns, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2002-01-01

    A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in BMR99, BR991 as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. An SDS S is a triple (G, F,n ),w here (i) G(V,E ) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a state, (ii) F = (fi, fi, . . ., fn), with fi denoting a function associated with node ui E V and (iii) A is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V, A configuration of an SDS is an n-vector ( b l, bz, . . ., bn), where bi is the value of the state of node vi. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by n. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C' such that S has a transition from C' to C. (If C has no predecessor, C is known as a garden of Eden configuration.) Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded treewidth. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem NP-complete even when the underlying graph is a tree (which has a treewidth of 1). We also show that the PRE problem is efficiently solvable for SDSs whose state values are from a field and whose node functions are linear. Some of the polynomial algorithms also extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a logarithmic number of steps. Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [@87] on the complexity of

  3. A review on existing OSSEs and their implications on European marine observation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Marine observations are essential for understanding marine processes and improving the forecast quality, they are also expensive. It has always been an important issue to optimize sampling schemes of marine observational networks so that the value of marine observations can be maximized and the cost can be lowered. Ocean System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is an efficient tool in assessing impacts of proposed future sampling schemes on reconstructing and forecasting the ocean and ecosystem conditions. In this study existing OSSE research results from EU projects (such as JERICO, OPEC, SANGOMA, E-AIMS and AtlantOS), institutional studies and review papers are collected and analyzed, according to regions (Arctic, Baltic, N. Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) and instruments/variables. The preliminary results show that significant gaps for OSSEs in regions and instruments. Among the existing OSSEs, Argo (Bio-Argo and Deep See Argo), gliders and ferrybox are the most often investigated instruments. Although many of the OSSEs are dedicated for very specific monitoring strategies and not sufficiently comprehensive for making solid recommendations for optimizing the existing networks, the detailed findings for future marine observation requirements from the OSSEs will be summarized in the presentation. Recommendations for systematic OSSEs for optimizing European marine observation networks are also given.

  4. 32 CFR 169a.9 - Reviews: Existing in-house commercial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... either government or contractor personnel, whichever is more cost effective. Core logistics activities... review schedules. Existing in-house CAs, once reviewed shall be retained in-house without a cost.... In most cases, application of this criteria shall be made considering the wartime and peacetime...

  5. Is Delirium the Cognitive Harbinger of Frailty in Older Adults? A Review about the Existing Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bellelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a clinical syndrome defined by the age-related depletion of the individual’s homeostatic reserves, determining an increased susceptibility to stressors and disproportionate exposure to negative health changes. The physiological systems that are involved in the determination of frailty are mutually interrelated, so that when decline starts in a given system, implications may also regard the other systems. Indeed, it has been shown that the number of abnormal systems is more predictive of frailty than those of the abnormalities in any particular system. Delirium is a transient neurocognitive disorder, characterized by an acute onset and fluctuating course, inattention, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral abnormalities, that complicates one out of five hospital admissions. Delirium is independently associated with the same negative outcomes of frailty and, like frailty, its pathogenesis is usually multifactorial, depending on complex inter-relationships between predisposing and precipitating factors. By definition, a somatic cause should be identified, or at least suspected, to diagnose delirium. Delirium and frailty potentially share multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathways, meaning that they could be thought of as the two sides to the same coin. This review aims at summarizing the existing evidence, referring both to human and animal models, to postulate that delirium may represent the cognitive harbinger of a state of frailty in older persons experiencing an acute clinical event.

  6. Existence and attractors of solutions for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid El Ouardi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence and asymptotic behaviour results for weak solutions of a mixed problem (S. We also obtain the existence of the global attractor and the regularity for this attractor in $\\left[H^{2}(\\Omega \\right] ^{2}$ and we derive estimates of its Haussdorf and fractal dimensions.

  7. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, A.; Wenzel, H.

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation, and forestry

  8. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  9. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  10. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol

    2016-03-01

    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  11. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  12. Managing data from remeasured plots: An evaluation of existing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne; Michael D. Sweet

    1992-01-01

    Proper management of the valuable data from remeasured (or permanent) forest growth plots with data base management systems (DBMS) can greatly add to their utility. Twelve desired features for such a system (activities that facilitate the storage, accuracy, and use of the data for analysis) are described and used to evaluate the 36 systems found by a survey conducted...

  13. Noncontaminating technique for making holes in existing process systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, T. P.; Czapor, H. P.; Giordano, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Technique is developed for making cleanly-contoured holes in assembled process systems without introducing chips or other contaminants into system. Technique uses portable equipment and does not require dismantling of system. Method was tested on Inconel, stainless steel, ASTMA-53, and Hastelloy X in all positions.

  14. Integrating existing radiation monitors into a microprocessor-based display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, R, S.; Bartucci, C.M.; Mason, R.G.; Greaves, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plantwide digital radiation monitoring systems (RMSs) have been generally installed as part of the original design for newer nuclear reactors. For older plants, area and process radiation monitors were either analog or a combination of analog and digital but were not part of an integrated system design. At some plants, individual monitors have been replaced or modified, resulting in a rainbow of different monitors and vendors being represented at the plant. Usually at some point, consideration is given to replacing these monitors with a state-of-the-art RMS to improve overall reliability and achieve the benefits of sound human factors engineering. This can be a very costly project in terms of expenditures for engineering, equipment, construction, startup, and time. When human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) became an issue at Zion station, Commonwealth Edison elected to install a computer-based radiation monitoring display system (RMDS) that would interface existing raidation monitors. After reviewing the existing as-built RMS configuration and internal circuits of the various monitors, it was concluded that a microprocessor-based RMDS could be successfully designed and installed that would solve the HEDs and would tie the older analog channels into a system configuration. Although in many cases, internal modifications were made to existing RMS monitors, the RMDS upgrade allowed the existing RMS monitors to retain their original functionality and location

  15. The Existence and Structure of Rotational Systems in the Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Jayakumar

    2018-01-01

    By a rotational system, we mean a closed subset X of the circle, T=R/Z, together with a continuous transformation f:X→X with the requirements that the dynamical system (X,f) be minimal and that f respect the standard orientation of T. We show that infinite rotational systems (X,f), with the property that map f has finite preimages, are extensions of irrational rotations of the circle. Such systems have been studied when they arise as invariant subsets of certain specific mappings, F:T→T. Beca...

  16. Environmental Education in Pre-Service Teacher Training: A Literature Review of Existing Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, Olaya; Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Comas-Forgas, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The importance of pre-service teacher training regarding environmental education (EE) has been vastly demonstrated. This systematic review examined the existing evidence from studies evaluating and analysing the relationship between EE, including environmental competences and pre-service primary school teacher training. The literature review…

  17. On the conditions of existence of cold-blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-12-01

    An extende analysis of the partially ionized boundary layer of a magnetized plasma has been performed, leading to the following results: (i) In a first approximation the ion density at the inner ''edge'' of the layer becomes related to the wall-near neutral gas density, in a way being independent of the spatial distribution of the ionization rate. (ii) The particle and momentum balance equations, and the associated impermeability condition of the plasma with respect to neutral gas penetration, are not sufficient to specify a cold-blanket state, but have to be combined with considerations of the heat blance. This leads to lower and upper power input limits, thus defining conditions for the existence of a cold-blanket state. At decreasing beta values , or increasing radiation losses, there are situations where such a state cannot exist at all. (iii) It should become possible to fulfill the cold-blanket conditions in full-scale reactors as well as in certain model experiments. Probably these conditions can also be satisfied in large tokamaks like JET, and by fast gas injection in devices such as Alcator, but not in medium-size tokamaks being operated at moderately high ion densities. (iv) A strong ''boundary layer stabilization'' mechanism due to the joint viscosity-resistivity-pressure effects is available under cold-blanket conditions. (author)

  18. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  19. Immersion Revisited: A Review of Existing Definitions of Immersion and Their Relation to Different Theories of Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Christian Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term immersion continues to be applied inconsistently within and across different fields of research connected with the study of virtual reality and interactive media. Moreover, immersion is oftentimes used interchangeably with the terms presence and engagement. This article details a review of existing definitions of immersion originating within the study of video games, virtual environments, and literary works of fiction. Based on this review, a three-dimensional taxonomy of the various conceptualizations of immersion is proposed. That is, the existing definitions of immersion may be broadly divided into three categories, each representing a dimension of the taxonomy: immersion as a property of a system, a subjective response to narrative contents, or a subjective response to challenges within the virtual environment. Finally, four distinct theories of presence are introduced and, based on the established taxonomy, we discuss how the individual theories relate to existing definitions of immersion.

  20. Adding an Intelligent Tutoring System to an Existing Training Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stottler, Richard H; Jensen, Randy; Pike, Bill; Bingham, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...). It was determined that the addition of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to BC2010 would off-load the instructor from these duties and allow the students to execute scenarios without requiring an instructor for the AAR...

  1. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  2. Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA's LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines' waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure

  3. Learning to leverage existing information systems: Part 1. Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Nancy; Nerenz, David

    2003-10-01

    The success of performance improvement efforts depends on effective measurement and feedback regarding clinical processes and outcomes. Yet most health care organizations have fragmented rather than integrated data systems. Methods and practical guidance are provided for leveraging available information sources to obtain and create valid performance improvement-related information for use by clinicians and administrators. At Virginia Mason Health System (VMHS; Seattle), a vertically integrated hospital and multispecialty group practice, patient records are paper based and are supplemented with electronic reporting for laboratory and radiology services. Despite growth in the resources and interest devoted to organization-wide performance measurement, quality improvement, and evidence-based tools, VMHS's information systems consist of largely stand-alone, legacy systems organized around the ability to retrieve information on patients, one at a time. By 2002, without any investment in technology, VMHS had developed standardized, clinic-wide key indicators of performance updated and reported regularly at the patient, provider, site, and organizational levels. On the basis of VHMS's experience, principles can be suggested to guide other organizations to explore solutions using their own information systems: for example, start simply, but start; identify information needs; tap multiple data streams; and improve incrementally.

  4. Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2009-04-03

    This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

  5. Extension of an existing control and monitoring system: architecture 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulabaille, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tore Supra Tokamak is controlled by Architecture 7. This system comprises 3 levels: Man-machine system, automatism management and exchanges with the plant. Performing it presents, nevertheless some limitations: time response is only half a second allowing to manage 95% of Tore Supra processes, the remaining 5% requires one millisecond. The first aim is the extension of functionalities by a fast automat giving one microsecond cycle. The fast automat is applied to the poloidal field. Of main concern for fusion experiments it allows the creation of a plasma current. The second aim is the possibility to use softwares found on the computer market [fr

  6. Food micro systems : report on Existing Literature Regarding Consumers' Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This report forms part of the deliverables from a project called "FoodMicroSystems" which has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 287634. The Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of the content of this

  7. Some existing Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems at KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of: • Liquid Metal Loops at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of KIT; • THESYS: Technologies for HEavy metal SYStems; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THESYS; • THEADES: THErmalhydraulics and Ads DESign; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THEADES; • CORRIDA: CORRosion In Dynamic lead Alloys; • Experimental stagnant facilities at KALLA; • INR Liquid metal research

  8. A systematic review on the influence of pre-existing disability on sustaining injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, A; Haagsma, J A; Polinder, S

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review studies measuring the influence of pre-existing disability on the risk of sustaining an injury. Systematic review. Electronic databases searched included Medline (Pubmed), ProQuest, Ovid and EMBASE. Studies (1990-2010) in international peer-reviewed journals were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed involvement of injury sustained by persons with and without pre-existing disability. Studies were collated by design and methods, and evaluation of results. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. All studies found that persons with disabilities were at a significantly higher risk of sustaining injuries than those without. Persons with disability had a 30-450% increased odds (odds ratio 1.3-5.5) of sustaining injury compared to persons without disability. Among persons with pre-existing disability, the high risk groups of sustaining an injury are children and elderly. People with disabilities experience a higher risk to sustain an injury in comparison to the healthy population. There is a high need for large epidemiological studies of injury among persons with disability, to better address these unique risk profiles in order to prevent additional disability or secondary conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 With efforts underway to develop rules integrating UAS’s into the National Airspace System, and...realizing that Federal Aviation Administration rule -making authority applied only to "aircraft," the term Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) was coined in...http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=122 [10] Peter La Franchi , “US study recommends self-protection for UAVs”, Flight International, 7

  10. Existence of multiple solutions for quasilinear diagonal elliptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonsmooth-critical-point theory is applied in proving multiplicity results for the quasilinear symmetric elliptic system $$ -sum_{i,j=1}^{n}D_j(a^{k}_{ij}(x,uD_iu_k+ {1over 2}sum_{i,j=1}^{n}sum_{h=1}^N D_{s_k}a^{h}_{ij}(x,uD_iu_hD_ju_h=g_k(x,u,, $$ for $k=1,..,N$.

  11. Dementia ascertainment using existing data in UK longitudinal and cohort studies: a systematic review of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbett, Ruth A; Russ, Tom C; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2017-07-03

    Studies investigating the risk factors for or causation of dementia must consider subjects prior to disease onset. To overcome the limitations of prospective studies and self-reported recall of information, the use of existing data is key. This review provides a narrative account of dementia ascertainment methods using sources of existing data. The literature search was performed using: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo and Web of Science. Included articles reported a UK-based study of dementia in which cases were ascertained using existing data. Existing data included that which was routinely collected and that which was collected for previous research. After removing duplicates, abstracts were screened and the remaining articles were included for full-text review. A quality tool was used to evaluate the description of the ascertainment methodology. Of the 3545 abstracts screened, 360 articles were selected for full-text review. 47 articles were included for final consideration. Data sources for ascertainment included: death records, national datasets, research databases and hospital records among others. 36 articles used existing data alone for ascertainment, of which 27 used only a single data source. The most frequently used source was a research database. Quality scores ranged from 7/16 to 16/16. Quality scores were better for articles with dementia ascertainment as an outcome. Some papers performed validation studies of dementia ascertainment and most indicated that observed rates of dementia were lower than expected. We identified a lack of consistency in dementia ascertainment methodology using existing data. With no data source identified as a "gold-standard", we suggest the use of multiple sources. Where possible, studies should access records with evidence to confirm the diagnosis. Studies should also calculate the dementia ascertainment rate for the population being studied to enable a comparison with an expected rate.

  12. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS: SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUG? BRIEF REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom Seyram Achoribo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, This review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  14. A Systematic Review on the Existing Screening Pathways for Lynch Syndrome Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Tognetto, Alessia; Michelazzo, Maria Benedetta; Calabró, Giovanna Elisa; Unim, Brigid; Di Marco, Marco; Ricciardi, Walter; Pastorino, Roberta; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colon cancer syndrome, accounting for 3–5% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, and it is associated with the development of other cancers. Early detection of individuals with LS is relevant, since they can take advantage of life-saving intensive care surveillance. The debate regarding the best screening policy, however, is far from being concluded. This prompted us to conduct a systematic review of the existing screening pathways for ...

  15. Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; King, J.C.; O'Connell, M.S.

    1975-07-01

    Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

  16. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  17. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemant; Allard, Raymond D; Enberg, Robert; Krishnan, Ganesh; Williams, Patricia; Nadkarni, Prakash M

    2012-03-09

    A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies.

  18. A Systematic Review on the Existing Screening Pathways for Lynch Syndrome Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tognetto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLynch syndrome (LS is the most common hereditary colon cancer syndrome, accounting for 3–5% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases, and it is associated with the development of other cancers. Early detection of individuals with LS is relevant, since they can take advantage of life-saving intensive care surveillance. The debate regarding the best screening policy, however, is far from being concluded. This prompted us to conduct a systematic review of the existing screening pathways for LS.MethodsWe performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS online databases for the existing screening pathways for LS. The eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review required that the studies evaluated a structured and permanent screening pathway for the identification of LS carriers. The effectiveness of the pathways was analyzed in terms of LS detection rate.ResultsWe identified five eligible studies. All the LS screening pathways started from CRC cases, of which three followed a universal screening approach. Concerning the laboratory procedures, the pathways used immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing. If the responses of the tests indicated a risk for LS, the genetic counseling, performed by a geneticist or a genetic counselor, was mandatory to undergo DNA genetic testing. The overall LS detection rate ranged from 0 to 5.2%.ConclusionThis systematic review reported different existing pathways for the identification of LS patients. Although current clinical guidelines suggest to test all the CRC cases to identify LS cases, the actual implementation of pathways for LS identification has not been realized. Large-scale screening programs for LS have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality for CRC, but coordinated efforts in educating all key stakeholders and addressing public needs are still required.

  19. SMART literature review report on existing practice in measuring success factors in second chance education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulla Højmark

    2015-01-01

    criteria, indicators and benchmarks that measures developments of learners, impacts of informal and non-formal learning methods and evidences success factors of second chance education. The aim of the project is to build an evidence base of outcomes and impacts of second chance education and to enhance......, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. This literature review aims at developing an insight of the existing practice of measuring and evidencing success factors in second chance education. In the following, we will highlight examples of good...

  20. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  1. JOINT OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF EXISTING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Reimann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Keen competition and increasingly demanding customers have forced companies to use their resources more efficiently and to integrate production and transportation planning. In the last few years more and more researchers have also focused on this challenging problem by trying to determine the complexity of the individual problems and then developing fast and robust algorithms to solve them. This paper reviews existing literature on integrated production and distribution decisions at the tactical and operational level, where the distribution part is modelled as some variation of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. The focus is thereby on problems that explicitly consider deliveries to multiple clients in a less-than-truckload fashion. In terms of the production decisions we distinguish in our review between tactical and operational production problems by considering lot-sizing/capacity allocation and scheduling models, respectively.

  2. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  3. IPM in Asia - A review of existing projects in the Philippines and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Nigel R.; Schiffers, Bruno; Seghers, N.; Deuse, J.P.L.; Cooper, J.F.; Copin, Alfred; Coste, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management means a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes ail suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or 1055. FAO-Code- of Conduct 1984. Peer reviewed

  4. Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture: Context Description, Existing Operational Monitoring Systems and Major Information Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Atzberger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue “Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture”. To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1 biomass and yield estimation, (2 vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3 assessment of crop phenological development, (4 crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5 mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal, but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations.

  5. Denmark: Health system review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Annegrete; Krasnik, Allan; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) series provide detailed descriptions of health systems in the countries of the WHO European Region as well as some additional OECD countries. An individual health system review (HiT) examines the specific approach to the organization, financing and delivery...... of health services in a particular country and the role of the main actors in the health system. It describes the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies. HiTs also look at reforms in progress or under development and make an assessment of the health...... system based on stated objectives and outcomes with respect to various dimensions (health status, equity, quality, efficiency, accountability)....

  6. A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2017-05-01

    The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging 'digital' solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and blockchain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.

  7. HOPE information system review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Nishiyama, Kenji; Ono, Shuuji; Fukuda, Kouin

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the review conducted on H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE) is presented. A prototype model was constructed by inputting various technical information proposed by related laboratories. Especially operation flow which enables understanding of correlation between various analysis items, judgement criteria, technical data, and interfaces with others was constructed. Technical information data base and retrieval systems were studied. A Macintosh personal computer was selected for information shaping because of its excellent function, performance, operability, and software completeness.

  8. A scoping research literature review to assess the state of existing evidence on the "bad" death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.

  9. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  10. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  11. Ukraine: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica

    2015-03-01

    This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  12. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    %), with only one study rated as ‘good’. The reliability domain was most often investigated. Fewof the assessment methods in the included studies that had ‘fair’ or ‘good’ measurement properties demonstrated acceptable results for both reliability and validity.ConclusionWe found a substantially larger number......ABSTRACT OARSI Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Lund H1,2, Søgaard K11University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics2Institute...... assessment methods have measured the degree of scapular dyskinesis, subjectively by visual evaluation and objectively by measurements of static and dynamic scapular positioning, by either a 3-dimensional electromagnetic device or 2-dimensional clinically applicable methods. Since advanced equipment (i.e. 3D...

  13. Review and proposal for heat transfer predictions at supercritical water conditions using existing correlations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim, E-mail: wadim.jaeger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hurtado, Antonio [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Power Engineering, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Implementation of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water into TRACE. > Simulation of several heat transfer experiments with modified TRACE version. > Most correlations are not able to reproduce the experimental results. > Bishop, Sandberg and Tong correlation is most suitable for TRACE applications. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the activities of the TRACE code validation at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology related to supercritical water conditions. In particular, the providing of the thermo physical properties and its appropriate use in the wall-to-fluid heat transfer models in the frame of the TRACE code is the object of this investigation. In a first step, the thermo physical properties of the original TRACE code were modified in order to account for supercritical conditions. In a second step, existing Nusselt correlations were reviewed and implemented into TRACE and available experiments were simulated to identify the most suitable Nusselt correlation(s).

  14. Review and proposal for heat transfer predictions at supercritical water conditions using existing correlations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Hurtado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Implementation of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water into TRACE. → Simulation of several heat transfer experiments with modified TRACE version. → Most correlations are not able to reproduce the experimental results. → Bishop, Sandberg and Tong correlation is most suitable for TRACE applications. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the activities of the TRACE code validation at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology related to supercritical water conditions. In particular, the providing of the thermo physical properties and its appropriate use in the wall-to-fluid heat transfer models in the frame of the TRACE code is the object of this investigation. In a first step, the thermo physical properties of the original TRACE code were modified in order to account for supercritical conditions. In a second step, existing Nusselt correlations were reviewed and implemented into TRACE and available experiments were simulated to identify the most suitable Nusselt correlation(s).

  15. The measurement of multiple chronic diseases--a systematic review on existing multimorbidity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Claudia; Berger, Klaus; Bartels, Dorothee B

    2011-03-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the coexistence of 2 or more chronic diseases, is a common phenomenon especially in older people. Numerous efforts to establish a standardized instrument to assess the level of multimorbidity have failed until now, and indices are primarily characterized by their high heterogeneity. Thus, the objective is to provide a comprehensive overview on existing instruments on the basis of a systematic literature review. The review was performed in MedLine. All articles published between January 1, 1960 and August 31, 2009 in German or English language, with the primary focus either on the development of a weighted index or on the effect of multimorbidity on different outcomes, were identified. A total of 39 articles met the inclusion criteria. In the majority of studies (59.0%), the list of included diseases was presented without any selection criteria. Only the high prevalence of diseases (17.9%), their impact on mortality, function, and health status served as a point of reference. Information on the prevalence of chronic conditions mostly rely on self-reports. On average, the 39 indices included 18.5 diseases, ranging between 4 and 102 different conditions. Most frequently mentioned diseases were diabetes mellitus (in 97.5% of indices), followed by stroke (89.7%), hypertension, and cancer (each 84.6%). Overall, three different weighting methods could be distinguished. The systematic literature further emphasis the heterogeneity of existing multimorbidity indices. However, one important similarity is that the focus is on diseases with a high prevalence and a severe impact on affected individuals.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Piping in Nuclear Power Plants - A Review of Efficiency of Existing Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2011-05-01

    In the first part of the report, we review various efforts that have been recently performed in the USA in the field of reactor health monitoring. They were carried out by different organizations and they addressed different issues related to the safety of nuclear reactors. Among other aspects, we present technical issues related to the design of a self-diagnostic monitoring system for the next generation of nuclear reactors. We also give a brief review of the international experience of such systems in today's reactors. In the second part of the report we focus on long range ultrasonic techniques that can be used for monitoring piping in nuclear reactors. Common strategy used in the Swedish nuclear plants is leak before break (LBB), which relies on monitoring leaks from the pipelines as indications of possible pipe break. Significant parts of piping systems are partly or entirely inaccessible for the NDE inspectors, which complicates the use of proactive strategies. One solution to the problem could be implementing monitoring systems capable of monitoring pipelines over a long range. The method, which has shown much promise in such applications is the UT based on guided waves (GW) referred to as long range ultrasound testing (LRUT). In the report we give a brief review of the GW theory followed by the presentation the commercial GW instruments and transducers designed for the LRUT of piping. We also present examples of the baseline based systems using permanently installed transducers. In the final part we report capacity tests of the LRUT instruments performed in collaboration with two different manufactures

  17. Review of existing LCA studies on the recycling and disposal of paper and cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    , forestry services, and parallel services provided by the existing waste management systems. Comparative LCAs should, as far as possible, include such services in order to describe correctly the environmental consequences occurring when choosing one alternative over the other. These parameters...... both landfilling and incineration. The impact categories for the environmental assessment of paper systems used in this study, representing the scope of categories contained in the analysed LCAs, are: „X Energy use (or generation) „X Resource consumption „X Energy related impacts „X Toxicity (of...... of system parameters and boundary assumptions, which not all LCAs include. These parameters and assumptions should cover all essential activities/processes in the technosphere affected by the choice, including secondary services such as generation of energy from wood residues and paper incineration...

  18. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salmani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90% related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well

  19. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, "pearl-growing" techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, "orgasm AND intervention". Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols to screen, assessment and management of women' sexual problems such as FOD

  20. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K.Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols

  1. Existence of optimal controls for systems governed by mean-field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we study the existence of an optimal control for systems, governed by stochastic dierential equations of mean-eld type. For non linear systems, we prove the existence of an optimal relaxed control, by using tightness techniques and Skorokhod selection theorem. The optimal control is a measure valued process ...

  2. France: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the

  3. Slovenia: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albreht, Tit; Pribakovic Brinovec, Radivoje; Josar, Dusan; Poldrugovac, Mircha; Kostnapfel, Tatja; Zaletel, Metka; Panteli, Dimitra; Maresso, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased. Greater focus on preventive measures is also needed as well as better care coordination, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Despite having relatively high levels of co-payments for many services covered by the universal compulsory health insurance system, these expenses are counterbalanced by voluntary health insurance, which covers 95% of the population liable for co-payments. However, Slovenia is somewhat unique among social health insurance countries in that it relies almost exclusively on payroll contributions to fund its compulsory health insurance system. This makes health sector revenues very susceptible to economic and labour market fluctuations. A future challenge will be to diversify the resource base for health system funding and thus bolster sustainability in the longer term, while preserving service delivery and quality of care. Given changing demographics and morbidity patterns, further challenges include restructuring the funding and provision of long-term care and enhancing health system efficiency through reform of purchasing and provider-payment systems. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  4. Existence of Periodic Orbits with Zeno Behavior in Completed Lagrangian Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Or, Yizhar; Ames, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider hybrid models of mechanical systems undergoing impacts, Lagrangian hybrid systems, and study their periodic orbits in the presence of Zeno behavior-an infinite number of impacts occurring in finite time. The main result of this paper is explicit conditions under which the existence of stable periodic orbits for a Lagrangian hybrid system with perfectly plastic impacts implies the existence of periodic orbits in the same system with non-plastic impacts. Such periodic...

  5. Towards a systems approach for understanding honeybee decline: a stocktaking and synthesis of existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Matthias A; Osborne, Juliet L; Thorbek, Pernille; Kennedy, Peter J; Grimm, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The health of managed and wild honeybee colonies appears to have declined substantially in Europe and the United States over the last decade. Sustainability of honeybee colonies is important not only for honey production, but also for pollination of crops and wild plants alongside other insect pollinators. A combination of causal factors, including parasites, pathogens, land use changes and pesticide usage, are cited as responsible for the increased colony mortality.However, despite detailed knowledge of the behaviour of honeybees and their colonies, there are no suitable tools to explore the resilience mechanisms of this complex system under stress. Empirically testing all combinations of stressors in a systematic fashion is not feasible. We therefore suggest a cross-level systems approach, based on mechanistic modelling, to investigate the impacts of (and interactions between) colony and land management.We review existing honeybee models that are relevant to examining the effects of different stressors on colony growth and survival. Most of these models describe honeybee colony dynamics, foraging behaviour or honeybee - varroa mite - virus interactions.We found that many, but not all, processes within honeybee colonies, epidemiology and foraging are well understood and described in the models, but there is no model that couples in-hive dynamics and pathology with foraging dynamics in realistic landscapes. Synthesis and applications . We describe how a new integrated model could be built to simulate multifactorial impacts on the honeybee colony system, using building blocks from the reviewed models. The development of such a tool would not only highlight empirical research priorities but also provide an important forecasting tool for policy makers and beekeepers, and we list examples of relevant applications to bee disease and landscape management decisions.

  6. Austria: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Quentin, Wilm

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average. Income-related inequality in health has increased since 2005, although it is still relatively low compared to other countries. The health-care system has been shaped by both the federal structure of the state and a tradition of delegating responsibilities to self-governing stakeholders. On the one hand, this enables decentralized planning and governance, adjusted to local norms and preferences. On the other hand, it also leads to fragmentation of responsibilities and frequently results in inadequate coordination. For this reason, efforts have been made for several years to achieve more joint planning, governance and financing of the health-care system at the federal and regional level. As in any health system, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health-care system are well above the EU15 average, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of GDP. There are important structural imbalances in healthcare provision, with an oversized hospital sector and insufficient resources available for ambulatory care and preventive medicine. This is coupled with stark regional differences in utilization, both in curative services (hospital beds and specialist physicians) and preventative services such as preventive health check-ups, outpatient rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care and nursing. There are clear social inequalities in the use of medical services, such as preventive health check-ups, immunization or dentistry

  7. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper.\\ Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  8. The existence of generalized synchronisation of three bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Hua, Hu; Zhen-Yuan, Xu; Liu-Xiao, Guo

    2010-01-01

    The existence of two types of generalized synchronisation is studied. The model considered here includes three bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems, and two of them denote the driving systems, while the rest stands for the response system. Under certain conditions, the existence of generalised synchronisation can be turned to a problem of compression fixed point in the family of Lipschitz functions. In addition, theoretical proofs are proposed to the exponential attractive property of generalised synchronisation manifold. Numerical simulations validate the theory. (general)

  9. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  10. The role of fusion power in energy scenarios. Proposed method and review of existing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P; Ybema, J.R.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    The European Commission wishes more insight in the potential role of fusion energy in the second half of the 21st century. Therefore, several scenario studies are carried out in the so-called macro-task Long Term Scenarios to investigate the potential role of fusion power in the energy system. The main contribution of ECN to the macro-task is to perform a long term energy scenario study for Western Europe with special focus on the role of fusion power. This interim report gives some methodological considerations for such an analysis. A discussion is given on the problems related to the long time horizon of the scenario study such as the forecast of technological innovations, the selection of appropriate discount rates and the links with climate change. Key parameters which are expected to have large effects on the role and cost-effectiveness are discussed in general terms. The key parameters to be varied include level and structure of energy demand, availability and prices of fossil energy, CO2 reduction policy, discount rates, cost and potential of renewable energy sources, availability of fission power and CO2 capture and disposal and the cost and the maximum rate of market growth of fusion power. The scenario calculations are to be performed later in the project with the help of an existing cost minimisation model of the Western European energy system. This MARKAL model is briefly introduced. The results of the model calculations are expected to make clear under which combinations of scenario parameters fusion power is needed and how large the expected financial benefits will be. The present interim report also gives an evaluation of existing energy scenarios with respect to the role of fusion power. 18 refs

  11. Existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of microwave heating of biologic issue is discussed. Using the Green function approach we establish the existence and uniqueness of solution. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 177-180 ...

  12. Alternative farrowing accommodation: welfare and economic aspects of existing farrowing and lactation systems for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E M; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2012-01-01

    There is growing societal pressure, expressed through government legislation and consumers' purchasing choices, to abolish livestock systems considered detrimental to farm animal welfare. Such systems include farrowing crates, which are behaviourally and physically restrictive for sows. Therefore, identifying less restrictive farrowing systems for commercial implementation has become an important focus of pig research. Despite numerous attempts to develop indoor alternatives to crates, there is as yet no universal acceptance of such systems at the commercial level. The primary concern is piglet survival, because often favourable figures are reported at the experimental level, but not replicated in commercial evaluation. Alternative farrowing systems should equal or surpass survival levels in conventional systems and perform consistently across a range of farm circumstances for widespread commercial implementation. In addition, it is important that alternatives consider ease of management, operator safety and economic sustainability. Utilising a large database of literature, 12 existing alternative indoor systems were identified and compared against each other, conventional crates and outdoor systems. An assessment of how well alternative systems satisfy the design criteria for meeting animals' biological needs was carried out by developing a welfare design index (WDI). The physical and financial performance of these systems was also evaluated and summarised. The derived WDI yielded values of 0.95 for conventional crates, with higher scores for commercial outdoor systems of 1.10 and indoor group farrowing or multi-suckling systems (e.g. Thorstensson = 2.20). However, the high total piglet mortality (23.7% ± s.e. 2.26) in indoor group systems compared with conventional crates (18.3% ± s.e. 0.63) and outdoor systems (17.0% ± s.e. 2.05), together with the added capital cost (92% more than conventional crates, 249% more than commercial outdoor huts), mainly as a

  13. The Review-of-Particle-Properties system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Berkeley Particle Data Group is engaged in a major modernization of its primary project, the Review of Particle Properties, a compilation of experimental data on elementary particles. The goal of this modernization is to develop an integrated system for data storage, manipulation, interactive access and publication using modern technqiues for database management, text processing and phototypesetting. The existing system and the plans for modernization are described. The group's other projects and the computer systems used are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Higher Education's Role in Educating for Personal and Social Responsibility: A Review of Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Ryder, Andrew J.; Kee, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the existing literature in two major areas. A review of literature related to higher education's mission to educate for personal and social responsibility provides a rationale to refocus our collective attention on this important area of student learning and development. The chapter also reviews the current understanding…

  15. Value and limitations of existing scores for the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a review for clinicians.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2009-09-29

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the biggest causes of death worldwide. In most people, CVD is the product of a number of causal risk factors. Several seemingly modest risk factors may, in combination, result in a much higher risk than an impressively raised single factor. For this reason, risk estimation systems have been developed to assist clinicians to assess the effects of risk factor combinations in planning management strategies. In this article, the performances of the major risk estimation systems are reviewed. Most perform usably well in populations that are similar to the one used to derive the system, and in other populations if calibrated to allow for different CVD mortality rates and different risk factor distributions. The effect of adding "new" risk factors to age, sex, smoking, lipid status, and blood pressure is usually small, but may help to appropriately reclassify some of those patients who are close to a treatment threshold to a more correct "treat\\/do not treat" category. Risk estimation in the young and old needs more research. Quantification of the hoped-for benefits of the multiple risk estimation approach in terms of improved outcomes is still needed. But, it is likely that the widespread use of such an approach will help to address the issues of both undertreatment and overtreatment.

  16. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” was threefold: 1) presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; 2) allow creating a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; 3) once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities are discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  17. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” is threefold: first, it is intended for presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; second, it will allow to create a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; third, once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities will be discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  18. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  19. Existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on IRN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanheng; Li Shujie.

    1993-10-01

    The existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on R N is demonstrated using a compact embedding lemma which enables the application of standard critical theory for such problems. 7 refs

  20. Large-scale integration of wind power into the existing Chinese energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    stability, the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing Chinese energy system is approximately 26% from both technical and economic points of view. A fuel efficiency decrease occurred when increasing wind power penetration in the system, due to its rigid power supply structure and the task......This paper presents the ability of the existing Chinese energy system to integrate wind power and explores how the Chinese energy system needs to prepare itself in order to integrate more fluctuating renewable energy in the future. With this purpose in mind, a model of the Chinese energy system has...... been constructed by using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which has then been used for investigating three issues. Firstly, the accuracy of the model itself has been examined and then the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing energy system has been identified. Finally, barriers...

  1. Evidence for the Existing American Nurses Association-Recognized Standardized Nursing Terminologies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Sevinc; Linch, Graciele C. F.; Keenan, Gail M.; Stifter, Janet; McKinney, Dawn; Fahey, Linda; Dunn Lopez, Karen; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the state of the science for the five standardized nursing terminology sets in terms of level of evidence and study focus. Design Systematic Review. Data sources Keyword search of PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from 1960s to March 19, 2012 revealed 1,257 publications. Review Methods From abstract review we removed duplicate articles, those not in English or with no identifiable standardized nursing terminology, and those with a low-level of evidence. From full text review of the remaining 312 articles, eight trained raters used a coding system to record standardized nursing terminology names, publication year, country, and study focus. Inter-rater reliability confirmed the level of evidence. We analyzed coded results. Results On average there were 4 studies per year between 1985 and 1995. The yearly number increased to 14 for the decade between 1996–2005, 21 between 2006–2010, and 25 in 2011. Investigators conducted the research in 27 countries. By evidence level for the 312 studies 72.4% were descriptive, 18.9% were observational, and 8.7% were intervention studies. Of the 312 reports, 72.1% focused on North American Nursing Diagnosis-International, Nursing Interventions Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, or some combination of those three standardized nursing terminologies; 9.6% on Omaha System; 7.1% on International Classification for Nursing Practice; 1.6% on Clinical Care Classification/Home Health Care Classification; 1.6% on Perioperative Nursing Data Set; and 8.0% on two or more standardized nursing terminology sets. There were studies in all 10 foci categories including those focused on concept analysis/classification infrastructure (n = 43), the identification of the standardized nursing terminology concepts applicable to a health setting from registered nurses’ documentation (n = 54), mapping one terminology to another (n = 58), implementation of standardized nursing terminologies into electronic health

  2. Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

  3. An assessment of The Capacity Drops at The Bottleneck Segments: A review on the existing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term of capacity is very useful to quantify the ability of transport facilities in terms of carrying traffic. The capacity of the road is an essential ingredient in the planning, design, and operation of roadways. It is desirable for traffic analyst to be able to predict the time and places where congestion will occur and the volumes to be expected. Most of urbanized areas have been experiencing of traffic congestion problems particularly at urban arterial systems. High traffic demand and limited supply of roadways are always the main factors produced traffic congestion. However, there are other sources of local and temporal congestion, such as uncontrolled access point, median opening and on-street parking activities, which are caused a reduction of roadway capacity during peak operations. Those locations could result in reduction of travel speed and road, as known as hidden bottlenecks. This is bottleneck which is without any changes in geometric of the segments. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM, 1997 is used to assess urban arterial systems till current days. IHCM provides a static method for examining the capacityand does not systematically take into account of bottleneck activities. However, bottleneck activities create interruption smooth traffic flow along arterial streets, which in turns stimulate related problems, such as, excessive air pollution, additional energy consumption and driver’s frustration due to traffic jammed. This condition could happen simultaneously; mostly repetitive and predictable in same peak hour demands. Therefore, this paper carefully summarize on the existing methodologies considering required data, handled data processing and expected output of each proposed of analysis. We further notice that dynamic approach could be more appropriated for analyzing temporal congestion segments (median opening, on street parking, etc.. Method of oblique cumulative plot seems to be more applicable in terms of

  4. A computer-assisted proof for the existence of horseshoe in a novel chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenjuan; Chen Zengqiang; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a novel chaotic system are studied, and a rigorous computer-assisted proof for existence of horseshoe in this system is given. A Poincare section is properly chosen to obtain the Poincare map, which is proved to be semi-conjugate to the 4-shift map by utilizing topological horseshoe theory. This implies the entropy of the system is no less than log 4, and the system definitely exhibits chaos.

  5. Numerical investigation into the existence of limit cycles in two-dimensional predator�prey systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quay van der Hoff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in developing and analysing models of interacting species in ecosystems, with specific interest in investigating the existence of limit cycles in systems describing the dynamics of these species. The original Lotka–Volterra model does not possess any limit cycles. In recent years this model has been modified to take disturbances into consideration and allow populations to return to their original numbers. By introducing logistic growth and a Holling Type II functional response to the traditional Lotka–Volterra-type models, it has been proven analytically that a unique, stable limit cycle exists. These proofs make use of Dulac functions, Liénard equations and invariant regions, relying on theory developed by Poincaré, Poincaré-Bendixson, Dulac and Liénard, and are generally perceived as difficult. Computer algebra systems are ideally suited to apply numerical methods to confirm or refute the analytical findings with respect to the existence of limit cycles in non-linear systems. In this paper a class of predator–prey models of a Gause type is used as the vehicle to illustrate the use of a simple, yet novel numerical algorithm. This algorithm confirms graphically the existence of at least one limit cycle that has analytically been proven to exist. Furthermore, adapted versions of the proposed algorithm may be applied to dynamic systems where it is difficult, if not impossible, to prove analytically the existence of limit cycles.

  6. Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with several delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haihui; Xia Yonghui; Lin Muren

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by using Mawhin coincidence degree, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a mutualism systems with bounded and unbounded delays. Our results generalize significantly improve those of Gopalsamy and He [Gopalsamy K, He XZ. Persistence, attractivity, and delay in facultative mutualism. J Math Anal Appl 1997;215:154-73], Yang et al. [Yang F, Jiang D, Ying A. Existence of positive solution of multidelays facultative mutualism system. J Eng Math 2002;3:64-8], Chen et al. [Chen FD, Shi JL, Chen XX. Periodicity in Lotka-Volterra facultative mutualism system with several delays. J Eng Math 2004;21(3)] and Xia and Lin [Xia YH, Lin M, Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with infinite delays. Ann Diff Eqs 2005;21(3):448-53

  7. On existence of soliton solutions of arbitrary-order system of nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestkov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    The soliton solutions are constructed for the system of arbitrary-order coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations . The necessary and sufficient conditions of existence of these solutions are obtained. It is shown that the maximum number of solitons in nondegenerate case is 4L, where L is order of the system. (author)

  8. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solution for competition-predator system with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongyong; Ding Nan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Lotka-Volterra competition-predator system with variable delays is considered. Some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global attractivity of periodic solution for this system are obtained by using coincidence degree theory and Lyapunov functional method. An example is also worked out to demonstrate the advantages of our results

  9. Integration of 128 channels for monitoring, acquisition and control with existing LHCD DAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Virani, Chetan; Wadhwani, Archana; Sharma, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) data acquisition system needs to be upgraded for additional channel requirement. The existing VME based DAC has been used since long with 32 analog input channels for data monitoring and control. Additional 128 channels require integrating with existing DAC. There are four layers of waveguides which deliver final output power into tokamak. Each layer requires 32 channels for power measurement. For the same requirement 128 analog input channels have been integrated with the help of carrier board and IP modules. Acromag IP330 modules have been procured and finally integrated with additional carrier board with existing VME hardware. Each module provides 32 analog input channels. Device driver has been developed for each module and integrated with existing program. LHCD DAC system has been upgraded with additional 128 channels requirement. It has been successfully testing with recent SST-1 campaign. (author)

  10. Regulatory categories of probiotics across the globe: A review representing existing and recommended categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are friendly live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria that are similar to beneficial micro-organisms found in the human gut, whenever consumed, have potential to confer benefit to the health of consumers by maintaining, or improving their intestinal microbial flora and are available to consumers mainly in the form of dietary supplements and foods. All-time high interest in the field of probiotics is due to emerging probiotic industry. Probiotics are available in foods and dietary supplements, even as pharmaceutical formulations (capsules, tablets and powders and in some other forms as well, but their claims of health benefits may challenge the traditional border between food and medicine. A number of probiotic products have been already introduced into the international market as food supplements, dietary supplements, natural health products, functional foods and many more other categories; as a result, the position of regulatory system for probiotics within existing categories become vague and quite unclear. Common terminology for probiotic products has become a necessity to achieve adequate regulatory control for discussion of probiotic-related issues among government, producers and consumers. The lack of a consistent terminology across the globe leads to legal uncertainty and confusion instead of being a direct obstacle for development of a mature market. This article will explain differences in regulatory categorizations across the globe; discuss the terms like food and drugs with a close relationship to probiotics, the problems associated with unsatisfactorily approached categorization as well as suggestive consolidations for the new categorization which will demarcate probiotics into categories explaining their nutritive claims, health claims or both.

  11. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  12. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  13. Training Standards Statements of Family Medicine Postgraduate Training - A Review of Existing Documents Worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Flum

    Full Text Available For the effective and safe management of complex care needs for patients in community settings, high quality family medicine (FM training programmes are needed. In less primary care oriented countries, training standards statements for FM postgraduate training are less commonly found. The aim of this study was to review international training standards statements in FM postgraduate training and to catalogue these statements to be used as a best practice standard guide for FM training programs in Germany.A structured three-tiered search was performed: a systematic literature search in MEDLINE®; a search of international indicator databases; and a search in grey literature, consisting of a survey of international experts and a search in "Google (Scholar". From all identified documents, training standards statements were extracted, translated and summarized into categories referring to the same quality aspect.The search strategy revealed 25 relevant documents (MEDLINE® n = 15, databases n = 2, experts n = 7, "Google" n = 1, containing 337 training standards statements. These were summarized into 80 statements. They covered structure quality (n = 35; process quality (n = 43; and two training standards statements referred to outcome quality (n = 2.A broad range of internationally sourced training standards statements for FM postgraduate training could be identified from countries with well-established primary care systems. Only few statements internationally referred to outcome quality, expressing the difficulty in assessing outcome. The resulting inventory of training standards statements for FM postgraduate training can serve as a resource for institutions seeking to formalise and systematise FM training at regional or national levels.

  14. Existence and exponential stability of traveling waves for delayed reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng; Yu, Zhixian

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence and exponential stability of traveling wave solutions for general delayed multi-component reaction-diffusion systems. Following the monotone iteration scheme via an explicit construction of a pair of upper and lower solutions, we first obtain the existence of monostable traveling wave solutions connecting two different equilibria. Then, applying the techniques of weighted energy method and comparison principle, we show that all solutions of the Cauchy problem for the considered systems converge exponentially to traveling wave solutions provided that the initial perturbations around the traveling wave fronts belong to a suitable weighted Sobolev space.

  15. Seismic evaluation of existing liquid low level waste system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C.R.; Holmes, R.M.; Kincaid, J.H.; Singhal, M.K.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The existing liquid low level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to collect, neutralize, concentrate, and store the radioactive and toxic waste from various sources at the Laboratory. The waste solutions are discharged from source facilities to individual collection tanks, transferred by underground piping to an evaporator facility for concentration, and pumped through the underground piping to storage in underground tanks. The existing LLLW system was installed in the 1950s with several system additions up to the present. The worst-case accident postulated is an earthquake of sufficient magnitude to rupture the tanks and/or piping so as to damage the containment integrity to the surrounding soil and environment. The objective of an analysis of the system is to provide a level of confidence in the seismic resistance of the LLLW system to withstand the postulated earthquake

  16. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  17. About binding conditions for a system of three fermions and impossibility of existence of a trineutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byidasyuk, Yu.M.; Simenog, Yi.V.; Simenog, Yi.V.

    2007-01-01

    Conditions of the existence of a three-fermion bound state are investigated for the states with nonzero angular momentum L = 1 and a wide class of interaction potentials. It is shown that the binding of three fermions with purely attractive potentials or the standard attractive potentials at high distances and a short-range repulsion is impossible if two of the fermions are unbound. Moreover, this system is even farther from a bound state when the parameters of potentials are in agreement with the low-energy two-neutron data. The possibility for a bound state of a three-fermion system with L = 1 without bound subsystems to exist is demonstrated for the potentials with two attractive regimes. But there exists no bound trineutron for the realistic neutron-neutron interaction even with two regimes of attractions, in contrast to a tetraneutron considered in [9

  18. Using Existing Response Repertoires to Make Sense of Information System Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of information systems (IS) in organizations often triggers new situations in which users experience a disruption of existing work patterns and routines. Sensemaking becomes central in making users’ meanings explicit, serving as a foundation for further actions and interactions...... with the new technology. The purpose of this paper is to study how users make sense of new technologies by building on existing response repertoires. Empirically, we present findings from a study of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system implementation in two Danish hospital wards. Our findings illustrate...... to existing literature by providing a detailed account of how users’ early sensemaking of a technology influences their subsequent actions and reactions towards it. Our findings support managers in understanding users’ perceptions of a new technology, helping them in planning and executing the implementation...

  19. Incorporation of Markov reliability models for digital instrumentation and control systems into existing PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, P.; Mangan, L. A.; Kirschenbaum, J.; Mandelli, D.; Aldemir, T.; Arndt, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Markov models have the ability to capture the statistical dependence between failure events that can arise in the presence of complex dynamic interactions between components of digital instrumentation and control systems. One obstacle to the use of such models in an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is that most of the currently available PRA software is based on the static event-tree/fault-tree methodology which often cannot represent such interactions. We present an approach to the integration of Markov reliability models into existing PRAs by describing the Markov model of a digital steam generator feedwater level control system, how dynamic event trees (DETs) can be generated from the model, and how the DETs can be incorporated into an existing PRA with the SAPHIRE software. (authors)

  20. A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the

  1. MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN ELDERLY WITH POLYPHARMACY LIVING AT HOME: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF EXISTING STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelko, Erika; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Tusek-Bunc, Ksenija

    2016-04-01

    We wanted to systematically review the available evidence to evaluate the drug adherence in elderly with polypharmacy living at home. We performed a literature search using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Springer Link, Sage Journals and CINAHL. We used the following terms: Medication Adherence, Medication Compliance, Polypharmacy, and Elderly. The search was limited to English-language articles. We included only clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and cross-sectional studies. A total of seven articles were included in this systematic review after applying the search strategy. Six studies dealt with the prevalence of medication adherence and its correlates in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. Two studies dealt with the effect of various interventions on medication adherence in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. The available literature on the polypharmacy and drug adherence in elderly living at home is scarce and further studies are needed.

  2. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122 and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...

  3. On existence of control for a class of uncertain dynamical systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we prove the existence of control for input bounded uncertain dynamical system, modeled on Euclidean spaces of dimensions n and m. We apply the Conjugate Gradient Method (C.G.M) in generating algorithms to compute control signals for the class of problem under consideration. Keywords: Control ...

  4. Residential dynamics: the co-existence of formal and informal systems in Khartoum, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the residential dynamics in Khartoum, Sudan. Some patterns demonstrate that formal and informal systems co-exist and are mutually supportive. There are also particular spatial manifestations that have resulted from a unique socio...

  5. On real-time assessment of post-emergency condition existence in complex electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vladimir I. [Irkutsk State Technical University 83, Lermontov Street, Irkutsk 664074 (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents two effective numerical criteria of estimating post-emergency operating conditions' non-existence in complicated electric power systems. These criteria are based on mathematic and programming tools of the regularized quadratic descent method and the regularized two-parameter minimization method. The proposed criteria can be effectively applied in calculations of real-time electric operating conditions. (author)

  6. Using system theory and energy methods to prove existence of non-linear PDE's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this discussion paper we present an idea of combining techniques known from systems theory with energy estimates to show existence for a class of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE's). At the end of the paper a list of research questions with possible approaches is given.

  7. 75 FR 17938 - Privacy Act of 1974; Deletion of an Existing System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Deletion of an Existing System of Records AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services... address comments to: Policy Director, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service (BCRS), Health Resources...

  8. Barriers to installing innovative energy systems in existing housing stock identified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several barriers to upgrading existing social housing with innovative energy systems (IES) have been identified by a study of eight large-scale renovation projects in the Netherlands. These include a lack of trust between stakeholders, opposition from tenants on grounds of increased costs or delays,

  9. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  10. Investigation of existing financial incentive policies for solar photovoltaic systems in U.S. regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some of the existing incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV energy generation in the U.S. Four types of buildings (e.g., hospitals, large offices, large hotels, and secondary schools located in five different U.S. states, each having their own incentives, are selected and analyzed for the PV incentive policies. The payback period of the PV system is chosen as an indicator to analyze and critique the effectiveness of each incentive by comparing the payback periods before and after taking the incentive into consideration. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to determine the influence of the variation in key parameters, such as PV system capacity, capital cost of PV, sell back ratio and the performance-based incentive rate, on the performance of the PV system. The results show how the existing incentives can be effectively used to promote the PV systems in the U.S. and how variations of the parameters can impact the payback period of the PV systems. Through the evaluation of the existing incentive policies and the parametric study, this paper demonstrates that the type and level of incentives should be carefully determined in policy-making processes to effectively promote the PV systems.

  11. Work-life integration in neuropsychology: a review of the existing literature and preliminary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigon, Maia; Block, Cady; Guidotti Breting, Leslie; Boxley, Laura; Dawson, Erica; Cobia, Derin

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the current review paper is to identify and describe challenges to work-life integration in neuropsychology, and from this review extrapolate an initial set of recommendations and present a set of scenarios in which the recommendations might apply in the hopes of improving quality of life for current and prospective neuropsychologists. Specific areas of focus include diversity, early and mid-career transitions, and potential barriers to advancement in specific practice settings. A broad review was conducted of extant literature on work-life integration. There is scant scientific literature in this area that is specific to neuropsychologists, or even psychology as a whole. Subsequently, the majority of this review was collected from more developed literatures in business and medical fields. The authors then provided recommendations based on experiences in their respective careers. Attempts were made to promote generalizability of recommendations for neuropsychologists in different settings. Evidence supports a potentially adverse impact on quality of life and overall life satisfaction when work and personal lives conflict. This manuscript identifies some of the potential risks when work and life responsibilities are not well integrated. It is anticipated this will serve as a catalyst for future studies on work-life integration in the field of neuropsychology, specifically.

  12. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnam, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  13. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  14. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for Coupled Systems of Higher-Order Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study an initial value problem for a coupled Caputo type nonlinear fractional differential system of higher order. As a first problem, the nonhomogeneous terms in the coupled fractional differential system depend on the fractional derivatives of lower orders only. Then the nonhomogeneous terms in the fractional differential system are allowed to depend on the unknown functions together with the fractional derivative of lower orders. Our method of analysis is based on the reduction of the given system to an equivalent system of integral equations. Applying the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder, we prove the existence of solutions of the fractional differential system. The uniqueness of solutions of the fractional differential system is established by using the Banach contraction principle. An illustrative example is also presented.

  15. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  16. Belgium: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkens, Sophie; Merkur, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long life expectancy. This is partly due to good access to health services of high quality. Financing is based mostly on proportional social security contributions and progressive direct taxation. The compulsory health insurance is combined with a mostly private system of health care delivery, based on independent medical practice, free choice of physician and predominantly fee-for-service payment. This Belgian HiT profile (2010) presents the evolution of the health system since 2007, including detailed information on new policies. While no drastic reforms were undertaken during this period, policy-makers have pursued the goals of improving access to good quality of care while making the system sustainable. Reforms to increase the accessibility of the health system include measures to reduce the out-of-pocket payments of more vulnerable populations (low-income families and individuals as well as the chronically ill). Quality of care related reforms have included incentives to better integrate different levels of care and the establishment of information systems, among others. Additionally, several measures on pharmaceutical products have aimed to reduce costs for both the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (NIHDI) and patients, while maintaining the quality of care. World Health Organization 2010, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.

  17. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura Dwyer,1 April Oh,2 Heather Patrick,1,3 Erin Hennessy4 1Health Behaviors Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Live Healthier, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Clinical Research Directorate/Clinical Monitoring Research Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA Abstract: Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were

  18. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    . The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area.......This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low...

  19. Management of industrial sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions in Alberta - description of the existing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, W.S.; Bietz, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In addition to being key primary air contaminants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are also major contributors to acidic deposition. The current management system for controlling industrial sources of SO(2) and NO(x) emissions in Alberta was developed in the late 1960s/early 1970s. The focus is on control of point source emissions through the use of appropriate technology. The approach taken for managing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions is similar to the approach taken to other industrial air and wastewater pollutants in Alberta. It is a command and control regulatory system. There are three main industry categories in Alberta which emit SO(2): sour gas processing, oil sand plants and thermal power plants. For NO(x) emissions, the two main categories with emissions: are natural gas production and thermal power plants. The two main goals of the existing industrial air quality management systems are to ensire that: (1) emissions from industrial facilities are minimized through the use of best available demonstrated technology, and (2) ambient levels of air contaminants in the vicinity of industrial facilities do not exceed Alberta guidelines. The four main policies which support these two goals of the existing management system are described. There are a number of key components of the existing management system including: ambient guideline levels, source emission standards, plume dispersion modelling, ambient air and source emission monitoring, environmental reporting, emission inventories, and approvals. 32 refs., 13 figs

  20. Sexuality and elderly with chronic diseases: A review of the existing literature

    OpenAIRE

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Pirak, Arezoo; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Rezasoltani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased life expectancy and the growing phenomenon of aging can lead to increased burden of chronic diseases (CDs) which adversely affects the overall health of elderly, their sexuality in particular. Sexual life of an aged population is overlooked in many of the societies. In the present narrative review, we aim to assess the impact of CDs on sexual function of elderly people. Materials and Methods: We used internet databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Google...

  1. Global Existence Analysis of Cross-Diffusion Population Systems for Multiple Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuqing; Daus, Esther S.; Jüngel, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    The existence of global-in-time weak solutions to reaction-cross-diffusion systems for an arbitrary number of competing population species is proved. The equations can be derived from an on-lattice random-walk model with general transition rates. In the case of linear transition rates, it extends the two-species population model of Shigesada, Kawasaki, and Teramoto. The equations are considered in a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. The existence proof is based on a refined entropy method and a new approximation scheme. Global existence follows under a detailed balance or weak cross-diffusion condition. The detailed balance condition is related to the symmetry of the mobility matrix, which mirrors Onsager's principle in thermodynamics. Under detailed balance (and without reaction) the entropy is nonincreasing in time, but counter-examples show that the entropy may increase initially if detailed balance does not hold.

  2. Review of NJ point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of point-based versus incident-based : negligent driver monitoring systems and to explore how certain changes to the existing point-based system used in : New Jersey might impr...

  3. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Review of Existing Geospatial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report features the geospatial data component of a larger project evaluating logistical and infrastructure requirements for transporting oversized and overweight (OSOW) wind components. The goal of the larger project was to assess the status and opportunities for improving the infrastructure and regulatory practices necessary to transport wind turbine towers, blades, and nacelles from current and potential manufacturing facilities to end-use markets. The purpose of this report is to summarize existing geospatial data on wind component transportation infrastructure and to provide a data gap analysis, identifying areas for further analysis and data collection.

  4. A review of portal screen-film technology and five radiologists' evaluations of some existing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M A; Steinheimer, D N; Weir, V A; Homco, L D; Green, R W; Morris, E L; Hess, M E

    1999-01-01

    Portal radiographs, radiographs made to document the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment fields, are typically of poor image contrast. Recently, a new portal film and screened-cassette system was marketed, the Kodak EC-L system, with the claim of greatly improved image contrast. This new EC-L system was tested on a canine cadaver exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy gamma radiation, and image quality was compared to earlier marketed Kodak portal film products. The EC-L system was found to provide portal images of improved contrast/quality.

  5. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  6. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: placing an equity lens on existing systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petticrew Mark

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With smoking increasingly confined to lower socio-economic groups, the tobacco control community has been urged to identify which population-level tobacco control interventions work in order to help tackle smoking-related health inequalities. Systematic reviews have a crucial role to play in this task. This overview was therefore carried out in order to (i summarise the evidence from existing systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions, and (ii assess the need for a new systematic review of primary studies, with the aim of assessing the differential effects of such interventions. Methods Systematic review methods were used to evaluate existing systematic reviews that assessed a population-level tobacco control intervention and which reported characteristics of included participants in terms of at least one socio-demographic or socio-economic factor. Results Nineteen systematic reviews were included. Four reviews assessed interventions aimed at the population level alone, whilst fifteen included at least one primary study that examined this type of intervention. Four reviews assessed youth access restrictions, one assessed the effects of increasing the unit price of tobacco, and six assessed smoking bans or restrictions. Of the eight remaining reviews, six assessed multi-component community based interventions, in which the population-level interventions were part of a wider tobacco control programme, and two assessed the impact of smoking bans or restrictions in reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. We found tentative evidence that the effect of increasing the unit price of tobacco products may vary between ethnic and socio-economic groups, and between males and females. However, differences in the context and the results of different reviews made it difficult to draw any firm conclusions. Few identified reviews explicitly attempted to examine differences in intervention effects between

  7. On the Existence of Regular and Irregular Outer Moons Orbiting the Pluto–Charon System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.; Grishin, Evgeni [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200004 (Israel)

    2017-02-10

    The dwarf planet Pluto is known to host an extended system of five co-planar satellites. Previous studies have explored the formation and evolution of the system in isolation, neglecting perturbative effects by the Sun. Here we show that secular evolution due to the Sun can strongly affect the evolution of outer satellites and rings in the system, if such exist. Although precession due to extended gravitational potential from the inner Pluto–Charon binary quench such secular evolution up to a {sub crit} ∼ 0.0035 au (∼0.09 R {sub Hill} the Hill radius; including all of the currently known satellites), outer orbits can be significantly altered. In particular, we find that co-planar rings and satellites should not exist beyond a {sub crit}; rather, satellites and dust particles in these regions secularly evolve on timescales ranging between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} years, and quasi-periodically change their inclinations and eccentricities through secular evolution (Lidov–Kozai oscillations). Such oscillations can lead to high inclinations and eccentricities, constraining the range where such satellites (and dust particles) can exist without crossing the orbits of the inner satellites or crossing the outer Hill stability range. Outer satellites, if such exist are therefore likely to be irregular satellites, with orbits limited to be non-circular and/or highly inclined. Current observations, including the recent data from the New-Horizons mission explored only inner regions (<0.0012 au) and excluded the existence of additional satellites; however, the irregular satellites discussed here should reside farther, in the yet uncharted regions around Pluto.

  8. On the Existence of Regular and Irregular Outer Moons Orbiting the Pluto–Charon System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.; Grishin, Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    The dwarf planet Pluto is known to host an extended system of five co-planar satellites. Previous studies have explored the formation and evolution of the system in isolation, neglecting perturbative effects by the Sun. Here we show that secular evolution due to the Sun can strongly affect the evolution of outer satellites and rings in the system, if such exist. Although precession due to extended gravitational potential from the inner Pluto–Charon binary quench such secular evolution up to a crit ∼ 0.0035 au (∼0.09 R Hill the Hill radius; including all of the currently known satellites), outer orbits can be significantly altered. In particular, we find that co-planar rings and satellites should not exist beyond a crit ; rather, satellites and dust particles in these regions secularly evolve on timescales ranging between 10 4 and 10 6 years, and quasi-periodically change their inclinations and eccentricities through secular evolution (Lidov–Kozai oscillations). Such oscillations can lead to high inclinations and eccentricities, constraining the range where such satellites (and dust particles) can exist without crossing the orbits of the inner satellites or crossing the outer Hill stability range. Outer satellites, if such exist are therefore likely to be irregular satellites, with orbits limited to be non-circular and/or highly inclined. Current observations, including the recent data from the New-Horizons mission explored only inner regions (<0.0012 au) and excluded the existence of additional satellites; however, the irregular satellites discussed here should reside farther, in the yet uncharted regions around Pluto.

  9. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph; Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  10. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  11. Gene Electrotransfer to Skin; Review of Existing Literature and Clinical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A.; Gehl, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer, which designates the combination of gene transfer and electroporation, is a non-viral means for transfecting genes into cells and tissues. It is a safe and efficient method and reports regarding the use of this technique in a variety of animal models and organs have been...... to now more than 40 papers have been published in which gene electrotransfer was the technique used for gene transfection to skin in vivo. The aim of this review is to summarize which plasmids were injected and the electrical parameters applied. Furthermore an overview of the clinical perspectives...

  12. Distinguishing between hypochondriasis and somatization disorder: a review of the existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Russell; Stuart, Scott; Watson, David B; Langbehn, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    A valid classification is important for further understanding of the somatoform disorders. The main disorders in this grouping - somatization disorder and hypochondriasis - have lengthy historical traditions and are defined in a contrasting manner. Various authors point to distinguishing demographic and clinical features, but there have been few direct comparisons of patients with these disorders. A review of the literature indicates those domains where differences are most likely to be found. Research assessing these may serve to refine and validate these key somatoform categories and/or dimensions.

  13. Greece: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair

  14. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE TECHNICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF NUMERIC CODES AUTOMATIC BLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the characteristic features of the engineering control measures system of automatic block of numeric code, identifying their advantages and disadvantages, to analyze the possibility of their use in the problems of diagnosing status of the devices automatic block and setting targets for the development of new diagnostic systems. Methodology. In order to achieve targets the objective theoretical and analytical method and the method of functional analysis have been used. Findings. The analysis of existing and future facilities of the remote control and diagnostics automatic block devices had shown that the existing systems of diagnosis were not sufficiently informative, designed primarily to control the discrete parameters, which in turn did not allow them to construct a decision support subsystem. In developing of new systems of technical diagnostics it was proposed to use the principle of centralized distributed processing of diagnostic data, to include a subsystem support decision-making in to the diagnostics system, it will reduce the amount of work to maintain the devices blocking and reduce recovery time after the occurrence injury. Originality. As a result, the currently existing engineering controls facilities of automatic block can not provide a full assessment of the state distillation alarms and locks. Criteria for the development of new systems of technical diagnostics with increasing amounts of diagnostic information and its automatic analysis were proposed. Practical value. These results of the analysis can be used in practice in order to select the technical control of automatic block devices, as well as the further development of diagnostic systems automatic block that allows for a gradual transition from a planned preventive maintenance service model to the actual state of the monitored devices.

  15. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  16. Existence of Positive Solutions to a Boundary Value Problem for a Delayed Nonlinear Fractional Differential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Though boundary value problems for fractional differential equations have been extensively studied, most of the studies focus on scalar equations and the fractional order between 1 and 2. On the other hand, delay is natural in practical systems. However, not much has been done for fractional differential equations with delays. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a boundary value problem of a general delayed nonlinear fractional system. With the help of some fixed point theorems and the properties of the Green function, we establish several sets of sufficient conditions on the existence of positive solutions. The obtained results extend and include some existing ones and are illustrated with some examples for their feasibility.

  17. A Review of Avian Monitoring and Mitigation Information at Existing Utility-Scale Solar Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Souder, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are two basic types of solar energy technology: photovoltaic and concentrating solar power. As the number of utility-scale solar energy facilities using these technologies is expected to increase in the United States, so are the potential impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Recent attention is on the risk of fatality to birds. Understanding the current rates of avian mortality and existing monitoring requirements is an important first step in developing science-based mitigation and minimization protocols. The resulting information also allows a comparison of the avian mortality rates of utility-scale solar energy facilities with those from other technologies and sources, as well as the identification of data gaps and research needs. This report will present and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding avian issues at utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  18. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  19. Integration of a PAFC-Cogeneration Plant into an existing District-Heating-System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ulrich; Geiger, Bernd; Grohmann, Juergen

    1999-01-01

    The Studiengesellschaft Brennstoffzellen e. V. assigned in the middle of 1995 the Institutions ''Lehrstuhl fir Energiewirtschaft mid Kraftwerkstechnik (IfE)'' to design a concept to integrate an ONSI-PAFC Model C in an existing district heating system. The fuel cell generates about 200 kW electrical and 215 kW thermal power consuming 500 kW natural gas. In the case of complete use of thermal power the fuel cell surpasses the efficiency of conventional systems by about 30 %. The possibilities to install the fuel cell were investigated at three locations, two housing areas, one with 36.000 m2 the other with 60.000 m2 heated area, and one indoor pool. The heating systems are representative of the Federal Republic of Germany. It turned out that the integration of the fuel cell into the existing heating system might be difficult at each location, either the annual consumption of thermal energy was too low or the heating system was operating at a temperature level reducing the usable thermal power of the fuel cell. After further studies the larger housing area was selected, with the intention of using the thermal power of the fuel cell during the whole year and to get high thermal load factors. Some difficulties are caused by the temperature level of the heating system, which is 70/55 o C. (author)

  20. Thai student existing understanding about the solar system model and the motion of the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, Sakanan; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The paper examined Thai student existing understanding about the solar system model and the motion of the stars. The participants included 141 Grade 9 students in four different schools of the Surin province, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The tool of interpretation included the Student Celestial Motion Conception Questionnaire (SCMCQ) and informal interview. Given understandings in the SCMCQ were read through and categorized according to students' understandings. Then, students were further probed as informal interview. Students' understandings in each category were counted and percentages computed. Finally, students' understandings across four different schools were compared and contrasted using the percentage of student responses in each category. The findings revealed that most students understand about Sun-Moon-Earth (SME) system and solar system model as well, they can use scientific explanations to explain the celestial objects in solar system and how they orbiting. Unfortunately, most of students (more than 70%) never know about the Polaris, the North Star, and 90.1% of them never know about the ecliptic, and probably also the 12 zodiac constellations. These existing understanding suggested some ideas of teaching and learning about solar system model and the motion of the stars. The paper, then, discussed some learning activities to enhance students to further construct meaning about solar system model and the motion of the stars.

  1. Simple microprocessor-based system for upgrading existing X-ray equipment for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.M. de

    1986-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing device appropriate for X-ray analysis and goniometer control was built. A conventional Z-80 based systems was used, and the interfacing architeture and the applicable soft-ware are described. The advantages and new possibilities of the automated instrument as compared to previous ones are listed. It is shown that the X-ray diffraction and fluorescence techniques can take advantage of the automation using existing instruments. (Author) [pt

  2. Co-existing hidden attractors in a radio-physical oscillator system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Kuznetsov, S. P.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The term `hidden attractor' relates to a stable periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic state whose basin of attraction does not overlap with the neighborhood of an unstable equilibrium point. Considering a three-dimensional oscillator system that does not allow for the existence of an equilibrium point...... frequency, describe the bifurcations through which hidden attractors of different type arise and disappear, and illustrate the form of the basins of attraction....

  3. General conditions for the existence of non-standard Lagrangians for dissipative dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musielak, Z.E.

    2009-01-01

    Equations of motion describing dissipative dynamical systems with coefficients varying either in time or in space are considered. To identify the equations that admit a Lagrangian description, two classes of non-standard Lagrangians are introduced and general conditions required for the existence of these Lagrangians are determined. The conditions are used to obtain some non-standard Lagrangians and derive equations of motion resulting from these Lagrangians.

  4. Sexuality and elderly with chronic diseases: A review of the existing literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Pirak, Arezoo; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Rezasoltani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased life expectancy and the growing phenomenon of aging can lead to increased burden of chronic diseases (CDs) which adversely affects the overall health of elderly, their sexuality in particular. Sexual life of an aged population is overlooked in many of the societies. In the present narrative review, we aim to assess the impact of CDs on sexual function of elderly people. Materials and Methods: We used internet databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, IPPF, and UNFPA without time limit. Ninety-eight out of 174 relevant articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria: those articles were research-based in English or Persian (original or review articles) and textbooks; specified one or more CDs and sexual function of the cases; elderly people over the age of sixty, men and women; and coordination between articles and research goals. We excluded qualitative and case studies. We reported the most related CDs with sexual function in literature review and used the biological and psychological impact of the CDs on sexual function of elderly population based on the conceptual model of Verschuren et al. (2010). Results: The results of the studies were classified into the themes including physical, psychological, and cultural and social. Diabetes, cardiovascular, cancerous, and chronic respiratory diseases and also some medications can reduce sexual capacity and desire in particular resulting in negative impact on the quality of elderly sexual life. CDs may influence sexual expressions and responses which adversely affect one's mood and energy so that can cause depression and grief, as well as loss of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-concept in elderly adults. The factors affecting sexuality of an elderly with CDs include cultural and mythical beliefs about age and illnesses, fear, and embarrass of changed physical appearance. The research conducted among elderly population examining

  5. Sexuality and elderly with chronic diseases: A review of the existing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Merghati-Khoei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased life expectancy and the growing phenomenon of aging can lead to increased burden of chronic diseases (CDs which adversely affects the overall health of elderly, their sexuality in particular. Sexual life of an aged population is overlooked in many of the societies. In the present narrative review, we aim to assess the impact of CDs on sexual function of elderly people. Materials and Methods: We used internet databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, IPPF, and UNFPA without time limit. Ninety-eight out of 174 relevant articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria: those articles were research-based in English or Persian (original or review articles and textbooks; specified one or more CDs and sexual function of the cases; elderly people over the age of sixty, men and women; and coordination between articles and research goals. We excluded qualitative and case studies. We reported the most related CDs with sexual function in literature review and used the biological and psychological impact of the CDs on sexual function of elderly population based on the conceptual model of Verschuren et al. (2010. Results: The results of the studies were classified into the themes including physical, psychological, and cultural and social. Diabetes, cardiovascular, cancerous, and chronic respiratory diseases and also some medications can reduce sexual capacity and desire in particular resulting in negative impact on the quality of elderly sexual life. CDs may influence sexual expressions and responses which adversely affect one's mood and energy so that can cause depression and grief, as well as loss of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-concept in elderly adults. The factors affecting sexuality of an elderly with CDs include cultural and mythical beliefs about age and illnesses, fear, and embarrass of changed physical appearance. The research conducted among elderly

  6. Systemic mastocytosis - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    of the cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...

  7. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  8. Evaluation of frother performance in coal flotation: A critical review of existing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Dey, S. [Indian School for Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. for Fuel & Mineral Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Separation efficiency in flotation depends, to a considerable extent, on the efficiency of the frother used. A successful frother must achieve a delicate balance between froth stability and non-persistency. Ideally, the frother is not supposed to influence the state of the surface of the coal and minerals. In practice, however, interaction does occur between the frother, other reagents, and solid surfaces. Various commercially available frothers can differ slightly or significantly in their influence on the flotation results. Therefore, a plant operator is in a dilemma when it comes to selecting a frother to be used in his plant. This article attempts to critically review the different methodologies, which are available to compare the performance of two or more frothers in order to decide which would best serve the purpose of the plant operator.

  9. 15 CFR 752.14 - System reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Other reviews. BIS may require an SCL holder or consignee to submit to its office a list of all sales... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System reviews. 752.14 Section 752.14... LICENSE § 752.14 System reviews. (a) Post-license system reviews. BIS may conduct system reviews of the...

  10. Small scale wood combustion systems and fireplaces. Some existing markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerkove, R.; Belle, J.F. van; Lemaire, P.

    1998-01-01

    Because they are seen as more economical and more environmental respectful, the national authorities intend usually to promote district heating rather than stoves and little boilers. Nevertheless these systems are yet now a very important source of energy for private houses in many European countries. The use of this kind of systems as primary or secondary tool of heating depends principally of the three following parameters: the percentage of area covered by the forest, the existing traditions concerning the use of wood stoves and the presence of local manufacturers or distributors. The aim of this presentation will be to show the situation and the states of the art in several European countries

  11. What is Done to Ensure that Funds will be Available when Needed? Positive and Negative Experiences in Existing Systems - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Finnish system: waste producer is responsible; all waste management including decommissioning is covered; fund is a guarantee and a way to include future costs in the price of electricity; fund covers future costs of existing wastes, thus liabilities are re-evaluated annually; present day technology and costs are used, no discounting segregated fund, waste producer can borrow back 75%, State can borrow the remaining 25%. Measures included in the system to ensure the sufficiency and availability of funds: uncertainties have to be accounted for; additional 10% security over the total liability is demanded; the part of liability not yet in the fund as well as loans have to be covered with securities; the profit of the fund covers the inflation; annual reviews of plans and cost estimates. Other measures to ensure the sufficiency and availability of funds: comprehensive legislation, well-defined responsibilities; well-defined policy, programme and milestones; programme proceeding in schedule => largest waste management investments will be made during NPP operation; detailed technical plans and designs, decommissioning plans updated every 5 years, cost estimates based on NPP specific plans; independent reviews of cost estimates of different waste management components. Experiences: the annual changes in the liabilities have in most cases been within the assumed uncertainties; the realised costs of the existing waste management facilities have been reasonably close to cost estimates; the demands of secure investments and above inflation profits are sometimes contradictory

  12. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, A.; ElSherbini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  13. Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Colby Adams Bowhead Total Enterprise Solutions...ARL-TN-0863 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled...Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr and Colby Adams Approved for public release

  14. Precast concrete pavement - systems and performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Křístek, Vladimír; Vodička, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term traffic restrictions belong to the key disadvantages of conventional cast-in-plane concrete pavements which have been used for technical structures such as roads, parking place and airfield pavements. As a consequence, the pressure is put on the development of such systems which have short construction time, low production costs, long-term durability, low maintenance requirements etc.. The paper presents the first step in the development of an entirely new precast concrete pavement (PCP) system applicable to airfield and highway pavements. The main objective of the review of PCP systems is to acquire a better understanding of the current systems and design methods used for transport infrastructure. There is lack of information on using PCP systems for the construction of entirely new pavements. To most extensive experience is dated back to the 20th century when hexagonal slab panels and system PAG were used in the Soviet Union for the military airfields. Since cast-in-situ pavements became more common, the systems based on precast concrete panels have been mainly utilized for the removal of damaged sections of existing structures including roads, highways etc.. Namely, it concerns Fort Miller Super Slab system, Michigan system, Uretek Stitch system and Kwik system. The presented review indicates several issues associated with the listed PCP systems and their applications to the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Among others, the type of manufacturing technology, particularly the position of slots for dowel bars, affects the durability and performance of the systems. Gathered information serve for the development of a new system for airfield and highway pavement construction.

  15. Safe commuting factors from existing guidelines in Malaysia: a review for the construction sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukor, E. S. A.; Suratkon, A.; Mohammad, H.; Yaman, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The construction industry is a very active and dynamic industry, which proceeding as one of the significant industry that contributing to the country’s economy. Unfortunately, the construction industry has also earned the reputation of being the riskiest industry because of the higher rates of accidents and fatalities. Nevertheless, overwhelming focus by many on the accident in the workplace has shaded the alarming issue of the construction-related commuting accident. As reported by the Malaysia’s Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) in 2016, the number of commuting accidents and the compensations paid is increasing each year, and it is including the construction sector. Aware of the importance of safe commuting, several Malaysian agencies have developed their guidelines specifically for the improvement of such issue. Regrettably, the number of guidelines published does not exemplify the improvement of such issue when the number of commuting accidents is on the rise, especially for the construction sector. Therefore, this preliminary research was conducted to identify the safe commuting factors from the existing guidelines through manual document analysis. The finding shows that there are four (4) major categories namely; (1) driver/human factor, (2) vehicle factor, (3) environment factor, and (4) others. Hence, the research posits for subsequent exploration to ensure strategic implementation of those factors that will benefit the Malaysia’s construction sector.

  16. Does the G-spot exist? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2012-12-01

    In 1950, Gräfenberg described a distinct erotogenic zone on the anterior wall of the vagina, which was referred to as the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) by Addiego, Whipple (a nurse) et al. in 1981. As a result, the G-spot has become a central topic of popular speculation and a basis of a huge business surrounding it. In our opinion, these sexologists have made a hotchpotch of Gräfenberg's thoughts and ideas that were set forth and expounded in his 1950 article: the intraurethral glands are not the corpus spongiosum of the female urethra, and Gräfenberg did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. G-spot amplification is a cosmetic surgery procedure for temporarily increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot in which a dermal filler or a collagen-like material is injected into the bladder-vaginal septum. All published scientific data point to the fact that the G-spot does not exist, and the supposed G-spot should not be identified with Gräfenberg's name. Moreover, G-spot amplification is not medically indicated and is an unnecessary and inefficacious medical procedure.

  17. BIM authoring for an image-based bridge maintenance system of existing cable-supported bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, N. S.; Shim, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Infrastructure nowadays is increasingly become the main backbone for the metropolitan development in general. Along with the rise of new facilities, the demand in term of maintenance for the existing bridges is indispensable. Recently, the terminology of “preventive maintenance” is not unfamiliar with the engineer, literally is the use of a bridge maintenance system (BMS) based on a BIM-oriented model. In this paper, the process of generating a BMS based on BIM model is introduced in detail. Data management for this BMS is separated into two modules: site inspection system and information management system. The noteworthy aspect of this model lays on the closed and automatic process of “capture image, generate the technical damage report, and upload/feedback to the BMS” in real-time. A pilot BMS system for a cable-supported bridge is presented which showed a good performance and potential to further development of preventive maintenance.

  18. Croatia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  19. A Systematic Review on Existing Measures for the Subjective Assessment of Rehabilitation and Assistive Robot Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Koumpouros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study is to identify and classify outcome measures currently used for the assessment of rehabilitation or assistive robot devices. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, CIRRIE, and Scopus databases for studies that assessed rehabilitation or assistive robot devices from 1980 through January 2016. In all, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Tailor-made questionnaires were the most commonly used tool at 66.7%, while the great majority (93.9% of the studies used nonvalidated instruments. The study reveals the absence of a standard scale which makes it difficult to compare the results from different researchers. There is a great need, therefore, for a valid and reliable instrument to be available for use by the intended end users for the subjective assessment of robot devices. The study concludes by identifying two scales that have been validated in general assistive technology devices and could support the scope of subjective assessment in rehabilitation or assistive robots (however, with limited coverage and a new one called PYTHEIA, recently published. The latter intends to close the gap and help researchers and developers to evaluate, assess, and produce products that satisfy the real needs of the end users.

  20. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  1. A review on systematic reviews of health information system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Francis; Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994-2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.

  2. Stream microbial diversity responds to environmental changes: Review and synthesis of existing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eZeglin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of microbial activity to ecosystem function in aquatic ecosystems is well established, but microbial diversity has been less frequently addressed. This review and synthesis of the hundreds of published studies on stream microbial diversity shows that factors known to drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient availability, hydrology, metal contamination, contrasting land-use and temperature, also cause heterogeneity in bacterial diversity. Temporal heterogeneity in stream bacterial diversity was frequently observed, reflecting the dynamic nature of both stream ecosystems and microbial community composition. However, within-stream spatial differences in stream bacterial diversity were more commonly observed, driven specifically by different organic matter compartments. Bacterial phyla showed similar patterns in relative abundance with regard to compartment type across different streams. For example, surface water contained the highest relative abundance of Actinobacteria, while epilithon contained the highest relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. This suggests that contrasting physical and/or nutritional habitats characterized by different stream organic matter compartment types may select for certain bacterial lineages. When comparing the prevalence of physicochemical effects on stream bacterial diversity, effects of changing metal concentrations were most, while effects of differences in nutrient concentrations were least frequently observed. This may indicate that although changing nutrient concentrations do tend to affect microbial diversity, other environmental factors are more likely to alter stream microbial diversity and function. The common observation of connections between ecosystem process drivers and microbial diversity suggests that microbial taxonomic turnover could mediate ecosystem-scale responses to changing environmental conditions, including both microbial habitat distribution and

  3. Review and analysis of existing mobile phone applications for health care-associated infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Iribarren, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The expanding number of mobile health applications (apps) holds potential to reduce and eliminate health care-associated infections (HAIs) in clinical practice. The purpose of this review was to identify and provide an overview of the apps available to support prevention of HAIs and to assess their functionality and potential uses in clinical care. We searched 3 online mobile app stores using the following terms: infection prevention, prevention, hand hygiene, hand washing, and specific HAI terms (catheter-associated urinary tract infection [CAUTI], central line-associated bloodstream infections, surgical site infection, and ventilator associated pneumonia [VAP]). Search queries yielded a total of 2,646 potentially relevant apps, of which 17 met our final inclusion criteria. The areas of focus were CAUTI (n = 1, 5.9%), VAP (n = 1, 5.9%), environmental monitoring (n = 2, 11.8%), and hand hygiene (n = 2, 11.8%); the remainder (n = 11, 64.7%) were focused on >1 area (eg, multiple infection prevention bundles, infection prevention guidelines). Almost all of the apps (70.6%) had a maximum of two functions. Mobile apps may help reduce HAI by providing easy access to guidelines, hand hygiene monitoring support, or step-by-step procedures aimed at reducing infections at the point of clinical care. Given the dearth of available apps and the lack of functionality with those that are available, there is a need for further development of mobile apps for HAI prevention at the point of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review and perspective of existing research on the release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggett, Stephan J; Clancy, Shaun F; Boverhof, Darrell R; Canady, Richard A

    2014-04-07

    Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data

  5. Existing experimental criticality data applicable to nuclear-fuel-transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analytical techniques are generally relied upon in making criticality evaluations involving nuclear material outside reactors. For these evaluations to be accepted the calculations must be validated by comparison with experimental data for a known set of conditions having physical and neutronic characteristics similar to those conditions being evaluated analytically. The purpose of this report is to identify those existing experimental data that are suitable for use in verifying criticality calculations on nuclear fuel transportation systems. In addition, near term needs for additional data in this area are identified. Of the considerable amount of criticality data currently existing, that are applicable to non-reactor systems, those particularly suitable for use in support of nuclear material transportation systems have been identified and catalogued into the following groups: (1) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water; (2) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water containing soluble neutron absorbers; (3) critical assemblies containing solid neutron absorber; (4) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with heavy metal reflectors; and (5) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with irregular features. A listing of the current near term needs for additional data in each of the groups has been developed for future use in planning criticality research in support of nuclear fuel transportation systems. The criticality experiments needed to provide these data are briefly described and identified according to priority and relative cost of performing the experiments

  6. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Heath, G; Hallett, K C

    2012-01-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  8. Identifying Stakeholders and Their Preferences about NFR by Comparing Use Case Diagrams of Several Existing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Osada, Akira; Kaijiri, Kenji

    We present a method to identify stakeholders and their preferences about non-functional requirements (NFR) by using use case diagrams of existing systems. We focus on the changes about NFR because such changes help stakeholders to identify their preferences. Comparing different use case diagrams of the same domain helps us to find changes to be occurred. We utilize Goal-Question-Metrics (GQM) method for identifying variables that characterize NFR, and we can systematically represent changes about NFR using the variables. Use cases that represent system interactions help us to bridge the gap between goals and metrics (variables), and we can easily construct measurable NFR. For validating and evaluating our method, we applied our method to an application domain of Mail User Agent (MUA) system.

  9. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galus, Matthias D.; Zima, Marek; Andersson, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  10. Tailings treatment techniques for uranium mill waste: a review of existing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-07-01

    Of primary concern at uranium mill sites in the United States is the potential of ground-water contamination from mill wastes that are disposed in tailings impoundments. Although many systems have been used to control seepage from tailings impoundments, most of these systems are limited in their ability to handle an excess of tailings solution. Three general amelioration methods were identified: neutralization, fixation and specific constituent removal. During neutralization, a reagent is added to the tailings solution to neutralize the acidity and raise the pH to reduce the solubility of various pH sensitive contaminants. Fixation processes add materials such as lime, cement or asphalt to the waste to produce a physically stable composition that resists leaching of hazardous constituents. Specific constituent removal encompasses varying techniques, such as alternate ore leaching processes, effluent treatment with sorption, or ion exchange agents or selected precipitation that reduce specific constituent concentrations in tailings solution. Neutralization processes appear to be best suited for treating uranium mill tailings because they can, at a reasonable cost, limit the solution concentration of many contaminants. The effectiveness of the process depends on the reagent used as well as the waste being treated. Of the six reagents studied (lime, limestone, caustic soda, soda ash, combined limestone/lime and combined alumina/lime/soda), a combined treatment of limestone and lime seems best, especially for tailings containing ferric iron as the limestone economically buffers the solution acidity while the lime takes the pH to 8.0, an optimum level for heavy metal removal. For those tailings containing ferrous iron, lime alone works best. The costs for the lime/limestone or lime processes range from $0.20 to $1.00 per 1000 gal of treated water, excluding capital equipment costs

  11. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  12. Method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain to a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    2001-12-25

    A method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain including a manual transmission to a hybrid powertrain system with an automated powertrain transmission. The first step in the method of attaching a gear train housing to a housing of said manual transmission, said gear train housing receiving as end of drive shaft of said transmission and rotatably supporting a gear train assembly. Secondly, mounting an electric motor/generator to said gear train housing and attaching a motor/generator drive shaft of said electric motor/generator to said gear train assembly. Lastly, connecting an electro-mechanical clutch actuator to a friction clutch mechanism of said manual transmission.

  13. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested

  14. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  15. Systematising "System": One Reviewer's Analysis of the Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one reviewer's experience of reviewing for the journal "System" over an eight-year period, 2003-2011. The paper reports on the reviews produced by the single reviewer, which have been compiled into a specific purpose--an "occluded"--corpus (Swales, 1996) of 122 reviews, comprising 93,000 words. The paper first describes the…

  16. Integrating UNIX workstation into existing online data acquisition systems for Fermilab experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.

    1991-03-01

    With the availability of cost effective computing prior from multiple vendors of UNIX workstations, experiments at Fermilab are adding such computers to their VMS based online data acquisition systems. In anticipation of this trend, we have extended the software products available in our widely used VAXONLINE and PANDA data acquisition software systems, to provide support for integrating these workstations into existing distributed online systems. The software packages we are providing pave the way for the smooth migration of applications from the current Data Acquisition Host and Monitoring computers running the VMS operating systems, to UNIX based computers of various flavors. We report on software for Online Event Distribution from VAXONLINE and PANDA, integration of Message Reporting Facilities, and a framework under UNIX for experiments to monitor and view the raw event data produced at any level in their DA system. We have developed software that allows host UNIX computers to communicate with intelligent front-end embedded read-out controllers and processor boards running the pSOS operating system. Both RS-232 and Ethernet control paths are supported. This enables calibration and hardware monitoring applications to be migrated to these platforms. 6 refs., 5 figs

  17. Improvement of energy performances of existing buildings by application of solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić-Furundžić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of energy performances of the existing buildings in the suburban settlement Konjarnik in Belgrade, by the application of solar thermal systems is the topic presented in this paper. Hypothetical models of building improvements are created to allow the benefits of applying solar thermal collectors to residential buildings in Belgrade climate conditions to be estimated. This case study presents different design variants of solar thermal collectors integrated into a multifamily building envelope. The following aspects of solar thermal systems integration are analyzed in the paper: energy, architectural, ecological and economic. The results show that in Belgrade climatic conditions significant energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions can be obtained with the application of solar thermal collectors.

  18. External review systems for radiation oncology facilities - clinical audit versus other review systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Between 1996 and 1999 project team of ExPeRT, catalogued four external review systems of health care facilities in the European Union and countries associated with EU. Aim: The aim of this paper is a/ to identify and compare currently existing external review systems for radiation oncology facilities and b/ to distinguish main differences between clinical audit and other external evaluation models and c/ to identify where those models are currently used in European Union member states. Materials and Methods: Based on the literature review and the survey conducted between January and April 2007 among representatives of 67 national societies (for diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine) in European Union member states, the analysis of existing external review systems in radiation oncology was performed. Relevant information about purpose, scope and methodology of evaluation process for those systems were surveyed. Results: The response to the questionnaire was 72%. Only a few countries did not supply any reply in spite of repeated enquiries to several recipients. Six main categories of systems aiming at measuring the quality of service management and delivery were identified: professional peer review -based schemes, hospital accreditation, accreditation in terms of ISO standards, award seeking, certification by International Standards Organization, and clinical audit. Conclusions: Though the methodology and terminology of the five main external review systems differ, a constant movement towards collaboration and convergence of those models has been observed. Due to the social, political, and economical aspects of each European country, the different audit systems have been implemented either on voluntary or mandatory basis. (author)

  19. On the impact of `smart tyres' on existing ABS/EBD control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Federico; Leo, Elisbetta; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2010-12-01

    The paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performances of the ABS (Antilock Braking System)/EBD (electronic braking distribution) control system by using the additional information provided by 'smart tyres' (i.e. tyres with embedded sensors and digital-computing capability). In particular, on the basis of previous works [Braghin et al., Future car active controls through the measurement of contact forces and patch features, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 3-13], the authors assumed that these components should be able to provide estimates for the normal loads acting on the four wheels and for the tyre-road friction coefficient. The benefits produced by the introduction of these additional channels into the existing ABS/EBD control logic were evaluated through simulations carried out with a validated 14 degrees of freedom (dofs) vehicle + ABS/EBD control logic numerical model. The performance of the ABS control system was evaluated through a series of braking manoeuvres on straight track focusing the attention on μ -jump conditions, while the performance of the EBD control system was assessed by means of braking manoeuvres carried out considering several weight distributions.

  20. A Mobile Asset Tracking System Architecture under Mobile-Stationary Co-Existing WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyon; Jo, Hyeong Gon; Lee, Jae Shin; Kang, Soon Ju

    2012-01-01

    The tracking of multiple wireless mobile nodes is not easy with current legacy WSN technologies, due to their inherent technical complexity, especially when heavy traffic and frequent movement of mobile nodes are encountered. To enable mobile asset tracking under these legacy WSN systems, it is necessary to design a specific system architecture that can manage numerous mobile nodes attached to mobile assets. In this paper, we present a practical system architecture including a communication protocol, a three-tier network, and server-side middleware for mobile asset tracking in legacy WSNs consisting of mobile-stationary co-existing infrastructures, and we prove the functionality of this architecture through careful evaluation in a test bed. Evaluation was carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber as well as on a straight road near our office. We evaluated communication mobility performance between mobile and stationary nodes, location-awareness performance, system stability under numerous mobile node conditions, and the successful packet transfer rate according to the speed of the mobile nodes. The results indicate that the proposed architecture is sufficiently robust for application in realistic mobile asset tracking services that require a large number of mobile nodes. PMID:23242277

  1. A Mobile Asset Tracking System Architecture under Mobile-Stationary Co-Existing WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ju Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of multiple wireless mobile nodes is not easy with current legacy WSN technologies, due to their inherent technical complexity, especially when heavy traffic and frequent movement of mobile nodes are encountered. To enable mobile asset tracking under these legacy WSN systems, it is necessary to design a specific system architecture that can manage numerous mobile nodes attached to mobile assets. In this paper, we present a practical system architecture including a communication protocol, a three-tier network, and server-side middleware for mobile asset tracking in legacy WSNs consisting of mobile-stationary co-existing infrastructures, and we prove the functionality of this architecture through careful evaluation in a test bed. Evaluation was carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber as well as on a straight road near our office. We evaluated communication mobility performance between mobile and stationary nodes, location-awareness performance, system stability under numerous mobile node conditions, and the successful packet transfer rate according to the speed of the mobile nodes. The results indicate that the proposed architecture is sufficiently robust for application in realistic mobile asset tracking services that require a large number of mobile nodes.

  2. A SYSTEM TO MAKE USE OF EXISTING BREAKWATERS AS OVERTOPPING WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIZ ÜNSALAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of building breakwaters is to produce safe havens for ships and boats in rough seas. The general architecture for a breakwater is a wall with a trapezoidal -shaped cross section extending parallel to the shoreline. As the waves from the open sea approach, they are encountered by the so- called slope and revetment of the breakwater, where the wave is broken and its energy is dissipated and/or reflected back. However, the ever -increasing attractiveness of the utilization of waves as energy sources, paralleling to the increasing monetary and envir onmental costs of energy, has led the authors to consider the vast amounts of this otherwise dissipated energy into useful electrical energy. A wave energy conversion concept, which can be classified as an “overtopping” wave energy converter was conceived, where the open sea-facing (revetment side of the breakwater is fitted by a water collecting channel at a suitable height above the calm water level, running alongside the breakwater. The channel leads the collected water to a powerhouse containing a low head turbine (or a set of such turbines discharging it to the calm water of the inner harbour. Power obtained from these turbines can be converted to electrical energy. In this study, an estimation of the volume of water collected by the channel and the energy production for a proposed breakwater - power station system for a typical rough weather shall be made. It is deemed that the feasibility of this system is comparable to and even higher than the other wave energy conversion systems since it does not require additional facilities and power supply lines to be built due to its proximity to the existing energy transmission lines, except for the addition of new features/installations to the existing breakwaters.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Thermal Performance of Existing Roof System and Retrofitted Green Roof System in Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil TÜRKERİ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands, temperature increase due to climate change and energy consumption due to high summer cooling load are significant issues in Turkey. International studies indicate that the green roof system serves as an energy efficient building technology. However, the thermal performance of green roofs when exposed to local climate conditions is still unknown in Turkey. A research project is being conducted at Istanbul Technical University, in which part of a low-slope existing roof system was retrofitted as an extensive green roof system and the thermal performances of both the existing roof and green roof were monitored in order to make a comparative assessment. Both the green roof and the existing roof were instrumented to measure the temperature profile within the roof systems and the solar reflectance of the roof surfaces. Local meteorological variables were also measured. Results obtained from the field monitoring revealed the following data. Reflected solar radiation from the green roof surface was slightly higher than from the existing roof surface. This was likely to be due to the fact that the plants had not yet covered the entire soil surface area of the green roof. Plants reduced the amount of heat absorbed by the growing medium during daytime through shading and reduced the surface temperature of the green roof. Ceiling temperatures of rooms under the existing roof and green roof indicated that heat transfer to the room beneath the green roof was reduced as well. The green roof reduced the heat gain due to the thermal mass of the soil. This created a buffer against daily fluctuations in temperature and minimized temperature extremes.

  4. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  5. Global existence and blow-up analysis for some degenerate and quasilinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Lu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with positive solutions of some degenerate and quasilinear parabolic systems not in divergence form: $u_{1t}=f_1(u_2(\\Delta u_1+a_1u_1,\\cdots, u_{(n-1t}=f_{n-1}(u_n(\\Delta u_{n-1}+a_{n-1} u_{n-1},\\ u_{nt}=f_n(u_1(\\Delta u_n+a_nu_n$ with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition and positive initial condition, where $a_i\\ (i=1,2,\\cdots,n$ are positive constants and $f_i\\ (i=1,2,\\cdots,n$ satisfy some conditions. The local existence and uniqueness of classical solution are proved. Moreover, it will be proved that: (i when $\\min\\{a_1,\\cdots,\\ a_n\\}\\leq\\lambda_1$ then there exists global positive classical solution, and all positive classical solutions can not blow up in finite time in the meaning of maximum norm; (ii when $\\min\\{a_1,\\cdots,\\ a_n\\}>\\lambda_1$, and the initial datum $(u_{10},\\cdots,\\ u_{n0}$ satisfies some assumptions, then the positive classical solution is unique and blows up in finite time, where $\\lambda_1$ is the first eigenvalue of $-\\Delta$ in $\\Omega$ with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition.

  6. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  7. Existence of solutions to second-order nonlinear coupled systems with nonlinear coupled boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Talib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, study the existence of solutions for the second-order nonlinear coupled system of ordinary differential equations $$\\displaylines{ u''(t=f(t,v(t,\\quad t\\in [0,1],\\cr v''(t=g(t,u(t,\\quad t\\in [0,1], }$$ with nonlinear coupled boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\phi(u(0,v(0,u(1,v(1,u'(0,v'(0=(0,0, \\cr \\psi(u(0,v(0,u(1,v(1,u'(1,v'(1=(0,0, }$$ where $f,g:[0,1]\\times \\mathbb{R}\\to \\mathbb{R}$ and $\\phi,\\psi:\\mathbb{R}^6\\to \\mathbb{R}^2$ are continuous functions. Our main tools are coupled lower and upper solutions, Arzela-Ascoli theorem, and Schauder's fixed point theorem.

  8. Existence of weak solutions to a nonlinear reaction-diffusion system with singular sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida de Bonis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the existence of a class of weak solutions to a nonlinear parabolic system of reaction-diffusion type endowed with singular production terms by reaction. The singularity is due to a potential occurrence of quenching localized to the domain boundary. The kind of quenching we have in mind is due to a twofold contribution: (i the choice of boundary conditions, modeling in our case the contact with an infinite reservoir filled with ready-to-react chemicals and (ii the use of a particular nonlinear, non-Lipschitz structure of the reaction kinetics. Our working techniques use fine energy estimates for approximating non-singular problems and uniform control on the set where singularities are localizing.

  9. Using existing health care systems to respond to the AIDS epidemic: research and recommendations for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, L H; Smith, H L; Lake, E T

    1997-01-01

    Chile is a country with a relatively low prevalence of HIV infection, where successful prevention has the potential to change the future course of the epidemic. A controversial national prevention strategy based upon public education has emerged in response to characterizations of the epidemic as well-dispersed with a growing involvement of heterosexuals. This characterization is not consistent with the observed facts. There is a comparatively well-organized health care system in Santiago that is doing a good job of detecting HIV infection and already has in place the elements of a targeted intervention scheme. Chile should place priority on the use of the existing health care infrastructure for implementing both the traditional public health interventions for sexually transmitted diseases (contact tracing and partner notification) and the AIDS-necessitated strategy of focused counseling and education.

  10. Local existence of solutions to the Euler-Poisson system, including densities without compact support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2018-01-01

    Local existence and well posedness for a class of solutions for the Euler Poisson system is shown. These solutions have a density ρ which either falls off at infinity or has compact support. The solutions have finite mass, finite energy functional and include the static spherical solutions for γ = 6/5. The result is achieved by using weighted Sobolev spaces of fractional order and a new non-linear estimate which allows to estimate the physical density by the regularised non-linear matter variable. Gamblin also has studied this setting but using very different functional spaces. However we believe that the functional setting we use is more appropriate to describe a physical isolated body and more suitable to study the Newtonian limit.

  11. Existence of solutions for second-order differential equations and systems on infinite intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik Moussaoui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of nontrivial solutions to the boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ -u''+cu'+lambda u = f(x,u,quad -infty system $$displaylines{ -u''+c_1u'+lambda _1u = f(x,u,v,quad -infty

  12. Existence of positive solutions for semipositone dynamic system on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the following semipositone dynamic system on time scales $$displaylines{ -x^{DeltaDelta}(t=f(t,y+p(t, quad tin(0,T_{mathbb{T}},cr -y^{DeltaDelta}(t=g(t,x, quad tin(0,T_{mathbb{T}},cr x(0=x(sigma^{2}(T=0, cr alpha{y(0}-eta{y^{Delta}{(0}}= gamma{y(sigma(T}+delta{y^{Delta}(sigma(T}=0. }$$ Using fixed point index theory, we show the existence of at least one positive solution. The interesting point is the that nonlinear term is allowed to change sign and may tend to negative infinity.

  13. Non linear Euler-Poisson system. Part 1: global existence of low entropy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this work a 1-D model of electrons and ions plasma is considered. Electrons are supposed to be in Maxwell-Boltzmann thermodynamic equilibrium while ions are described with an isothermal flow model of charged particles submitted to a self-consistent electric field. A collision term between neutral particles and ions simulates the presence of neutral particles. This work demonstrates the existence of low entropy solutions for this simple model with arbitrary initial conditions. Most of the paper is devoted to the demonstration of this theorem and follows the successive steps: construction of a numerical scheme, recall of the classical properties of Riemann problem solutions using Glimm method, uniform estimations for the whole variation norm, and finally, convergence of the constructed solutions towards a low entropy solution for the non-linear Euler/Poisson system. Domains of application for this type of model are listed in the conclusion. (J.S.). 18 refs

  14. Improving rates of screening and prevention by leveraging existing information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Nancy

    2003-11-01

    In 1997 Virginia Mason Health System (VMMC), a vertically integrated hospital and multispecialty group practice, had no process or system to deliver the right patient clinical data, in the right form, at the right place--when providers needed it for effective patient care. Without any new investment in technology, a work group of five individuals leveraged existing, primarily paper-based information systems to launch development and implementation of a provider prompting tool--a primary care and prevention (PCP) report--which prompted providers to complete screening, prevention, and disease management services at every patient appointment. The work group developed and pilot tested the report and created a mechanism by which the report could be delivered just in time before each patient's appointment. The report integrated information from independent appointment scheduling, laboratory results reporting, patient demographics, and billing data sources. MEASURING THE PCP REPORT'S IMPACT: The results of two separate analyses demonstrate improvement in rates of screening and prevention across VMMC soon after the PCP report became available. These results led senior leadership to make the PCP report's utilization a systemwide imperative. The PCP report is used by nearly all primary care providers as a prompt to complete screening, prevention, and disease management services at every patient appointment.

  15. FPGA - Based Technology and Systems for I and C of Existing and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmach, E.; Siora, O.; Tokarev, V.; Reshetytsky, S.; Kharchenko, V.; Bezsalyi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Control systems of modern nuclear installations (including water-cooled, WCR) are based on programmable technologies. Most of control systems modernizations which are implemented at operating nuclear installations are also based on application of programmable technologies. Besides, a range of features and properties is defied for programmable technologies. These features and properties make licensing process more complicated, facilitate appearance of common cause failures, make safety evaluation procedures more complicated, etc. Also it is known that programmable technologies significantly extend the time periods for project realization of new power units construction and modernization of the existing power units, and also it involves rise of its value. Company RADIY has developed the Platform of digital equipment RADIY on FPGA-based technology. In the article there is a description of the features of FPGA-technology developed and applied by Company RADIY, features of the Platform RADIY and systems realized on its base, which allow to minimize significantly above-mentioned negative features and properties of programmable technologies. Technology which realized in Platform RADIY allows to solve the whole set of tasks of control (including regulation) and protection of nuclear installations. Platform RADIY is a combination of the best features of traditional programmable technologies and FPGA-technology. According to the opinion of the authors of this article the technology which is realized in Platform RADIY is the key factor for solving of control and protection tasks of nuclear installations in the nearest future. (author)

  16. Quantified carbon input for maintaining existing soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1°× 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  17. Converting existing Internal Combustion Generator (ICG) systems into HESs in standalone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Attalage, R.A.; Perera, K.K.C.K.; Dassanayake, V.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Obtained Pareto fronts of LEC, power supply reliability (PSR) and ICC/GHG emission. • Pareto surface was observed for smaller ICGs when considering LEC–PSR–GHG. • Shape of the LEC–PSR–ICC Pareto front gradually changes with ICG capacity. • Importance of multi-criterion decision-making after multi objective optimization. - Abstract: Expanding existing Internal Combustion Generator (ICG) systems by combining renewable energy sources is getting popular due to global concern on emission of green house gases (GHG) and increasing fossil fuel costs. Life cycle cost, initial capital cost (ICC), power supply reliability of the system, and GHG emission by ICG are factors to be considered in this process. Pareto front of Levelized Energy Cost (LEC)–Unmet Load Fraction (ULF)–GHG emission was taken in this study for four different expansion scenarios. Furthermore, Pareto front of ICC–LE–ULF was taken for three different expansion scenarios in order to analyze the impact of renewable energy integration. The results clearly depict that characteristics of the Pareto front varies with the scale of expansion and objectives taken for the optimization. A detailed analysis was conducted for a scale up problem with a 4 kVA ICG by using the Pareto fronts obtained

  18. 19 CFR 146.26 - System review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false System review. 146.26 Section 146.26 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Inventory Control and Recordkeeping System § 146.26 System review. The operator shall perform an annual internal review of the inventory control and recordkeeping system and...

  19. Do existing research summaries on health systems match immunisation managers' needs in middle- and low-income countries? Analysis of GAVI health systems strengthening support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance was created in 2000 to increase access to vaccines. More recently, GAVI has supported evidence-based health systems strengthening to overcome barriers to vaccination. Our objectives were: to explore countries' priorities for health systems strengthening; to describe published research summaries for each priority area in relation to their number, quality and relevance; and to describe the use of national data from surveys in identifying barriers to immunisation. Methods From 44 health systems strengthening proposals submitted to GAVI in 2007 and 2008, we analysed the topics identified, the coverage of these topics by existing systematic reviews and the use of nation-wide surveys with vaccination data to justify the needs identified in the proposals. Results Thirty topics were identified and grouped into three thematic areas: health workforce (10 topics; organisation and management (14; and supply, distribution and maintenance (6. We found 51 potentially relevant systematic reviews, although for the topic that appeared most frequently in the proposals ('Health information systems' no review was identified. Thematic and geographic relevance were generally categorised as "high" in 33 (65% and 25 (49% reviews, respectively, but few reviews were categorised as "highly relevant for policy" (7 reviews, 14%. With regard to methodological quality, 14 reviews (27% were categorised as "high". The number of topics that were addressed by at least one high quality systematic review was: seven of the 10 topics in the 'health workforce' thematic area; six of the 14 topics in the area of 'organisation and management'; and none of the topics in the thematic area of 'supply, distribution and maintenance'. Only twelve of the 39 countries with available national surveys referred to them in their proposals. Conclusion Relevant, high quality research summaries were found for few of the topics identified by managers. Few proposals

  20. On the existence and function of galanin receptor heteromers in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell eFuxe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Galanin receptor (GalR subtypes1-3 linked to central galanin neurons may form heteromers with each other and other types of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in the Central Nervous System (CNS. These heteromers may be one molecular mechanism for galanin peptides and their N-terminal fragments (gal 1-15 to modulate the function of different types of glia-neuronal networks in the CNS, especially the emotional and the cardiovascular networks. GalR-5-HT1A heteromers likely exist with antagonistic GalR-5-HT1A receptor-receptor interactions in the ascending midbrain raphe 5-HT neuron systems and their target regions. They represent a novel target for antidepressant drugs. Evidence is given for the existence of GalR1-5-HT1A heteromers in cellular models with transinhibition of the protomer signaling. A GalR1-GalR2 heteromer is proposed to be a galanin N-terminal fragment preferring receptor (1-15 in the CNS. Furthermore, a GalR1-GalR2-5-HT1A heterotrimer is postulated to explain why only galanin (1-15 but not galanin (1-29 can antagonistically modulate the 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal hippocampus rich in gal fragment binding sites. The results underline a putative role of different types of GalR-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in depression. GalR antagonists may also have therapeutic actions in depression by blocking the antagonistic GalR-NPYY1 receptor interactions in putative GalR-NPYY1 receptor heteromers in the CNS resulting in increases in NPYY1 transmission and antidepressant effects. In contrast the galanin fragment receptor (a postulated GalR1-GalR2 heteromer appears to be linked to the NPYY2 receptor enhancing the affinity of the NPYY2 binding sites in a putative GalR1-GalR2-NPYY2 heterotrimer. Finally, putative GalR-α2-adrenoreceptor heteromers with antagonistic receptor-receptor interactions may be a widespread mechanism in the CNS for integration of galanin and noradrenaline signals also of likely relevance for depression.

  1. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed.

  2. Practical Steps toward Computational Unification: Helpful Perspectives for New Systems, Adding Functionality to Existing Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    With ever increasing amounts of Earth-Science funding being diverted to the war in Iraq, the Earth-Science community must now more than ever wring every bit of utility out of every dollar. We're not likely to get funded any projects perceived by others as "pie in the sky", so we have to look at already funded programs within our community and directing new programs in a unifying direction. We have not yet begun the transition to a computationally unifying, general-purpose Earth Science computing paradigm, though it was proposed at the Fall 2002 AGU meeting in San Francisco, and perhaps earlier. Encouragingly, we do see a recognition that more commonality is needed as various projects have as funded goals the addition of the processing and dissemination of new datatypes, or data-sets, if you prefer, to their existing repertoires. Unfortunately, the timelines projected for adding a datatype to an existing system are typically estimated at around two years each. Further, many organizations have the perception that they can only use their dollars to support exclusively their own needs as they don't have the money to support the goals of others, thus overlooking opportunities to satisfy their own needs while at the same time aiding the creation of a global GeoScience cyber-infrastructure. While Computational Unification appears to be an unfunded, impossible dream, at least for now, individual projects can take steps that are compatible with a unified community and can help build one over time. This session explores these opportunities. The author will discuss the issues surrounding this topic, outlining alternative perspectives on the points of difficulty, and proposing straight-forward solutions which every Earth Science data processing system should consider. Sub-topics include distributed meta-data, distributed processing, distributed data objects, interdisciplinary concerns, and scientific defensibility with an overall emphasis on how previously written processes

  3. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  4. Existence of lattice solutions to semilinear elliptic systems with periodic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Alikakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the assumption that the potential W is invariant under a general discrete reflection group $G'=TG$ acting on $mathbb{R}^n$, we establish existence of G'-equivariant solutions to $Delta u - W_u(u = 0$, and find an estimate. By taking the size of the cell of the lattice in space domain to infinity, we obtain that these solutions converge to G-equivariant solutions connecting the minima of the potential W along certain directions at infinity. When particularized to the nonlinear harmonic oscillator $u''+alpha sin u=0$, $alpha>0$, the solutions correspond to those in the phase plane above and below the heteroclinic connections, while the G-equivariant solutions captured in the limit correspond to the heteroclinic connections themselves. Our main tool is the G'-positivity of the parabolic semigroup associated with the elliptic system which requires only the hypothesis of symmetry for W. The constructed solutions are positive in the sense that as maps from $mathbb{R}^n$ into itself leave the closure of the fundamental alcove (region invariant.

  5. The co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the perinatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Andee; Xuereb, Rita Borg; Carrick-Sen, Debbie; Sultana, Roberta; Rankin, Judith

    2016-05-01

    to identify and appraise the current international evidence regarding the presence and prevalence of the co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the antenatal and post partum period. using a list of keywords, Medline, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Web of Science and the Index of Theses and Conference Proceedings (Jan 1960 - Jan 2015) were systematically searched. Experts in the field were contacted to locate papers that were in progress or in press. Reference lists from relevant review articles were searched. Inclusion criteria included full papers published in English reporting concurrent depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in pregnant and post partum women. A validated data extraction review tool was used. 3424 citations were identified. Three studies met the full inclusion criteria. All reported findings in the postnatal period. No antenatal studies were identified. The prevalence of triple co-morbidity was relatively low ranging from 2% to 3%. triple co-morbidity does occur, although the prevalence appears to be low. Due to the presentation of complex symptoms, women with triple co-morbidity are likely to be difficult to identify, diagnose and treat. Clinical staff should be aware of the potential of complex symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fitting Formulae and Constraints for the Existence of S-type and P-type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.

  7. Fitting Formulae and Constraints for the Existence of S-type and P-type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred, E-mail: zhaopeng.wang@mavs.uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.

  8. Review of existing experimental approaches for the clinical evaluation of the benefits of plant food supplements on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoni, Paolo; Restani, Patrizia; Mancama, Dalu T

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a survey of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database to identify methods most commonly used for the evaluation of the effect of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system and their relevance to the regulatory status of these products. Particularly, our search strategy was aimed at the selection of studies concerning the clinical evaluation of the beneficial effects of the most commonly studied plant food supplements acting on the cardiovascular system. Following the screening of 3839 papers for inclusion criteria, 48 published reports were retained for this review. Most studies included in this review used a double blind controlled design, and evaluated the effect of plant food supplements on individuals affected by a disease of the cardiovascular system. The majority of the studies were found to be of low methodological quality on the Jadad scale, mainly because of inadequate reporting of adverse events and of patient withdrawals. In comparison, measures used for the evaluation of benefits included mostly cardiovascular risk factors as recommended in international guidelines and in accordance with principles laid down for the evaluation of health claims in food. The risk factors most frequently evaluated belonged to the category of "lipid function and levels", "heart function" and "blood pressure". For the absolute majority of the studies, the study period did not exceed one month. This review highlights critical factors to be considered in the design of studies evaluating the health effects of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system. Between others, the inclusion of healthy individuals, better reporting and description of the characteristics of the product used could improve the quality and relevance of these studies.

  9. Existence of Positive Solutions to a Singular Semipositone Boundary Value Problem of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to a singular semipositone boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations. By applying the fixed point index theorem, some new results for the existence of positive solutions are obtained. In addition, an example is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  10. A Policy Analysis of the Coast Guard's Existing Patient Satisfaction System and Recommendations for Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coughlin, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper evaluates CG organizational demands, describes CG practice landscape, presents standards, reviews initial clinic process analysis, and evaluates the cost and criteria of proposed policy alternatives...

  11. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  12. The existence of periodic solutions of the n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulsive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Zhen E-mail: jinzhn@263.net; Ma Zhien; Maoan Han

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulses. By using the method coincidence degree theorem, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one strictly positive periodic solutions. Some known results are improved and generalized.

  13. The existence of periodic solutions of the n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulsive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhen; Ma Zhien; Maoan Han

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulses. By using the method coincidence degree theorem, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one strictly positive periodic solutions. Some known results are improved and generalized

  14. Coupling Existing Software Paradigms for Thermal Control System Analysis of Re-Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed is the unification of existing and operational high fidelity simulation software tools into an integrated framework with which to predict...

  15. Socio-sexual functioning in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analyses of existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Grace I P; Stokes, Mark A; Mesibov, Gary B

    2017-11-01

    Socio-sexual functioning encompasses an individual's interests, behaviors, and knowledge with respect to sexual, romantic, and social aspects of life. An individual's understanding of these domains is developed through a range of informal and formal avenues of sexual health education. The current model demonstrated this and proposed that, compared to typically developing individuals, those with ASD develop socio-sexual functioning differently due to having less peer engagement, less relationship experience, more parental guidance, greater use of online materials, receive less school-based sexual health education, and more support from wellbeing services. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature revealed that individuals with ASD have greater difficultly adhering to privacy norms, engage in less social behavior, are described as engaging in less appropriate sexual behavior, have greater concerns about themselves, and receive less sexual health education. Having fewer opportunities for appropriate informal and formal sexual health education leaves them at a double disadvantage from others who are receiving this information from both of these avenues. Some of the current meta-analytic results are cautioned by large l-square statistics which suggest that a degree of variance is being caused by extraneous factors. Further empirical research in this area is needed to overcome current design and sample limitations. Finally, the Sexual Behavior Scale was the most commonly utilized tool in the meta-analyzed studies, thus comprehensive evaluation of its functioning is warranted. The importance of work in this area is highlighted by the central role of social and sexual wellbeing on one's quality of life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1823-1833. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Review of existing literature revealed that individuals with ASD have greater difficultly adhering to privacy norms, engage in less social behavior

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of HBV and HCV Screening Strategies – A Systematic Review of Existing Modelling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, Claudia; Wu, Olivia; Xin, Yiqiao; Heggie, Robert; Hutchinson, Sharon; Martin, Natasha K.; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of screening for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are generally heterogeneous in terms of risk groups, settings, screening intervention, outcomes and the economic modelling framework. It is therefore difficult to compare cost-effectiveness results between studies. This systematic review aims to summarise and critically assess existing economic models for HBV and HCV in order to identify the main methodological differences in modelling approaches. Methods A structured search strategy was developed and a systematic review carried out. A critical assessment of the decision-analytic models was carried out according to the guidelines and framework developed for assessment of decision-analytic models in Health Technology Assessment of health care interventions. Results The overall approach to analysing the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies was found to be broadly consistent for HBV and HCV. However, modelling parameters and related structure differed between models, producing different results. More recent publications performed better against a performance matrix, evaluating model components and methodology. Conclusion When assessing screening strategies for HBV and HCV infection, the focus should be on more recent studies, which applied the latest treatment regimes, test methods and had better and more complete data on which to base their models. In addition to parameter selection and associated assumptions, careful consideration of dynamic versus static modelling is recommended. Future research may want to focus on these methodological issues. In addition, the ability to evaluate screening strategies for multiple infectious diseases, (HCV and HIV at the same time) might prove important for decision makers. PMID:26689908

  17. 75 FR 82061 - Notice To Amend an Existing System of Records; Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence) are subject to the Privacy Act. This system... requesting notification of the existence of records on himself or herself should send or provide a signed...

  18. The existence of global solution and ''blow up'' phenomenon for the system of multi-dimensional symmetric regularized wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Boling.

    1988-08-01

    The existence and uniqueness of the global smooth solution for the initial-boundary value problem of the system of multi-dimensions SRWE are proved. The sufficient conditions of ''blowing up'' of the solution are given. (author). 6 refs

  19. Public Health's Approach to Systemic Racism: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron

    2018-05-04

    Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.

  20. Existing reporting guidelines for clinical trials are not completely relevant for implantable medical devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Anne-France; Diallo, Stéphanie; van den Brink, Hélène; Châteauvieux, Constance; Serrano, Carole; Naud, Carole; Steelandt, Julie; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Pierre; Cour, Florence; Pellerin, Olivier; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle; Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine relevant items for reporting clinical trials on implantable medical devices (IMDs) and to identify reporting guidelines which include these items. A panel of experts identified the most relevant items for evaluating IMDs from an initial list based on reference papers. We then conducted a systematic review of articles indexed in MEDLINE. We retrieved reporting guidelines from the EQUATOR network's library for health research reporting. Finally, we screened these reporting guidelines to find those using our set of reporting items. Seven relevant reporting items were selected that related to four topics: randomization, learning curve, surgical setting, and device information. A total of 348 reporting guidelines were identified, among which 26 met our inclusion criteria. However, none of the 26 reporting guidelines presented all seven items together. The most frequently reported item was timing of randomization (65%). On the contrary, device information and learning curve effects were poorly specified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify specific items related to IMDs in reporting guidelines for clinical trials. We have shown that no existing reporting guideline is totally suitable for these devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  2. The Existence of Weak D-Pullback Exponential Attractor for Nonautonomous Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First, for a process U(t,τ∣t≥τ, we introduce a new concept, called the weak D-pullback exponential attractor, which is a family of sets M(t∣t≤T, for any T∈R, satisfying the following: (i M(t is compact, (ii M(t is positively invariant, that is, U(t,τM(τ⊂M(t, and (iii there exist k,l>0 such that dist(U(t,τB(τ,M(t≤ke-(t-τ; that is, M(t pullback exponential attracts B(τ. Then we give a method to obtain the existence of weak D-pullback exponential attractors for a process. As an application, we obtain the existence of weak D-pullback exponential attractor for reaction diffusion equation in H01 with exponential growth of the external force.

  3. Uranium accountability for ATR fuel fabrication. Part I. A description of the existing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, C.A.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.; Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    An evaluation of the materials accountability program at the Atomics International fuel fabrication facility in Canoga Park, California, with regard to the fabrication of highly enriched uranium fuel for the Advanced Test Reactor is presented. An analysis is given of the existing standards program, the existing measurements program and the existing statistical analysis procedures. In addition a short discussion is given of our evaluation of the safeguards procedures at Atomics International together with suggestions for possible modifications and improvements. Appendices of this report contain a rather complete description of the Atomics International plant and the flow of highly enriched uranium through the plant as well as the principal documents used for material accountability records

  4. Existence of global solutions to reaction-diffusion systems via a Lyapunov functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Kouachi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to construct polynomial functionals (according to solutions of the coupled reaction-diffusion equations which give $L^{p}$-bounds for solutions. When the reaction terms are sufficiently regular, using the well known regularizing effect, we deduce the existence of global solutions. These functionals are obtained independently of work done by Malham and Xin [11].

  5. Existence of global solutions to free boundary value problems for bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.

  6. No Project Exists In A Vacuum: Organizational Effects In Enterprise Information System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In other cases, the system may indirectly support the business, such as human resources systems, customer databases, and ecommerce systems. The... ecommerce system, for example, does not increase sales directly, but enables sales over the internet in order to broaden the company’s potential

  7. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN_2 control system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, Pradip; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The control system of LN_2 Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN_2 system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN_2) pre-cooling system. LN_2 is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN_2 management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN_2 control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN_2 system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  8. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN{sub 2} control system for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Pradip, E-mail: pradip@ipr.res.in; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The control system of LN{sub 2} Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN{sub 2} system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) pre-cooling system. LN{sub 2} is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN{sub 2} management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN{sub 2} control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN{sub 2} system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  9. Technology of Double Thermal Insulation for the Repair and Energy Optimization of Existing Thermal Insulation Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belániová, Barbora; Antošová, Naďa

    2017-06-01

    The theme of improvement thermal proprieties of external cladding according to the New EU Directive is still a hot topic, which needs to be answered necessarily till December 2020. Maintenance and repair of existing ETICS became to also an actual open theme in search solutions for existing constructions. The aim of the research in this review is to analyze influence of layers the alternative thermal materials in technology "double thermal insulation". Humidity and temperature conditions will be further examined in connection with the development and colonization of microorganisms on surface construction.

  10. Earthquake effects on groundwater systems: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  11. Unisys' experience in software quality and productivity management of an existing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John B.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of Quality Improvement techniques, implementation, and results in the maintenance, management, and modification of large software systems for the Space Shuttle Program's ground-based systems is provided.

  12. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

  13. Disability Case Adjudication and Review System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....

  14. Global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaoyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system. The strategy relies on our observation on new conservative quantities of these systems. Several new global existence results and a new blowup result of strong solutions to the two-component Degasperis- Procesi system and the two-component b-family system are presented by using these new conservative quantities.

  15. The Improvement of the Ventilation System in the Existing Terraced Houses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a sustainable solution in order to reduce the indoor temperature in hot and humid climate such as Malaysia. The focus of this study is to create a new device (Air Tube which is considered to be a remedial device for the indoor spaces, and can be installed for the existed houses. The method of this study is to design the Air Tube device and install is in the rooms of second floor in semi-detached and terrace house in order to reduce the temperature few degrees. The study will depend on taking manual measurements in the site and making simulation using computer software Ecotect on 14th of February (which considered to be the hottest day in the year and trying to find the best solution to reduce the temperature in such hot and humid weather, the case study is a semi-detach house with post-modern architectural style, which is located in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The research finds that AirTubeis a good solution for the existed houses to decrease the temperature and reach the thermal comfortable atmosphere.

  16. Novel Approaches to Improve the Combined Geometric and Dosimetric Performance of Existing IG-IMRT Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffray, D A; Sharpe, M; Rink, A; Letourneau, D

    2010-01-01

    The development of image-guidance technologies offer increased precision and accuracy in the placement of radiation therapy dose distributions in the human body. Kilovoltage and megavoltage systems now offer sub-mm accuracy and precision in localizing the treatment and planned isocenters. While this represents a significant improvement in our ability to target lesions, the performance of these systems in terms of their precise and accurate placement of field edges, including individual multi-leaves, is not performing at the same level. The development of dosimeters with small, imageable regions of response will allow these new systems to be evaluated with a much higher level of precision and accuracy. Furthermore, the development of completely automated systems that exploit the robotic nature of the imaging and delivery subsystems should permit the true performance of current IG-IMRT systems to be realized, quantified, and monitored. This includes adjustments to the treatment machines operating parameters, as well as, refinements of the planning system's beam model. Specifically, investigations into novel approaches of employing these detectors, automating their use to maximize system performance, and, the development of novel detectors for compatibility in MR-based systems will be discussed.

  17. 77 FR 62059 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Revisions to Existing Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Program Records NTSB-24 Facility Security Access Control System NTSB-25 Employee Purchase Card Holders... Ethics Program Records Appendix A: General Routine Uses Applicable to All Systems of Records Appendix B... CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES: None. POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR STORING, RETRIEVING, ACCESSING, RETAINING...

  18. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  19. Evaluation of a ground thermal energy storage system for heating and cooling of an existing dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, W.H; Lawrence, C.J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tarnawski, V.R. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system for heating and cooling a residential house in Ontario was simulated. The system uses the surface ground as a thermal energy storage for storing thermal energy in the summer for later use in the winter. In the summer, the ground receives both solar energy and the heat rejected by the system during cooling operation. The relationship between a heat pump and the ground is a ground heat exchanger (GHE). This presentation described the vertical and horizontal configurations of the GHE, which are the 2 basic configurations. It also described the modelling and analysis of the GCHP system. The modelling involved both simplified and comprehensive models. The simplified models of heating and cooling loads of a building, a heat pump unit, and heat transfer at the ground heat exchanger provided a direct link to the comprehensive model of heat and moisture transfer in the ground, based on the finite element method. This combination of models provided an accurate and practical simulation tool for GCHP systems. The energy analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The use of a horizontal ground heat exchanging pipe and the impact of heat deposition and extraction through it in the ground were also studied with reference to the length of pipe, depth of pipe and layout of the pipe loop. The objective of the analysis was to find ways to optimize the thermal performance of the system and environmental sustainability of the ground. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  1. On existence and multiplicity for Schrödinger–Poisson systems involving weighted sublinear nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Barile

    2017-04-01

    where $V, K: \\mathbb{R}^3 \\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^+$ are suitable potentials and $f: \\mathbb{R}^3 \\times \\mathbb{R} \\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}$ satisfies sublinear growth assumptions involving a finite number of positive weights $W_i$, $i= 1,\\dots,r$ with $r \\geq 1$. By exploiting compact embeddings of the functional space on which we work in every weighted space $L_{W_i}^{w_i}(\\mathbb{R}^3$, $w_i \\in (1, 2$, we establish existence by means of a generalized Weierstrass theorem. Moreover, we prove multiplicity of solutions if $f$ is odd in $u$ and $g(x \\equiv 0$ thanks to a variant of the symmetric mountain pass theorem stated by R. Kajikiya for subquadratic functionals.

  2. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under the existing chemical management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook

    with a median RCR of 0.91 (DK) vs. 0.62 (KR) (unpublished results). The present study aims to assess the aggregated exposure from consumer products assuming that every single product’s regulatory standard is respected. Total exposure to the three phthalates will be estimated taking into account different...... consumption patterns and life styles of children in Denmark and Korea. The estimated exposure from products will be added to the exposure via the environment and foods and total exposure will be compared to biomonitoring data. The result will verify the appropriateness of current product regulations for DEHP......-butyl phthalate (BBP) have been gradually under regulations. Despite the similar adverse health effects, no harmonized regulations exist for these substances. Varying regulations are focused on single/multiple substances in separate product categories, e.g. toys, childcare articles, cosmetics and food packaging...

  3. Existence of infinitely many periodic solutions for second-order nonautonomous Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By using minimax methods and critical point theory, we obtain infinitely many periodic solutions for a second-order nonautonomous Hamiltonian systems, when the gradient of potential energy does not exceed linear growth.

  4. 75 FR 34755 - Privacy Act; Proposed Alteration to Existing Systems of Records, Single Family Mortgage Asset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... increase in the number of records maintained by the system. These alterations do not impact the scope...-sponsored database that makes a federal debtor's delinquency and claim information available to federal...

  5. Existence of positive solutions for the system of higher order two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering ... In these applied settings, positive solutions are meaningful [1,9,13,21]. Due to ... In this paper, we shall consider the nonlinear system of differential equations,. ⎧.

  6. Co-existence of TV Broadcast and Wireless Systems for Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety ... medical emergencies, threats to public order and a host of other ..... Predition for Primary Multi-Transmitter Networks Operating in the TV ...

  7. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-v)v+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux), uxx=-(1-u-a1v)u+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux). By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  8. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Mi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-vv+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux, uxx=-(1-u-a1vu+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux. By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  9. Generation of 2N + 1-scroll existence in new three-dimensional chaos systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yue; Guan, Jian; Ma, Chunyang; Guo, Shuxu, E-mail: guosx@jlu.edu.cn [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We propose a systematic methodology for creating 2N + 1-scroll chaotic attractors from a simple three-dimensional system, which is named as the translation chaotic system. It satisfies the condition a{sub 12}a{sub 21} = 0, while the Chua system satisfies a{sub 12}a{sub 21} > 0. In this paper, we also propose a successful (an effective) design and an analytical approach for constructing 2N + 1-scrolls, the translation transformation principle. Also, the dynamics properties of the system are studied in detail. MATLAB simulation results show very sophisticated dynamical behaviors and unique chaotic behaviors of the system. It provides a new approach for 2N + 1-scroll attractors. Finally, to explore the potential use in technological applications, a novel block circuit diagram is also designed for the hardware implementation of 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-scroll attractors via switching the switches. Translation chaotic system has the merit of convenience and high sensitivity to initial values, emerging potentials in future engineering chaos design.

  10. Retrofit of existing Dow solidification system at quad cities nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekitis, L.; Jarvis, N.; Petri, R.; Testa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past year ATCOR has been involved in the design, testing and supply of an In-container Mixing System Retrofit for Commonwealth Edison's Quad Cities Nuclear Station Solidification System. The system supplied by DOW, itself a retrofit of a urea formaldehyde system, was based upon use of 50 cubic foot containers (liners). ATCOR's retrofit increased liner capacity to 170 cubic feet and allowed in-cask solidification of highly radioactive material. This paper discusses the reasons for the decision to replace equipment within the originally furnished system and the development of the ATCOR plan to proof-test this equipment prior to delivery at the site. Results of this pre-testing, and a comparison between pre-tested conditions and the actual in-plan start-up tests are presented. Development of improved instrumentation and mechanical modifications which enhance the reliability of the ATCOR/DOW process In-container Mixing System was provided as a part of this project. Test results are presented on instruments, controls and the unique method of mechanical attachment of the Mixing Head to the solidification container

  11. POSSIBILITY OF IMPROVING EXISTING STANDARDS AND METHODOLOGIES FOR AUDITING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO PROVIDE E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евгений Геннадьевич Панкратов

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing methods of e-government systems audit, their shortcomings are examined.  The approaches to improve existing techniques and adapt them to the specific characteristics of e-government systems are suggested. The paper describes the methodology, providing possibilities of integrated assessment of information systems. This methodology uses systems maturity models and can be used in the construction of e-government rankings, as well as in the audit of their implementation process. Maturity models are based on COBIT, COSO methodologies and models of e-government, developed by the relevant committee of the UN. The methodology was tested during the audit of information systems involved in the payment of temporary disability benefits. The audit was carried out during analysis of the outcome of the pilot project for the abolition of the principle of crediting payments for disability benefits.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-5

  12. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...

  13. Does the modified Stroop effect exist in PTSD? Evidence from dissertation abstracts and the peer reviewed literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Matthew O.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Marks, Libby

    2009-01-01

    The modified Stroop effect (MSE), in which participants show delayed color naming to trauma specific words is one of the most widely cited findings in the literature pertaining to cognitive bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study used a novel approach (Dissertation Abstract Review; DAR) to review the presence of the MSE in dissertation abstracts. A review of dissertations that used the modified Stroop task in a PTSD sample revealed that only 8% of the studies found del...

  14. U.K. Foot and Mouth Disease: A Systemic Risk Assessment of Existing Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, João; Pollard, Simon; Pearn, Kerry; Snary, Emma L; Black, Edgar; Prpich, George; Longhurst, Phil

    2017-09-01

    This article details a systemic analysis of the controls in place and possible interventions available to further reduce the risk of a foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United Kingdom. Using a research-based network analysis tool, we identify vulnerabilities within the multibarrier control system and their corresponding critical control points (CCPs). CCPs represent opportunities for active intervention that produce the greatest improvement to United Kingdom's resilience to future FMD outbreaks. Using an adapted 'features, events, and processes' (FEPs) methodology and network analysis, our results suggest that movements of animals and goods associated with legal activities significantly influence the system's behavior due to their higher frequency and ability to combine and create scenarios of exposure similar in origin to the U.K. FMD outbreaks of 1967/8 and 2001. The systemic risk assessment highlights areas outside of disease control that are relevant to disease spread. Further, it proves to be a powerful tool for demonstrating the need for implementing disease controls that have not previously been part of the system. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Expert systems for assisting in design reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Johnson, W.J.; Weber, N.; Naser, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses Sargent and Lundy's (S and L's) use of expert system technologies to computerize the procedures used for engineering design reviews. This paper discusses expert systems and the advantages that result from using them to computerize the decision-making process. This paper also discusses the design review expert systems that S and L has developed to perform fire protection and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) design reviews, and is currently developing for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform 10 CFR 50.59 safety reviews

  16. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    OpenAIRE

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Hourari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in \\cite{SaidKasi_2011}, the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (\\cite{HKa06}, \\cite%b{IK08}, \\cite{KK09}) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the pr...

  17. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  18. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theroy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling,

  19. Co-existence of TV broadcast and wireless systems for public safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety Networks (PSNs) is presented in this article. The networks to be deployed within Television White Space (TVWS) in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State operate on a secondary basis spatially, without causing harmful interference to ...

  20. An approach for functional safety improvement of an existing automotive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabbaz Saberi, A.; Luo, Y.; Pawel Cichosz, F.; Brand, M. van den; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Safety of automotive systems is becoming more involved, specially for the case of autonomous vehicles. The ISO 26262 standard offers a systematic approach for designing a safe road vehicle (or subsystems of a car) from design phase through its production. However, providing functional safety

  1. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  2. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution,

  3. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

  4. Existence and multiplicity of homoclinic solutions for p(t-Laplacian systems with subquadratic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By using the genus properties, we establish some criteria for the second-order p(t-Laplacian system $$ \\frac{d}{dt}\\big(|\\dot{u}(t|^{p(t-2}\\dot{u}(t\\big-a(t|u(t|^{p(t-2}u(t +\

  5. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study; Fortgeschrittene Nuklearsysteme. Review Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph [Interdisziplinaere Arbeitsgruppe Naturwissenschaft, Technik und Sicherheit (IANUS), Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstrasse 10, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar [Institute for applied ecology (Oeko-Institut), Elisabethenstrasse 55-57, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  6. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  7. Does the modified Stroop effect exist in PTSD? Evidence from dissertation abstracts and the peer reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Matthew O; Frueh, B Christopher; Marks, Libby

    2009-06-01

    The modified Stroop effect (MSE), in which participants show delayed colour naming to trauma-specific words, is one of the most widely cited findings in the literature pertaining to cognitive bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study used a novel approach (Dissertation Abstract Review; DAR) to review the presence of the MSE in dissertation abstracts. A review of dissertations that used the modified Stroop task in a PTSD sample revealed that only 8% of the studies found delayed reaction times to trauma-specific words in participants with PTSD. The most common finding (75%) was for no PTSD-specific effects in colour naming trauma-relevant words. This ratio is significantly lower than ratios found in the peer reviewed literature, but even in the peer reviewed literature only 44% of controlled studies found the modified Stroop effect. These data suggest that a reevaluation of the MSE in PTSD is warranted.

  8. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  9. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  10. Existence of Subharmonic Solutions for a Class of Second-Order p-Laplacian Systems with Impulsive Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zhen Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using minimax methods in critical point theory, a new existence theorem of infinitely many periodic solutions is obtained for a class of second-order p-Laplacian systems with impulsive effects. Our result generalizes many known works in the literature.

  11. 77 FR 33761 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, “Grievance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... of a data breach. (See also on HUD's privacy Web site, Appendix I for other ways that the Privacy Act... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5613-N-04] Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, ``Grievance Records'' AGENCY: Office of the...

  12. Existence of Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of (p, q-Laplacian Fractional Higher Order Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.

  13. Existence of solutions of the Dirichlet problem for an infinite system of nonlinear differential-functional equations of elliptic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz S. Zabawa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dirichlet problem for an infinite weakly coupled system of semilinear differential-functional equations of elliptic type is considered. It is shown the existence of solutions to this problem. The result is based on Chaplygin's method of lower and upper functions.

  14. Non-Existence of Black Hole Solutionsfor a Spherically Symmetric, Static Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We consider for j=1/2, 3/2,... a spherically symmetric, static system of (2j+1) Dirac particles, each having total angular momentum j. The Dirac particles interact via a classical gravitational and electromagnetic field. The Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell equations for this system are derived. It is shown that, under weak regularity conditions on the form of the horizon, the only black hole solutions of the EDM equations are the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions. In other words, the spinors must vanish identically. Applied to the gravitational collapse of a "cloud" of spin-1/2-particles to a black hole, our result indicates that the Dirac particles must eventually disappear inside the event horizon.

  15. Systematic literature review of methodologies and data sources of existing economic models across the full spectrum of Alzheimer's disease and dementia from apparently healthy through disease progression to end of life care: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidou, Maria; Wittenberg, Raphael; Landeiro, Filipa Isabel Trigo; Park, A-La; Fry, Andra; Knapp, Martin; Gray, Alastair M; Tockhorn-Heidenreich, Antje; Castro Sanchez, Amparo Yovanna; Ghinai, Isaac; Handels, Ron; Lecomte, Pascal; Wolstenholme, Jane

    2018-06-08

    Dementia is one of the greatest health challenges the world will face in the coming decades, as it is one of the principal causes of disability and dependency among older people. Economic modelling is used widely across many health conditions to inform decisions on health and social care policy and practice. The aim of this literature review is to systematically identify, review and critically evaluate existing health economics models in dementia. We included the full spectrum of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), from preclinical stages through to severe dementia and end of life. This review forms part of the Real world Outcomes across the Alzheimer's Disease spectrum for better care: multimodal data Access Platform (ROADMAP) project. Electronic searches were conducted in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, Economic Literature Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, Research Papers in Economics, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Science Citation Index, Turning Research Into Practice and Open Grey for studies published between January 2000 and the end of June 2017. Two reviewers will independently assess each study against predefined eligibility criteria. A third reviewer will resolve any disagreement. Data will be extracted using a predefined data extraction form following best practice. Study quality will be assessed using the Phillips checklist for decision analytic modelling. A narrative synthesis will be used. The results will be made available in a scientific peer-reviewed journal paper, will be presented at relevant conferences and will also be made available through the ROADMAP project. CRD42017073874. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Global existence and decay of solutions of a nonlinear system of wave equations

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with a system of two wave equations with nonlinear damping and source terms acting in both equations. Under some restrictions on the nonlinearity of the damping and the source terms, we show that our problem has a unique local solution. Also, we prove that, for some restrictions on the initial data, the rate of decay of the total energy is exponential or polynomial depending on the exponents of the damping terms in both equations.

  17. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses applied to ethylene refrigeration system of an existing olefin plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palizdar, A.; Sadrameli, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses were applied. • Investment cost for most of the components is larger than exergy destruction cost. • Most of exergy destruction and investment costs are avoidable and endogenous. • Distillation column and compressor have the highest priority to improve. - Abstract: Ethylene refrigeration system of a light olefins production plant was investigated using the conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses. In advanced analysis, investment and exergy destruction costs of system components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts to improve our knowledge about the refrigeration system. Results of the exergoeconomic analysis represent that the total cost of column T-1 (1217.67 $/h), compressor C-3 (864.88 $/h), compressor C-2 (250.43 $/h) and multi stream heat exchanger MSHE-1 (154.19 $/h) are larger than other components. Results of the advanced exergoeconomic analysis reveal that most of the total costs of components are endogenous and can be reduced only for column T-1 and compressor C-3. With increasing the efficiency of these two components, investment and exergy destruction costs has been decreased (1381.74 $/h). Large amounts of endogenous exergy destruction cost of components represent that the interactions between the components are not a main reason for exergy destruction. Therefore, an appropriate strategy for the enhancement of the system efficiency and profitability is to improve their performance. Based on the above results, column T-1 and compressor C-3 have the highest priority to improve the performance. Sensitivity of the analysis parameters to some important operating variables have also been investigated.

  18. Global existence and decay of solutions of a nonlinear system of wave equations

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-03-01

    This work is concerned with a system of two wave equations with nonlinear damping and source terms acting in both equations. Under some restrictions on the nonlinearity of the damping and the source terms, we show that our problem has a unique local solution. Also, we prove that, for some restrictions on the initial data, the rate of decay of the total energy is exponential or polynomial depending on the exponents of the damping terms in both equations.

  19. Worldwide Crisis Alerting Network, Phase II. Task 2. Identification of Existing Communications Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    rent flable- De:)e conservarse mientras no se %igre el funcionamiento seguro del enlace VHF RTT FREDERIKSDAL- S..INDRE STROMFJORO. SANTA MARIA...Automatic Navigation and Fuel Management Computers, Weather Radar , Air Data Computer, ACARS and Voice Communications. The service most directly...this system are located at long-range radar sites. The second air/ground functional area is terminal communications; controller/pilot communications

  20. Simultaneous existence of different enviroments in aqueous clay systems and its possible role in prebiotic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, N

    1975-08-05

    The formation of packets of parallel oriented platelets and separating distances of several angstrom units in montmorillonite-water systems produces an intrinsic inhomogeneity with respect to the proton donating power of internal and external zones. Stable packets can be induced by both inorganic and organic molecules or ions, in suspensions or in drying-out systems. The coexistence of zones with different proton donating power was demonstrated by the pH-sensitive color reaction of benzidine, where stable packets of montmorillonite platelets were formed by the use of either paraquat or diquat. The close proximity of the two types of zones, which can be of the order of several angstroms, produces the conditions which were defined by Katchalsky as essential for the polymerization of amino acids. Since these enviromental conditions are quite common in nature, both at present and in prebiotic times, it is proposed that the inhomogeneity of clay-water systems with respect to proton donating power should be taken into account in both theoretical and experimental efforts to demonstrate the catalytic activity of clays in prebiotic synthesis.

  1. Shortcomings of existing systems for registration and legal protection of software products and possible ways to overcome them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapidevskiy, A. V.; Petrov, A. S.; Zhmud, V. A.; Sherubneva, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reveals the shortcomings of the existing system of registration and legal protection of software products. The system has too many disadvantages and shortcomings. Explanatory examples are given. Possible ways of overcoming these shortcomings are discussed. The paper also gives possible prospects for the use of new digital technologies. Also in the paper, the information is provided about the modern software components for protecting intellectual property rights of State corporations

  2. The Vlasov-Navier-Stokes System in a 2D Pipe: Existence and Stability of Regular Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Olivier; Han-Kwan, Daniel; Moussa, Ayman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Vlasov-Navier-Stokes system in a 2D pipe with partially absorbing boundary conditions. We show the existence of stationary states for this system near small Poiseuille flows for the fluid phase, for which the kinetic phase is not trivial. We prove the asymptotic stability of these states with respect to appropriately compactly supported perturbations. The analysis relies on geometric control conditions which help to avoid any concentration phenomenon for the kinetic phase.

  3. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Leahy, M.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a model of the Irish energy-system was developed using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which was then used for three investigations. The first compares the model results with actual values from 2007 to validate its accuracy. The second illustrates the exposure of the existing Irish energy-system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO 2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy-system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland's energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally, these results are not only applicable to Ireland, but also represent the issues facing many other countries. (author)

  4. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Existing Conditions and Production Strategies for the Baca Geothermal System, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Charles R.; Mercer, James W.; Thomas, Stephen D.; Balleau, W. Pete

    1984-05-01

    The Baca geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico comprise an integrated hydrogeologic system. Analysis of the geothermal reservoir either under natural conditions or subject to proposed development should account for the mass (water) and energy (heat) balances of adjacent aquifers as well as the reservoir itself. A three-dimensional model based on finite difference approximations is applied to this integrated system. The model simulates heat transport associated with the flow of steam and water through an equivalent porous medium. The Baca geothermal reservoir is dominated by flow in fractures and distinct strata, but at the scale of application the equivalent porous media concept is appropriate. The geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers are simulated under both natural conditions and proposed production strategies. Simulation of natural conditions compares favorably with observed pressure, temperature, and thermal discharge data. The history matching simulations show that the results used for comparison are most sensitive to vertical permeability and the area of an assumed high-permeability zone connecting the reservoir to a deep hydrothermal source. Simulations using proposed production strategies and optimistic estimates of certain hydrologic parameters and reservoir extent indicate that a 50-MW power plant could be maintained for a period greater than 30 years. This production, however, will result in significant decreases in the total water discharge to the Jemez River.

  6. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  7. Formal specification of open distributed systems - overview and evaluation of existing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelen, Ketil

    1998-02-01

    This report classifies, compares and evaluates eleven specification languages for distributed systems. The eleven specification languages have been picked from a wide spectrum of areas embracing both industry and research. We have selected languages that we see as important; either because they have proved useful within the commercial software industry, or because they play or we expect them to play an important role within research. Based on literature studies, we investigate the suitability of these specification languages to describe open distributed systems. The languages are also evaluated with respect to support for refinement and the characterization of proof-obligations. The report consists of five main parts: Part 1 gives the background and motivation for the evaluation; it also introduces the basic terminology; Part 2 motivates, identifies and formulates the concrete evaluation criterions; Part 3 evaluates the specification languages with respect to the evaluation criterions formulated in Part 2; Part 4 sums up the results from the evaluation in the form of tables; it also draws some conclusions and identifies some directions for further studies; Part 5 consists of two appendices, namely a bibliography and a list of abbreviations. (author)

  8. After all, What variables Characterize the Existence of Local Productive Arrangements and Local Roduction Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we established a distinction between the various terms used to characterize clusters of firms. Once in the literature, we identified that the terms, Local Productive Arrangements (LPA and Local Production Systems (LPS are used interchangeably. However, these terminologies refer to different stages of development of territorial agglomerations of firms. In the same way, the agglomeration of businesses belonging to a same production chain in a particular region would not necessarily characterize an LPA or LPS. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the need to combine methods and variables to draw a more accurate and comprehensive territorial productive situation allowing the classification of clusters according to their stage of development and institutional structure. For that purpose, the strength of cooperation between local professionals was considered as a major factor, which creates a competitive advantage that requires exogenous interests to make use of the endogenous capabilities strategically developed and cultivated.

  9. Aging integumentary system. Podiatric review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlman, C; Rahimi, F

    1990-11-01

    The authors present a concise review of age-related changes that occur in the skin and its derivatives, as they pertain to the podiatric practitioner. A brief discussion of wound healing and several common skin disorders that affect the elderly is also included.

  10. Existence of infinitely many solutions for degenerate and singular elliptic systems with indefinite concave nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Chung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider degenerate and singular elliptic systems of the form $$displaylines{ - hbox{div}(h_1(xabla u = b_1(x|u|^{r-2}u + F_u(x,u,v quad hbox{in } Omega,cr - hbox{div}(h_2(xabla v = b_2(x|v|^{r-2}v + F_v(x,u,v quad hbox{in } Omega, }$$ where $Omega$ is a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^N$, $N geq 2$, with smooth boundary $partialOmega$; $h_i: Omega o [0, infty$, $h_i in L^1_{loc}(Omega$, and are allowed to have ``essential'' zeroes; $1 < r < 2$; the weight functions $b_i: Omega o mathbb{R}$, may be sign-changing; and $(F_u,F_v = abla F$. Using variational techniques, a variant of the Caffarelli - Kohn - Nirenberg inequality, and a variational principle by Clark [9], we prove the rxistence of infinitely many solutions in a weighted Sobolev space.

  11. Factor structure of self-reported clinical disorders and personality disorders : A review of the existing literature and a factor analytical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this research is to add to the current understanding of the latent factor structure of personality disorders by performing a review of the existing literature (Study 1) and a factor analytical study on the factor structure and the relationship between self-reported Axis I and

  12. Review and evaluation of the methodological quality of the existing guidelines and recommendations for inherited neurometabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassis, Linda; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Molero-Luis, Marta

    2015-01-01

    and timely treatments are often pivotal for the favorable course of the disease. Thus, the elaboration of new evidence-based recommendations for iNMD diagnosis and management is increasingly requested by health care professionals and patients, even though the methodological quality of existing guidelines...

  13. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  14. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  15. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  16. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  17. Existing air sparging model and literature review for the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this Report are two-fold: (1) to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice with respect to air sparging technology, air sparging models and related or augmentation technologies (e.g., soil vapor extraction); and (2) to provide the basis for the development of the conceptual Decision Tool. The Project Team conducted an exhaustive review of available literature. The complete listing of the documents, numbering several hundred and reviewed as a part of this task, is included in Appendix A. Even with the large amount of material written regarding the development and application of air sparging, there still are significant gaps in the technical community`s understanding of the remediation technology. The results of the literature review are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, an overview of seventeen conceptual, theoretical, mathematical and empirical models is presented. Detailed descriptions of each of the models reviewed is provided in Appendix B. Included in Appendix D is a copy of the questionnaire used to compile information about the models. The remaining sections of the document reflect the analysis and synthesis of the information gleaned during the literature and model reviews. The results of these efforts provide the basis for development of the decision tree and conceptual decision tool for determining applicability and optimization of air sparging. The preliminary decision tree and accompanying information provided in Section 6 describe a three-tiered approach for determining air sparging applicability: comparison with established scenarios; calculation of conceptual design parameters; and the conducting of pilot-scale studies to confirm applicability. The final two sections of this document provide listings of the key success factors which will be used for evaluating the utility of the Decision Tool and descriptions of potential applications for Decision Tool use.

  18. The Netherlands: health system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, W.; Kroneman, M.; Boerma, W.; van den Berg, M.; Westert, G.; Devillé, W.; van Ginneken, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of

  19. Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Miao; Tian, Lixin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Fubao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of Schrödinger-Poisson systems with the asymptotically linear or asymptotically 3-linear nonlinearity. Under some suitable assumptions on V , K , a , and f , we prove the existence, nonexistence, and asymptotic behavior of solutions via variational methods. In particular, the potential V is allowed to be sign-changing for the asymptotically linear case.

  20. Existence and Hadamard well-posedness of a system of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An existence result for the solution set of a system of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems (for short, (SSGVQEP is obtained, which improves Theorem 3.1 of the work of Ansari et al. (J. Optim. Theory Appl. 127:27-44, 2005. Moreover, a definition of Hadamard-type well-posedness for (SSGVQEP is introduced and sufficient conditions for Hadamard well-posedness of (SSGVQEP are established.

  1. A review of existing model of no-notice randomized inspection and their potential application to model Pu handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, J.; Lu, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Literature regarding two alternative safeguards concepts--randomization and zones--is reviewed. The concepts were introduced in the early 1980's to address the need to make safeguards more efficient in the light of the increasing number of facilities under safeguards and a fixed IAEA inspection budget. The paper discusses literature broadly relating these approaches to IAEA needs and objectives, reports from IAEA consultants meetings, reports of field trials, and other technical papers. The review suggests that the approaches have been extensively considered on a theoretical and practical level, and that the safeguards community endorses them on a conceptual level as potentially valid ways of achieving safeguards objectives. Actual utilization of the ideas in safeguards practice has to proceed on a case-by-case basis, but progress is being made

  2. Existence of benefit finding and posttraumatic growth in people treated for head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Harding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of head and neck cancer (HNC in long-term survivors differs widely among individuals, and a significant number of them suffer from the negative effects of disease, whereas others report significant positive effect. This systematic review investigated the evidence the implications of treatment for HNC and subsequent development of Benefit Finding (BF or Posttraumatic Growth (PTG.Purpose. To understand how differing medical, psychological and social characteristics of HNC may lead to BF/PTG and subsequently inform post-treatment interventions to encourage positive outcomes.Method. In February 2012, five databases including Pubmed, and Psych Info, were searched, for peer-reviewed English-language publications. Search strings included key words pertaining to HNC, BF, and PTG. One thousand three hundred and sixty three publications were identified, reviewed, and reduced following Cochrane guidelines and inclusion/exclusion criteria specified by a group of maxillofacial consultants and psychologists. Publications were then quality assessed using the CASP Cohort Critical Appraisal tool.Findings. Five manuscripts met the search and selection criteria, and were sourced for review. All studies were identified as being level IIb evidence which is a medium level of quality. The majority of studies investigated benefit finding (80% and were split between recruiting participant via cancer clinics and postal survey. They focused on the medical, psychological and social characteristics of the patient following completion of treatment for HNC.Conclusion. Demographic factors across the papers showed similar patterns of relationships across BF and PTG; that higher education/qualification and cohabitation/marriage are associated with increased BF/PTG. Similarly, overlap with disease characteristics and psychosocial factors where hope and optimism were both positively correlated with increased reported BF/PTG.

  3. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents: systematic review of formats, content, and effects of existing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Miriam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2009-09-01

    To review the literature on teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents and to identify formats and content of these programs and their effects. Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to mid-July 2008) and the Education Resources Information Center database (pre-1966 to mid-July 2008) were searched using and combining the MeSH terms teaching, internship and residency, and family practice; and teaching, graduate medical education, and family practice. The initial MEDLINE and Education Resources Information Center database searches identified 362 and 33 references, respectively. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and studies were included if they described the format or content of a teaching-skills program or if they were primary studies of the effects of a teaching-skills program for family medicine residents or family medicine and other specialty trainees. The bibliographies of those articles were reviewed for unidentified studies. A total of 8 articles were identified for systematic review. Selection was limited to articles published in English. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents vary from half-day curricula to a few months of training. Their content includes leadership skills, effective clinical teaching skills, technical teaching skills, as well as feedback and evaluation skills. Evaluations mainly assessed the programs' effects on teaching behaviour, which was generally found to improve following participation in the programs. Evaluations of learner reactions and learning outcomes also suggested that the programs have positive effects. Family medicine residency training programs differ from all other residency training programs in their shorter duration, usually 2 years, and the broader scope of learning within those 2 years. Few studies on teaching-skills training, however, were designed specifically for family medicine residents. Further studies assessing the effects of teaching-skills training in family medicine residents are

  4. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  5. Review of Indian education system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Dnyandeo Dattatray; Falch, Morten; Tated, Rajendra G

    2015-01-01

    In today's world of globalization, Indian education system is to be upgraded. The paper focus on the recent literature available related to teaching learning approach. The attempt is to analysis the admission condition in technical institutes due to growth in intake of seats. The fish bone diagram...... technique is suggested to analysis the root cause of failure, considering student as one of the stakeholders related to education system....

  6. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  7. Protocol for a scoping review of existing policies on the prevention and control of obesity across countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-02-22

    The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa. This scoping review seeks to examine the nature, extent and range of policies covering obesity prevention in Africa in order to assess how they align with international efforts in creating less obesogenic environments. This will help identify gaps in the approaches that are adopted in Africa. Using the Arksey and O'Malley's scoping methodological framework as a guide, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost) CINAHL (EbscoHost), Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) databases will be carried out for peer reviewed journal articles related to obesity prevention policies using the African search filter. A grey literature search for policy documents and reports will also be conducted. There will be no language and date restrictions. Eligible policy documents and reports will be obtained and screened using the inclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and results analysed using descriptive numerical summary analysis and qualitative thematic analysis. No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this systematic review will be presented at workshops and conferences; and will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journal. This will also form a chapter of a PhD thesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  8. Legacy2Drupal - Conversion of an existing oceanographic relational database to a semantically enabled Drupal content management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Work, T.; Allen, J.; Groman, R. C.; Fox, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have previously designed customized schemas for their metadata. The WHOI Ocean Informatics initiative and the NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have jointly sponsored a project to port an existing, relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal6 Content Management System. The goal was to translate all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system to employ Drupal CMS features. The replacement features include Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, themes, RDB, SPARQL, workflow, and a number of other supporting modules. Strategic use of some Drupal6 CMS features enables three separate but complementary interfaces that provide access to oceanographic research metadata via the MySQL database: 1) a Drupal6-powered front-end; 2) a standard SQL port (used to provide a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL port (feeding a new faceted search capability being developed). Future plans include the creation of science ontologies, by scientist/technologist teams, that will drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. Incorporation of semantic technologies included in the future Drupal 7 core release is also anticipated. Using a public domain CMS as opposed to proprietary middleware, and taking advantage of the many features of Drupal 6 that are designed to support semantically-enabled interfaces will help prepare the BCO-DMO database for interoperability with other ecosystem databases.

  9. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Xylan Mutants Does Not Support the Existence of a Secondary Cell Wall Integrity System in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Mortimer, Jenny C; Dupree, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Yeast have long been known to possess a cell wall integrity (CWI) system, and recently an analogous system has been described for the primary walls of plants (PCWI) that leads to changes in plant growth and cell wall composition. A similar system has been proposed to exist for secondary cell walls (SCWI). However, there is little data to support this. Here, we analyzed the stem transcriptome of a set of cell wall biosynthetic mutants in order to investigate whether cell wall damage, in this case caused by aberrant xylan synthesis, activates a signaling cascade or changes in cell wall synthesis gene expression. Our data revealed remarkably few changes to the transcriptome. We hypothesize that this is because cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening have entered a committed programme leading to cell death, and therefore a SCWI system would have limited impact. The absence of transcriptomic responses to secondary cell wall alterations may facilitate engineering of the secondary cell wall of plants.

  10. Cyberbullying or Cyber Aggression?: A Review of Existing Definitions of Cyber-Based Peer-to-Peer Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Corcoran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ongoing debate regarding the definitions and measurement of cyberbullying, the present article critically appraises the existing literature and offers direction regarding the question of how best to conceptualise peer-to-peer abuse in a cyber context. Variations across definitions are problematic as it has been argued that inconsistencies with regard to definitions result in researchers examining different phenomena, whilst the absence of an agreed conceptualisation of the behaviour(s involved hinders the development of reliable and valid measures. Existing definitions of cyberbullying often incorporate the criteria of traditional bullying such as intent to harm, repetition, and imbalance of power. However, due to the unique nature of cyber-based communication, it can be difficult to identify such criteria in relation to cyber-based abuse. Thus, for these reasons cyberbullying may not be the most appropriate term. Rather than attempting to “shoe-horn” this abusive behaviour into the preconceived conceptual framework that provides an understanding of traditional bullying, it is timely to take an alternative approach. We argue that it is now time to turn our attention to the broader issue of cyber aggression, rather than persist with the narrow focus that is cyberbullying.

  11. NRC perspectives on the digital system review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauck, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Since about 1988, the USNRC has been involved in the review of digital retrofits to instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. Initially, this involvement was limited but with the advent of the 1990s, NRC involvement has become greater because of increased interest in and application of digital systems as existing analog systems become obsolete. Criteria for the design of such systems to ensure safety has been promulgated over the years and the USNRC has been actively involved both nationally and internationally with this effort. With the publication of the Zion Eagle 21 Safety Evaluation Report in 1992, Generic Letter 95-02 in April 1995 which endorses EPRI guidance document TR-102348 on digital upgrades and the latest revision to Regulatory Guide 1.152 which endorses IEEE 7.4.3.2-1993; a basic digital system review process was established. The NRC supplemented this review process with recently issued inspection procedures for use by NRC inspectors when conducting onsite reviews of digital modifications. In addition, the NRC undertook a major effort to codify the above guidance and the experience gained from digital system reviews of both operating plant modifications and advanced reactor designs, over these years into a revision to Standard Review Plan, (SRP), NUREG-0800, Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control. This SRP revision was published in June, 1997, and included new SRP sections, branch technical positions and six new regulatory guides endorsing IEEE standards on software quality. The NRC staff believes that a stable digital system review process is now in place. (author)

  12. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  13. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  14. Fluctuations in Nonlinear Systems: A Short Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubia, F.J. de la; Buceta, J.; Cabrera, J.L.; Olarrea, J.; Parrondo, J.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We review some results that illustrate the constructive role of noise in nonlinear systems. Several phenomena are briefly discussed: optimal localization of orbits in a system with limit cycle behavior and perturbed by colored noise; stochastic branch selection at secondary bifurcations; noise- induced order/disorder transitions and pattern formation in spatially extended systems. In all cases the presence of noise is crucial, and the results reinforce the modern view of the importance of noise in the evolution of nonlinear systems. (author)

  15. Review of investigations in eco-friendly thermoacoustic refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raut Ashish S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, internationally research and development is intended to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration system also growth of new-fangled refrigeration technology of potentially much lesser ecological impact. This paper gives brief review of research and development in thermoacoustic refrigeration also the existing situation of thermoacoustic refrigeration system. Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a novel sort of energy conversion equipment which converts acoustic power into heat energy by thermoacoustic effect. Thermoacoustic refrigeration is an emergent refrigeration technology in which there are no moving elements or any environmentally injurious refrigerants during its working. The concept of thermoacoustic refrigeration system is explained, the growth of thermoacoustic refrigeration, various investigations into thermoacoustic refrigeration system, various optimization techniques to improve coefficient of performance, different stacks and resonator tube designs to improve heat transfer rate, various gases, and other parameters like sound generation have been reviewed.

  16. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  17. Review and assessment of information kiosk systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the current state-of-the-art and assesses the progress that is being made, in Kiosk Information Systems. This information will be used in developing a kiosk system for the Metro Dade Transit Agency (MDTA), which has recently been ...

  18. Assemble-to-order systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atan, Z.; Ahmadi, T.; Stegehuis, C.; de Kok, A.G.; Adan, I.J.B.F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent literature on assemble-to-order systems. Each assemble-to-order system consists of multiple components and end-products. The components are assembled into the end-products after information on customer demand is received but the decision on what components to

  19. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Heat Pump with Air-Conditioning System for the Existing Hospital Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complete evaluation procedure of energy-saving and efficiency improvement for a large-scale hospital retrofit project has been established and successfully validated in Taiwan. The retrofit scheme, in integrating the alternative hot water system, namely, a water source heat pump (WSHP, with the existing HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning system, enables the capability to meet the cooling and hot water demand simultaneously with a larger safety margin as well as saving energy. In addition, it has been found that the integrated system provides a new source for cooling which can be utilized as a system redundancy in avoiding system shutdown. This is very useful when considering in specific areas in the hospital, such as intensive care unit, or operation rooms, where cooling should not be interrupted on any occasion. In this study, it is validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of the newly added WSHP system, under heating and cooling mode, is 3.62 and 2.62, respectively. The recorded annual cost reduction by this integrated system is $102,564, with a payback of 1.2 years. The hospital after retrofit has been operating safer, with more redundancy, and more energy-efficient which warrants tremendous potential for implementation in the industry.

  20. 3D RECONSTRUCTION FROM MULTI-VIEW MEDICAL X-RAY IMAGES – REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EXISTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3D concept is extremely important in clinical studies of human body. Accurate 3D models of bony structures are currently required in clinical routine for diagnosis, patient follow-up, surgical planning, computer assisted surgery and biomechanical applications. However, 3D conventional medical imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have serious limitations such as using in non-weight-bearing positions, costs and high radiation dose(for CT. Therefore, 3D reconstruction methods from biplanar X-ray images have been taken into consideration as reliable alternative methods in order to achieve accurate 3D models with low dose radiation in weight-bearing positions. Different methods have been offered for 3D reconstruction from X-ray images using photogrammetry which should be assessed. In this paper, after demonstrating the principles of 3D reconstruction from X-ray images, different existing methods of 3D reconstruction of bony structures from radiographs are classified and evaluated with various metrics and their advantages and disadvantages are mentioned. Finally, a comparison has been done on the presented methods with respect to several metrics such as accuracy, reconstruction time and their applications. With regards to the research, each method has several advantages and disadvantages which should be considered for a specific application.

  1. Development of a new bin filler for apple harvesting and infield sorting with a review of existing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bin filler, which receives apples from the sorting system and then places them in the bin evenly without causing bruise damage, plays a critical role for the self-propelled apple harvest and infield sorting (HIS) machine that is being developed in our laboratory. Two major technical challenges ...

  2. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed for the overall assessment of animal welfare at the farm level for the purpose of advising farmers or assisting public decision-making. They are generally based on several measures compounded into a single evaluation, using different rules to assemble the inform...

  3. The Utility and Challenges of Using ICD Codes in Child Maltreatment Research: A Review of Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Fraser, Jenny; Walker, Sue; McKenzie, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this article are to explore the extent to which the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) has been used in child abuse research, to describe how the ICD system has been applied, and to assess factors affecting the reliability of ICD coded data in child abuse research.…

  4. Existence and instability of steady states for a triangular cross-diffusion system: A computer-assisted proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breden, Maxime; Castelli, Roberto

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a computer-assisted method to study steady states of a triangular cross-diffusion system. Our approach consist in an a posteriori validation procedure, that is based on using a fixed point argument around a numerically computed solution, in the spirit of the Newton-Kantorovich theorem. It allows to prove the existence of various non homogeneous steady states for different parameter values. In some situations, we obtain as many as 13 coexisting steady states. We also apply the a posteriori validation procedure to study the linear stability of the obtained steady states, proving that many of them are in fact unstable.

  5. Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidula, N.W.A.; Rajapakse, A.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 75A Chancellor' s Circle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A microgrid is particularly a portion of the power distribution system that comprises distributed generation, energy storage and loads. To be capable of operating in parallel to the grid, as an autonomous power island and in transition modes, microgrids must be robust in controlling the local voltage and frequency, and protecting the network and equipment connected to the microgrid. It also needs to facilitate demand side management and resynchronization. This paper presents a review of existing microgrid test networks around the world (North America, Europe and Asia) and some significantly different microgrid simulation networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on the test systems and available microgrid control options. A summary table comparing and contrasting the existing test systems is presented. The paper is concluded highlighting the worthy findings and possible areas of research that would enhance practical use of microgrid facilities. (author)

  6. Formation of calcareous nodules in loess-paleosol sequences: Reviews of existing models with a proposed new "per evapotranspiration model"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiwei; Aydin, Adnan; Deng, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    Loess is a product of aeolian deposition during Quaternary glaciation cycles. Loess-paleosol sequences are rich in calcareous nodules (CNs). In the literature, two models are widely cited for the formation of CNs, namely "per descendum" and "per ascendum". However, there has been no direct testing or monitoring to support either of these contradictory models. This paper reviews a large number of multidisciplinary literature to evaluate the consistency, reliability and rationality of these two models. Three main conclusions are drawn: (1) the causative factors (variation of pH value along loess-paleosol sequence, decrease of CO2 partial pressure, and reduction of solvent water) that are used to support the per descendum model do not completely explain the supersaturation of infiltration solution with CaCO3, thereby making this model questionable; (2) the per ascendum model explains the formation of CNs along narrow horizons through upward evaporation; however, it fails to produce sporadic distributions and irregular shapes of nodules on loess slope faces and the frequent appearance of nodules around plant roots. In order to reconcile these deficiencies, we conducted an extensive field survey in various parts of Shanxi province. Based on this new set of observations, it was concluded that the "per ascendum" model can be extended to explain all occurrences of CNs. This extended model is called "per evapotranspiration".

  7. Decision-Making Process Related to Participation in Phase I Clinical Trials: A Nonsystematic Review of the Existing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of other treatment options, patient candidates for participation in phase I clinical trials are considered the most vulnerable, and many ethical concerns have emerged regarding the informed consent process used in the experimental design of such trials. Starting with these considerations, this nonsystematic review is aimed at analyzing the decision-making processes underlying patients' decision about whether to participate (or not) in phase I trials in order to clarify the cognitive and emotional aspects most strongly implicated in this decision. Considering that there is no uniform decision calculus and that many different variables other than the patient-physician relationship (including demographic, clinical, and personal characteristics) may influence patients' preferences for and processing of information, we conclude that patients' informed decision-making can be facilitated by creating a rigorously developed, calibrated, and validated computer tool modeled on each single patient's knowledge, values, and emotional and cognitive decisional skills. Such a tool will also help oncologists to provide tailored medical information that is useful to improve the shared decision-making process, thereby possibly increasing patient participation in clinical trials. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  9. Modular integrated video system (MIVS) review station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    An unattended video surveillance unit, the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS), has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for International Safeguards use. An important support element of this system is a semi-automatic Review Station. Four component modules, including an 8 mm video tape recorder, a 4-inch video monitor, a power supply and control electronics utilizing a liquid crystal display (LCD) are mounted in a suitcase for probability. The unit communicates through the interactive, menu-driven LCD and may be operated on facility power through the world. During surveillance, the MIVS records video information at specified time intervals, while also inserting consecutive scene numbers and tamper event information. Using either of two available modes of operation, the Review Station reads the inserted information and counts the number of missed scenes and/or tamper events encountered on the tapes, and reports this to the user on the LCD. At the end of a review session, the system will summarize the results of the review, stop the recorder, and advise the user of the completion of the review. In addition, the Review Station will check for any video loss on the tape

  10. A Review of Decisions Support Systems for Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Felsberger, Andreas; Oberegger, Bernhard; Reiner, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    In the field of manufacturing systems automated data acquisition and development of technological innovations like manufacturing execution systems (MES), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Advanced Planning Systems (APS) and new trends in Big Data and Business Intelligence (BI) have given rise to new applications and methods of existing decisionsupport technologies. Today manufacturers need an adaptive system that helps to react and adapt to the constantly changing business environment. The ...

  11. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelinesfor wind energy projects in isolated energy...... systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 andsupplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review...... have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept ofapplication, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risø's methodology...

  12. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  13. Mobilisation of the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings; Mobilisierung der energetischen Erneuerungspotenziale im Wohnbaubestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Kaufmann, Y. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Ott, A. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of an energy-policy project that looked into the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings. The report presents an analysis of the situation as far as buildings, their ownership and the development of renovation work is concerned. Also, the results of a survey made under the owners of buildings and managers of real estate with respect to building renovation aspects are presented and discussed. Further, an analysis of problems arising from deficits in the renewal of energy-relevant components is provided and background and motivation for the renewal of buildings are looked at. Also, economic aspects and sustainability issues are considered. A further chapter covers strategies and measures that can be used to mobilise the renewal potential, including legislature and labelling systems.

  14. Travelling plateaus for a hyperbolic Keller–Segel system with attraction and repulsion: existence and branching instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perthame, Benoît; Tang, Min; Vauchelet, Nicolas; Schmeiser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How can repulsive and attractive forces, acting on a conservative system, create stable travelling patterns or branching instabilities? We have proposed to study this question in the framework of the hyperbolic Keller–Segel system with logistic sensitivity. This is a model system motivated by experiments on cell communities auto-organization, a field which is also called socio-biology. We continue earlier modelling work, where we have shown numerically that branching patterns arise for this system and we have analysed this instability by formal asymptotics for small diffusivity of the chemo-repellent. Here we are interested in the more general situation, where the diffusivities of both the chemo-attractant and the chemo-repellent are positive. To do so, we develop an appropriate functional analysis framework. We apply our method to two cases. Firstly we analyse steady states. Secondly we analyse travelling waves when neglecting the degradation coefficient of the chemo-repellent; the unique wave speed appears through a singularity cancellation which is the main theoretical difficulty. This shows that in different situations the cell density takes the shape of a plateau. The existence of steady states and travelling plateaus are a symptom of how rich the system is and why branching instabilities can occur. Numerical tests show that large plateaus may split into smaller ones, which remain stable

  15. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  16. Two (multi point nonlinear Lyapunov systems associated with an n th order nonlinear system of differential equations – existence and uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murty K. N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a criterion for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to two and multipoint boundary value problems associated with an n th order nonlinear Lyapunov system. A variation of parameters formula is developed and used as a tool to obtain existence and uniqueness. We discuss solution of the second order problem by the ADI method and develop a fixed point method to find the general solution of the n th order Lyapunov system. The results of Barnett (SIAM J. Appl. Anal. 24(1, 1973 are a particular case.

  17. A REVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL PLAN IN JAVA ISLAND: A COMPARISON WITH EXISTING MODES OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hartono

    2013-05-01

    It can be concluded that journey time and fare of the high-speed rail is very competitive to the air transport in Jakarta-Surabaya corridor. The journey time to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya is 4 hours and 19 minutes by high-speed train and 4 hours and 40 minutes by air. Based on the benchmarking analysis, the suitable fare for the high-speed rail should be 70% of the air transport. This study predicted that 61% of air passenger, 18% of conventional rail passenger and 12% of bus passenger will switch to the high-speed rail service in 2020. In total, the high-speed rail will have 24% of market share for the passenger transport and becomes the second largest market share after road transport (52%. The conventional rail and air transport have 14% and 9% of total market share to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya and vice versa. The high-speed rail development reduces carbon emissions caused by transportation systems in Java Island. It has been calculated that there are 2.542 million tonnages of CO2 per annum without introducing high-speed rail, however, the CO2 emissions decrease to 1.694 million tonnages per annum if the high-speed rail is developed in Java Island. Generalized cost of the high-speed rail is higher than road and conventional rail. However, it is lower than air transport. Keywords: Java high-speed rail, HSR Comparison, modal share, journey time

  18. Existing Approaches to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Education and Training for Health Professionals: Findings from an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitani, Satoko; Arbon, Paul

    2018-04-01

    This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver. 5 (Japanese database for health professionals). The search terms used were: "disaster," "chemical," "biological," "radiological," "nuclear," "CBRN," "health professional education," and "method." The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, "education," "nursing," "continuing," "disasters," "disaster planning," and "bioterrorism," were used wherever possible and appropriate. The retrieved articles were narratively analyzed according to availability, content, and method. The content was thematically analyzed to provide an overview of the core content of the training. The literature search identified 619 potentially relevant articles for this study. Duplicates (n=104) were removed and 87 articles were identified for title review. In total, 67 articles were discarded, yielding 20 articles for all-text review, following 11 studies were retained for analysis, including one Japanese study. All articles published in English were from the USA, apart from the two studies located in Japan and Sweden. The most typical content in the selected literature was CBRN theory (n=11), followed by studies based on incident command (n=8), decontamination (n=7), disaster management (n=7), triage (n=7), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (n = 5), and post-training briefing (n=3). While the CBRN training course requires the participants to gain specific skills and knowledge, proposed training courses should be effectively constructed to include approaches such as scenario-based simulations

  19. Higher renewable energy integration into the existing energy system of Finland – Is there any maximum limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Rinne, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Finland is to increase the share of RES (renewable energy sources) up to 38% in final energy consumption by 2020. While benefiting from local biomass resources Finnish energy system is deemed to achieve this goal, increasing the share of other intermittent renewables is under development, namely wind power and solar energy. Yet the maximum flexibility of the existing energy system in integration of renewable energy is not investigated, which is an important step before undertaking new renewable energy obligations. This study aims at filling this gap by hourly analysis and comprehensive modeling of the energy system including electricity, heat, and transportation, by employing EnergyPLAN tool. Focusing on technical and economic implications, we assess the maximum potential of different RESs separately (including bioenergy, hydropower, wind power, solar heating and PV, and heat pumps), as well as an optimal mix of different technologies. Furthermore, we propose a new index for assessing the maximum flexibility of energy systems in absorbing variable renewable energy. The results demonstrate that wind energy can be harvested at maximum levels of 18–19% of annual power demand (approx. 16 TWh/a), without major enhancements in the flexibility of energy infrastructure. With today's energy demand, the maximum feasible renewable energy for Finland is around 44–50% by an optimal mix of different technologies, which promises 35% reduction in carbon emissions from 2012's level. Moreover, Finnish energy system is flexible to augment the share of renewables in gross electricity consumption up to 69–72%, at maximum. Higher shares of RES calls for lower energy consumption (energy efficiency) and more flexibility in balancing energy supply and consumption (e.g. by energy storage). - Highlights: • By hourly analysis, we model the whole energy system of Finland. • With existing energy infrastructure, RES (renewable energy sources) in primary energy cannot go beyond 50%.

  20. Validation of the news computerizing renography system developed of the CEADEN in order to improve the renography system existing at the National Nephrology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Martin, D.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, F.; Arista Romeu, E.; Diaz Barreto, M.; Fraxedas Mayor, R.

    1999-01-01

    The isotopic renography is a technique that permits the evaluation of renal and the urinary tract diseases. In our country is not possible performs these studies only using gamma cameras due to the high costs of this technique, so the renography results an important method for this. It was developed a computerizing renography system in order to improve the renography system existing at the National Nephrology Institute (INEF), which is the head institute in this field in Cuba. The computerizing renography system includes a detection system, an interface card and software. As detection system was using the existing at the Institute. Specialists of the CEADEN using the high experience of the INEF and the international standards developed the card and software. The new software has several advantages with respect to the ancient, as example: normalized and standardizing control and processing protocols, a higher number of studies, the conduction and parameters validation of the studies, help system included, a database with the study results, teaching possibilities, etc. The validation of the news card and software was carried out simultaneously with the old system during 1 year approximately. This permitted to compare the main parameters and results in both systems. The results obtained were analyzed using statistical programs. As conclusion we obtained that both systems have a high correlation, so it is possible to substitute the old system with a more powerful and integral renography system

  1. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  2. Review of programmable systems associated with Fermilab experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.

    1981-05-01

    The design and application of programmable systems for Fermilab experiments are reviewed. The high luminosity fixed target environment at Fermilab has been a very fertile ground for the development of sophisticated, powerful triggering systems. A few of these are integrated systems designed to be flexible and to have broad application. Many are dedicated triggers taking advantage of large scale integrated circuits to focus on the specific needs of one experiment. In addition, the data acquisition requirements of large detectors, existing and planned, are being met with programmable systems to process the data. Offline reconstruction of data places a very heavy load on large general purpose computers. This offers a potentially very fruitful area for new developments involving programmable dedicated systems. Some of the present thinking at Fermilab regarding offline reconstruction processors will be described

  3. A review of programmable systems associated with Fermilab experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper we review the design and application of programmable systems for Fermilab experiments. The high luminosity fixed target environment at Fermilab has been a very fertile ground for the development of sophisticated, powerful triggering systems. A few of these are integrated systems designed to be flexible and to have broad application. Many are dedicated triggers taking advantage of large scale integrated circuits to focus on the specific needs of one experiment. In addition, the data acquisition requirements of large detectors, existing and planned, are being met with programmable systems to process the data. Offline reconstruction of data places a very heavy load on large general purpose computers. This offers a potentially very fruitful area for new developments involving programmable dedicated systems. Some of the present thinking at Fermilab regarding offline reconstruction processors will be described. (orig.)

  4. Review of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Grzechca, Damian; Chruszczyk, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    New cars can be equipped with many advanced safety solutions. Airbags, seatbelts and all of the essential passive safety parts are standard equipment. Now cars are often equipped with new advanced active safety systems that can prevent accidents. The functions of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are still growing. A review of the most popular available technologies used in ADAS and descriptions of their application areas are discussed in this paper.

  5. 45 CFR 201.11 - Personnel merit system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel merit system review. 201.11 Section 201... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.11 Personnel merit system review. A personnel merit system review is carried out by the Office of State Merit Systems of the Office of the...

  6. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same......Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe...... patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive...

  7. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  8. Advances in heat pump systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pump systems offer economical alternatives of recovering heat from different sources for use in various industrial, commercial and residential applications. As the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, the heat pump becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving heat pump performance, reliability, and its environmental impact has been an ongoing concern. Recent progresses in heat pump systems have centred upon advanced cycle designs for both heat- and work-actuated systems, improved cycle components (including choice of working fluid), and exploiting utilisation in a wider range of applications. For the heat pump to be an economical proposition, continuous efforts need to be devoted to improving its performance and reliability while discovering novel applications. Some recent research efforts have markedly improved the energy efficiency of heat pump. For example, the incorporation of a heat-driven ejector to the heat pump has improved system efficiency by more than 20%. Additionally, the development of better compressor technology has the potential to reduce energy consumption of heat pump systems by as much as 80%. The evolution of new hybrid systems has also enabled the heat pump to perform efficiently with wider applications. For example, incorporating a desiccant to a heat pump cycle allowed better humidity and temperature controls with achievable COP as high as 6. This review paper provides an update on recent developments in heat pump systems, and is intended to be a 'one-stop' archive of known practical heat pump solutions. The paper, broadly divided into three main sections, begins with a review of the various methods of enhancing the performance of heat pumps. This is followed by a review of the major hybrid heat pump systems suitable for application with various heat sources. Lastly, the paper presents novel

  9. Logistics Best Practices for Regional Food Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern industrial food supply system faces many major environmental and social sustainability challenges. Regional food systems, in which consumers prefer geographically proximate food producers, offer a response to these challenges. However, the costs associated with distributing food from many small-scale producers to consumers have been a major barrier to long-term regional food system success. Logistics best practices from conventional supply chains have the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of regional food supply chains (RFSCs. This paper provides a structured and in-depth review of the existing literature on RFSC logistics, including recommended and implemented best practices. The purpose of the review is to provide RFSC researchers and practitioners with convenient access to valuable information and knowledge derived from years of experimentation and research. This information will help to inform practitioners’ implementation decisions and to increase researchers’ awareness of the existing work on RFSC logistics, the unmet needs of practitioners, and topics that have not been fully explored, yielding insights into potential future directions for RFSC research. The overarching aim of the paper is to facilitate improvements in RFSC logistics, thereby improving regional food system viability.

  10. A review of the National pharmacovigilance system in Malta - implementing and operating a pharmacovigilance management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Amy; Micallef, Benjamin; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Borg, John-Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have a legal mandate to implement and maintain a Pharmacovigilance System designed to monitor the safety of authorised medicinal products and detect any change to their risk-benefit balance. Areas covered: This review maps the implementation of pharmacovigilance activities in Malta since accession in the EU in mid 2004 and discusses the challenges the Maltese Regulator encountered while setting up adequate and effective systems to fulfil its legal mandate. Areas reviewed are those around ADR reporting, promotion and safety communications including rapid alerts and recalls, direct healthcare professional communications, risk minimisation measures and safety circulars and quality systems. Expert opinion: Within a ten year period, 3 EU directives on pharmacovigilance were implemented by our agency. Despite limitations to resources, based on a prioritised implementation, the legislation provisions are now fully operational with a good level of sustainability. Lessons learnt from this process are discussed in this review. The coming years will involve strengthening and consolidation of existing processes.

  11. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  12. Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: A meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-03-01

    At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment Modelling of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Existing and Proposed Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Batool Syeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Dumping of indiscriminate municipal solid waste (MSW remarkably contributes to global warming (GW. Life Cycle Assessment modelling may be a useful tool for assessing the best waste management option regarding GW potential. The current study evaluates the contribution of an existing MSW management (MSWM system to greenhouse gases in Gulberg Town, Lahore, Pakistan. This research also presents a comparison of scenarios with different waste management options. Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to conduct the study. EASETECH has been used for modelling. The short-term scenarios (STSs have been developed to promote the thinking of integration of treatment technologies in the current waste management system within a few months. The results show that the major contribution to the total emissions comes from the anaerobic digestion of organic material from open waste dumps. Currently, recycling is the best treatment option for reducing the CO2-eq values in the study area. It was clarified that recycling is the best option for reducing the CO2-eq values, whereas biogasification comes in second in terms of savings and reduction. The integration of recycling and biogasification techniques would be a good solution.

  14. System level approaches for mainstreaming tobacco control into existing health programs in India: Perspectives from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457 to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population

  15. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  16. Image processing system for videotape review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendroffer, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear plant, the areas in which fissile materials are stored or handled, have to be monitored continuously. One method of surveillance is to record pictures of TV cameras with determined time intervals on special video recorders. The 'time lapse' recorded tape is played back at normal speed and an inspector checks visually the pictures. This method requires much manpower and an automated method would be useful. The present report describes an automatic reviewing method based on an image processing system; the system detects scene changes in the picture sequence and stores the reduced data set on a separate video tape. The resulting reduction of reviewing time by inspector is important for surveillance data with few movements

  17. Systemic mastocytosis--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Thomas Kielsgaard; Severinsen, Marianne Tang

    2012-01-01

    The mast cell lives a hidden life, but it is implicated in several physiological reactions. Its ability to react to different stimuli impacts a variety of conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria and anaphylaxis. It is not until recent decades that the evolution of the cell has bee...... described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice....

  18. Book Review: System Forensics, Investigation, and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Keith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vacca, J. R. and Rudolph, K. (2011. System Forensics, Investigation, and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 339 + xv pages, ISBN: 978-0-7637-9134-6, US$89.95.Reviewed by Nate Keith, MBA, (natejkeith@gmail.comI recently expressed an interest to a respected colleague in finding a way to “give back” to the forensic community. He suggested writing a review for a text he recently received and provide feedback to the community. It is my intent to present an objective analysis of System Forensics, Investigation, and Response.Written by John R. Vacca and K Rudolph, this book is part of the Jones and Bartlett Learning Information Systems Security & Assurance Series.  Both Vacca and Rudolph have considerable experience in the information technology field as is demonstrated by the back cover notes: “John R. Vacca is an information technology consultant and internationally known best-selling author based in Pomeroy, Ohio.  Since 1982, he has written 62 books and more than 600 articles in the areas of advanced storage, computer security, and aerospace technology.(see PDF for full review

  19. Digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I ampersand C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs

  20. Wireless Smart Sensor Network System Using SmartBridge Sensor Nodes for Structural Health Monitoring of Existing Concrete Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviña, J. R.; Uy, F. A.; Carreon, J. D.

    2017-06-01

    There are over 8000 bridges in the Philippines today according to the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). Currently, visual inspection is the most common practice in monitoring the structural integrity of bridges. However, visual inspections have proven to be insufficient in determining the actual health or condition of a bridge. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to give, in real-time, a diagnosis of the actual condition of the bridge. In this study, SmartBridge Sensor Nodes were installed on an existing concrete bridge with American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Type IV Girders to gather vibration of the elements of the bridge. Also, standards on the effective installation of SmartBridge Sensor Nodes, such as location and orientation was determined. Acceleration readings from the sensor were then uploaded to a server, wherein they are monitored against certain thresholds, from which, the health of the bridge will be derived. Final output will be a portal or webpage wherein the information, health, and acceleration readings of the bridge will be available for viewing. With levels of access set for different types of users, the main users will have access to download data and reports. Data transmission and webpage access are available online, making the SHM system wireless.

  1. Pre-existing differences and diet-induced alterations in striatal dopamine systems of obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Mabrouk, Omar S; Nelson, Andrew D; Kennedy, Robert T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2 /D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of "junk-foods" in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  3. A review of chemical decontamination systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    With the downsizing of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, many of its buildings and facilities will be decommissioned and dismantled. As part of this decommissioning, some form of decontamination will be required. To develop an appropriate technology for in situ chemical decontamination of equipment interiors in the decommissioning of DOE nuclear facilities, knowledge of the existing chemical decontamination methods is needed. This paper attempts to give an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. This survey revealed that aqueous systems are the most widely used for the decontamination and cleaning of metal surfaces. We have subdivided the aqueous systems by types of chemical solvent: acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and proprietary. Two other systems, electropolishing and foams and gels, are also described in this paper

  4. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant control rooms as a result of several factors. These include: (1) incorporation of new systems such as safety parameter display systems, (2) backfitting of current control rooms with new technologies when existing hardware is no longer supported by equipment vendors, and (3) development of advanced control room concepts. Control rooms of the future will be developed almost exclusively with advanced instrumentation and controls based upon digital technology. In addition, the control room operator will be interfacing with more intelligent systems which will be capable of providing information processing support to the operator. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the operator's role in the system as well as the ways in which he interacts with it. At present, however, the only guidance available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces is NUREG-0700. It is a document which was written prior to these technological changes and is, therefore, tailored to the technologies used in traditional control rooms. Thus, the present guidance needs to be updated since it is inadequate to serve as the basis for NRC staff review of such advanced or hybrid control room designs. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline suitable for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will take the form of a portable, interactive, computer-based document that may be conveniently used by an inspector in the field, as well as a text-based document

  5. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  6. FCC riser quick separation system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riser reactor is the key unit in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC process. As the FCC feedstocks become heavier, the product mixture of oil, gas and catalysts must be separated immediately at the outlet of the riser to avoid excessive coking. The quick separation system is the core equipment in the FCC unit. China University of Petroleum (Beijing has developed many kinds of separation system including the fender-stripping cyclone and circulating-stripping cyclone systems, which can increase the separation efficiency and reduce the pressure drop remarkably. For the inner riser system, a vortex quick separation system has been developed. It contains a vortex quick separator and an isolated shell. In order to reduce the separation time, a new type of separator called the short residence time separator system was developed. It can further reduce the separation time to less than 1 s. In this paper, the corresponding design principles, structure and industrial application of these different kinds of separation systems are reviewed. A system that can simultaneously realize quick oil gas separation, quick oil gas extraction and quick pre-stripping of catalysts at the end of the riser is the trend in the future.

  7. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y; Miura, Y; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Integration of the Ovation Based Distributed Turbine Control System into the Existing Process Information System and Full Scope Simulator at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Digital Electro Hydraulic System (PDEH) is Turbine Control System (TCS), built on Emerson OVATION Distributed Control System (DCS) platform and installed by the Westinghouse Electric Company at the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant as the replacement for the DEH Mod II turbine control system. Core of the PDEH system consist of three pairs of redundant controllers (ETS, OA/OPC and ATC/MSR) configured for the Turbine Generator (TG) set protection, control and monitoring functions. Existing serial data link between replaced DEH Mod II and Process Information System (PIS) was removed and replaced with redundant bi-directional Ethernet TCP/IP data link via two Data Link servers in client-server architecture configuration. All hardwired signals and some of the important calculated signals are being transferred from PDEH to PIS. Main purpose of PIS data link is trending utilization at the existing PIS workstations with pre-configured trend groups and centralized data archiving. Most of the PDEH display screens (mimics) were also replicated on the PIS platform, so that TG set monitoring and operation overview can be performed over the PIS network as well as over the Process Computer Network (PCN) with PMSNT-view utility. The simulator is implemented using a stimulated Windows based Ovation platform and a SGI IRIX based Plant Model Computer (PMC) using the L-3 MAPPS simulation software platform. Two PDEH stimulated systems are installed at the Krsko Full Scope Simulator (KFSS), one for foreground and another for background simulation. Stimulated PDEH hardware is essentially identical to that installed in the plant with the exception of hardware redundancy, isolation features and interface with physical plant I/O. The Ovation control logic sheets are executed with virtual controllers hosted on a simulator specific Virtual Controller Host (VCH) Workstation. The data interface between the simulator Ovation system and the PMC is accomplished through the Ethernet

  9. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  10. A review of genomic data warehousing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Thomas; Butler, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate the integration and querying of genomics data, a number of generic data warehousing frameworks have been developed. They differ in their design and capabilities, as well as their intended audience. We provide a comprehensive and quantitative review of those genomic data warehousing frameworks in the context of large-scale systems biology. We reviewed in detail four genomic data warehouses (BioMart, BioXRT, InterMine and PathwayTools) freely available to the academic community. We quantified 20 aspects of the warehouses, covering the accuracy of their responses, their computational requirements and development efforts. Performance of the warehouses was evaluated under various hardware configurations to help laboratories optimize hardware expenses. Each aspect of the benchmark may be dynamically weighted by scientists using our online tool BenchDW (http://warehousebenchmark.fungalgenomics.ca/benchmark/) to build custom warehouse profiles and tailor our results to their specific needs.

  11. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined.

  12. A strategic review of electricity systems models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; O Gallachoir, B.P.; McKeogh, E.J.; Hur, J.; Baldick, R.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity systems models are software tools used to manage electricity demand and the electricity systems, to trade electricity and for generation expansion planning purposes. Various portfolios and scenarios are modelled in order to compare the effects of decision making in policy and on business development plans in electricity systems so as to best advise governments and industry on the least cost economic and environmental approach to electricity supply, while maintaining a secure supply of sufficient quality electricity. The modelling techniques developed to study vertically integrated state monopolies are now applied in liberalised markets where the issues and constraints are more complex. This paper reviews the changing role of electricity systems modelling in a strategic manner, focussing on the modelling response to key developments, the move away from monopoly towards liberalised market regimes and the increasing complexity brought about by policy targets for renewable energy and emissions. The paper provides an overview of electricity systems modelling techniques, discusses a number of key proprietary electricity systems models used in the USA and Europe and provides an information resource to the electricity analyst not currently readily available in the literature on the choice of model to investigate different aspects of the electricity system. (author)

  13. Unbalance on power systems: a general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineri, Claudio A.; Gomez Targarona, Juan C.

    2009-07-01

    A general revision of different aspects in relation to the voltage unbalance in electric power systems is presented, that should necessarily be deeply known by technical operators and designers of facilities, installations, and electric equipment. Dissimilar unbalance definitions, unbalance measurement methods, their quantification and the interpretation of such magnitudes are revised. The causes of the unbalances in electric power systems were described and analyzed. The effects on power systems are also studied, specially those that have influence on: system operability, lost of efficiency of the three phase system and their impact in the definitions of traditional power. Similarly is studied the unbalance effect on certain loads, in particular: three-phase motors, power electronics and ASD's. Also methods to locate the origin of these problems, as well as the different normative or standards, and possible methods to mitigate their effects are deeply detailed. It is concluded in the necessity to deepen the study of the power system unbalance, because numerous non resolved aspects still exist whose solution requires of a deep knowledge on the part of the involved professionals. (author)

  14. Review of SC/RF refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrns, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    A short review is given of historical events in accelerator and cryogenic developments at both Stanford and Berkeley. Methods of refrigeration between 1.85 K and 4.5 K together with modern techniques and improvements are discussed. Where the decade of the 70's was the era of the screw compressor, the 80's can be considered that of the cold vacuum pump for superfluid cooling. Distribution methods are of major importance, and arguments can be made for bath or tube cooling, two-phase, thermo-syphon, supercritical or superfluid. System design affects reliability, safety and operating stability. Distribution costs and heat loads can be a large part of system totals. Some specific system descriptions are included. (author)

  15. Systems science and systems thinking for public health: a systematic review of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nicole; Joyce, Andrew; Crammond, Brad; Carey, Alan

    2015-12-30

    This paper reports on findings from a systematic review designed to investigate the state of systems science research in public health. The objectives were to: (1) explore how systems methodologies are being applied within public health and (2) identify fruitful areas of activity. A systematic review was conducted from existing literature that draws on or uses systems science (in its various forms) and relates to key public health areas of action and concern, including tobacco, alcohol, obesity and the social determinants of health. 117 articles were included in the review. An inductive qualitative content analysis was used for data extraction. The following were systematically extracted from the articles: approach, methodology, transparency, strengths and weaknesses. These were then organised according to theme (ie, commonalities between studies within each category), in order to provide an overview of the state of the field as a whole. The assessment of data quality was intrinsic to the goals of the review itself, and therefore, was carried out as part of the analysis. 4 categories of research were identified from the review, ranging from editorial and commentary pieces to complex system dynamic modelling. Our analysis of each of these categories of research highlighted areas of potential for systems science to strengthen public health efforts, while also revealing a number of limitations in the dynamic systems modelling being carried out in public health. There is a great deal of interest in how the application of systems concepts and approach might aid public health. Our analysis suggests that soft systems modelling techniques are likely to be the most useful addition to public health, and align well with current debate around knowledge transfer and policy. However, the full range of systems methodologies is yet to be engaged with by public health researchers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  16. Mind-Body Medicine and Immune System Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wahbeh, Helané; Haywood, Ashley; Kaufman, Karen; Zwickey, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of mind-body interventions that used immune outcomes in order to: 1) characterize mind-body medicine studies that assessed immune outcomes, 2) evaluate the quality of mind-body medicine studies measuring immune system effects, and 3) systematically evaluate the evidence for mind-body interventions effect on immune system outcomes using existing formal tools. 111 studies with 4,777 subjects were reviewed. The three largest intervention type categories were Rel...

  17. Systems Models in Educational Research: A Review and Realignment in the Context of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    System models are commonly used in tertiary education as a mechanism for describing the interacting components of educational phenomena, but have hitherto been uncritically accepted. This paper provides a critical review of existing systems models, including the 3P model defined Biggs, and outlines their conceptual challenges. A revised model…

  18. Lost in Optimisation of Water Distribution Systems? A Literature Review of System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mala-Jetmarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of water distribution system design is a well-established research field, which has been extremely productive since the end of the 1980s. Its primary focus is to minimise the cost of a proposed pipe network infrastructure. This paper reviews in a systematic manner articles published over the past three decades, which are relevant to the design of new water distribution systems, and the strengthening, expansion and rehabilitation of existing water distribution systems, inclusive of design timing, parameter uncertainty, water quality, and operational considerations. It identifies trends and limits in the field, and provides future research directions. Exclusively, this review paper also contains comprehensive information from over one hundred and twenty publications in a tabular form, including optimisation model formulations, solution methodologies used, and other important details.

  19. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  20. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems. PMID:28218635

  1. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  2. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-06-01

    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  3. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between

  4. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  5. Cultural consonance, constructions of science and co-existence: a review of the integration of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Josyula K; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh; Sathyanarayana, Tamysetty N; Porter, John; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the determinants, patterns and imports of official recognition, and incorporation of different traditional, complementary and alternative systems of medicine (TCAM) in the public health establishment of low- and middle-income countries, with a particular focus on India. Public health systems in most countries have tended to establish health facilities centred on allopathy, and then to recognize or derecognize different TCAM based on evidence or judgement, to arrive at health-care configurations that include several systems of medicine with disparate levels of authority, jurisdiction and government support. The rationale for the inclusion of TCAM providers in the public health workforce ranges from the need for personnel to address the disease burden borne by the public health system, to the desirability of providing patients with a choice of therapeutic modalities, and the nurturing of local culture. Integration, mostly described as a juxtaposition of different systems of medical practice, is often implemented as a system of establishing personnel with certification in different medical systems, in predominantly allopathic health-care facilities, to practise allopathic medicine. A hierarchy of systems of medicine, often unacknowledged, is exercised in most societies, with allopathy at the top, certain TCAM systems next and local healing traditions last. The tools employed by TCAM practitioners in diagnosis, research, pharmacy, marketing and education and training, which are seen to increasingly emulate those of allopathy, are sometimes inappropriate for use in therapeutic systems with widely divergent epistemologies, which call for distinct research paradigms. The coexistence of numerous systems of medicine, while offering the population greater choice, and presumably enhancing geographical access to health care as well, is often fraught with tensions related to the coexistence of philosophically disparate, even opposed, disciplines, with

  6. 5 CFR 430.312 - OPM review of agency systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM review of agency systems. 430.312... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.312 OPM review of agency systems. (a) Agencies must submit proposed SES performance management systems to OPM for approval. (b) OPM will review...

  7. Manufacturing Bms/Iso System Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Yazmin

    2004-01-01

    The Quality Management System (QMS) is one that recognizes the need to continuously change and improve an organization s products and services as determined by system feedback, and corresponding management decisions. The purpose of a Quality Management System is to minimize quality variability of an organization's products and services. The optimal Quality Management System balances the need for an organization to maintain flexibility in the products and services it provides with the need for providing the appropriate level of discipline and control over the processes used to provide them. The goal of a Quality Management System is to ensure the quality of the products and services while consistently (through minimizing quality variability) meeting or exceeding customer expectations. The GRC Business Management System (BMS) is the foundation of the Center's ISO 9001:2000 registered quality system. ISO 9001 is a quality system model developed by the International Organization for Standardization. BMS supports and promote the Glenn Research Center Quality Policy and wants to ensure the customer satisfaction while also meeting quality standards. My assignment during this summer is to examine the manufacturing processes used to develop research hardware, which in most cases are one of a kind hardware, made with non conventional equipment and materials. During this process of observation I will make a determination, based on my observations of the hardware development processes the best way to meet customer requirements and at the same time achieve the GRC quality standards. The purpose of my task is to review the manufacturing processes identifying opportunities in which to optimize the efficiency of the processes and establish a plan for implementation and continuous improvement.

  8. Usability evaluation of complex systems. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2004-04-01

    In this literature study the task of usability evaluation is approached through recent publications and known practises. The scope of the reviewed literature and the overall problematic of evaluating complex systems are first defined. Then existing evaluation methods and tools and a set of design guidelines and standards is introduced. In there view the distinction between the evaluation of the design process and evaluation of the outcome of the design process is made. Also the existing criteria for usability is provided. These criteria can be used as measures in the evaluation procedures described in the previous chapter. Then, the problem of validity in the evaluation and validation procedures of complex cognitive systems is shortly discusses. The final chapter covers the conclusions of the literature review. There is a need for deepening the relationship between usage and design. Usage must be the driver also in the design of process technology, plant's safety, and instrumentation and control as well as that of the design of man-machine interface. The collaborative activity is called activity-oriented design. In order to enable activity-oriented design we need to create design methods that drive the design activity into this direction. Criteria for evaluating what is good design are not available in present standards. Criteria for good tools and practices must consider human in a favourable role in the various tasks of operating an industrial plant as opposed to the view of human as a source of error. This is the way to create an optimal system, which takes advantage of the unique capabilities of both the human operators and the automation systems. (orig.)

  9. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  10. 75 FR 6669 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A request for public comments was..., Washington, DC 20405. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Review, in all...

  11. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  12. Automated packing systems: review of industrial implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Paul F.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1993-08-01

    A rich theoretical background to the problems that occur in the automation of material handling can be found in operations research, production engineering, systems engineering and automation, more specifically machine vision, literature. This work has contributed towards the design of intelligent handling systems. This paper will review the application of these automated material handling and packing techniques to industrial problems. The discussion will also highlight the systems integration issues involved in these applications. An outline of one such industrial application, the automated placement of shape templates on to leather hides, is also discussed. The purpose of this system is to arrange shape templates on a leather hide in an efficient manner, so as to minimize the leather waste, before they are automatically cut from the hide. These pieces are used in the furniture and car manufacturing industries for the upholstery of high quality leather chairs and car seats. Currently this type of operation is semi-automated. The paper will outline the problems involved in the full automation of such a procedure.

  13. The 'obesity paradox' does exist in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenyu; Li, Shuangjiang; Liao, Yanbiao; Zhao, Zhengang; Che, Guowei; Chen, Mao; Feng, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Most recent studies have proposed the paradoxical benefits of obesity in surgical populations. For patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for aortic stenosis, the prognostic roles of obesity and high body mass index remain controversial. Therefore, the objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether the 'obesity paradox' exists in patients undergoing TAVI. We searched in PubMed and EMBASE to identify the eligible articles. Odds ratios and hazard ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adopted for synthesizing short-term and long-term survival outcomes, respectively. The level of heterogeneity and the publication bias between studies were also estimated. Finally, there were 16 studies with 12 330 patients who met the eligibility criteria and who were thus included in this review. When body mass index was analysed as a continuous variable, each increase of 1 kg/m2 was significantly associated with the lower 30-day mortality rate (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.93-0.97; P obese patients had a significantly lower risk of 30-day mortality after TAVI than did normal patients (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95; P = 0.024). Further analyses indicated that the obesity could be predictive of more favourable long-term overall survival of TAVI (hazard ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.72-0.97; P = 0.021). However, we found no difference in procedural complications between the obese and normal patients. In conclusion, higher body mass index and obesity seem to have protective benefits on both short-term and long-term survival of TAVI patients. Current evidence suggests that the 'obesity paradox' may really exist in TAVI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 24557 - Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... computer system that will house the data. We annually provide all our employees and contractors with... by the system: This system covers vocational experts, medical experts, other health care professional... Privacy Act System of Records, Housekeeping Changes, and New Routine Use AGENCY: Social Security...

  15. Improving image reviewing with a new system (Emoss, Memobank and Movicom devices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.; Otto, P.; Gourlez, P.; Taillade, B.

    1991-01-01

    The need is obvious for selecting the relevant images and/or items of information from among the overwhelming amount produced by C/S systems, mainly video cameras. Image reviewing in-field provides timeless while image reviewing at headquarters is used for confirming the validity of the conclusions drawn. There is also, in many cases, a need to improve the quality of the images. The Emoss and Memobank devices developed by Himatom could be the core of this new system, with its optimized digital storage which greatly improves image quality. These devices, which are compatible with existing systems such as MIVS and MUX, have the following advantages: comprehensive storage of scenes is comparable to the video tape recording; intelligent digital storage facilitates in-field reviewing; recoverable disc storage makes it possible to carry out the review at Headquarters; printing of the events helps reviewing. The Emoss and Memobank can be triggered by external information by other systems

  16. To What Extent Can Existing Research Help Project Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Aquatic Environments? A Review of Methodological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Forsman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  17. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  18. Development of web-based safety review advisory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Lee, H. C.; Park, S. O.; Lee, K. H.; Hur, K. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, S. S.; Kang, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they are investigated by KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety). The Safety Review Advisory System(SRAS), this application on web-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviews can do their safety reviewing regardless of their speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into four groups, administrator, project manager, project reviewer and general reviewer. Each user group is delegated appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described

  19. Development of web-based safety review advisory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Hur, K. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they are investigated by KINS. Safety Review Advisory System (SRAS), this application on web-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviews can do their safety reviewing regardless of their speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into four groups, administrator, project manager, project reviewer and general reviewer. Each user group is delegated appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described

  20. Development of safety review advisory system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Lee, H. C.; Park, S. O.; Park, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Hur, K. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Lee, S. J.; Kang, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application program was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they were investigated by the safety review experts at KINS. Safety Review Advisory System (SRAS), the windows application on client-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviewers can do their safety reviewing regardless of speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into three groups, administrator, project manager, and reviewer. Each user group has appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described in this paper

  1. The existence of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary system with $p$-Laplacian operator based on sign-changing nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-12-01

    (\\phi_{p_1}(u''+a_1(tf(u,v=0, 01, i=1,2$. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence of two positive solutions or infinitely many positive solutions by using a fixed-point theorem in cones. Especially, the nonlinear terms $f,g $ are allowed to change sign. The conclusions essentially extend and improve the known results.

  2. Existence and controllability results for damped second order impulsive functional differential systems with state-dependent delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallika Arjunan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence and controllability of mild solutions for a damped second order impulsive functional differential equation with state-dependent delay in Banach spaces. The results are obtained by using Sadovskii's fixed point theorem combined with the theories of a strongly continuous cosine family of bounded linear operators. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the main results.

  3. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  4. Review on security issues in RFID systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Beqqal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency Identification (RFID is currently considered as one of the most used technologies for an automatic identification of objects or people. Based on a combination of tags and readers, RFID technology has widely been applied in various areas including supply chain, production and traffic control systems. However, despite of its numerous advantages, the technology brings out many challenges and concerns still not being attracting more and more researchers especially the security and privacy issues. In this paper, we review some of the recent research works using RFID solutions and dealing with security and privacy issues, we define our specific parameters and requirements allowing us to classify for each work which part of the RFID system is being secured, the solutions and the techniques used besides the conformity to RFID standards. Finally, we present briefly a solution that consists of combining RFID with smartcard based biometric to enhance security especially in access control scenarios. Hence the result of our study aims to give a clear vision of available solutions and techniques used to prevent and secure the RFID system from specific threats and attacks.

  5. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  6. Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagia M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kechagia,1,2 Ioannis Papassotiriou,2 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system. Keywords: endocan, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, respiratory disorders

  7. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M; Wang, K; Jiang, D

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems. By using the method of coincidence degree and Lyapunov functional, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments and the existence of a unique globally asymptotically stable periodic solution with strictly positive components of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition system with several delays. Some new results are obtained. As an application, we also examine some special cases of the system we considered, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Some known results are improved and generalized.

  8. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Towards unified performance measures for evaluating nuclear safeguard systems: mathematical foundations and formal comparison of existing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corynen, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    An important step in the analysis of large-scale systems is the development of economical and meaningful measures of system performance. In the literature on analysis of nuclear safeguard systems, many performance measures have been advanced, but their interrelationships and their relevance to overall system objectives have not received attention commensurate with the effort spent in developing detailed safeguard models. The work reported here is an attempt to improve the development and evaluation of performance measures for nuclear safeguard systems. This work falls into three main areas. First, we develop a new framework which provides an initial basis for defining and structuring performance measures. To demonstrate that this framework allows a clear understanding of the purposes of nuclear safeguard systems, we employ it to state various safeguard questions clearly and concisely. The framework reflects the rough subsystem structure of safeguard systems - the detection and response subsystems - and formally accommodates various safeguard models. We especially emphasize two of these models which are under development at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the structured assessment approach (SAA) and the systems vulnerability assessment method (SVAM). Second, we examine some performance measures presently used in the nuclear safeguards area and in reliability theory in general. Some of these we accept and modify to obtain system performance measures that are an additive combination of subsystem performance measures, a very convenient form indeed. Others we reject as impractical and meaningless. Finally, we determine some common features between the SAA and SVAM models by formally comparing these models in our framework

  10. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  11. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of... Federal, State and territorial marine protected area programs to join the National System of Marine Protected Areas. SUMMARY: NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited Federal, State, commonwealth...

  12. Increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review Health Maintenance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Health Maintenance System. It includes information on the carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture removal system (CMRS), the variable oxygen system,rendevous station panels, and the crew contamination protection kit (CCPK).

  13. Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingbermühle, Roel W; van Trijffel, Emiel; Nelissen, Paul M; Koes, Bart; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2018-01-01

    Which multivariable prognostic model(s) for recovery in people with neck pain can be used in primary care? Systematic review of studies evaluating multivariable prognostic models. People with non-specific neck pain presenting at primary care. Baseline characteristics of the participants. Recovery measured as pain reduction, reduced disability, or perceived recovery at short-term and long-term follow-up. Fifty-three publications were included, of which 46 were derivation studies, four were validation studies, and three concerned combined studies. The derivation studies presented 99 multivariate models, all of which were at high risk of bias. Three externally validated models generated usable models in low risk of bias studies. One predicted recovery in non-specific neck pain, while two concerned participants with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Discriminative ability of the non-specific neck pain model was area under the curve (AUC) 0.65 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.71). For the first WAD model, discriminative ability was AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91). For the second WAD model, specificity was 99% (95% CI 93 to 100) and sensitivity was 44% (95% CI 23 to 65) for prediction of non-recovery, and 86% (95% CI 73 to 94) and 55% (95% CI 41 to 69) for prediction of recovery, respectively. Initial Neck Disability Index scores and age were identified as consistent prognostic factors in these three models. Three externally validated models were found to be usable and to have low risk of bias, of which two showed acceptable discriminative properties for predicting recovery in people with neck pain. These three models need further validation and evaluation of their clinical impact before their broad clinical use can be advocated. PROSPERO CRD42016042204. [Wingbermühle RW, van Trijffel E, Nelissen PM, Koes B, Verhagen AP (2018) Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review

  14. Existence of time-dependent density-functional theory for open electronic systems: time-dependent holographic electron density theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua

    2011-08-28

    We present the time-dependent holographic electron density theorem (TD-HEDT), which lays the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for open electronic systems. For any finite electronic system, the TD-HEDT formally establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the electron density inside any finite subsystem and the time-dependent external potential. As a result, any electronic property of an open system in principle can be determined uniquely by the electron density function inside the open region. Implications of the TD-HEDT on the practicality of TDDFT are also discussed.

  15. A self-tuning exact solution and the non-existence of horizons in 5d gravity-scalar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chuan-Jie; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-05-01

    We present an exact thick domain wall solution with naked singularities to five dimensional gravity coupled with a scalar field with exponential potential. In our solution we found exactly the special coefficient of the exponent as coming from compactification of string theory with cosmological constant. We show that this solution is self-tuning when a 3-brane is included. In searching for a solution with horizon we found a similar exact solution with fine-tuned exponent coefficient with an integration constant. Failing to find a solution with horizon we prove the non-existence of horizons. These naked singularities actually can't be resolved by horizon. We also comment on the physical relevance of this solution. (author)

  16. Do causal concentration-response functions exist? A critical review of associational and causal relations between fine particulate matter and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2017-08-01

    Concentration-response (C-R) functions relating concentrations of pollutants in ambient air to mortality risks or other adverse health effects provide the basis for many public health risk assessments, benefits estimates for clean air regulations, and recommendations for revisions to existing air quality standards. The assumption that C-R functions relating levels of exposure and levels of response estimated from historical data usefully predict how future changes in concentrations would change risks has seldom been carefully tested. This paper critically reviews literature on C-R functions for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality risks. We find that most of them describe historical associations rather than valid causal models for predicting effects of interventions that change concentrations. The few papers that explicitly attempt to model causality rely on unverified modeling assumptions, casting doubt on their predictions about effects of interventions. A large literature on modern causal inference algorithms for observational data has been little used in C-R modeling. Applying these methods to publicly available data from Boston and the South Coast Air Quality Management District around Los Angeles shows that C-R functions estimated for one do not hold for the other. Changes in month-specific PM2.5 concentrations from one year to the next do not help to predict corresponding changes in average elderly mortality rates in either location. Thus, the assumption that estimated C-R relations predict effects of pollution-reducing interventions may not be true. Better causal modeling methods are needed to better predict how reducing air pollution would affect public health.

  17. The development of advanced robotic technology. A study on the tele-existence and intelligent control of a robot system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Byun, Jueng Nam; Kim, Jong Hwan; Lee, Ju Jang; Bang, Seok Won; Chu, Gil Hwan; Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Jong Seok; Yang, Jung Min; Hong, Sun Ki [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    To increase the efficiency of human intelligence it is required to develop an intelligent monitoring and system. In this research, we develop intelligent control methods related with tele-operation, tele-existence, real-time control technique, and intelligent control technique. Those are key techniques in tele-operation, especially for the repair and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The objective of this project is to develop of the tele-existence and intelligent control system for a robot used in the nuclear power plants. (author). 20 refs.

  18. 76 FR 82277 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    [email protected] . A detailed electronic copy of the List of National System MPAs is available for....S.S. YSD Exempt Site H.M.C.S. Saint Francis Exempt Site French Van Gilder Exempt Site [[Page 82279...

  19. Global existence of classical solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson system in a three dimensional, cosmological setting

    OpenAIRE

    Rein, Gerhard; Rendall, Alan D.

    1993-01-01

    The initial value problem for the Vlasov-Poisson system is by now well understood in the case of an isolated system where, by definition, the distribution function of the particles as well as the gravitational potential vanish at spatial infinity. Here we start with homogeneous solutions, which have a spatially constant, non-zero mass density and which describe the mass distribution in a Newtonian model of the universe. These homogeneous states can be constructed explicitly, and we consider d...

  20. Use of the Delphi approach in seismic qualification of existing electrical and mechanical equipment and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a method of seismic reevaluation is described which permits every seismic Category I component and distribution system to be evaluated and an explicit estimate of seismic capability, in terms of an acceleration level which defines limits of structural adequacy and leak-tight integrity, be defined for each item. The procedure employees the Delphi method where a team of seismic design experts independently inspect each component and distribution system in its as installed condition in the field and estimate the acceleration level that component or system could withstand and still meet applicable seismic design code or other criteria requirements. The accuracy and any potential bias in the estimates can be evaluated by a small control sample where selected components which were also surveyed by the Delphi team are independently evaluated in detail using current analytical techniques. This entire procedure can be accomplished for an estimated 5000 to 10,000 manhours per plant

  1. On the Existence and Robustness of Steady Position-Momentum Correlations for Time-Dependent Quadratic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianfreda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss conditions giving rise to stationary position-momentum correlations among quantum states in the Fock and coherent basis associated with the natural invariant for the one-dimensional time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian operators such as the Kanai-Caldirola Hamiltonian. We also discuss some basic features such as quantum decoherence of the wave functions resulting from the corresponding quantum dynamics of these systems that exhibit no timedependence in their quantum correlations. In particular, steady statistical momentum averages are seen over well-defined time intervals in the evolution of a linear superposition of the basis states of modified exponentially damped mass systems.

  2. The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible...... are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050...

  3. Signal systems asset management state-of-the-practice review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to obtain a better understanding of operations-level asset management by examining the specific case of signal systems. Key products will include: a synthesis of existing signal systems asset management practices; a gen...

  4. Operational Efficiency Forecasting Model of an Existing Underground Mine Using Grey System Theory and Stochastic Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Strbac Savic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the operational efficiency of an existing underground mine plays an important role in strategic planning of production. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL is used to express the operational efficiency of production. The forecasting model should be able to involve common time horizon, taking the characteristics of the input variables that directly affect the value of DOL. Changes in the magnitude of any input variable change the value of DOL. To establish the relationship describing the way of changing we applied multivariable grey modeling. Established time sequence multivariable response formula is also used to forecast the future values of operating leverage. Operational efficiency of production is often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Incorporation of these uncertainties into multivariable forecasting model enables mining company to survive in today’s competitive environment. Simulation of mean reversion process and geometric Brownian motion is used to describe the stochastic diffusion nature of metal price, as a key element of revenues, and production costs, respectively. By simulating a forecasting model, we imitate its action in order to measure its response to different inputs. The final result of simulation process is the expected value of DOL for every year of defined time horizon.

  5. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  6. ANN Model for Predicting the Impact of Submerged Aquatic Weeds Existence on the Hydraulic Performance of Branched Open Channel System Accompanied by Water Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeen, Mostafa A. M.; Abdin, Alla E.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of hydraulic structures in a branched open channel system urges the need for considering the gradually varied flow criterion in evaluating the different hydraulic characteristics in this type of open channel system. Computations of hydraulic characteristics such as flow rates and water surface profiles in branched open channel system with hydraulic structures require tremendous numerical effort especially when the flow cannot be assumed uniform. In addition, the existence of submerged aquatic weeds in this branched open channel system adds to the complexity of the evaluation of the different hydraulic characteristics for this system. However, this existence of aquatic weeds can not be neglected since it is very common in Egyptian open channel systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been widely utilized in the past decade in civil engineering applications for the simulation and prediction of the different physical phenomena and has proven its capabilities in the different fields. The present study aims towards introducing the use of ANN technique to model and predict the impact of submerged aquatic weeds existence on the hydraulic performance of branched open channel system. Specifically the current paper investigates a branched open channel system that consists of main channel supplies water to two branch channels that are infested by submerged aquatic weeds and have water structures such as clear over fall weirs and sluice gates. The results of this study showed that ANN technique was capable, with small computational effort and high accuracy, of predicting the impact of different infestation percentage for submerged aquatic weeds on the hydraulic performance of branched open channel system with two different hydraulic structures

  7. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... criteria. The inventory is online at http://www.mpa.gov/helpful_resources/inventory.html , and potentially eligible sites are posted online at http://www.mpa.gov/pdf/national-system/nominationsummary810.pdf . As... Conservation Area. Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area. Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve. Stewarts...

  8. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... managing agencies to fill key conservation gaps in important ocean areas. DATES: Comments on the... tide mark). Benefits of joining the national system of MPAs, which are expected to increase over time... federal and regional ocean conservation and management initiatives (such as integrated ocean observing...

  9. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: National Marine Protected...) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with... of Marine Protected Areas of the United States (Framework), developed in response to Executive Order...

  10. From existing data to novel hypotheses : design and application of structure-based Molecular Class Specific Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    As the active component of many biological systems, proteins are of great interest to life scientists. Proteins are used in a large number of different applications such as the production of precursors and compounds, for bioremediation, as drug targets, to diagnose patients suffering from

  11. Management options for implementing a basic and applied research program responsive to CS technology base needs. Task VIII. Review existing CS materials R and D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-28

    Possibilities for setting up a basic and applied research program that would be responsive to the Conservation and Solar energy base needs are considered with emphasis on the area of materials research. Several organizational arrangements for the implementation of this basic and applied research program are described and analyzed. The key functions of the system such as resources allocation, and program coordination and management follow from two fundamental characteristics: assignment of lead responsibility (CS and the Office of Energy Research, ER); and nature of the organizational chain-of-command. Three options are categorized in terms of these two characteristics and discussed in detail. The first option retains lead responsibility in ER, with CS personnel exercising sign-off authority and filling the coordination role. Option 2 places lead responsibility with CS program office management, and utilizes the existing chain-of-command, but adds a Basic and Applied Research Division to each program office. Option 3 also places lead responsibility with CS, but within a new Office of Basic and Applied Research, which would include a Research Coordinator to manage interactions with ER, and Research Managers for each CS program area. (MCW)

  12. Existence and smoothness of solutions to second initial boundary value problems for Schrodinger systems in cylinders with non-smooth bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Manh Hung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the second initial boundary value problem for strongly general Schrodinger systems in both the finite and the infinite cylinders $Q_T, 0existence, uniqueness and smoothness with respect to time variable of generalized solution of this problem are given.

  13. Implementation of an anonymisation tool for clinical trials using a clinical trial processor integrated with an existing trial patient data information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryanto, Kadek Y. E.; Broekema, Andre; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    To present an adapted Clinical Trial Processor (CTP) test set-up for receiving, anonymising and saving Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data using external input from the original database of an existing clinical study information system to guide the anonymisation process. Two

  14. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  15. A Perspective on a Management Information Systems (MIS) Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Bee K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights relevant curriculum issues that were identified in a Management Information Systems (MIS) program review undertaken by a group of business faculty in a small regional university. The program review was initiated to improve job marketability of graduates and student enrollment. The review process is described as a collective…

  16. Preliminary design review: Brayton Isotope Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design aspects covered include flight system design, design criteria/margins/reliability, GDS design, system analysis, materials, system assembly procedure, and government furnished equipment-BTPS

  17. Modification in existing SF6 gas handling system at 14UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninawe, N.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Ramjilal; Sparrow, Hillary; Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Salvi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator facility at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since inception 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a pressure vessel of 6 metre diameter, 25 metre long and 525m 3 volume. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF 6 at 80 to 100 psig in order to achieve 14MV. The inventory of SF 6 gas is about 18,000 Kg (approximately) at 80 psig. SF 6 gas can be transported from Accelerator tank to storage tank using gas handling system, which consists of oil free compressor, vacuum pump, dust filters, oil filters, dryers etc

  18. Flow visualization techniques, new developments and modernization of the existing Schlieren system in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PANAIT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schlieren flow visualization methods are an important part of high speed wind tunnel testing, being a fast and reliable method of graphically presenting complex dynamic phenomena that occur in high subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Images can be processed and effects of configuration changes can be understood faster. Quantitative variations of the Schlieren method enable CFD simulations to use real data, resulting in greater precision and thus help improve efficiency of the re-design phase for the aerodynamic object. A modification of the classic Schlieren system is proposed, that would enable extraction of such data with minimal costs

  19. Periprocedural Management of Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of Existing Heterogeneity and Contemporary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Prasad; Parashara, Deepak K

    2015-12-01

    Non vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have considerably enhanced anticoagulation practice for non-valvular atrial fibrillation with specific advantages of fixed dosing, non-fluctuant therapeutic levels and obviation of therapeutic level monitoring. NOAC pharmacology is remarkable for considerable renal excretion. Heterogeneity in the precise time cut-offs for discontinuation of NOACs prior to elective surgical or percutaneous procedures arise from the non-linear variations of drug excretion with different levels of creatinine clearances as in chronic kidney disease. Multiple authors have suggested cut-offs leading to ambiguity among practicing clinicians. Recent data pertaining to systemic thromboembolism, stroke and major bleeding derived from randomized controlled clinical trials have simplified the periprocedural management of NOACs. This review focusses on heterogeneity in the management of NOACs in patients with CKD in this peculiar scenario and highlights the contemporary evidence to support a unified approach towards perioperative management of NOACs. Multiple antidotes targeted towards binding of specific NOACs have been developed and are in the testing phase, thereby offering immense potential for rapid and complete reversal of NOAC activity in emergent procedures and major bleeding episodes. Targeted research on thromboembolism, stroke and major bleeding following temporary periprocedural interruption of NOACs using multicentric registries could further expand the clinical utility of these agents.

  20. A Review of Automated Decision Support System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Intelligence AI that enable decision automation based on existing facts, knowledge ... The growing reliance on data impacts dynamic data extraction and retrieval of the ... entertainment, medical, and the web. III. DECISION ...

  1. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  2. An overview of the formulation, existence and uniqueness issues for the initial value problem raised by the dynamics of discrete systems with unilateral contact and dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Patrick; Charles, Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    In the end of the seventies, Schatzman and Moreau undertook to revisit the venerable dynamics of rigid bodies with contact and dry friction in the light of more recent mathematics. One claimed objective was to reach, for the first time, a mathematically consistent formulation of an initial value problem associated with the dynamics. The purpose of this article is to make a review of the today state-of-art concerning not only the formulation, but also the issues of existence and uniqueness of solution. xml:lang="fr"

  3. Proposal of new seismic assessment and retrofit technology for existing buildings; Hyogoken nanbu jishin higai wo kyokun to shita kison kozobutsu no taishin shindan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Seki, M.; Tanida, M.; Akiyama, T.; Hashimoto, Y. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    A devastating earthquake measuring 7.2 on the JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) magnitude hit the southern Hyogo Prefecture on January 17, 1995. This earthquake, the worst in Japan since the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, brought great disaster and destruction to the Hanshin area and Awajishima Island. Most of the damage to concrete and steel structures occurred in buildings designed according to former building codes. Fewer collapses occurred in buildings designed under current building code that have more severe seismic requirements. Existing buildings should be assessed by their seismic potentiality, and retrofitted to escape damage in severe earthquakes such as the Great Hanshin Earthquake. New technology for assessing and retrofitting existing buildings was developed to improve resisting performance in response to severe earthquakes. Earthquake Load or motion exceeding current requirements can be supplied to assess and retrofit existing buildings if a client wants their buildings to exhibit much stronger seismic resistance. The retrofit technologies, such as a base isolation system for whole building, vibration control bracing system with steel damper, and base isolation floor system for computer equipments, can be applied to existing buildings. 11 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Can we decide which outcomes should be measured in every clinical trial? A scoping review of the existing conceptual frameworks and processes to develop core outcome sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzerda, Leanne; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of randomized control trials to advance clinical care depends upon the outcomes reported, but disagreement on the choice of outcome measures has resulted in inconsistency and the potential for reporting bias. One solution to this problem is the development of a core outcome set: a minimum set of outcome measures deemed critical for clinical decision making. Within rheumatology the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) initiative has pioneered the development of core outcome sets since 1992. As the number of diseases addressed by OMERACT has increased and its experience in formulating core sets has grown, clarification and update of the conceptual framework and formulation of a more explicit process of area/domain core set development has become necessary. As part of the update process of the OMERACT Filter criteria to version 2, a literature review was undertaken to compare and contrast the OMERACT conceptual framework with others within and outside rheumatology. A scoping search was undertaken to examine the extent, range, and nature of conceptual frameworks for core set outcome selection in health. We searched the following resources: Cochrane Library Methods Group Register; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo; Environmental Studies and Policy Collection; and ABI/INFORM Global. We also conducted a targeted Google search. Five conceptual frameworks were identified: the WHO tripartite definition of health; the 5 Ds (discomfort, disability, drug toxicity, dollar cost, and death); the International Classification of Functioning (ICF); PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System); and the Outcomes Hierarchy. Of these, only the 5 Ds and ICF frameworks have been systematically applied in core set development. Outside the area of rheumatology, several core sets were identified; these had been developed through a limited range of consensus-based methods with varying degrees of methodological rigor. None applied a framework to ensure content validity of

  5. Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalane, P.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; James, L.T.; Jarrett, J.H.; Lundgren, R.A.; Manatt, D.R.; Niederauer, G.F.; Olivos, J.D.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Starodubtsev, G.S.; Suda, S.C.; Tittemore, G.W.; Zatorsky, Y.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  6. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  7. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T. [and others

    1997-11-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

  8. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  9. Natural language processing systems for capturing and standardizing unstructured clinical information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Arya, Nina; Halford, Gwendolyn; Jones, Sandra F; Forshee, Richard; Walderhaug, Mark; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2017-09-01

    We followed a systematic approach based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to identify existing clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that generate structured information from unstructured free text. Seven literature databases were searched with a query combining the concepts of natural language processing and structured data capture. Two reviewers screened all records for relevance during two screening phases, and information about clinical NLP systems was collected from the final set of papers. A total of 7149 records (after removing duplicates) were retrieved and screened, and 86 were determined to fit the review criteria. These papers contained information about 71 different clinical NLP systems, which were then analyzed. The NLP systems address a wide variety of important clinical and research tasks. Certain tasks are well addressed by the existing systems, while others remain as open challenges that only a small number of systems attempt, such as extraction of temporal information or normalization of concepts to standard terminologies. This review has identified many NLP systems capable of processing clinical free text and generating structured output, and the information collected and evaluated here will be important for prioritizing development of new approaches for clinical NLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological Macro and Micro Systems Co-existing in the “Fountain of the Two Dragons”, Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Di Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone works of art located outdoors are exposed to natural deterioration, due to several physical, chemical and biological factors. Biological macro- and micro-systems (e.g. weeds, insects, algae, mosses, fungi and bacteria may induce the biodeterioration of stone materials. In February 2014, the state of conservation of the Fountain of the two Dragons in Palermo was examined, during which time biological colonization in some areas of the fountain and statues, was also detected. The monument represents an excellent substrate for the development and growth of microrganisms and organisms that need a continuous supply of water. Direct solar irradiance promotes the development of photoautotrophic organisms, bryophyte flora, in addition to several microbial genera, responsible for pigmentation, discoloring, efflorescence. After autotrophic colonization, some organisms find an ideal habitat also during wintertime, including two species of gastropods and two species of Hemiptera, omnivorous, a species of Collembola, mostly fungivorous. This interdisciplinary study has enabled the detection and identification of different biological communities, providing information for a subsequent project of preventive conservation of the fountain and its surroundings.

  11. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  12. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Commission's Review of the Emergency Alert System, Fifth Report and Order (Order). This document is... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 [EB Docket No. 04-296; FCC 12-7] Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of...

  13. Conceptualizing and Managing Medical Emergencies Where No Formal Paramedical System Exists: Perspectives from a Remote Indigenous Community in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jeffrey; Ritchie, Stephen D.; Beardy, Jackson; VanderBurgh, David; Born, Karen; Lewko, John; Orkin, Aaron M.

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: Remote communities in Canada lack an equitable emergency medical response capacity compared to other communities. Community-based emergency care (CBEC) training for laypeople is a model that has the potential to enhance the medical emergency response capacity in isolated and resource-limited contexts. The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of medical emergencies and to conceptualize and present a framework for what a medical emergency is for one remote Indigenous community in northwestern Ontario, in order to inform the development of CBEC training. (2) Methods: This study adhered to the principles of community-based participatory research and realist evaluation; it was an integrated component of the formative evaluation of the second Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative (SLWEREI) training course in 2012. Twelve members of Sachigo Lake First Nation participated in the training course, along with local nursing staff, police officers, community Elders, and course instructors (n = 24 total), who participated in interviews, focus groups, and a collaborative discussion of local health issues in the development of the SLWEREI. (3) Results: The qualitative results are organized into sections that describe the types of local health emergencies and the informal response system of community members in addressing these emergencies. Prominent themes of health adversity that emerged were an inability to manage chronic conditions and fears of exacerbations, the lack of capacity for addressing mental illness, and the high prevalence of injury for community members. (4) Discussion: A three-point framework of what constitutes local perceptions of an emergency emerged from the findings in this study: (1) a sense of isolation; (2) a condition with a potentially adverse outcome; and (3) a need for help. PMID:29401706

  14. Fields and plasmas in the outer solar system. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Wolfe, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center

    1979-04-01

    The most significant information about fields and plasmas in the outer solar system, based on observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 investigations, is reviewed. The characteristic evolution of solar wind streams beyond 1 AU has been observed. The region within which the velocity increases continuously near 1 AU is replaced at larger distances by a thick interaction region with abrupt jumps in the solar wind speed at the leading and trailing edges. These abrupt increases, accompanied by corresponding jumps in the field magnitude and in the solar wind density and temperature, consist typically of a forward and a reverse shock. The existance of two distinct corotating regions, separated by sharp boundaries, is a characteristic feature of the interplanetary medium in the outer solar system. Within the interaction regions, compression effects are dominant and the field strength, plasma density, plasma temperature and the level of fluctuations are enhanced. Within the intervening quiet regions, rarefaction effects dominante and the field magnitude, solar wind density and fluctuation level are very low. These changes in the structure of interplanetary space have significant consequences for the many energetic particles propagating through the medium.

  15. Models of the electrically stimulated binaural system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In an increasing number of countries, the standard treatment for deaf individuals is moving toward the implantation of two cochlear implants. Today's device technology and fitting procedure, however, appears as if the two implants would serve two independent ears and brains. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that after careful matching and balancing of left and right stimulation in controlled laboratory studies most patients have almost normal sensitivity to interaural level differences and some sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs). Mechanisms underlying the limited ITD sensitivity are still poorly understood and many different aspects may contribute. Recent pioneering computational approaches identified some of the functional implications the electric input imposes on the neural brainstem circuits. Simultaneously these studies have raised new questions and certainly demonstrated that further refinement of the model stages is necessary. They join the experimental study's conclusions that binaural device technology, binaural fitting, specific speech coding strategies, and binaural signal processing algorithms are obviously missing components to maximize the benefit of bilateral implantation. Within this review, the existing models of the electrically stimulated binaural system are explained, compared, and discussed from a viewpoint of a "CI device with auditory system" and from that of neurophysiological research.

  16. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science.

  17. Technical Literature Review Concerning Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    interrelationships of the many aspects of management information systems (MIS); that is, with how analysis, design, operation, evaluation, and user considerations affect management information systems . (Author)

  18. Proof of existence of global solutions for m-component reaction-diffusion systems with mixed boundary conditions via the Lyapunov functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalek, Salem; Kouachi, Said

    2007-01-01

    To prove global existence for solutions of m-component reaction-diffusion systems presents fundamental difficulties in the case in which some components of the system satisfy Neumann boundary conditions while others satisfy nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and nonhomogeneous Robin boundary conditions. The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a global solution using a single inequality for the polynomial growth condition of the reaction terms. Our technique is based on the construction of polynomial functionals. This result generalizes those obtained recently by Kouachi et al (at press), Kouachi (2002 Electron. J. Diff. Eqns 2002 1), Kouachi (2001 Electron. J. Diff. Eqns 2001 1) and independently by Malham and Xin (1998 Commun. Math. Phys. 193 287)

  19. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevska Kostova, Neda; Chichevalieva, Snezhana; Ponce, Ninez A; van Ginneken, Ewout; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This analysis of the health system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The country has made important progress during its transition from a socialist system to a market-based system, particularly in reforming the organization, financing and delivery of health care and establishing a mix of private and public providers. Though total health care expenditure has risen in absolute terms in recent decades, it has consistently fallen as share of GDP, and high levels of private health expenditure remain. Despite this, the health of the population has improved over the last decades, with life expectancy and mortality rates for both adults and children reaching similar levels to those in ex-communist EU countries, though death rates caused by unhealthy behaviour remain high. Inheriting a large health infrastructure, good public health services and well-distributed health service coverage after independence in 1991, the country re-built a social health insurance system with a broad benefit package. Primary care providers were privatized and new private hospitals were allowed to enter the market. In recent years, the country reformed the organization of care delivery to better incorporate both public and private providers in an integrated system. Significant efficiency gains were reached with a pioneering health information system that has reduced waiting times and led to a better coordination of care. This multi-modular e-health system has the potential to further reduce existing inefficiencies and to generate evidence for assessment and research. Despite this progress, satisfaction with health care delivery is very mixed with low satisfaction levels with public providers. The public hospital sector in particular is characterized by inefficient organization, financing and provision of health care; and many professionals

  20. Adaptive Systems in Education: A Review and Conceptual Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Chunyu; Scott, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the use of adaptive systems in education. It is intended to be a useful introduction for the non-specialist reader. Design/methodology/approach: A distinction is made between intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and adaptive hypermedia systems (AHSs). The two kinds of system are defined, compared and…