WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing single-family residential

  1. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... concepts. The paper describes a few Nordic examples of full-service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently and the provisional success of these concepts. The existing Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...

  2. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  3. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  4. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  5. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  6. Renovation of existing buildings to residential lofts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaskel, B.S.; Gerns, E.A.; DeMuth, K.

    1999-07-01

    Major cities throughout North America are recently undergoing a residential revitalization of buildings in their urban centers. Many of these buildings are used as masonry loft structures, converted from buildings originally built for industrial or commercial occupancy. The renovations of these buildings typically address structural concerns, such as corrosion of embedded metals, and serviceability concerns, such as water-tightness. Masonry repairs can range from being relatively minor to relatively major, often depending on the condition of the building. Frequently, disputes arise between those who directed the renovation project and those who ultimately reside in these buildings. There ar few guidelines in the current literature that identify the degree of masonry repairs that should be anticipated by all parties. Such guidelines would help resolve conflict in this type of work. This paper will present some of the authors' observations in this area and identify common concerns raised by these projects.

  7. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  8. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI. Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS, and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  9. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  10. Emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA of multi-unit and single-family residential buildings in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Reza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction and building process depends on substantial consumption of natural resources with far-reaching impacts beyond their development area. In general, a significant portion of annual resource consumption by the building and construction industry is a result of applying traditional building strategies and practices such as designing and selecting types of development (e.g. multi-unit condo and single-family house, etc., building materials and structure, heating/cooling systems, and planning renovation and maintenance practices. On the other hand, apart from structural suitability, building developers mostly consider the basic requirements of public owners or private occupants of the buildings, where the main criteria for selecting building strategies are costs, and long-term environmental and socio-economic impacts are generally ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an improved building sustainability assessment framework to measure and integrate different sustainability factors, i.e. long-term environmental upstream and downstream impacts and associated socio-economic costs, in a unified and quantitative basis. The application of the proposed framework has been explained through a case study of single-family houses and multi-unit residential buildings in Canada. A comprehensive framework based on the integration of emergy synthesis and life cycle assessment (LCA has been developed and applied. The results of this research prove that the proposed emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA framework offers a practical sustainability assessment tool by providing quantitative and transparent results for informed decision-making.

  11. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low-temperature h....... For the studied geographical location, passive cooling by bypassing the heat pump and using only the ground heat exchanger can provide acceptable room temperatures.......In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low......-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  12. Computational and the real energy performance of a single-family residential building in Poland – an attempt to compare: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents energy use for heating and ventilation (one of the energy performance components determined in three ways. A case of a single family building located near Wroclaw in Poland is analyzed. The first and the second variant are both computational and the third presents actual measured energy consumption. Computational variants are based on the Polish methodology for the EPC (the Energy Performance Certificate. This methodology is based on ‘the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU’. Energy use for heating and ventilation is calculated using monthly method presented in EN ISO 13790. In the first computational option standard input data (parameters such as indoor and outdoor air temperature etc. are taken from standards and regulations are implemented. In the second variant this input data are partially taken from measurements. The results of energy use from both computational variants are compared to the actual measured energy consumption. On the basis of this comparison the influence of three factors: solar radiation heat gains, building air tightness and the SCOP of the heat pump on energy use calculations are analyzed. Conclusions aim to point the differences between them and the actual energy consumption.

  13. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review of the e......Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... concentrations. The authors additionally noted that the literature frequently reported the role of improper maintenance and use on deterioration of IAQ in residential dwellings. The summarized data and comments may provide useful information for future guidelines related to ventilation strategies designed...

  14. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  15. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    performance of the pilot system was measured for continuous 20 days under typical cold climate conditions and the test data was used to validate the TRNSYS simulation model established. On the basis of model validation, system optimizations of both the existing pilot household and the typical rural house...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...... pilot household on the current electricity price level of 0.5 RMB/kWh, comparing with the reference condition of the fully ASHP space heating. It is further found that the equivalent solar heat price per kWh is too high under the current solar market cost price and collector technology. To put forward...

  16. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  17. Overview of Existing and Future Residential Use Cases for Connected Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rotondo, R. Johnson, N. Gonzalez, A. Waranowski, C. Badger, N. Lange, E. Goldman, R. Foster

    2016-12-01

    This paper is intended to help inform future technology deployment opportunities for connected thermostats (CTs), based on investigation and review of the U.S. residential housing and CT markets, as well as existing, emerging, and future use cases for CT hardware and CT-generated data. The CT market has experienced tremendous growth over the last five years — both in terms of the number of units sold and the number of firms offering competing products — and can be characterized by its rapid pace of technological innovation. Despite many assuming CTs would become powerful tools for increasing comfort while saving energy, there remains a great deal of uncertainty about the actual energy and cost savings that are likely to be realized from deployment of CTs, particularly under different conditions.

  18. Overview of Existing and Future Residential Use Cases for Connected Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotondo, Julia [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Robert [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Gonzalez, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Waranowski, Alexandra [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Badger, Chris [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Lange, Nick [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Goldman, Ethan [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Foster, Rebecca [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This paper is intended to help inform future technology deployment opportunities for connected thermostats (CTs), based on investigation and review of the U.S. residential housing and CT markets, as well as existing, emerging, and future use cases for CT hardware and CT-generated data. The CT market has experienced tremendous growth over the last 5 years—both in terms of the number of units sold and the number of firms offering competing products—and can be characterized by its rapid pace of technological innovation. Despite many assuming CTs would become powerful tools for increasing comfort while saving energy, there remains a great deal of uncertainty about the actual energy and cost savings that are likely to be realized from deployment of CTs, particularly under different conditions.

  19. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  20. Heat protection in summer for wooden residential buildings - Measurements on 'Minergie' single-family homes; Sommerlicher Waermeschutz bei Wohngebaeuden in Holzbauweise - Messungen in acht MINERGIE Einfamilienhaeusern - Entwurf Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Nutt, M. [Lemon Consult GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Keller, P. [Hochschule Luzern, Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This draft final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from measurements made in eight single-family homes built to the Swiss 'Minergie' standard. The project served to validate partly simplified simulations concerning the summertime thermal behaviour of low energy consumption buildings built of wood. The eight various 'Minergie' houses are described, as is the measurement concept chosen. The results obtained and the conclusions drawn are presented in detail and discussed, as is the implementation of measures derived from the project. Heat storage effects in the various building components are discussed. The results of the measurements are compared with the theoretical values obtained from calculations. Recommendations are presented. The report is augmented with a comprehensive appendix which includes the detailed measurement results for the buildings examined.

  1. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  2. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  3. Factors Influencing the Usage of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Existing Residential Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olugbemileke Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as a developing nation is facing increasing demand for electricity especially in the residential areas. The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs is one of the several measures towards reducing the demand. However, in Nigeria, the use of CFLs is low. The present study was designed to investigate some factors responsible for the low usage of CFLs in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered by hand on 984 households, selected through systematic random sampling techniques from 5 local government areas in Lagos State. The first building along the major street in each of the local government was selected randomly and every tenth building constituted the sample. A household head was surveyed in each of the building selected, and was asked to rate some factors that might have influenced the usage of CFLs. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using ranking method. The findings show that inability to measure the saving benefits of CFLs on electricity bills, lack of affordability and high initial cost of acquisition and installation were the most important factors which influence the use of the CFLs. The study concludes by providing some recommendations on how to achieve sustainable energy management in the Lagos and beyond through more efficient residential house lighting.

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  5. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  6. 78 FR 59890 - Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 201, 203, 1005, and 1007 RIN 2502-AJ18 Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages AGENCY: Office of Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed... mortgages, and generally prohibits a creditor from making a residential mortgage loan unless the creditor...

  7. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    in the Danish building regulations and the low flow rate is based on minimum requirements in indoor air quality standards. Measurements were performed on an existing single family house where the controls were installed on the existing mechanical ventilation system. The results showed that the ventilation can......This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2......-concentration is used to ensure adequate ventilation during occupancy and the moisture content is used to ensure adequate removal of moisture produced in the house. The ventilation rate can be switched between two flow rates: a high rate and a low rate. The high flow rate is based on existing requirements...

  8. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  9. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general...... the effect of the new requirements for renovation is that existing buildings should be brought up to the energy performance level of new buildings in connection with larger renovations and other substantial changes in the buildings. To demonstrate how it could be done, a thorough energy efficient renovation...... of a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s with need of renovation has been initiated and the preliminary results are presented in this paper. It is worth noting that about 500,000 of a total of 1.1 million Danish detached single-family houses were erected in that time period. Specifically...

  10. Construction and installation of low-cost energy-conservation devices on existing residential structures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.

  11. 75 FR 9867 - Discontinuation of the Notice of Availability of Funding; Multi-Family Housing, Single Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...; Multi- Family Housing, Single Family Housing AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... notice of funds availability (NOFA) for some of its existing and continuing Multi-Family and Single-Family Housing programs for which it receives annual appropriations. For Fiscal Year 2010 and thereafter...

  12. Sustainable Buildings for the High North. Existing buildings – technologies and challenges for residential and commercial use

    OpenAIRE

    Illikainen, Kimmo; Sirviö, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the intended use lifecycle of buildings may vary remarkably. Short term constructions such as summer cottages may last only a few decades whereas age of historical buildings may extend over hundreds of years. In Europe, three quarters of building stock is comprised of residential buildings. Approximately 40 % of the stock is built before 1960s, at the time when energy legislations were rather scarce. Consequently the age of buildings that have not undergone renovation i...

  13. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    After having identified a large potential for profitable energy renovation of the existing building stock, a demonstration project was carried out in practice. This paper deals with the methods and results from the demonstration project concerning a 161 m² poorly insulated single-family house bui......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....... cost of DKK 157,000. The project has shown that the energy renovation has reduced the gross energy consumption with around 50% from 53,400 to 28,100 kWh per year. This corresponds to a reduction of around 2,500 litre of fuel oil per year or 16,000 DKK per year (assuming a conservative energy price...

  14. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...

  15. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single Family Housing site evaluation. 1924.115 Section 1924.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Work § 1924.115 Single Family Housing site evaluation. (a) Site review. The site approval official will...

  17. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  18. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - Neighborhood Stabilization Outcome Pool Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  19. The Demographic Shift From Single-Family to Multifamily Housing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan Rappaport

    2013-01-01

    .... The longer term outlook is especially positive for multifamily construction, reflecting the aging of the baby boomers and an associated shift in demand from single-family to multifamily housing...

  20. Single-Family Houses That Meet The Future Energy Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    to examine these consequences thoroughly. The department is presently contributing to this end by participating in quite a few investigative projects, where single-family houses are designed to meet the proposed future energy demands. This paper describes the results obtained from one such project where...... the department, in co-operation with a major building entrepreneur, has developed a single-family house that shows that there are no evident problems in meeting the future energy demands....

  1. Feasibility study of residential and commercial heating using existing water supply systems. Phase I. Final technical report, November 1, 1978-May 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, D.R.

    1979-05-31

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using existing drinking water supply systems to provide hot water for heating purposes to a typical 140-home subdivision has been undertaken. This preliminary study has centered on (i) types of municipal water system designs and effects of system design upon heating use; (ii) methods of using low-to-moderate temperature water for heating purposes and possible institutional barriers; (iii) identification and description of a typical residential community suitable for hot water heating; (iv) evaluation of thermal losses in the uninsulated main distribution system from the main pumping station having assumed geothermal heating to the subdivision; (v) evaluation of thermal losses in the uninsulated street mains in the subdivision; (vi) estimation of size and cost of the pumping station main heat exchanger to supply geothermal energy to the drinking water; (vii) sizing of individual house heat exchangers; (viii) pumping and power requirements to supply the increased water flow rate through the subdivision street water distribution lines; and (ix) pumping and piping requirements to provide heating water flow from the street lines to a typical residence. From the results obtained thus far, it would appear that the use of existing uninsulated water supply systems will be advantageous in many communities having nearby low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resources.

  2. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  3. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...... situation and consumption is concluded as the optimal motivation strategy for the homeowners to conduct energy retrofits....

  4. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  5. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for solar radiation....

  6. Development of an air heating system for single Family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...

  7. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Good, Joel

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-à-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2 kW e) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces.

  9. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  10. Tobin's q for Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    of land. This can be used as a guide as to how much prices are to fall, in order to bring them back to the fundamental value. It can also be seen as a warning or indication of a price bubble. This paper presents a calculation of the value of Tobin's q for single-family houses in Denmark from 1968 to 2008......The rising price of single-family houses in Denmark and it's relation to the activity in the construction sector has given renewed interest in the theory of Tobin's q. Prices for single-family houses in Denmark have risen by 153 percent from 1993 to 2007 in real terms, with a particular steep rise...... from 2003 to 2006. The activity in the construction sector has been increasing too, but with some time lag caused by what seems to be an inelastic supply. In the long run, house prices will be determined by the replacement cost of houses, e.g. the cost of constructing a similar house including the cost...

  11. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  12. 75 FR 34755 - Privacy Act; Proposed Alteration to Existing Systems of Records, Single Family Mortgage Asset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Information Relay Service). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as...; inclusive of its case-tracking ability; report generating capability; query functions; database management, analyzing, processing, and tracking of Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Insured and Secretary-held first...

  13. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  14. Sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    in order to reach the low primary energy level of new houses. The typical single-family houses identified to have large primary energy saving potential almost descend from the same time period in each Nordic country. The first segment is houses built in large numbers in the 1960 and 1970 before tightening...... is type houses from the post-war period in Finland. A complete energy efficient renovation of a typical house include post-insulation and sealing of the buildings envelope - roof/ceiling, façade, windows/doors and foundation and maybe slab on ground - installation of a mechanical ventilation system...... an economy in balance in the sense that the annual payment on a cheap loan, e.g. mortgage refinancing, to finance the investment is not fully offset by the expected annual energy savings. Since, the cost of energy measures today may not correspond to the increased market value of the house, it is important...

  15. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  16. Analysis of energy consumption in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Bacher, Peder

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with estimation of the thermal characteristics of single family houses based on measurements of energy consumption and climate. The thermal characteristics includes the response of the building to changes in temperature (UA-value), solar radiation (gA-value), and wind (w...... to estimate the dynamic effects averages with a sample period around 4 hours are required. Also, it is beneficial to use measurements of the total energy consumption (heat and electricity). However, in most cases it results in adequate estimates if only the heat consumption is used as the response variable...... even for houses where a wood burning stove is being used. The article includes a short outline of how the methods could be integrated in an inter- active service such as “My E-Home” minbolig.elsparefonden.dk....

  17. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations....... Not one is overpowering, but numerous barriers have to be broken down simultaneously to achieve the desired effect. A questionnaire survey with nearly 900 responding homeowners examines the homeowners’ interest and willingness in performing energy renovations and their potential motivation factors....... The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase...

  18. Research report 24 single-family dwellings from the fifties; Onderzoekrapport 24 eengezinswoningen jaren '50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    This analysis is part of a coordinated series of studies for different residential building complexes of different corporations. This research report concerns the quick scan to decide on investments for the improvement of three single-family houses complexes, which were built in 1959. Based on four financial scenarios a framework is set up by means of which an integrated investment assessment can be made. In the study, scores are given for improving energy efficiency, reducing emission, quality of the construction, technical quality, urban and architectural quality, indoor environment, social aspects, etc. [Dutch] Deze analyse is onderdeel van een gecoordineerde serie onderzoeken voor verschillende complexen van verschillende corporaties. Dit onderzoeksrapport betreft de quickscan voor de investeringsafweging voor de verbetering van een drietal complexen van het type eengezinswoningen eind jaren vijftig. Op basis van vier financieel onderbouwde scenario's wordt het kader geschetst waarmee een integrale investeringsafweging kan worden gemaakt. In het onderzoek worden waarderingen gegeven voor de verbetering van de aspecten energiezuinigheid, uitstoot), bouwtechnisch kwaliteit, markttechnische kwaliteit, stedenbouwkundige en architectonische kwaliteit, binnenklimaat, sociale aspecten, etc.

  19. Indirect Solar Water Heating in Single-Family, Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  20. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  1. Staff Perceptions Before and After Adding Single-Family Rooms in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Sheila; Bledsoe, Tamara; Jenzarli, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate staff perceptions of environmental quality before and after the renovation of an existing open-bay neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the addition of 23 single-family NICU rooms in the Wasie Neonatal ICU at Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital. In recent years there has been an increase in the design and construction of single-family rooms (SFRs) because they provide more privacy for families, offer better control over environmental stimuli such as lighting and noise, and possibly reduce infections. On the other hand, this model can cause staff members to feel isolated from one another, reduce their ability to respond quickly in a crisis situation, or impose additional demands on them. Few studies document the advantages and disadvantages of the SFR NICU model. This study utilized pre- and post-move surveys to investigate staff perceptions of the NICU. Overall, staff members perceive the quality of the work environment, and the safety and quality of the environment provided to patients and their families, as better in the renovated, combination NICU design (SFR and open bay) when compared to the open-bay, pre-move design. In spite of the potential drawbacks of having SFRs in the NICU, the study demonstrates that nurses may perceive associated benefits, such as a reduction of job stress and improvements in parental privacy, along with other positive outcomes.

  2. Assessment of Residential GSHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    This report first briefly reviews geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology and the current status of the GHP industry in the United States. Then it assesses the potential national benefits, in terms of energy savings, reduced summer peak electrical demand, consumer energy cost savings, and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions from retrofitting the space heating, space cooling, and water heating systems in existing U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems. The investment for retrofitting typical U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems is also analyzed using the metrics of net present value and levelized cost.

  3. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William OBrien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Installation procedures for the single family residential solar heating system at the William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota, are presented. The system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. Information is also given on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements and routine and schedule maintenance.

  4. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and testing and filling the system are included. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  5. Benefit-cost analysis of commercially available activated carbon filters for indoor ozone removal in single-family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, J R; Darling, E; Morrison, G; Siegel, J; Corsi, R L

    2016-06-01

    This study involved the development of a model for evaluating the potential costs and benefits of ozone control by activated carbon filtration in single-family homes. The modeling effort included the prediction of indoor ozone with and without activated carbon filtration in the HVAC system. As one application, the model was used to predict benefit-to-cost ratios for single-family homes in 12 American cities in five different climate zones. Health benefits were evaluated using disability-adjusted life-years and included city-specific age demographics for each simulation. Costs of commercially available activated carbon filters included capital cost differences when compared to conventional HVAC filters of similar particle removal efficiency, energy penalties due to additional pressure drop, and regional utility rates. The average indoor ozone removal effectiveness ranged from 4 to 20% across the 12 target cities and was largely limited by HVAC system operation time. For the parameters selected in this study, the mean predicted benefit-to-cost ratios for 1-inch filters were >1.0 in 10 of the 12 cities. The benefits of residential activated carbon filters were greatest in cities with high seasonal ozone and HVAC usage, suggesting the importance of targeting such conditions for activated carbon filter applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 76 FR 53851 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Suspension of Section 238(c) Single-Family Mortgage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... construction, repair, rehabilitation, or purchase of property located near any installation of the Armed Forces... Section 238(c) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance in Military Impacted Areas AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... National Housing Act (Act). This single-family mortgage insurance program, established by regulation in...

  7. 77 FR 9177 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Suspension of Section 238(c) Single-Family Mortgage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ..., rehabilitation, or purchase of property located near any installation of the Armed Forces of the United States in... Section 238(c) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance in Military Impacted Areas AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... under section 238(c) of the National Housing Act. This single-family mortgage insurance program...

  8. 78 FR 75215 - Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... CFR Parts 201, 203, 1005, and 1007 RIN 2502-AJ18 Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages AGENCY: Office of Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Through this final rule, HUD establishes a definition of ``qualified mortgage'' for the single family...

  9. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important or perhaps the only determinant factor for multiplication of Legionella. Water with a temperature below 46 degrees C was

  10. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  11. Efficiency of single-family houses and harmonisation of their life cycle participants’ interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerija Kvederyte

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient single-family house is the main purpose of the life cycle. It determines the necessity to evaluate various decisions of the life cycle of single-family houses and possibilities to satisfy objectives and requirements of the participants of that process. To design and achieve an effective process of the life cycle of a single-family house, it is necessary to take care of its efficiency starting from the determination of needs and objectives and ending with the usage of a building.

  12. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Karlsson; Henrik Davidsson; Bernardo, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with differe...

  13. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  14. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  15. Market for Hawaii hardwood lumber in new single-family houses on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Zinnikas; R. Sidney Boone

    1967-01-01

    The total potential market for flooring, siding, and cabinet and millwork in new single-family houses on Oahu was between 10½ and 11 million board feet of lumber in 1963. The total possible market for lumber in new single-family house construction from 1965 to 1970 is estimated at 18 to 23 million square feet of floor-ing, 28 to 36 million square feet of...

  16. Research report 24 single-family dwellings from the fifties. Annex; Onderzoekrapport 24 rijwoningen jaren '50. Bijlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    This analysis is part of a coordinated series of studies for different residential building complexes of different corporations. This research report concerns the quick scan to decide on investments for the improvement of three single-family houses complexes, which were built in 1959. Based on four financial scenarios a framework is set up by means of which an integrated investment assessment can be made. In the study, scores are given for improving energy efficiency, reducing emission, quality of the construction, technical quality, urban and architectural quality, indoor environment, social aspects, etc. [Dutch] Deze analyse is onderdeel van een gecoordineerde serie onderzoeken voor verschillende complexen van verschillende corporaties. Dit onderzoeksrapport betreft de quickscan voor de investeringsafweging voor de verbetering van een drietal complexen van het type eengezinswoningen eind jaren vijftig. Op basis van vier financieel onderbouwde scenario's wordt het kader geschetst waarmee een integrale investeringsafweging kan worden gemaakt. In het onderzoek worden waarderingen gegeven voor de verbetering van de aspecten energiezuinigheid, uitstoot), bouwtechnisch kwaliteit, markttechnische kwaliteit, stedenbouwkundige en architectonische kwaliteit, binnenklimaat, sociale aspecten, etc.

  17. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... building types: single-family houses, terraced houses and blocks of flats. Each main building type is presented for nine periods representing age, typical building tradition and insulation levels. Finally, an energy balance model of the residential building stock was devised to validate the average...

  18. Residential and commercial buildings data book: Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, G.R.; Howard, K.B.; Nicholls, A.K.; Guerra, T.D.

    1988-02-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in September, 1986 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; and Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. 12 refs., 59 figs., 118 tabs.

  19. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses –a sustainable renovation concept suitable for different categories of single-family houses with regard to type and age has been proposed in this article. The sustainable renovation concept...... houses. A one-stop-shop in the form of a full-service concept could be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers...... includes an ideal full-service concept and technical renovation solutions targeted to different types of single-family houses....

  20. Determinants of establishment survival for residential trees in Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests can provide ecosystem services that motivate tree planting campaigns, and tree survival is a key element of program success and projected benefits. We studied survival in a shade tree give-away program in Sacramento, CA, monitoring a cohort of young trees for five years on single-family residential properties. We used conditional inference trees to...

  1. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  2. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  3. Possible financing schemes for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    available from mortgage financing (or base loan), national governments may consider to provide soft loans or subsidies. In countries where tax deduction on home renovation is available, amendments should be made to such programs to incorporate specific requirements regarding energy efficiency of implemented...... measures. Also, higher tax deduction could be offered for energy efficiency improvement than for other renovation. Moreover, a simple tool to inform the homeowners about the cost-efficiency of energy renovation investment would be that banks and utilities collaborate to send a joint invoice which contains......There are significant potentials to improve energy efficiency of single-family houses in the Nordic countries. Technical solutions exist, but there are market and financial barriers to implementation of such measures. The aim of this report is to identify financial barriers to implement energy...

  4. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  5. 75 FR 57052 - Notice of Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HUD announces its intention to sell in SFLS 2010 certain unsubsidized non-performing... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS 2010) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice of sale of mortgage loans. SUMMARY...

  6. Opportunities and Barriers related to Supply Chain Collaboration for Delivering Integrated Single-Family Home Renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Kondratenko, I.; Haavik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Single-family home renovations often show deficiencies in project management. There might be a market addressing house owners who would prefer integrated renovation services and clear responsibilities. Companies that would respond to these client’s needs would have a clear market potential,

  7. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of building style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    According to ISO 13788 internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if building style and geographical location are import...... by means of two-pin or capacitive moisture meter measurements to estimate indoor relative humidity....

  8. 77 FR 19008 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7544] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice...

  9. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...

  10. EFFECTS OF NATURAL AND FORCED BASEMENT VENTILATION ON RADON LEVELS IN SINGLE FAMILY DWELLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives, for the first time, results of an extensive study of the effect of ventilation on radon concentrations and radon entry rate in a single-family dwelling. Measurements of radon concentrations, building dynamics, and environmental parameters made in Princeton Unive...

  11. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses...

  12. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  13. Detail, Facture, and Colour in the Architecture of Polish Single-Family Houses after 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztafrowski, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents single-family houses architecture transformations since 1989, with particularly close attention paid to the significance of detail, facture, and colour. The article presents the architecture as an art of designing and building facilities with both use and aesthetic value, an art of shaping space and building forms. Architectural work should correspond to the intended function, technique, economic and aesthetic requirements, thus shaping all elements of human immediate environment, both inside and outside of the building. Architecture of the building is perceived as form, structure, and function, as well as detail, facture, and colour. Facture and colour are created through materials used for external finishes. The solid of the building is noticed first while looking at the building, then the finishes detail such as colour, facture, and detail. Materials for external finishes are commonly selected for their aesthetic value equally with their technical characteristics. The detail was always a characteristic element of style. However, currently the fashion for details can be observed, the fashion for usage of materials for external finishes and inter-connected with that colour and facture. The architecture of Polish single-family houses underwent considerable metamorphosis after system change of 1989 – from destitute in form, devoid in detail and colour socmodernism, to architecture extremely varied in terms of form, utilised structures, materials, and detail. Hence, appearance of the phenomenon called fashion can be observed in the architecture, understood as constant changeability, seeking novelty, and creation based on opinion-forming centres. The architectural fashion consists of form, function, structure, building materials, detail, facture, and colour trends, e.g. after rejecting socmodernism, steep roofs characteristic for single-family houses trend started. After 1989, initially individual single-family house projects were created

  14. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...

  15. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...... to carports in all parcels, and number of trees to be positively correlated with garden size in rectangular parcels. Correlation analysis also showed that higher trees were located further from houses, and that rectangular parcels could support more trees than quadratic parcels. These results suggest...

  16. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi......In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer...... in the combined solar heating/heat pump system type when the heat pump makes use of a horizontal ground source heat exchanger. The knowledge is gained by experimental investigations on a solar heating/heat pump system and forms the basis for improved marketed combined solar heating/heat pump systems....

  17. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Exploring efficacy of residential energy efficiency programs in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas Wade

    Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the U.S. have committed and continue to invest substantial resources in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. Program investments, and the demand for impact evaluations that accompany them, are projected to grow in coming years due to increased pressure from state-level energy regulation, costs and challenges of building additional production capacity, fuel costs and potential carbon or renewable energy regulation. This dissertation provides detailed analyses of ex-post energy savings from energy efficiency programs in three key sectors of residential buildings: new, single-family, detached homes; retrofits to existing single-family, detached homes; and retrofits to existing multifamily housing units. Each of the energy efficiency programs analyzed resulted in statistically significant energy savings at the full program group level, yet savings for individual participants and participant subgroups were highly variable. Even though savings estimates were statistically greater than zero, those energy savings did not always meet expectations. Results also show that high variability in energy savings among participant groups or subgroups can negatively impact overall program performance and can undermine marketing efforts for future participation. Design, implementation, and continued support of conservation programs based solely on deemed or projected savings is inherently counter to the pursuit of meaningful energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. To fully understand and optimize program impacts, consistent and robust measurement and verification protocols must be instituted in the design phase and maintained over time. Furthermore, marketing for program participation must target those who have the greatest opportunity for savings. In most utility territories it is not possible to gain access to the type of large scale

  19. An econometric model of homeownership: single-family and multifamily housing option

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Woo Lee; Dowell Myers; Heon Soo Park

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the multifamily housing sector through models of household tenure decision, by comparing the various individual and market characteristics. We utilized individual household-level census data in the United States to detect different responses between single-family housing occupiers and multifamily housing occupiers during the 1980s. We found that although the investment potential for multifamily housing was almost equivalent to that of si...

  20. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  1. SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin

    2017-06-17

    To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.

  2. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A proposed residential energy system based on the PBI (Polybenzimidazole) fuel cell technology is analyzed in terms of operational performance. Conventional operational strategies, such as heat-led and electricity-led, are applied to the simulated system to investigate their performance...... profile is based on average data for a single-family household in Denmark and includes consumption data for electricity and heat demands. The study analyzes the potential of the proposed system on market penetration in the area of residential heat-and-power generation and whether this deployment can...... characteristics. Based on these findings, an improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize the shortcomings of conventional strategies. System parameters, such as electrical and thermal efficiencies, heat dumping, and import/export of electricity, are analyzed. The applied load...

  3. Lead and other heavy metals in dust fall from single-family housing demolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E; Cali, Salvatore; Welch, Alison; Catalin, Bogdan; Dixon, Sherry L; Evens, Anne; Mucha, Amy P; Vahl, Nicole; Erdal, Serap; Bartlett, John

    2013-01-01

    We measured lead and other heavy metals in dust during older housing demolition and effectiveness of dust suppression. We used American Public Housing Association Method 502 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods SW3050B and SW6020 at 97 single-family housing demolition events with intermittent (or no) use of water to suppress dust at perimeter, non-perimeter, and locations without demolition, with nested mixed modeling and tobit modeling with left censoring. The geometric mean (GM) lead dust fall during demolition was 6.01 micrograms of lead per square foot per hour (μg Pb/ft(2)/hour). GM lead dust fall was 14.18 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour without dust suppression, but declined to 5.48 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour (p=0.057) when buildings and debris were wetted. Significant predictors included distance, wind direction, and main street location. At 400 feet, lead dust fall was not significantly different from background. GM lead concentration at demolition (2,406 parts per million [ppm]) was significantly greater than background (GM=579 ppm, p=0.05). Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese demolition dust fall was significantly higher than background (p<0.001). Demolition of approximately 400 old housing units elsewhere with more dust suppression was only 0.25 μg Pb/ft(2)/hour. Lead dust suppression is feasible and important in single-family housing demolition where distances between houses are smaller and community exposures are higher. Neighbor notification should be expanded to at least 400 feet away from single-family housing demolition, not just adjacent properties. Further research is needed on effects of distance, potential water contamination, occupational exposures, and water application.

  4. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  5. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  6. Renovation of a Detached Single-Family House into an Energy Efficient Low Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    single-family house built in the early nineteen seventies. The old house was renovated in accordance to the best Danish low energy class (class 1). The project was followed by detailed measurements of the indoor environment (temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels) and energy consumption for room...... heating and hot water supply. Measurements were carried out before and after the renovation in order to compare results and see whether the ambition for a 78% reduction in the energy consumption was reached. The paper will describe some of the most important factors regarding the energy renovation, which...

  7. Evaluation of the renovation of a Danish single-family house based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Building renovation is too often carried out with only one objective: necessary maintenance, updating design and functions, or reducing energy consumption. But, if a necessary maintenance is exploited as an opportunity for renovation, energy improvements can be implemented, house functions can...... be updated, and indoor climate improved with minimal nuisance and expense. This paper illustrates this approach by documenting the renovation of a single-family house in Denmark, and monitoring its energy consumption and indoor climate before and after the renovation. Building elements were replaced where...

  8. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of building style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    are important as well. Further it was investigated whether snapshot measurements in materials could replace logging of relative humidity and temperature. Building type has only a limited effect on the moisture supply. Geographical location has an effect; however variations are not systematic. It is not possible......According to ISO 13788 internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if building style and geographical location...

  9. The Value of Green Infrastructure on Vacant and Residential Land in Roanoke, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.

  10. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating is a promising technology for providing homes with energy-efficient heating in the future. However, it is of great importance to maintain thermal comfort in existing buildings when district heating temperatures are lowered. This case study evaluated the actual...... radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low-temperature...... district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two...

  11. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  12. Online short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for heating in a single-family house. Both space and hot tap water heating are forecasted. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts...... variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), peaks presumably from showers, shifts in resident behavior, and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for the solar radiation........ Every hour the hourly heat load for each house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation, and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used...

  13. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do......Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...

  14. Waverly Homes, Inc. (lot 13) single family residence, Westminster, Colorado. Solar project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    The use of solar energy for space heating a single family home and preheating incoming city water is discussed. The system has an array of flat plate collectors with a gross area of 351 square feet. Air is used to deliver solar energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heating and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 175 cubic foot concrete tin containing 17,500 pounds of rock. Solar energy preheated city water is stored in an 80 gallon preheat storage tank and supplied, to a conventional 40 gallon domestic hot water (DHW) tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a gas furnace provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, a gas heater in the DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water heating.

  15. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    211 single-family houses in Denmark. The residual waste from each household was collected and sorted separately to obtain a representative variation of the quantity and composition of food waste among households. The main fractions contributing to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food......Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...

  16. The NICU Environment: Infusing Single-Family Room Benefits into the Open-Bay Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Jenna L; Jnah, Amy; Newberry, Desi

    2017-03-01

    Two distinct architectural designs are found in today's NICUs-the open-bay (OPBY) and the single-family room (SFR) designs. When neonatology was recognized as a medical subspecialty in the 1970s, the OPBY design was the only platform offered to neonates and families. The OPBY design facilitated communication between staff, collegiality, and interprofessional collaboration among members of the neonatal team. Over time, pitfalls to the design were recognized, including increased transmission of sound and light. As a result, the SFR design emerged offering a family-centered, customizable environment. Through recognition and adoption of best practices, the neurodevelopmental benefits to SFRs can be infused within the OPBY unit. This article aims to identify best practices to infuse the benefits of SFR design (such as low light, low sound, and less overstimulation) into the OPBY NICU to reduce negative stimulation and optimize developmental outcomes for vulnerable neonates.

  17. Residential and commercial buildings data book. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crumb, L.W.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-09-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in October, 1984 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. This Data Book complements another Department of Energy document entitled ''Overview of Building Energy Use and Report of Analysis-1985'' October, 1985 (DOE/CE-0140). The Data Book provides supporting data and documentation to the report.

  18. Effects of single-family rooms on nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Mirka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Axelin, Anna

    Single-family rooms in neonatal intensive care unit can provide longer interaction between family and staff. On the other hand, separation in private rooms has been shown detrimental to child development if parents are not present. To examine the effects of single-family rooms on nurse-family, nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction time in neonatal intensive care unit. A quantitative, comparative, observational study was conducted before and after a move to a neonatal intensive care unit with single-family rooms. A total of 194 observation hours were conducted before the move and 194h after the move. The differences were analyzed using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Nurses working in one neonatal intensive care unit were recruited to study. The duration and number of nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction episodes were recorded. The nurse-family and the nurse-parent interaction were longer in the unit with single-family rooms compared with the unit before the move (mean 261 vs. 138min per shift, pintensive care unit with single-family rooms supported an increase in nurse-parent interaction time. Importantly, nurse-infant interaction time did not decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...... there is a great need for full-service packages including consulting, contract work, follow-up, financing and operation and maintenance. There are few Nordic examples of such service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently. The success of these concepts is yet...

  20. Planned residential units: New development trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedchenko, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The paper summarizes the transformation patterns of functional, morphological, social, and administrative structures of planned residential units - district (Russia, Eastern Europe), neighborhood (USA), community (UK, Europe), as the smallest structural and planning elements of the settlements. The study is based on the author's own on-site survey of the existing and new planned residential units, as well as on the analysis of theoretical sources. The multidisciplinary analysis of the theoretical concepts and on-site survey results showed that planned residential units formed in the early twentieth century retain their social and planning importance and identity, evolve and acquire new features and forms. At the same time, according to the current regulatory and legal instruments they remain basic planning elements of urban structure in the early twenty-first century. This paper also includes experimental analysis of the theoretical concepts of planned residential units' transformation, their conceptual planning model and formation principles in the early twenty-first century.

  1. Indirect Solar Water Heating in Single-Family, Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winters Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with the goal of approaching zero energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and photovoltaic systems, the developer installed a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  2. The slowdown in existing home sales

    OpenAIRE

    Krainer, John

    2014-01-01

    Sales of existing homes slowed noticeably over the second half of 2013, reflecting a more drawn-out recovery than expected for housing markets. A main reason for the slowdown is higher mortgage rates that have made financing more costly nationwide. Sales appear to be slowing even more in distressed markets, where real estate investors had bought up single-family homes to convert into rental properties following the housing bust. Evidence suggests that investors may be retreating from these ma...

  3. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  4. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  5. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  6. Privacy Control as a Function of Personal Space In Single-Family Homes in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Al-Homoud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between people and the built environment requires understanding of the relationship between human behavior and physical settings. To further verify this notion, this study attempts to investigate privacy control as an effect of personal space expressed by quality and quantity of bedroom space in single-family homes. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted to elicit the data. The location of the study was Daheyat Al--Ferdous community, Fuhais, Jordan. Respondents were requested to record to the presence of certain physical components in their personal bedroom space that may potentially increase their feel of privacy control in general. Results indicated that some physical components such a kitchenette, a TV, and an audio station in the bedroom were important. Additional factors that affected privacy control feel included shape of the room, as square rooms provided more sense of control. In addition, smaller bedroom area increased feel of control, and a corridor before bedroom was seen as a predictor of privacy control.

  7. 76 FR 73653 - Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Information Collection: Local Appeals to Single-Family Mortgage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-Family Mortgage Limits AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice... to Single-Family Mortgage Limits. This notice announces the withdrawal of that proposed information collection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Program Contact, Arlene Nunes, Director, Home Mortgage Insurance...

  8. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link – residentialization.

  9. Energy performance analysis of a detached single-family house to be refurbished

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Kevin; Curado, António

    2017-07-01

    This study was developed with the purpose of analyzing the reinforcement of the energy performance in a detached single-family house to be refurbished, using this building as a case-study for simulation and experimental analysis. The building is located in Viana do Castelo, a city in the northwest of Portugal nearby the Atlantic Ocean. The developed study was carried out in order to characterize the thermal performance of the house, using simulation analysis in a dynamic regime. The energy consumption study was developed in permanent regime analysis, using simulation tools. At the end, the study aimed to propose and define the best retrofitting solutions, both passive and active, and to improve the energy performance of the building. The outcomes of the study provided the importance of passive retrofitting solutions on thermal comfort and energy performance. The use of a set of thermal solutions, as the insulation of the roof, walls and the windows, it is possible to achieve a global gain of 0, 63 °C and to reduce energy consumption in 61, 46 [kWh/m2.year]. The study of the building in a simplified thermal regime, according to the Portuguese energy efficiency regulation, allowed the determination of the energy efficiency class of the house and retrofitting solutions proposed. The initial energy performance class of the building is C. With the application of a passive set of solutions, it's possible to improve the energy performance to a class B. With the implementation of some active solutions, it is possible to reach an energy class A +.

  10. High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrey, James D; Lücking, Robert; Sipman, Harrie J M; Chaves, José L; Redhead, Scott A; Bungartz, Frank; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2009-10-01

    The Agaricales is the largest and most diverse order of mushroom-forming Basidiomycota, with over 100 natural groups recognized in recent Fungal Tree of Life studies. Most agarics are either saprotrophic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, but the family Hygrophoraceae is in part characterized by a unique and remarkable diversity of lichenized forms. The most familiar of these is the chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia, whose phylogenetic position in the Agaricales has been established. Recent limited evidence suggested that Hygrophoraceae also contains cyanolichens in the genus Dictyonema, which indicates a remarkable concentration and diversity of lichen-formers in a single family of agarics. To demonstrate the relationships of lichen-formers to other fungi in the family, we assembled ribosomal sequences from 52 species representing recognized groups within the Hygrophoraceae, among them new sequences representing Acantholichen and most species and forms of Dictyonema. The molecular data were evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, Bayesian, and distance analyses, including coding of ambiguous regions by means of INAASE and ARC, all of which indicate that Dictyonema and Acantholichen form a monophyletic clade derived from the primarily bryophilous genus Arrhenia and sister to the enigmatic Athelia pyriformis, a species unrelated to the Atheliales for which we are proposing a new genus name Eonema. The chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia may be polyphyletic. Fungi in the Dictyonema-Acantholichen clade are typically tropical, entirely lichenized, and associate with cyanobacterial photobionts. Our data indicate a transition from agaricoid-omphalinoid basidiomes observed in Arrhenia to stereoid-corticioid forms in Dictyonema, and also support a previous suggestion of a connection between loss of clamp connections and lichenization. The diverse basidiome and thallus morphologies and nutritional ecologies of these fungi indicate a remarkable evolutionary flexibility that appears to

  11. The low-income single-family house and the effectiveness of architects in affecting affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Dulaney Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects are increasingly engaged in efforts to provide affordable, owner-occupied housing in the United States. Yet architects’ roles in broadly addressing affordable housing remain marginal as was anecdotally evident by the absence of architects at a recent university-sponsored affordable housing workshop. Apparently, the potential contributions of architects in “the development of innovative approaches and best practices” related to affordable, owner-occupied housing is not always valued to housing policymakers and planners such as those who organized this workshop. This paper speculatively explores the gap between the potential value of architects and their actual effectiveness at realizing widespread relevancy, innovation, and change in improving the quality and attainability of affordable, owner occupied housing and how this gap may contribute to the undervaluation and marginalization of architects’ efforts to address affordable housing needs in the United States. Case studies of several recent U.S. house design competitions exemplify these gaps. Potential strategies for closing these gaps and thus appreciating the value of architects’ efforts in this endeavor are identified.To become central in providing much-needed affordable, owner-occupied housing, architects must make the value of their potential contributions evident. This requires a clear definition of design goals, a rigorous assessment of built projects, and the thorough dissemination of findings and methodologies. Architects must engage those fields to which they have, in the U.S., long relinquished affordable, single-family housing. Architects must demonstrate that qualitative design improvements are not just possible within the frameworks and agendas of those other fields but that good design will better enable the achievement of those extra-disciplinary goals.

  12. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    An attempt was made in this study to bridge the existing gap in the knowledge of the influence exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential .... inflation, high level of employment, low level of unemployment and balanced economic ... employment rate on property returns 1s consistent with that of Apergi (2003). Sari et al.

  13. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Ventilation Systems in a Single-Family Dwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin; Akoua, Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The French regulation on residential building ventilation relies on an overall and continuous air renewal. The fresh air should enter the building through the "habitable rooms" while the polluted air is extracted in the service rooms. In this way, internal air is drained from the lowest polluted rooms to the highest polluted ones. However, internal pressure equilibrium and air movements in buildings result from the combined effects ventilation system and parameters such as wind, temperature difference or doors opening. This paper aims to analyse the influence of these parameters on pollutant transfer within buildings. In so doing, experiments are carried out using tracer gas release for representing pollution sources in an experimental house. Mechanical exhaust, balanced and natural ventilation systems are thus tested. Results show the followings: - For all cases, internal doors' opening causes the most important pollutant spread. - When doors are closed, the best performances are obtained with balanced venti...

  15. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  16. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and

  17. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...... comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock...

  18. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  19. Energy conservation through optimum utilization of site energy sources for all season thermal comfort in new residential construction for single family attached (rowhouse/townhouse) designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, S.; Holsman, J. P.

    1981-02-01

    A proposed design analysis is presented of a passive solar energy efficient system for a typical three level, three bedroom, two story, garage under townhouse. The design incorporates the best, most performance proven and cost effective products, materials, processes, technologies, and subsystems which are available today. Seven distinct categories recognized for analysis are identified as: the exterior environment; the interior environment; conservation of energy; natural energy utilization; auxiliary energy utilization; control and distribution systems; and occupant adaptation. Preliminary design features, fenestration systems, the plenum supply system, the thermal storage party fire walls, direct gain storage, the radiant comfort system, and direct passive cooling systems are briefly described.

  20. The effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have estimated the effect of environmental amenities on the rental price of houses. We address this gap in the literature by quantifying the effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon, USA. We found that an additional tree on a house's lot increased monthly rent by $5.62, and a tree in the public right of way...

  1. Solar heating system design package for a single-family residence at William O'Brien State Park, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Honeywell, Inc. has undertaken the design, fabrication, installation, and monitoring of a prototype solar heating and hot water system for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' single-family dwelling located at O'Brien State Park, 30 miles east of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Documentation submitted by Honeywell for government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status in order to provide the contractor with approval to commit the system to fabrication are included.

  2. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy renovation of existing buildings has a large potential for cost effective energy savings. However, it is a major challenge to develop and implement the technologies for reducing the energy use in existing buildings to a very low level in combination with renovation of the buildings. To dem...

  3. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  4. Assessment of trends in the development of residential buildings from the standpoint of the fuel and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrczakowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction from the viewpoint of energy and fuel consumption requirements was presented. The introduction provides an analysis of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction based on data reported in the literature on this topic. Primary attention is focused on technological issues and trends in construction that have a direct effect on fuel and energy use. The problem of calculating energy use in construction of residential housing units is presented. It is demonstrated that there exists significant differences between different technologies for housing construction. Monolithic technology utilizes the greatest energy (buildings for housing a large number of families), while the least energy is used by brick structures employing prefabricated elements (single family homes). Aspects of energy use for domestic housing heating applications as a function of their architectural design, height, shape, etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that the decisive factor in energy use is not principally the building construction techniques (in the sense of the classification based on the support structure) but rather is the so-called exterior sealing methods that may or may not be related to the construction technique for the building overall. The height and shape of the building also play an important role. Supplementary aspects relating to the development of construction that the author believes are timely developments in the development of domestic housing construction in Poland were presented on the basis of the model calculations.

  5. Assessment of trends in the development of residential buildings from the standpoint of the fuel and energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyrczakowski, Stanislaw

    An assessment of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction from the viewpoint of energy and fuel consumption requirements was presented. The introduction provides an analysis of the developmental trends in domestic housing construction based on data reported in the literature on this topic. Primary attention is focused on technological issues and trends in construction that have a direct effect on fuel and energy use. The problem of calculating energy use in construction of residential housing units is presented. It is demonstrated that there exists significant differences between different technologies for housing construction. Monolithic technology utilizes the greatest energy (buildings for housing a large number of families), while the least energy is used by brick structures employing prefabricated elements (single family homes). Aspects of energy use for domestic housing heating applications as a function of their architectural design, height, shape, etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that the decisive factor in energy use is not principally the building construction techniques (in the sense of the classification based on the support structure) but rather is the so-called exterior sealing methods that may or may not be related to the construction technique for the building overall. The height and shape of the building also play an important role. Supplementary aspects relating to the development of construction that the author believes are timely developments in the development of domestic housing construction in Poland were presented on the basis of the model calculations.

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Privatization and Construction of Single Family Housing in Magnolia Grove, Lowndes County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-25

    characterized by 11 land use categories (Moody AFB, 2003). These land areas are defined as Borrow Areas; Upland, Agricultural Row Crops; Upland, Bamboo ...Upland, Bamboo classifies 1.02 acres consisting entirely of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris). Upland, Coniferous Forest classifies 64.27 acres defined by...present. EPA has made testing recommendations for both residential structures and schools. For residential structures, using a 2- to 7-day charcoal

  7. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  8. Harmful Materials and Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain harmful or problematic materials present in residential buildings may need to be handled differently from general demolition debris. Here is a list of several specific types of materials that may be present in residential buildings.

  9. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  10. Report on the regional and system type disaggregation of the single family dwelling space heat energy demand sector. [BESOM and dynamic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, T.J.; Wooders, M.H.; McLean, R.

    1976-08-01

    Two models are developed that can estimate derived fuel demands in single-family dwellings, given fixed final demand for space heat by states. One is an extension of a single-period linear programming model of the nation's energy system, the Brookhaven Energy System Optimization Model. In it the demand for single-family space heat is disaggregated by state and type of home-heating system. The other is a multiple-period dynamic programming model of single-family space heat demand, also disaggregated by state and type of system. Preliminary results for each model are presented and compared.

  11. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  12. Towards safer residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest, both by social institutions and by scientists, in the promotion of traffic safety and in the improvement of the living environment in residential areas. For this purpose use can be made of an extended range of measures, influencing the

  13. Influence of air tightness of the building on its energy-efficiency in single-family buildings in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miszczuk Artur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication focuses on assessing the impact of the tightness of single-family houses with a higher energy standard on their energy demand for heating. To formulate conclusions quantitative and qualitative research, including tightness test (blower door has been conducted in energy-efficient and passive houses. In the next step, energy demand for heating has been estimated. Based on the observation and results, the simulation of the impact of reducing the flow of infiltrated air through leaks in the buildings for energy demand for heating is calculated. The simulation results confirm the dependence between the tightness of the building and energy demand.

  14. 78 FR 18576 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    .... Many of the comments fail to consider issues faced when working in the existing homes sector... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work...

  15. 77 FR 3598 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single Family Lender Insurance Process: Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... most commonly due to life events such as loss of employment, divorce, or death, rather than decisions... the underlying causes for the termination have been satisfactorily remedied. Mortgagees are reminded... good cause exists. (2) Such termination will be effective upon receipt of HUD's notice advising of the...

  16. DESIGN ASPECTS OF A RESIDENTIAL WIND GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a small permanent magnet wind generator with axial magnetic flux often used in residential wind turbine. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with applications to a particular case: 0.6 kVA wind generator. The axial flux wind generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earths permanent magnet existing on the market.

  17. Carbon reductions and health co-benefits from US residential energy efficiency measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Woo, May K.; Penn, Stefani L.; Omary, Mohammad; Tambouret, Yann; Kim, Chloe S.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2016-03-01

    The United States (US) Clean Power Plan established state-specific carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction goals for fossil fuel-fired electricity generating units (EGUs). States may achieve these goals through multiple mechanisms, including measures that can achieve equivalent CO2 reductions such as residential energy efficiency, which will have important co-benefits. Here, we develop state-resolution simulations of the economic, health, and climate benefits of increased residential insulation, considering EGUs and residential combustion. Increasing insulation to International Energy Conservation Code 2012 levels for all single-family homes in the US in 2013 would lead to annual reductions of 80 million tons of CO2 from EGUs, with annual co-benefits including 30 million tons of CO2 from residential combustion and 320 premature deaths associated with criteria pollutant emissions from both EGUs and residential combustion sources. Monetized climate and health co-benefits average 49 per ton of CO2 reduced from EGUs (range across states: 12-390). State-specific co-benefit estimates can inform development of optimal Clean Power Plan implementation strategies.

  18. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  19. Smart Growth and the Challenge of Nimby: Multifamily Dwellings and their Association with Single-Family House Selling Prices in Tallahasse, Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huston GIBSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens protest development when they consider it undesirable. One type of development commonly perceived as undesirable by single-family home owners is proximate multifamily housing, often considered a cause of property devaluation. This study assesses multifamily housing, by typology, and its monetary association with proximate single-family housing prices. The research design is a cross-sectional study using multivariate regression. The unit of analysis is the detached single-family dwelling. The study population is a sample taken from all arms-length owner-occupied, primary residence, detached single-family property transactions recorded in Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida, USA, during 2008. The key findings show no statistically significant negative associations between multifamily housing and single-family property selling prices in the sample; in fact, the two were positively correlated. These findings address single-family homeowner concerns about proximate multifamily housing and should bolster the political feasibility of Smart Growth policy, which recommends denser urban infill.

  20. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  1. OPERATIONALIZING SUSTAINABLE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA: CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ofori Ametepey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries humankind’s built environment and quality of life has been closely predicated on the diversity and availability of natural resources. However, it has become evident that the ecological bounds that have provided a seemingly infinite stream of resources are showing signs of global degradation. As a result, a new focus has been placed on the concept of sustainable development. For sustainable alternatives to materialize in a free-market, it must be driven by market-based solutions and not solely by government regulation. Hence, this research sought to determine the extent to which current markets exist for sustainable alternatives and consumer response to the cost-benefit of sustainable alternatives in Ghana. A Market Survey Assessments methodology was adopted to determine the extent to which capital costs and life-cycle return on investment (ROI affect consumer willingness to pay for sustainable alternatives. Questionnaire was adopted to assess consumer attitudes toward cost and non-cost related issues pertaining to sustainable residential construction. The population of study for this research consists of owner occupied single family housing units in high-growth residential regions of Accra consisting of areas of East Legon, and Trassaco Valley. Cross-tabulation and correlation analysis were then used to describe, correlate and draw inference from the survey response data. The results revealed that consumers were found to prioritize level of willingness-to-pay according to total return-on-investment, meaning willingness-to-pay changed proportional to changes in total return as that the vast majority of consumers chose high capital cost, high return alternatives. Results also indicated that the savings-to-investment (SIR ratio was not as significant a consideration, meaning that if consumers viewed the purchase of a sustainable alternative as an “opportunity” cost, they should have chosen low cost, low return alternatives

  2. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    2013-01-01

    In Nordic countries significant primary energy saving potential exists in houses built before 1980. These old houses need to be renovated, which provides an opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures. However, there are several economic and market hindrances and the renovation...... markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow...... the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...

  3. Choosing The Right Technology - Optimized Design Of Renewable Supply Systems For Residential Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    the planning process. The methodology allows for specifying a level of Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) performance to investigate cost reductions when allowing shares of fossil fuel consumption. The outcome is an optimal supply technology combination and optimal installed capacities in terms of the overall...... costs including system installation and operating expenses. The approach is applied to a case study of a residential single family house under Danish conditions. It delivers rapidly site-specific solutions and can easily be used as an extension for common building energy simulation software. In the case....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. The aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...

  4. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Montana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Illinois single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Mississippi single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Minnesota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Louisiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kentucky single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Energy used by Massachusetts single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Iowa single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oregon single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Idaho single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Vermont single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Energy used by Alabama single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Colorado single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arizona single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Tennessee single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Energy used by Georgia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Nevada single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Missouri single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Pennsylvania single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oklahoma single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Ohio single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Indiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Connecticut single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Maryland single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Nebraska single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Utah single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Florida single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Maine single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wyoming single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arkansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by California single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Maladaptive Schemas as a Predictor of Residential Treatment Outcomes in Females with Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, Jodi Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between maladaptive schemas and treatment outcomes of adolescent and adult women with an eating disorder receiving residential treatment. Existing data were obtained from 67 females aged 11 to 47 years (m =18.61) that had entered residential treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) at a Western United States residential eating disorder treatment facility. Pre- and posttreat...

  4. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  5. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  6. Do changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in single-family houses result in the expected energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...

  7. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  8. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  9. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  10. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges...

  11. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-01-01

    .... According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing...

  12. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  13. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  14. Residential energy performance metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Ch. [Department of Engineering Management, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 600 W. 14th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Baur, S. [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1401 Pine Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Grantham, K. [Department of Engineering Management, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 600 W. 14th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Stone, R. B. [School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331(United States); Grasman, S. E. [Department of Engineering Management, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 600 W. 14th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system. (authors)

  15. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  16. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  17. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single-family houses in Denmark. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Kjaerbye, V. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde (Denmark)); AKF (Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Larsen, Anders E. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde (Denmark)); Togeby, M (Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 percent reduction in natural gas consumption. (Author)

  18. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  19. Overcrowding of Residential Houses in Ethiopia: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing housing related evidences attest to the fact that many Ethiopians live in houses that are not conducive for healthy life. This article examines the nature of overcrowding of residential units in Ethiopia using the 2007 Population and Housing Census data supported by literature. Descriptive and multivariate statistical ...

  20. Application of Energy Performance Indicators for Residential Building Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Energy performance indicators of residential building stocks can either describe existing empirical data of a building stock or the input and outcome of building stock modelling. In EPISCOPE both types of quantities are clearly separated by distinguishing monitoring indicators and scenario...... indicators....

  1. Risk Profiles of Children Entering Residential Care: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Children in residential care are a heterogeneous population, presenting various combinations of risks. Existing studies on these children suggest high variability across multiple domains (e.g., academics, behavior). Given this heterogeneity, it is important to begin to identify the combinations and patterns of multiple risks, or risk profiles,…

  2. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  3. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  5. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit K to Subpart A of... - Classifications for Multi-Family Residential Rehabilitation Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance and repair of certain materials, appliances or components of an existing residential building... following chart. Components of Multi-Family Building Rehabilitation Components Maintenance and repair... maintenance and repair work, moderate rehabilitation and substantial rehabilitation. In all cases, the...

  7. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...... selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  8. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    generation characteristics, heat transfer and thermal dynamics of sustainable residential buildings and load scheduling potentials of household appliances with associated constraints. Through various simulation studies under different working scenarios with real data, different system constraints and user......’s objectives, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is studied and validated compared to the existing residential EMSs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed EMS has the capability not only to conserve energy in sustainable homes and microgrid system and to reduce energy...

  9. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  10. Pathfinder to EXIST: ProtoEXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, A. B., III; Allen, B.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burke, M.; Burnham, J.; Chammas, N.; Collins, J.; Cook, W. R.; Copete, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gauron, T.; Grindlay, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J.; Howell, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Labov, S.; Said, B.; Sheikh Sheikh, S.

    2008-04-01

    We describe the ProtoEXIST instrument, our fist-generation wide-field hard X-ray imaging (20 - 600 keV) balloon-borne telescope. The ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a candidate for the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST consists of two independent coded-aperture telescopes using pixellated (2.5mm pitch) CZT detectors. The two telescopes will provide performance comparison of two shielding configurations, for optimization of the EXIST design. We report on the science goals and designs of both ProtoEXIST and EXIST and their implications for hard X-ray astronomy and astrophysics.

  11. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  12. A pragmatic randomised multi-centre trial of multifamily and single family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Hodsoll, John; Asen, Eia; Berelowitz, Mark; Connan, Frances; Ellis, Gladys; Hugo, Pippa; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Yi, Irene; Landau, Sabine

    2016-11-24

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in developing effective treatments for child and adolescent anorexia nervosa, with a general consensus in the field that eating disorders focussed family therapy (often referred to as Maudsley Family Therapy or Family Based Treatment) currently offers the most promising outcomes. Nevertheless, a significant number do not respond well and additional treatment developments are needed to improve outcomes. Multifamily therapy is a promising treatment that has attracted considerable interest and we report the results of the first randomised controlled trial of multifamily therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa. The study was a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled superiority trial comparing two outpatient eating disorder focussed family interventions - multifamily therapy (MFT-AN) and single family therapy (FT-AN). A total of 169 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of anorexia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified (restricting type) were randomised to the two treatments using computer generated blocks of random sizes to ensure balanced numbers in the trial arms. Independent assessors, blind to the allocation, completed evaluations at baseline, 3 months, 12 months (end of treatment) and 18 months. Both treatment groups showed clinically significant improvements with just under 60% achieving a good or intermediate outcome (on the Morgan-Russell scales) at the end of treatment in the FT-AN group and more than 75% in the MFT-AN group - a statistically significant benefit in favour of the multifamily intervention (OR = 2.55 95%; CI 1.17, 5.52; p = 0.019). At follow-up (18 months post baseline) there was relatively little change compared to end of treatment although the difference in primary outcome between the treatments was no longer statistically significant. Clinically significant gains in weight were accompanied by improvements in mood and eating disorder psychopathology. Approximately

  13. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-05-21

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  14. Effectiveness of urban shelter-in-place—II: Residential districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for indefinite sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  15. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in g...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart K of... - Guide Letter to Delinquent FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Single Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guide Letter to Delinquent FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Single Family Housing Loan Borrowers E Exhibit E to Subpart K of Part..., Subpt. K, Exh. E Exhibit E to Subpart K of Part 1944—Guide Letter to Delinquent FmHA or Its Successor...

  17. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  18. Branching out to residential lands: Missions and strategies of five tree distribution programs in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vi D. Nguyen; Lara A. Roman; Dexter H. Locke; Sarah K. Mincey; Jessica R. Sanders; Erica Smith Fichman; Mike Duran-Mitchell; Sarah Lumban Tobing

    2017-01-01

    Residential lands constitute a major component of existing and possible tree canopy in many cities in the United States. To expand the urban forest on these lands, some municipalities and nonprofit organizations have launched residential yard tree distribution programs, also known as tree giveaway programs. This paper describes the operations of five tree distribution...

  19. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential areas. 203.672 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.672 Residential areas. (a) For the purposes of occupied conveyance considerations, a residential area is any area which...

  20. An Analysis on Optimization of Living and Fire Water Supply Systems of Small High-Rise Residential Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid growth of our population, the demand for housing quality of urban residents has been gradually raised. Due to the shortage of traditional multi-storey residential and high-rise residential, it is difficult to achieve a balance between quality and quantity of housing. As a result, a new type of residential building, small high-rise residential building, came into being. The so-called small high-rise residential generally refers to buildings of 7 to 11 layers, including unit buildings and tower buildings. In view of the problems existing in the water supply system of the small high-rise residential blocks, this paper presents a new system, namely a combined system of living and fire water supply. This system can be, according to the available pressure of municipal pipeline network, divided into three types, and has been optimized in order to fully utilize the municipal pipeline network pressure

  1. Identification of Parameters Affecting the Variability of Energy Use in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Energy use of buildings varies significantly. When aggregating the demand profiles of a group of buildings, the variations of energy demand are critical to determine the aggregated load profile. Especially when dimensioning district energy systems, it is important to know the variability of energy...... demand that can guarantee the efficient operation of the system. For this reason, it is useful to distinguish the parameters that affect building energy performance the most and to estimate the magnitude of these variations on each parameter. The aim of the present study is to identify the parameters...... that lead to the largest variations in energy performance of residential buildings in Denmark. A set of sensitivity analysis has been carried out using an extensive search algorithm. These sensitivity analyses were then applied for modelling a reference building representing Danish single-family houses...

  2. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  3. Optimising residential respite care in nursing homes: Current problems and solutions for a better future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Melissa; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ferrah, Noha; Bugeja, Lyndal

    2017-11-23

    To examine whether residential respite care increases the risk of harm to older people and suggest directions for future research and policy. Respite care is a vital part of the aged care system that supports dependent older people and their caregivers to continue residing in the community. There is little research determining whether an older person experiences harm from residential respite. This commentary considered conceptual research and existing empirical evidence to determine whether the risk of death was greater during residential respite care for older people. Evidence on the mortality in contemporary respite care is extremely limited with the majority of studies published almost 20 years ago and focussing on planned respite admissions. The evidence available has limitations in design and lacks comparison groups and key variables relevant to outcome and risk stratification. Nonetheless, it provides a theoretical basis supporting that the potential for harm and mortality may be increased during a residential respite care admission. The question of whether residential respite care presents significant risks to older people remains unanswered. Substantial changes in practice since the last century make the existing empirical evidence redundant. However, there is much to learn by reflecting on omissions of important details from these studies. A full and objective understanding of the harm associated with residential respite care for older people requires reopening and re-examining this area with robust research. Informed professional nursing practice and policy requires an empirical evidence basis to residential respite care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are effective as of September 15, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=refrig.pr_crit_refrigerators

  6. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  7. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  8. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2.5...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  9. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L

    2005-12-01

    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  10. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  11. Nanotechnology opportunities in residential and non-residential construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore H. Wegner; Jerrold E. Winandy; Michael A. Ritter

    2005-01-01

    Over 1.9 × 106 housing units are constructed in the United States in 2004. On a volume basis, wood products comprise almost 80% of all materials used in residential housing. It is estimated that over 7 × 109 m3 of lumber have gone into structures in the United States over the last century. Half of the wood products now used in construction are engineered wood...

  12. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2009-07-01

    Danish households use more than 30% of the total amount of energy being used in Denmark. More than 80% of this energy is dedicated to space heating. The same relation is seen in many OECD countries. The corresponding energy savings potential was recently estimated at 30% of the energy used in buildings. Energy labelling is seen as an important instrument to target these potential energy savings. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using real metered natural gas consumption and a very wide range of register data describing the houses and households. The study did not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, but more research would be needed to complement this conclusion

  13. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  14. Antimicrobial prescribing in residential homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Pamela; Tunney, Michael; Gilpin, Deirdre; Parsons, Carole; Hughes, Carmel

    2012-07-01

    Research in residential homes has been limited to date and the extent of systemic and topical antimicrobial prescribing is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial prescribing in residential homes in Northern Ireland (NI). Point prevalence studies (PPSs) were completed in November 2010 (PPS1) and April 2011 (PPS2) in 30 residential homes. Data were obtained from care plans, medication administration records and staff in relation to antimicrobial prescribing and facility and resident characteristics, and analysed descriptively. The point prevalence of systemic antimicrobial prescribing was 9.4% in PPS1 and 9.2% in PPS2 (range 0.0%-33.3% during both PPSs). Trimethoprim was the most commonly prescribed systemic antimicrobial and the main indication was the prevention of urinary tract infections. Almost 25% of systemic antimicrobials were prescribed at inappropriate doses. The point prevalence of topical antimicrobial prescribing was 6.4% (range 0.0%-22.2%) in PPS1 and 5.9% (range 0.0%-21.1%) in PPS2. The most commonly prescribed topical antimicrobials were chloramphenicol eye preparations in PPS1 and fusidic acid skin preparations in PPS2; treatment with these topical antimicrobials was generally prolonged. More than 25% of all systemic and 55% of all topical antimicrobials were initiated following telephone consultations as opposed to face-to-face consultations. The prevalence of systemic antimicrobial prescribing in residential homes in NI is relatively high compared with care homes (particularly nursing homes) in other countries. Systemic and topical antimicrobial prescribing is not always appropriate in terms of the doses prescribed and the duration of use. It is apparent that current strategies employed in NI are insufficient to ensure prudent antimicrobial prescribing within this environment.

  15. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  16. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  17. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  18. Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I, refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II, use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III, and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV. The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030.

  19. [Residential radon and lung cancer. An ecologic study in Galicia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Cerdeira Caramés, Sara; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2015-04-08

    Residential radon is the second cause of lung cancer and the first in never smokers. Galicia is a high radon emission area. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between municipal lung cancer mortality and residential radon in Galician municipalities. We performed an ecologic study including 192 municipalities with at least 3 residential radon measurements. The observed number of lung cancer deaths was obtained from the Galician Mortality Registry. Afterwards, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of lung cancer for males and females for the period comprising 1980-2009. Median municipal residential radon concentrations were correlated with lung cancer SMRs. Median residential radon concentration for the included municipalities was 75 Bq/m(3), with an interquartile range of 40.7 to 154 Bq/m(3). The correlation between lung cancer SMRs and municipal radon concentration was statistically significant for males (P=.023) whereas it did not reach statistical significance for females (P=.087). There exists an association between municipal residential radon and lung cancer mortality in Galicia for males, though for women the association is not statistically significant. These results suggest that residential radon could raise the risk of lung cancer in males, though for females no association is evident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  1. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  2. Preventing fire-related occupational deaths: residential sprinklers save civilians, property, and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Somers, Scott

    2015-02-01

    Residential fires are an important public health problem, with proven strategies to prevent death and injury. Residential sprinkler systems are one such strategy. While the benefits of this technology tend to center on civilian lives and property, there are also benefits for firefighters. The purpose of this article is to describe these benefits and discuss residential sprinkler systems as a strategy to reduce the risk of firefighter injury and death. Because of the benefits for firefighter safety, firefighters' knowledge about fire prevention, and their authority on this topic, firefighters are an essential stakeholder for raising awareness among the public and policymakers about the existence of and benefits associated with residential sprinkler systems. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by New Hampshire single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by New Mexico single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by New Jersey single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by West Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by New York single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Rhode Island single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Valuing Residential Energy Efficiency in Two Alaska Real Estate Markets: A Hedonic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Dominique J.

    Alaska households have high home energy consumption and expenditures. Improving the energy efficiency of the housing stock can reduce home energy consumption, thereby reducing home energy expenditures and CO2 emissions. Improving the energy efficiency of a home may also increase its transaction price if the energy efficiency improvements are capitalized into the value of the home. The relationship between energy efficiency and transaction prices in the Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska residential real estate markets is examined. Using a hedonic pricing framework and difference-in-differences analysis, the impact of the Alaska Home Energy Rebate program on the transaction prices of single-family homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage housing markets from 2008 through 2015 is examined. The results indicate that compared to homes that did not complete the program, homes that completed the program sell for a statistically significant price premium between 15.1% and 15.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 5% and 11% in the Anchorage market. A hedonic pricing framework is used to relate energy efficiency ratings and transaction prices of homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage residential real estate markets from 2008 through 2015. The results indicate that homes with above-average energy efficiency ratings sell for a statistically significant price premium between 6.9% and 17.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 1.8% and 6.0% in the Anchorage market.

  14. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  15. Interprofessional student teams augmenting service provision in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Fiona; Lai, Francis; Beovich, Bronwyn; Dodic, Miodrag

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of student-led interprofessional consultations within residential aged care in augmenting patient care and enhancing student education. Volunteer fourth and final year health-care students conducted interprofessional consultations. In a mixed methods design, residents' health-care changes and perspectives were collected prospectively, and student and educator perceptions were measured by survey and interview. Sixteen aged care residents were consulted by interprofessional teams. Students identified two new health issues and proposed 17 recommendations for referrals and five changes to medication management. At six-weeks follow-up, two recommendations had been acted upon clinically, and two medication changes had been implemented. Reasons for the low uptake of recommendations were determined. Residents, students and educators reported high levels of satisfaction. Residential care facilities offer a useful interprofessional learning environment. Student consultations are positively regarded by patients, students and educators and may augment existing health services. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  16. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an effective energy management system (EMS) for application in integrated building and microgrid system is introduced and implemented as a multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed architecture covers different key modelling aspects such as distributed heat and electricity......’s objectives, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is studied and validated compared to the existing residential EMSs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed EMS has the capability not only to conserve energy in sustainable homes and microgrid system and to reduce energy...... generation characteristics, heat transfer and thermal dynamics of sustainable residential buildings and load scheduling potentials of household appliances with associated constraints. Through various simulation studies under different working scenarios with real data, different system constraints and user...

  17. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.

  18. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3...

  19. Improved reliability of residential heat pumps; Foerbaettrad driftsaekerhet hos villavaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Larsson, Kristin; Jensen, Sara; Larsson, Johan; Berg, Johan; Lidbom, Peter; Rolfsman, Lennart

    2012-07-01

    Today, heat pump heating systems are common in Swedish single-family houses. Many owners are pleased with their installation, but statistics show that a certain number of heat pumps break every year, resulting in high costs for both insurance companies and owners. On behalf of Laensfoersaekringars Forskningsfond, SP Energy Technology has studied the cause of the most common failures for residential heat pumps. The objective of the study was to suggest what measures to be taken to reduce the number of failures, i.e. improving the reliability of heat pumps. The methods used were analysis of public failure statistics and sales statistics and interviews with heat pump manufacturers, installers, service representatives and assessors at Laensfoersaekringar. In addition, heat pump manuals have been examined and literature searches for various methods for durability tests have been performed. Based on the outcome from the interviews the most common failures were categorized by if they; 1. Could have been prevented by better operation and maintenance of the heat pump. 2. Caused by a poorly performed installation. 3. Could have been prevented if certain parameters had been measured, recorded and followed up. 4. Are due to poor quality of components or systems. However, the results show that many of the common failures fall into several different categories and therefore, different types of measures must be taken to improve the operational reliability of residential heat pumps. The interviews tell that failures often are caused by poor installation, neglected maintenance and surveillance, and poor quality of standard components or that components are used outside their declared operating range. The quality of the installations could be improved by increasing installers' knowledge about heat pumps and by requiring that an installation protocol shall be filled-in. It is also important that the owner of the heat pump performs the preventive maintenance recommended by the

  20. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  1. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  2. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  3. Estimating U.S. residential demand for fuelwood in the presence of selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan Michael

    Residential energy consumers have options for home heating. With many applications, appliances, and fuel types, fuelwood used for heating faces stiff competition in modern society from other fuels. This study estimates demand for domestic fuelwood. It also examines whether evidence of bias exists from residential homes choosing to use fuelwood. The use of OLS as an estimator will yield biased results if such selectivity exists. Selectivity is addressed with a Heckman (1979) two-step procedure; bias in fuelwood demand estimation using OLS is reduced. Non-wood energy prices and income are major determinants of fuelwood demand. Geographical regions and urbanization confirm results from prior studies.

  4. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  5. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  6. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  7. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  8. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    heating with heat recovery from exhaust air. During the cooling season, the house was cooled by floor cooling and was ventilated mechanically. Air and globe (operative, when applicable) temperatures at different heights at a central location were recorded. The thermal indoor environment, local thermal......A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... discomfort and overheating were evaluated based on EN 15251 (2007), EN ISO 7730 (2005), and DS 469 (2013), respectively. Energy performance was evaluated based on the energy production and HVAC system energy use. The thermal indoor environment during the heating season was satisfactory...

  9. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-03-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States (US), using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu). Annual energy costs were reduced $1,283±$804 (n=31), from a pre-retrofit average of $2,738±$1,065 to $1,588±$561 post-retrofit (n=25 and n=39). The average reported incremental project cost was $40,420±$30,358 (n=59). When financed on a 30-year term, the median change in net-homeownership cost was only $1.00 per month, ranging from $149 in savings to an increase of $212 (mean=$15.67±$87.74; n=28), and almost half of the projects resulted in reductions in net-cost. The economic value of a DER may be much greater than is suggested by these net-costs, because DERs entail substantial non-energy benefits (NEBs), and retrofit measures may add value to a home at resale similarly to general remodeling, PV panel installation, and green/energy efficient home labels. These results provide estimates of the potential of DERs to address energy use in existing homes across climate zones that can be used in future estimates of the technical potential to reduce household

  11. RECENT TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisina T. P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the residential real estate and the structure of Russian housing market do not match: primary and secondary markets are supplemented by a considerable in size non-market sector of residential real estate - the stock of dilapidated housing and buildings in a state of emergency that is filling up the secondary market with rapidly growing volume of worn out properties. While the developmental model of entrepreneurship is gradually settling in the primary housing market, and in general the “soviet” model of management (management companies are not that different from the soviet property management agencies is remaining in the secondary market, the non-market sector requires a formulation of an adequate management model that would allow the private and public management of residential real estate at the same time. Mega-project of renovation of the 5-storey buildings in Moscow will support the formation of such a model and the legal grounds for its existence.

  12. Indicators of the quality of nursing home residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Debra; Schnelle, John F

    2002-08-01

    To identify quality indicators (QIs) that can be used to measure nursing home (NH) residential care processes. Modified-delphi panel process to rate potential QIs that were identified through reported interviews with residents and families and through a review of the scientific literature. Meetings of panel of experts. A national panel of nine experts in NH care rated potential QIs. A content expert and a clinical oversight committee performed external reviews. Panelists' median validity and importance ratings for each QI choice. The panel considered 64 choices for QI content and rated 28 of these as valid and important for measuring residential care quality. These 28 choices translated into 18 QIs. The external review process resulted in the addition of one QI that was not considered by the NH panel. The 19 indicators address areas identified as important by residents and proxies. Ten of these QIs were rated feasible to implement with current resources in average community NHs, and nine were rated feasible only in better NHs. The panelists identified nine as being measured most reliably by direct observations of care. Experts identified 19 specific care processes as valid and important measures of the quality of NH residential care. Nine of these QIs may be measured best by direct observation of NH care, rather than by interviews or review of existing NH records. Almost half of the QIs were viewed as discriminating between better and average NHs. The panel deemed that only well-staffed nursing homes could consistently implement nine of the QIs.

  13. Evaluating Temporal Analysis Methods Using Residential Burglary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement agencies, as well as researchers rely on temporal analysis methods in many crime analyses, e.g., spatio-temporal analyses. A number of temporal analysis methods are being used, but a structured comparison in different configurations is yet to be done. This study aims to fill this research gap by comparing the accuracy of five existing, and one novel, temporal analysis methods in approximating offense times for residential burglaries that often lack precise time information. The temporal analysis methods are evaluated in eight different configurations with varying temporal resolution, as well as the amount of data (number of crimes available during analysis. A dataset of all Swedish residential burglaries reported between 2010 and 2014 is used (N = 103,029. From that dataset, a subset of burglaries with known precise offense times is used for evaluation. The accuracy of the temporal analysis methods in approximating the distribution of burglaries with known precise offense times is investigated. The aoristic and the novel aoristic e x t method perform significantly better than three of the traditional methods. Experiments show that the novel aoristic e x t method was most suitable for estimating crime frequencies in the day-of-the-year temporal resolution when reduced numbers of crimes were available during analysis. In the other configurations investigated, the aoristic method showed the best results. The results also show the potential from temporal analysis methods in approximating the temporal distributions of residential burglaries in situations when limited data are available.

  14. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  15. Residential segregation of socioeconomic variables and health indices in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2013-07-01

    Measures of segregation are essential tools for evaluation of social equality. They describe complex structural patterns by single quantities and allow the comparison of inequalities over time or between residential places. In many countries, patterns of residential segregation are well described (e.g., South Africa, Great Britain, United States of America). In this study, for the first time in Iran, we measured residential segregation for some socioeconomic and health variables and described their pair wise correlation. We measured evenness dimension of segregation by generalized dissimilarity segregation index and information theory index and its ordinal equivalent for some determinants of socioeconomic status and health variables using data of last national census in Iran. Segregation indices were computed for 31 socioeconomic variables and four health indices. All the provinces were in the category of low segregation for individual and family disability and death of at least one offspring of mother, but for infant mortality half of the provinces were moderately or highly segregated. For some of socioeconomic variables, many provinces were in the category of moderate, high, or extreme segregation. There was significant correlation between segregation of heath indices and some socioeconomic variables. Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.

  16. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  17. The EXIST OIRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Golisano, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, H.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST Optical / Infrared Telescope (OIRT) has been integrated into the EXIST concept design for the determination GRB redshifts on orbit and to preform follow up source identification and studies following the generation of a trigger from the EXIST high energy telescope (HET). The base OIRT main design has been inherited from the NextView OIRT has been operating in low earth orbit since September of 2007 and is currently being used for the acquisition of geospatial data. After reconfiguration of the instrumentation for astrophysical observations the OIRT will have an angular resolution of 0.15" and a 5'×5' field of view and be sensitive to emission in the range of 0.4 $\\mu$m - 2.2 $\\mu$m. Passive cooling of the tertiary, secondary, and primary mirrors will enable observation into the Ks$ band.

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  19. Cost effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2017-01-01

    While residential carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are now required in a majority of states, the cost effectiveness of the devices is unknown. This analysis was performed to determine the degree of prevention efficacy necessary from home carbon monoxide alarms for their expense to be cost-effective. Data regarding numbers of individuals affected in the United States annually from accidental, non-fire, residential non-fatal and fatal carbon monoxide poisoning were obtained from published literature. Federal governmental estimates of societal costs associated with medical care, lost wages and earnings, value of pain and suffering, and value of a statistical life were applied. The cost of uniform residential carbon monoxide alarm installation was compared to those societal costs in order to calculate what degree of efficiency makes alarms cost-effective. Societal costs for accidental, non-fire, residential CO poisoning are approximately $3.47 billion annually. With an estimated cost of $348 million annually for alarms, prevention of greater than 10% of residential CO poisoning costs must be achieved in order for alarms to be cost-effective. While the true effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms has yet to be determined, current state legislation requiring residential installation of CO alarms is probably cost-effective. .

  20. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  1. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam; Ferrey, Steven; Morgan, Stephen

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.

  2. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  3. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Tondro, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  4. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  5. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  6. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  7. Towards a strong parent-team alliance for improved treatment outcomes in child residential psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Parents are increasingly viewed as key to successful child (semi-) residential treatment. Positive outcomes for both the parents as the child with a psychiatric disorder are more likely to occur when effective levels of therapeutic alliances exist between team members and parents. Unfortunately, it

  8. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  9. A multi-scalar approach to theorizing socio-ecological dynamics of urban residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury; Kelli Larson; Morgan Grove; Colin Polsky; Elizabeth Cook; Jeffrey Onsted; Laura. Ogden

    2011-01-01

    Urban residential expansion increasingly drives land use, land cover and ecological changes worldwide, yet social science theories explaining such change remain under-developed. Existing theories often focus on processes occurring at one scale, while ignoring other scales. Emerging evidence from four linked U.S. research sites suggests it is essential to examine...

  10. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  11. Deliberate Self-Harm among Children in Tertiary Care Residential Treatment: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined deliberate self-harm (DSH) among children in residential treatment in Canada. Most of the existing studies examined adolescent students or children from pediatric emergency departments. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of DSH among children in tertiary care residential…

  12. Evaluation of energy performance indicators and financial aspects of energy saving techniques in residential real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The energy consumption in the existing residential building stock accounts for about 40% of the total energy consumption in the built environment. Different types of energy performance indicators to assess the energy consumption of buildings were and still are internationally under development. In

  13. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  14. Background Studies for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  15. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  16. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  17. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  18. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  19. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  20. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  1. Intercultural residential care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiata, Liz; Kerse, Ngaire

    2004-03-01

    Along with other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, New Zealand's society is aging such that an increase in the number of older people requiring residential care is predicted. What cannot be foreseen is how culturally defined health beliefs affect the care given to older people in residential care. In this article, the authors describe and discuss the culturally based health beliefs of some Pacific Islands caregivers and predominately European (Pakeha) older people resident at one long-term care facility in Auckland, New Zealand. The delivery of care is influenced by culturally related beliefs about "being old." Racism is evident in residential care, and the authors discuss the reactions of caregivers, residents, and management. This research extends the discussion of caregiving and receiving in to the cross-cultural setting, and the findings highlight a number of elements in cultural differences between carer and cared-for that might affect care practices at the residential facility studied.

  2. HECM Single Family Portfolio Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Federal Housing Administration's HECM program is the only government-insured reverse mortgage program. The HECM program guarantees that the lender will meet its...

  3. CONDITIONS LIFE OF SENIORS IN RESIDENTIAL CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Wildmannová Mirka

    2014-01-01

    Residential care for seniors belongs to current trends in now days debate on the quality of life for retirement people. Common problem to all EU Member States is the problem of aging population. European governments are currently addressed to the issue of the quality of life of seniors. Particularly provision of contingencies for outreach, non-resident and residential services – its setting, structure, financing and quality. The target group are seniors, men and women, who live in an...

  4. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  5. Do multiquark hadrons exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.; Isgur, N.

    1982-03-08

    The qqq-barq-bar system has been examined by solving the four-particle Schroedinger equation variationally. The main findings are that: (1) qqq-barq-bar bound states normally do not exist, (2) the cryptoexotic 0/sup + +/ sector of this system with KK-bar quantum numbers is probably the only exception to (1) and its bound states can be identified with the S* and delta just below KK-bar threshold, (3) qqq-barq-bar bound states provide a model for the weak binding and color-singlet clustering observed in nuclei, and (4) there is no indication that this system has strong resonances.

  6. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    respondents would suggest that owners and housing promoters invest in energy-saving measures; this is, however, not unanimously observed. Accordingly, the technical, economic and legal conditions were analyzed, investigating in parallel the owners' perceptions of these boundary conditions as well as their motivations, focusing on the renovation behavior of single-family home-owners. It was found that not one single barrier or driver prevails, but that a multitude of reasons is hindering or triggering energy efficiency in renovation decisions. Energy efficiency investments are often undertaken at the end of the building element's lifetime and during general renovation activities. Motivations and awareness regarding the need and the benefits of such investments are at least as important as economic viability, fiscal incentives or financial issues. Due to the discrepancy between the societal and the private perspective (e.g. external costs and benefits, different time horizons) and due to the existence of barriers, public policy activity is justified all the more so as such a promotion generates ancillary benefits. Policy instruments are necessary due to the observed barriers pursuing a portfolio approach. They should appeal the considerable benefits found and - very important - include awareness raising of policy makers and house owners. Also recommended are adjustments to the current legal and fiscal distortions, an increase of market transparency and of adequate information to allow for quality differentiation, for instance by a label and certification system. A CCh-levy whose revenues are used partially for specific subsidies or fiscal incentives could be an adequate approach to speed up techno-economic progress. If such incentives are provided they should be broadly communicated and focused on existing buildings conditioned to minimal requirements. (author)

  7. A fire risk assessment model for residential high-rises with a single stairwell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N. D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Valkvist, M.B.

    2018-01-01

    As few or none prescriptive guidelines for fire risk assessment of residential high-rise buildings exist, it has been unclear which fire safety design features constitute an acceptable (adequate) safety level. In order to fill this gap a simplified risk-based decision-support tool, the Fire Risk...... Model (FRM), was developed. The FRM evaluates both the risk level to the occupants and the property risk level as a function of the building characteristics, height and fire safety features for single stairwell residential high-rise buildings. The acceptability of a high-rise design is then defined...

  8. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  9. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  11. Residential Mobility di Pinggiran Kota Semarang Jawa Tengah (Studi Kasus Kaum Miskin Kota di Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Gamal Rindarjono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed in analyzing and examining the development of slum residential in Semarang, including its center of the city urban, urban-fringe and sub-urban area. Within the development of the slum residential due to mobility of the urban poor, the phenomenon in the term of residential mobility occurred. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research was applying distant-interpretation data in examining slum residential phenomenon and terrestrial data in analyzing both social and cultural issues related to development of slum residential. This research resulting a residential mobility model throughout areas of research, especially sub-urban including the Chinese cemetery area; the new migrant was the urbanist namely the bridge headers group, consists of tramp and hobos whom should be concerned more. Though they just have settled in short-period within the area, their income was categorized financially settled. They owned their own home not as the renter and even, built housing for their subordinates amounted 7-15 families in a complex of residential. Stability of the income was also supported by resident-owning whereas selecting its location based on the land-availability which initially settled the location illegally among the graves. This location was selected since its less-maintained condition by neither their descendant nor cemetery officer which then densely covered by bushes. Availability of the sufficient land leads them to build their residential which also used as the scrap collection space. During the times, their number was increased referred to their raising income. Legalizing their residential was the next step for their existence and sustainability by purchasing or renting the land. Eventually this bridge header was earning a stable income, owning their own home, and locating their residential in the sub-urban area furthermore but unfortunately less-supported by a highly established life style but an

  12. Repowering existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steazel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Increased competition among power generation companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performances of older electric generation units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including; environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g.; increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy to use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant option. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the US, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper.

  13. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  14. Residential dynamics: the co-existence of formal and informal systems in Khartoum, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available blanket solutions. Many agents act on an environment at any given time and decision makers need to engage with that complexity. Enterprises emerging from informal settlements or through informal processes may be better suited to low-income groups, thus...

  15. The effects on mood of adjunctive single-family and multi-family group therapy in the treatment of hospitalized patients with major depression. A 15-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Eisler, Ivan; Buysse, Ann; Heene, Els; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Family-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of depression, but they have seldom been studied in hospitalized depressed patients. This study assesses the value of the additional use of single-family or multi-family group therapy within this patient population. Eighty-three patients were randomly assigned to: (1) the treatment programme as usual (n = 23), (2) treatment as usual combined with single-family therapy (n = 25) or (3) treatment as usual combined with multi-family group therapy (n = 35). Follow-up assessments were made at 3 months and 15 months. Multi-family group and single-family therapy conditions showed significantly higher rates of treatment responders than the group receiving the usual treatment (49, 24 and 9%, respectively), and higher rates of patients no longer using antidepressant medication (26, 16 and 0%, respectively) at 15 months. Partners taking part in the family treatments were significantly more likely to notice the improvements in the emotional health of the patient early on compared to those in the treatment as usual condition. This study suggests that single-family and multi-family therapy may benefit hospitalized patients with major depression, and may help the partners of the patients to become aware of the patient's improvement more quickly. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Existence of Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks present Minkowski space as an almost pure mathematical construct, without any explicit restriction on a domain where it is applicable in physics. Meanwhile, its physical meaning cannot but follow the same premises as those which underlies the special relativity theory: motion of free point particles and propagation of electromagnetic waves. However, the common formalism of coordinate transformations between any two inertial frames appears too ponderous to infer the existence of Minkowski space. For this reason, the time dilation and retardation, the contraction of the length along and the spatial invariance across the direction of relative motion of two frames are presented in a coordinate-free manner. This results in the transformation between two frames in the form of relationships between the time moments and the components of the position vector of a given event, along and across the directions of the frames' motion. The obtained transformation rules for the components of the position ve...

  17. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  18. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  19. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility has substantial negative effects on voter turnout. However, existing studies have been unable to disentangle whether this is due to social costs, informational costs or convenience costs that are related to re-registration. This article analyzes the relevance of the different...... costs by studying the effect of moving and reassignment to a new polling station in an automatic registration context and using a register-based panel dataset with validated turnout for 2.1 million citizens. The negative effect of moving on turnout does not differ substantially depending on the distance...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  20. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  1. Redefining Residential: Family-Driven Care in Residential Treatment--Family Members Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is the sixth in a series of papers issued by the American Association of Children's Residential Centers (AACRC) regarding emerging and best practices in the field of residential treatment for children, youth, and families. AACRC is a long standing national association focused exclusively on practice and policy issues related to the provision…

  2. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  3. Runaway behavior among children in residential care in St. Petersburg: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eritsyan K.Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Runaway behavior among children in residential care is a serious social problem in all countries of the world. Existing scientific data on risk factors and motives of runaway from out-of-home care may not be absolutely relevant to the Russian cultural context. Objective. To describe risk factors and the motives that cause children to runaway from residential care. Design. A qualitative study that included 2 focus groups with staff and graduates of residential care supplemented by the analysis of 23 cases of child runaways from residential care in St. Petersburg. Results. The study revealed the following runaway risk factors and motives: 1 running to parents or relatives, 2 romantic and/or sexual relations, 3 interaction with peers, 4 psychiatric problems, 5 addictive behavior, 6 avoidance of conflicts, 7 physical or emotional violence, 8 unmotivated runaways for entertainment, 9 problems adapting to the care institution, 10 dissatisfaction with the conditions at the care institution. Moreover, in this study, two different types of runaways have been identified, including relatively “true” runaways and those who are not psychologically experienced as such, but are only disobeying the formal rules of the care institution. Conclusions. Runaways of children from residential care are extremely heterogeneous in nature. In further empirical studies, it should be taken into account that runaways may be true and formal. There can be multiple reasons for running away: the care institution itself, a child’s personality, or his or her social network outside of the care institution.

  4. Discourses in Residential Child Care and Possibilities for Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Reime

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores professional discourses in the Norwegian residential child care system. It discusses how the discourses serve as constraints on and possibilities for evidence-based practice when different definitions of evidence-based practice are considered. Among the Nordic countries, Norway has been a forerunner in the implementation of evidence-based practice in child welfare. However, I argue that tensions exist, both within professional practice and between professional understandings and policy aims. I use discourse theory to analyze interviews with 19 professionals working in coercive residential child care. The results reveal two competing professional discourses: the discourse of technoscience and the discourse of indeterminacy. Possibilities of evidence-based practice in residential child care are found within both discourses if a wide and inclusive definition of evidence-based practice is applied. This study emphasizes the importance of engaging in constant reflection when discussing possibilities for evidence-based practice within residential child care. Keywords: professional discourses, residential child care, evidence-based practice, scientific knowledge, professional judgment, indeterminacy, discretion

  5. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  6. Implementation and Control of a Residential Electrothermal Microgrid Based on Renewable Energies, a Hybrid Storage System and Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy management strategy for a residential electrothermal microgrid, based on renewable energy sources. While grid connected, it makes use of a hybrid electrothermal storage system, formed by a battery and a hot water tank along with an electrical water heater as a controllable load, which make possible the energy management within the microgrid. The microgrid emulates the operation of a single family home with domestic hot water (DHW consumption, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system as well as the typical electric loads. An energy management strategy has been designed which optimizes the power exchanged with the grid profile in terms of peaks and fluctuations, in applications with high penetration levels of renewables. The proposed energy management strategy has been evaluated and validated experimentally in a full scale residential microgrid built in our Renewable Energy Laboratory, by means of continuous operation under real conditions. The results show that the combination of electric and thermal storage systems with controllable loads is a promising technology that could maximize the penetration level of renewable energies in the electric system.

  7. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  8. Case study: Fixture water use and drinking water quality in a new residential green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Abouali, Mohammad; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Zhi; Nejadhashemi, Amir Pouyan; Mitchell, Jade; Caskey, Stephen; Whelton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Residential plumbing is critical for the health and safety of populations worldwide. A case study was conducted to understand fixture water use, drinking water quality and their possible link, in a newly plumbed residential green building. Water use and water quality were monitored at four in-building locations from September 2015 through December 2015. Once the home was fully inhabited average water stagnation periods were shortest at the 2nd floor hot fixture (90 percentile of 0.6-1.2 h). The maximum water stagnation time was 72.0 h. Bacteria and organic carbon levels increased inside the plumbing system compared to the municipal tap water entering the building. A greater amount of bacteria was detected in hot water samples (6-74,002 gene copy number/mL) compared to cold water (2-597 gene copy number/mL). This suggested that hot water plumbing promoted greater microbial growth. The basement fixture brass needle valve may have caused maximum Zn (5.9 mg/L), Fe (4.1 mg/L), and Pb (23 μg/L) levels compared to other fixture water samples (Zn ≤ 2.1 mg/L, Fe ≤ 0.5 mg/L and Pb ≤ 8 μg/L). At the basement fixture, where the least amount of water use events occurred (cold: 60-105, hot: 21-69 event/month) compared to the other fixtures in the building (cold: 145-856, hot: 326-2230 event/month), greater organic carbon, bacteria, and heavy metal levels were detected. Different fixture use patterns resulted in disparate water quality within a single-family home. The greatest drinking water quality changes were detected at the least frequently used fixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myatt Theodore A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. Methods A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. Results The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. Conclusion This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity

  10. Communicating with residential electrical devices via a vehicle telematics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rebecca C.; Pebbles, Paul H.

    2016-11-15

    A method of communicating with residential electrical devices using a vehicle telematics unit includes receiving information identifying a residential electrical device to control; displaying in a vehicle one or more controlled features of the identified residential electrical device; receiving from a vehicle occupant a selection of the displayed controlled features of the residential electrical device; sending an instruction from the vehicle telematics unit to the residential electrical device via a wireless carrier system in response to the received selection; and controlling the residential electrical device using the sent instruction.

  11. Current wheeze, asthma, respiratory infections, and rhinitis among adults in relation to inspection data and indoor measurements in single-family houses in Sweden-The BETSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Engvall, K; Smedje, G; Nilsson, H; Norbäck, D

    2017-07-01

    In the Swedish Building Energy, Technical Status and Indoor environment study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally, 7.3% were smokers, 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma, 11.2% current wheeze, and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally, 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26.0% rhinitis. The mean air exchange rate was 0.36/h, and the mean moisture load 1.70 g/m3 . Damp foundation (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.16-2.78) was positively associated while floor constructions with crawl space (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84) was negatively associated with wheeze. Concrete slabs with overlying insulation (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.24-3.92) and brick façade (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.73) were associated with rhinitis. Moisture load was associated with respiratory infections (OR=1.21 per 1 g/m3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.40) and rhinitis (OR=1.36 per 1 g/m3 , 95% CI 1.02-1.83). Air exchange rate was associated with current asthma symptoms (OR=0.85 per 0.1/h, 95% CI 0.73-0.99). Living in homes with damp foundation, concrete slabs with overlying insulation, brick façade, low ventilation flow, and high moisture load are risk factors for asthma, rhinitis, and respiratory infections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C.; Healy, William M.; Ullah, Tania

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning. PMID:27990058

  13. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C; Healy, William M; Ullah, Tania

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning.

  14. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings: Combined Building Shell and Heating System Retrofit Audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCold, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Revised DOE regulations allow greater flexibility in conducting DOE-funded low-income weatherization programs. Certain retrofits to heating and cooling systems for these houses are now permitted, as well as the traditional insulation and infiltration control measures. Also, different amounts of money may be spent on different houses, as long as the average expenditure per house does not exceed $1600. The expanded list of retrofit options provides an opportunity for increased energy savings, but it also complicates the process of selecting the combination of retrofits, house-by-house, that will yield maximum savings for the weatherization program. DOE asked ORNL to devise a procedure for selecting an optimum combination of building shell and heating system retrofits for single-family dwellings. To determine the best retrofits for each house that would maximize program savings, ORNL staff members developed an approach that used information from a preretrofit energy audit of candidate houses. Audit results are used to estimate annual energy savings for various retrofits for each house. Life-cycle benefits (B) are calculated, as are the estimated installation costs (C) for given retrofits in given houses. The benefit-to-cost ratios (B/Cs) are then ranked for all possible retrofits to all candidate houses, and the top-ranking B/C retrofits are selected for installation. This process maximizes program savings, and it is adaptable to varied housing types in different climates. The Audit-Directed Retrofit Program (ADRP) was field tested in a low-income housing retrofit program in Wisconsin during the winter of 1985-86. Results of the field test are reported in a companion document. This report describes the ADRP for the benefit of potential users.

  15. Mauriac syndrome still exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Joana; Martins, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Marques, Olinda; Antunes, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Mauriac syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). It is related to low insulin concentrations and is less common since longer-acting insulins became available. It is characterized by hepatomegaly, growth and puberty delay, and the presence of elevated transaminases and serum lipids. The aim of this study was to describe the patients from a pediatric diabetic population that fulfill the criteria of MS. A retrospective analysis of the pediatric diabetic population with diagnostic criteria of MS currently followed at Hospital de Braga, was performed. From a population of 91 patients with DM1 18 years, 6 patients with the criteria for MS were identified: 5 girls, and 1 boy. The age at presentation was 13-17 years, with a minimum interval between DM1 diagnosis and MS criteria of 4 years. All the patients were prescribed intensive insulin therapy (median daily insulin dose: 0.88 U/kg). All had a previous history of poor glycemic control before the diagnosis of MS with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 8.8 and 12.9%. Increase of hepatic enzymes was present in all the patients; 4 of them had associated hepatomegaly. All the girls presented puberty delay and cushingoid features. None of the patients presented short stature and 5 of them presented mixed dyslipidemia. Although MS is an ancient entity described in DM1, it still exists, particularly in adolescent females. Being aware of MS is of extreme importance since most of the clinical features are reversible with better glycemic control. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  17. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-12-01

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  18. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  20. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  1. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  2. The influence of residential desegregation on property prices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    The influence of residential desegregation on property prices in South Africa: The Pietersburg case study ... property values in the residential areas of Pieters- ..... INFLUENCE OF DESEGREGATION ON THE PRICES OF PROPERTIES SOLD. Neighbourhood. Classification. % Desegregation. % Price increase in 4 years.

  3. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  4. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  5. CLIENT EXPECTATION FROM RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DESIGN SERVICES AND ARCHITECTS’ PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWATAYO Adedapo Adewunmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies exist on the expectations of clients from architects. There are however, anecdotal evidences that architects may not fully grasp what is most important to their clients. As a pilot study, the aim of this paper was to investigate the expectations of clients from residential design services and architects’ perceptions of those expectations. A questionnaire was designed to suit the purpose of comparison of responses of the two groups.  The factor analysis conducted revealed that the expectations from design services could be described in terms of value, professionalism, and empathy. Using mean gap analysis, the study identified areas where architects have under-estimated the expectations of clients as well as those areas where the expectations have been over-estimated. The results would help architects to focus on areas, which are important to the clients and possibly reduce client dissatisfaction. This is study, which is one of the first on the subject, is limited in three ways. First, residential clients were the only ones considered. In addition, respondents were only taken from Nigeria and the sample size as well as the response rate was small.

  6. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  7. Review of the epidemiologic literature on residential exposure to perchloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John A

    2011-10-01

    Perchloroethylene is a solvent that is widely used for dry cleaning. There has been considerable interest in the toxicity of this chemical because of the potential for low-level exposure among a large portion of the US population. Although substantial epidemiologic literature exists on high-level occupational exposure to perchloroethylene, there are relatively few studies dealing with lower-level residential exposure. In the current paper, the author reviews this limited residential literature, with special emphasis on strengths, limitations, and consistency. Reviewed studies primarily address neurobehavioral, cancer, and reproductive endpoints. Most studies used an ecological or cross-sectional design, with exposure defined by either drinking-water contamination or proximity to dry cleaning. In general, reviewed studies were highly exploratory, with inconsistencies and potential for bias that detract from interpretation of study findings. The magnitudes of reported effects are frequently incompatible with the effects reported from much higher occupational and human-chamber exposures. Overall, few reliable conclusions can be drawn from this sparse and highly limited body of literature.

  8. Authentication Issues in Multi-Service Residential Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rossebo, Judith; Ronan, John; Walsh, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Multi-service residential access networks allow residential customers to choose amongst a variety of service offerings, over a range of Core Networks and subject to user requirements such as QoS, mobility, cost and availability. These issues place requirements on authentication for network access, with a need for mutual authentication of the residential gateway (RG) to the local access point (LAP). The EU-IST project TORRENT is building a testbed providing for multi-service residential access...

  9. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  10. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on behalf...

  11. Relationship between selected indoor volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC, and the prevalence of mucous membrane symptoms in single family homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Atsuko [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kawai, Toshio; Eitaki, Yoko; Kanazawa, Ayako [Osaka Occupational Health Service Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2-3-8 Tosahori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan); Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Shibata, Eiji [Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, 21 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Tanaka, Masatoshi [Fukushima College, 1 Miyashiro Chigoike, Fukushima 960-0181 (Japan); Takigawa, Tomoko [Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu 818-0135 (Japan); Saijo, Yasuaki [Asahikawa Medical College, 1-1-1 Midorigaoka Higashi 2 jo, Asahikawa 078-8510 (Japan); Kishi, Reiko, E-mail: rkishi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Microorganisms are known to produce a range of volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC (MVOC). Chamber studies where humans were exposed to MVOC addressed the acute effects of objective and/or subjective signs of mucosal irritation. However, the effect of MVOC on inhabitants due to household exposure is still unclear. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to measure indoor MVOC levels in single family homes and to evaluate the relationship between exposure to them and sick building syndrome (SBS). All inhabitants of the dwellings were given a self-administered questionnaire with standardized questions to assess their symptoms. Air samples were collected and the concentrations of eight selected compounds in indoor air were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The most frequently detected MVOC was 1-pentanol at a detection rate of 78.6% and geometric mean of 0.60 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Among 620 participants, 120 (19.4%) reported one or more mucous symptoms; irritation of the eyes, nose, airway, or coughing every week (weekly symptoms), and 30 (4.8%) reported that the symptoms were home-related (home-related symptoms). Weekly symptoms were not associated with any of MVOC, whereas significant associations between home-related mucous symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol (per log{sub 10}-unit: odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1 to 14.8) and 2-pentanol (per log{sub 10}-unit: OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9) were obtained after adjustment for gender, age, and smoking. Associations between home-related symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol remained after mutual adjustment. However, concentrations of the selected compounds in indoors were lower than the estimated safety level in animal studies. Thus, the statistically significant association between 1-octen-3-ol may be due to a direct effect of the compounds or the associations may be being associated with other offending compounds. Additional studies are needed

  12. The IVAIRE project--a randomized controlled study of the impact of ventilation on indoor air quality and the respiratory symptoms of asthmatic children in single family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, P; Aubin, D; Gingras, V; Daigneault, P; Ducharme, F; Gauvin, D; Fugler, D; Leclerc, J-M; Won, D; Courteau, M; Gingras, S; Héroux, M-È; Yang, W; Schleibinger, H

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial was carried out to measure the impact of an intervention on ventilation, indoor air contaminants, and asthma symptoms of children. Eighty-three asthmatic children living in low-ventilated homes were followed over 2 years. Several environmental parameters were measured during the summer, fall, and winter. The children were randomized after Year 1 (43 Intervention; 40 Control). The intervention included the installation of either a Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) or Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV). During the fall and winter seasons, there was a significant increase in the mean ventilation rate in the homes of the intervention group. A statistically significant reduction in mean formaldehyde, airborne mold spores, toluene, styrene, limonene, and α-pinene concentrations was observed in the intervention group. There was no significant group difference in change in the number of days with symptoms per 14 days. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of children who experienced any wheezing (≥1 episode) and those with ≥4 episodes in the 12-month period in the intervention group. This study indicates that improved ventilation reduces air contaminants and may prevent wheezing. Due to lack of power, a bigger study is needed. Positive findings from this study include the fact that, upon recruitment, most of the single family homes with asthmatic children were already equipped with a mechanical ventilation system and had relatively good indoor air quality. However, the 8-h indoor guideline for formaldehyde (50 μg/m3) was frequently exceeded and the ventilation rates were low in most of the homes, even those with a ventilation system. Both ERVs and HRVs were equally effective at increasing air exchange rates above 0.30 ACH and at preventing formaldehyde concentrations from exceeding the 50 μg/m3 guideline during the fall and winter seasons. Furthermore, the ERVs were effective at preventing excessively low relative

  13. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal...

  14. Natural air conditioning and design of building openings in residential building construction in Mexico. Natuerliche Klimatisierung und Gebaeudeoeffnungen im Wohnungsbau Mexikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alpuche, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, recognition about constructional measures are gained, representing a contribution to natural air conditioning in tropical areas, by means of selected examples of traditional residential building in Mexico. With this, it is important to ensure a thermal well-being that fulfills present comfort requirements. Three different climatic zones are investigated. The constructional measures are classified according to the following groups considering the conception of the building opening suitable for the climate: Environment and building openings, position and dimension of the building opening, protecting devices on building offices. Furthermore, it is proven by means of an example of modern single-family houses in Mexico, that the recognition gained in a side range can be also usefully applied in present building construction. This results in recommendations for conceptions of building openings in the sense of a construction that is suitable for the climate and energy saving. (orig./KW).

  15. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive...... for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro....... The variational loads are considered from full to quarter load, and the micro-CHP system is optimized in terms of operating thermophysical parameters for every different load. The results clearly indicate the capability of the proposed system to perform efficiently throughout all necessary load changes to fulfill...

  16. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70 m2 single-family apartment with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. A detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. System design trade-offs are discussed......Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance...... under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...

  17. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  18. DEPRESSIONARY EFFECT OF PROXIMITY OF RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  19. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  20. MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUS RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential wateer use is visualized as a customer-server interaction often encountered in queueing theory. Individual customers are assumed to arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, then engage water servers for random lengths of time. Busy servers are assumed t...

  1. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  2. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  3. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  4. Residential mobility breeds familiarity-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility.

  5. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ing of parents and whether residential moves experienced ... health and behavioural development of children. (Stiffman ... and whether the performance will see him/her to the next ... (herein called Children, Teachers, and Parents) .... Housing tenure has influence on families .... nificant from a policy stand point if it is to help.

  6. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... child with a disability, the program, including non-medical care and room and board, must be at no cost... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  7. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences dur- ing childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capi- tal accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are ...

  8. Trauma Systems Therapy in Residential Settings: Improving Emotion Regulation and the Social Environment of Traumatized Children and Youth in Congregate Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; McCauley, Kelly; Navalta, Carryl P; Saxe, Glenn N

    2013-01-01

    Although abundant evidence exists indicating the prevalence of trauma exposure among youth in residential care, few models exist for creating trauma-informed milieu treatment. This article outlines the problem and describes the implementation of Trauma Systems Therapy (TST) in three residential centers. TST is unique in emphasizing youth emotions and behaviors as well as the role a distressed or threatening social environment may play in keeping a traumatized youth in a dysregulated state. This dual emphasis makes TST specifically appropriate to implementation in congregate care, focusing assessment and intervention strategies on both clinical treatment and the functioning of the therapeutic milieu itself. Data are reported on incidents of the use of physical restraint; numbers of disrupted foster care placements following discharge from residential treatment; and scores on psychometric measures of children's functioning and emotion regulation capacity. Knowledge gained through TST implementation in these three residential centers has important implications for developing a model of trauma-informed congregate care.

  9. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  10. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume III, conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The objective of the work described in this volume was to conceptualize suitable designs for solar total energy systems for the following residential market segments: single-family detached homes, single-family attached units (townhouses), low-rise apartments, and high-rise apartments. Conceptual designs for the total energy systems are based on parabolic trough collectors in conjunction with a 100 kWe organic Rankine cycle heat engine or a flat-plate, water-cooled photovoltaic array. The ORC-based systems are designed to operate as either independent (stand alone) systems that burn fossil fuel for backup electricity or as systems that purchase electricity from a utility grid for electrical backup. The ORC designs are classified as (1) a high temperature system designed to operate at 600/sup 0/F and (2) a low temperature system designed to operate at 300/sup 0/F. The 600/sup 0/F ORC system that purchases grid electricity as backup utilizes the thermal tracking principle and the 300/sup 0/F ORC system tracks the combined thermal and electrical loads. Reject heat from the condenser supplies thermal energy for heating and cooling. All of the ORC systems utilize fossil fuel boilers to supply backup thermal energy to both the primary (electrical generating) cycle and the secondary (thermal) cycle. Space heating is supplied by a central hot water (hydronic) system and a central absorption chiller supplies the space cooling loads. A central hot water system supplies domestic hot water. The photovoltaic system uses a central electrical vapor compression air conditioning system for space cooling, with space heating and domestic hot water provided by reject heat from the water-cooled array. All of the systems incorporate low temperature thermal storage (based on water as the storage medium) and lead--acid battery storage for electricity; in addition, the 600/sup 0/F ORC system uses a therminol-rock high temperature storage for the primary cycle. (WHK)

  11. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  12. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  13. Responding to the Drought: A Spatial Statistical Approach to Investigating Residential Water Consumption in Fresno, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2015 Residential Water Consumption Survey, this study examines residential water-use behavior and attitudes after the recent drought in Fresno, California. Spatial autoregressive models of residential water consumption were estimated, accounting for the effects of social interactions in communities (i.e., neighborhood effects, while controlling for indoor and outdoor house attributes, economic conditions, and attitudes toward water uses. The findings show that the spatial autocorrelations do exist. This suggests that the neighborhood effects can be a useful lever to facilitate initiatives aiming at promoting community engagement on water-saving practices. The results also indicate that a larger house tends to incur more water use, so does the presence of pools. Using a drip irrigation system for watering the backyard can help reduce water consumption. Medium income families turn out to use the least amount of water among different income groups, suggesting that water-saving policies may yield different results among residents of various income levels. Interestingly, respondents who considered themselves heavy water users actually used less water. This implies that the awareness of water importance can significantly influence residents’ water-use behavior and therefore the promotion of a water-saving culture can help reduce residential water consumption.

  14. A Multi-Scalar Approach to Theorizing Socio-Ecological Dynamics of Urban Residential Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban residential expansion increasingly drives land use, land cover and ecological changes worldwide, yet social science theories explaining such change remain under-developed. Existing theories often focus on processes occurring at one scale, while ignoring other scales. Emerging evidence from four linked U.S. research sites suggests it is essential to examine processes at multiple scales simultaneously when explaining the evolution of urban residential landscapes. Additionally, focusing on urbanization dynamics across multiple sites with a shared research design may yield fruitful comparative insights. The following processes and social-hierarchical scales significantly influence the spatial configurations of residential landscapes: household-level characteristics and environmental attitudes; formal and informal institutions at the neighborhood scale; and municipal-scale land-use governance. While adopting a multi-scale and multi-site approach produces research challenges, doing so is critical to advancing understanding of coupled socio-ecological systems and associated vulnerabilities in a dynamic and environmentally important setting: residential landscapes.

  15. Public participation GIS for improving wood burning emissions from residential heating and urban environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna

    2017-04-15

    A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Existence and Detection of Fireballs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An attempt is made to analyze critically the experimental proofs indicating the existence of fireballs. Some ideas are presented on methods of the...properties of fireballs if their existence will be checked by other methods. (Author)

  17. Evaluating the consequences of retrofitting residential multi-family buildings on indoor environmental quality, comfort, health and user satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Jong, P. de; Cornelissen, H.J.M.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Within the European project RETROKIT a systemic approach is being developed for retrofitting existing multi-family residential buildings. Modular combination of (semi-) prefabricated technological solutions will be demonstrated in three case studies. The part of the study described here aims to

  18. Summary of Needs and Opportunities from the 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting: Atlanta, Georgia, March 16-18, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-05-01

    This meeting brought together more than 200 professionals representing organizations with vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings. Participants identified or reinforced a wide variety of needs and issues associated with delivering high-performance homes in both new and existing home scenarios,

  19. Triskaidekaphobia and North American Residential Real Estate Prices

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Larsen

    2015-01-01

    A previous study led its authors to conclude that superstition impacts price formation for single-family dwellings in the Vancouver area. Houses there with an address that ends in the ¡§unlucky¡¨ number 13 are found to sell at a discount compared to otherwise similar houses. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether the previous results apply in another North American housing market. Hedonic regression is applied to single-family house transactions that occurred in Montgomer...

  20. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  1. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  2. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  3. Overlooked: children with disabilities in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L; Casey, Kathryn; Chmelka, M Beth; DeSalvo, Catherine; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    While estimates suggest that 10% to 31% of children in residential care are identified as with a disability, little is known about their characteristics or functioning as compared to nondisabled peers. This study evaluated data of 123 children with (n=34) and without (n=89) disabilities in residential care to determine demographic, behavioral, mental health, and educational characteristics. Data included demographic, behavior checklist, and standardized mental health and academic measures. Results indicated that both groups presented elevated risks; however, scores for children with disabilities revealed even greater levels of need. Primary risks were found on indicators of behaviors (e.g., social functioning), mental illness (e.g., anxiety), and academic performance (e.g., general knowledge and reading). Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Comprehensive areal model of residential heating demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.

  6. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  7. Residential photovoltaic power systems for the northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. Each of these systems utilizes a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allows excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented, and performance results to date are discussed.

  8. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  9. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone. PMID:28579662

  10. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  11. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  12. Youth residential situation in the transition to adulthood: The case of Serbia (an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research undertaken on housing and youth to date primarily focus on those at the very bottom of the social ladder. Nonetheless, a large percentage of youth population around the world is facing a crisis in terms of achieving residential autonomy. This paper attempts to illustrate the possibilities and obstacles that prevent youth from achieving residential independence in Serbia. The data collected in this exploratory study conducted in 2014, on a sample of 312 respondents, is used to analyze some of the most important structural factors (job market, education, financial situation and access to the housing market in order to assess both current situation and the possible prospects of the youth housing issue in the country. Serbia, as most Southern European countries, has a 'Mediterranean' model of transition to adulthood, which is characterized by great reliance on the family of origin. It has been observed by respondents to this study that the most represented living arrangement was living with parents and that even older cohorts (30 to 35 years old in most cases continued living with their family of origin to date. As our findings indicate, youth from the sample perceived this residential arrangement more as a consequence of poor financial situation and lack of cheap housing, rather than a desirable choice. It is difficult to predict if there will be significant improvements in the housing affordability or job market situation for youth, therefore the prospect of achieving residential independency for generations to come will remain tremendously challenging. Investigating existing and defining new strategies, in both the family and broader society contexts, is an important task for future research on accessibility of housing and youth residential situation advancement given the importance of this factor in the transition to adulthood.

  13. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  14. Kierkegaardovo pojetí existence

    OpenAIRE

    Janatová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Kierkegaard's conception of existence". There are both the life of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and his philosophy discussed. The issue of human existence is analysed with its main three stages which are focused on aesthetics, ethics and religion. These stages of existence are at first described and afterwards compared with each other. The aesthetic represents the first stage of life and the religious stage is considered to be the highest aim o...

  15. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  16. EVALUATION OF NOISE POLLUTION RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN SARANSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Skvortsov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of influence of adverse factors of the environment of life on physical development and population health is one of actual problems of modern ecology. Noise is one of significant factors of negative influence to the man and to environment. That long-term exposure to noise leads to an increase in slow-wave activity, as well as changes in visual and auditory cortical response, with an increase in latency and a decrease in the amplitude values of the main peaks, indicating that the stress response of animals to the stimulus. Additionally, chronic exposure leads to noise reduction in general motor activity, increased anxiety, reduced emotional activity animals. Pathological examination revealed a violation of the vascular nature when exposed to noise for 15 days, longer duration of action of factor causes irreversible changes in the nervous tissue in the form of reduction in the total number of neurons per unit area, the presence of glial scarring in the area of 2 layers of the cerebral cortex. If the noise energies level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (RC, theysound events. This article discusses issues affecting one of the most urgent problems of the modern world, namely the contamination of residential areas by road noise. The estimation of the acoustic pollution of the urban environment from the effects of road traffic flows. Describes the transport, travel, architectural and planning factors acoustic urban pollution. The existing methodology for assessing the sound pressure generated by the flow of vehicles. Suggestions for environmental reconstruction project solutions highways based on a combination of various protective factors.

  17. Maintenance and Expansion: Modeling Material Stocks and Flows for Residential Buildings and Transportation Networks in the EU25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Steinberger, Julia K; Eisenmenger, Nina; Haas, Willi

    2015-08-01

    Material stocks are an important part of the social metabolism. Owing to long service lifetimes of stocks, they not only shape resource flows during construction, but also during use, maintenance, and at the end of their useful lifetime. This makes them an important topic for sustainable development. In this work, a model of stocks and flows for nonmetallic minerals in residential buildings, roads, and railways in the EU25, from 2004 to 2009 is presented. The changing material composition of the stock is modeled using a typology of 72 residential buildings, four road and two railway types, throughout the EU25. This allows for estimating the amounts of materials in in-use stocks of residential buildings and transportation networks, as well as input and output flows. We compare the magnitude of material demands for expansion versus those for maintenance of existing stock. Then, recycling potentials are quantitatively explored by comparing the magnitude of estimated input, waste, and recycling flows from 2004 to 2009 and in a business-as-usual scenario for 2020. Thereby, we assess the potential impacts of the European Waste Framework Directive, which strives for a significant increase in recycling. We find that in the EU25, consisting of highly industrialized countries, a large share of material inputs are directed at maintaining existing stocks. Proper management of existing transportation networks and residential buildings is therefore crucial for the future size of flows of nonmetallic minerals.

  18. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  19. An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan; Sardinsky, Robert

    1995-10-01

    This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.

  20. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Centre for Applied Business Research in Energy and the Environment

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs.

  1. A Survey on Wireless Body Area Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments.

  2. NSF CAREER: Establishing at the University of New Mexico a Student Residential College/Honors Program with Extensive Faculty Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the educational component of my CAREER grant, I proposed integrating in an organized and widespread manner aspects of a Residential College / Honors Program into the culture of the University of New Mexico (UNM). Having such a program would provide UNM students the benefit of enhanced interactions with a variety of professors outside the classroom on a regular and personal basis. It would result not only in more visibility of professors' research and knowledge to students, but also in additional personal mentoring and encouragement. Similar programs already exist at Northwestern, Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Yale, and Princeton Universities, to name a few. As a student, I myself experienced the benefits of a Residential College Program at Northwestern University. In the first year of my CAREER award, I volunteered and served on a campus-wide Honors College Task Force wherein we generated a report for the Provost as to whether UNM should pursue establishing an Honors College having a residential component. Through this experience, I learned that there are many other faculty across campus excited about the possibilities offered by a Residential College / Honors Program, but also about the hurdles involved in gaining momentum and campus-wide and administrative support for such an endeavor. Here, I will present what I see as the benefits of a Residential College / Honors Program at Universities, my vision for one at UNM, and the challenges encountered and lessons learned thus far.

  3. Assessing Impact of Large-Scale Distributed Residential HVAC Control Optimization on Electricity Grid Operation and Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles D.

    Demand management is an important component of the emerging Smart Grid, and a potential solution to the supply-demand imbalance occurring increasingly as intermittent renewable electricity is added to the generation mix. Model predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for controlling HVAC demand in commercial buildings, making it an ideal solution to this problem. MPC is believed to hold similar promise for residential applications, yet very few examples exist in the literature despite a growing interest in residential demand management. This work explores the potential for residential buildings to shape electric demand at the distribution feeder level in order to reduce peak demand, reduce system ramping, and increase load factor using detailed sub-hourly simulations of thousands of buildings coupled to distribution power flow software. More generally, this work develops a methodology for the directed optimization of residential HVAC operation using a distributed but directed MPC scheme that can be applied to today's programmable thermostat technologies to address the increasing variability in electric supply and demand. Case studies incorporating varying levels of renewable energy generation demonstrate the approach and highlight important considerations for large-scale residential model predictive control.

  4. Theoretical overview of heating power and necessary heating supply temperatures in typical Danish single-family houses from the 1900s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    As existing buildings are renovated and energy-efficiency measures are implemented to meet requirements for reduced energy consumption, it becomes easier to heat our homes with low-temperature heating. This study set out to investigate how much the heating system supply temperature can be reduced...

  5. Potential reduction of non-residential solid waste in Sukomanunggal district West Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Reswari, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Sukomanunggal district a development unit 8 with the designation as a regional trade and services, industrial, education, healthcare, offices, and shopping center. The development of this region will make an increasing solid waste generation, especially waste from non-residential facilities. The aims of this research to know the potential reduction of waste source. The method used is the Likert scale questionnaire to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of non-residential facilities manager. Results from this research are the existing reduction of non-residential solid waste is 5.34%, potential reduction of the waste source is optimization of plastic and paper waste with the reduction rate up to 19,52%. The level of public participation existing amounted to 46.79% with a willingness to increase recycling efforts amounted to 72.87%. Efforts that can be developed to increase public awareness of 3R are providing three types of bins, modification of solid waste collection schedule according to a type of waste that has been sorted, the provision of the communal bin.

  6. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  7. Linkage among School Performance, Housing Prices, and Residential Mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoojin Yi; Euijune Kim; Eunjin Choi

    2017-01-01

    ... of the household, especially under rigid geographic school assignment. This paper identifies multilateral linkages among academic performance of elementary school, housing prices, and residential mobility in Seoul...

  8. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  9. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  10. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  11. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  12. Controls on the quality of harvested rainwater in residential systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, S. L.; Phung, D.; Hollingsworth, C.

    2014-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems, in which runoff from roofs is collected and used for irrigation, toilets and other purposes, present a viable solution to limited freshwater supplies and excess stormwater runoff. However, a lack of data on the quality of harvested rainwater hinders adoption of rainwater harvesting systems and makes development of rainwater harvesting regulations difficult. We conducted monthly surveys of 6 existing residential rainwater harvesting systems ranging in age from 1 to 11 years measuring pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and coliform bacteria. We also examined a subset of the samples for iron, lead, mercury and arsenic. Many of the systems routinely met the water quality requirements for non-potable use without additional treatment, which is often required by regulations. In addition, while previous studies have shown that roof runoff contains heavy metals, the water in all systems showed very low or undetectable levels of metal contamination. Coliform bacteria concentration ranged from 20 to greater than 1400 CFU's per 100 mL and correlated with total suspended solids, which ranged from 2 - 7 mg l-1. The relationship between suspended solids and bacteria population was confirmed in a controlled experiment on the impact of filtering the rainwater before storage. Filtration decreased total suspended solids and total coliforms and increased dissolved oxygen concentration. This project provides insight into the effects of system design and a baseline assessment of the quality of harvested rainwater in existing systems.

  13. Non-residential fatherhood in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Strohschein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to shed light on non-residential fatherhood in Canada. Data come from the 2012 LISA. Analysis was restricted to fathers who had children under the age of 19 (N=3,592. Approximately 17.4% were non-residential fathers. Logistic regression models indicated that being outside a marital union, low educational attainment and low income were associated with increased odds of being a non-residential father. Teen parenthood was not a statistically significant predictor. I discuss the implications of these findings as well as the need for measures that better capture variability in the living arrangements of fathers and their children. Le but de cette étude est d’éclairer le phénomène de paternité non résidentielle au Canada. Les données proviennent du sondage LISA 2012. L'analyse est limitée aux pères ayant des enfants de moins de 19 ans (N = 3 592. Environ 17,4% sont des pères non-résidentiels. Les modèles de régression logistique indiquent qu'étant hors d'une union maritale, d'avoir un faible niveau de scolarité, et de faible revenu est associé à une probabilité élevée d'être un père non-résidentiel. Être un parent adolescent n’est pas un prédicteur statistiquement significatif. Je discute des implications de ces résultats ainsi que de la nécessité de mesures qui permettent de mieux saisir la variabilité des modes de vie des pères et de leurs enfants.

  14. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  15. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000... Residential Clothes Washers: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ...

  16. Residential design and outdoor area accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherril L

    2009-01-01

    The outdoor environment can provide many positive and therapeutic benefits for persons with complex neurological conditions. In order to benefit from outdoor exposure and experiences, individuals need to be able to access that environment. This article provides a discussion of physical and programmatic access to outdoor living elements in homes and residential facilities for persons with neuro-disabilities. Design considerations for outdoor elements such as common gathering areas, walking paths and paths to/between elements, gardens (viewing and working), and resting areas are presented using legal standards or universal design principles as guides.

  17. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  18. A guide to residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wood heating has a long history in Canada. Currently over three million Canadian households use wood-burning appliances for heating, or just to enjoy the ambience of a wood fire. This guide is one of a series of guides on renewable energy systems for residential use, compiled to assist Canadian householders to make informed decisions on renewable energy. This particular guide focuses on such matters as how to maintain the safety and efficiency of a wood heating system; how to purchase and store fuel wood; how to use fire management techniques for cleaner, virtually smokeless fires; and provides tips on what to ask when consulting wood-heating professionals. tabs., figs.

  19. Residential lighting: Use and potential savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) was the first to permit the estimation of annual kilowatt hours (kWh) used for lighting. The survey contained more detailed questions about the number of indoor lights used for specific amounts of time and more detailed questions about the use of outdoor lights than did previous surveys. In addition to these basic questions on the Household Questionnaire, the 1993 RECS also included a supplementary questionnaire, administered to a subset of households, that contained more detailed information about the types of lights used in the household, the rooms in which they were located, and the amount of time they were used.

  20. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  1. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    og kombinerer en solid teknisk viden om telenet og tjenester med økonomisk teori og teori for regulering af telekommunikation. På grundlag heraf opstilles en tekno-økonomisk omkostningsmodel, der simulerer kapitaludgifter og ydelser. Som et særligt element i modellen benyttes spilteori til......-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment. It investigates the current market situation of broadband services, where the electricity companies challenge the incumbent telecom operators by extensive deployment of optical fibres to the end users. Very often the old telecom operators have a well-developed infrastructure...

  2. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  3. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models...

  4. Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology for informing targeted demand-response (DR) and marketing programs that focus on the temperature-sensitive part of residential electricity demand. Our methodology uses data that is becoming readily available at utility companies-hourly energy consumption readings collected from "smart" electricity meters, as well as hourly temperature readings. To decompose individual consumption into a thermal-sensitive part and a base load (non-thermally-sensitive), we propose a model of temperature response that is based on thermal regimes, i.e., unobserved decisions of consumers to use their heating or cooling appliances. We use this model to extract useful benchmarks that compose thermal profiles of individual users, i.e., terse characterizations of the statistics of these users' temperature-sensitive consumption. We present example profiles generated using our model on real consumers, and show its performance on a large sample of residential users. This knowledge may, in turn, inform the DR program by allowing scarce operational and marketing budgets to be spent on the right users-those whose influencing will yield highest energy reductions-at the right time. We show that such segmentation and targeting of users may offer savings exceeding 100% of a random strategy.

  5. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  6. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  8. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  9. Student Preference for Residential or Online Project Work in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Helen; Barrett, Jane P.; Knightley, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Psychology students at the Open University (OU) can choose whether to complete their project work at residential school or by participating in an online equivalent. This study identifies different factors governing module choice and student experience: When choosing residential school, social aspects are important, whereas for online, students are…

  10. Alternatives to chromated copper arsenate for residential construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2004-01-01

    For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers...

  11. Alternatives to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) for residential construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan. Lebow

    2004-01-01

    For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic-free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers’...

  12. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Fall 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Kathy, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Whatever Happened to Sound Clinical Reasoning? (Elizabeth Kohlstaedt); (2) Minorities as Majority Disproportionality in Child…

  13. Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

    1989-01-01

    Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

  14. Effect of Land Use and Transportation Infrastructure on Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.

    2011-01-01

    This research studies the relationship between land uses and infrastructure on residential burglary. The objective was to assess which theory is better at explaining residential burglary: -the “awareness space,‿ which states that crime takes place at edges or along paths on the way to work, school,

  15. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potable water use recorded by 3 579 residential consumer water meters in Cape Town, South Africa, was analysed as part of this research. The focus was on selected residential properties in serviced areas, with additional private access to groundwater as a supplementary household water source. Private consumers ...

  16. The Role of Residential Segregation in Contemporary School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Inaction to address housing segregation in metropolitan areas has resulted in persistently high levels of residential segregation. As the Supreme Court has recently limited school districts' voluntary integration efforts, this article considers the role of residential segregation in maintaining racially isolated schools, namely what is known about…

  17. Mental Health Problems in Residential Care for Street Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical Journal of Zambia ... The study prescribed in this paper therefore, aimed to explore the mental health problems of street children in residential care and examine the relationship between ... Methodology: The study utilized a sample of 74 street children (6 girls and 68 boys) in residential care aged 7-17 years.

  18. Contestation in the Use of Residential space: House Typologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to accommodate the populace creates competition for space; the outcome of this competition has produced differently zoned areas such as residential areas, shopping centres, parks and office towers. Bulawayo's residential areas are dominated by one-household units or detached one-storey houses in the ...

  19. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  20. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  1. The Language Functioning of Youth at Entry to Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; DeSalvo, Catherine; Gehringer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the behavioral and educational characteristics of youth at entry to residential care, little is known about youth language performance. Given the impact of language deficits on outcomes, this study assessed the specific language skills of 70 adolescents at entry to a residential treatment setting. Results revealed…

  2. The Future of Family Engagement in Residential Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affronti, Melissa L.; Levison-Johnson, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Residential programs for children and youth are increasingly implementing engagement strategies to promote family-centered and family-driven models of care (Leichtman, 2008). The practice of engagement is a fairly new area of research, especially in residential care. Driven by their goal to increase the use of state-of-the-art family engagement…

  3. Family-centred residential care : the new reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Esther M. W.; Boddy, Janet; Noom, Marc J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    This paper considers therapeutic approaches to residential care with specific attention to the question of family involvement. It builds on a body of literature indicating the potential of residential care as a positive intervention for young people, and examines the contention that even when family

  4. 38 CFR 36.4357 - Combination residential and business property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for residential purposes and no more than one business unit is included in the property. (Authority... and business property. 36.4357 Section 36.4357 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Reporting § 36.4357 Combination residential and business property. If otherwise eligible, a loan for the...

  5. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  6. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. The application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting the existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Muhammad; Jaapar, Aini; Yahya, Zaharah

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development has been the main topic of debate for years in some countries such as United Kingdom, United State of America and Malaysia. Depletion of natural resources, global warming, economics uncertainty and health issues are some of the reasons behind sustainable development movements, it is not just a political debate in the parliament but more towards collective works among sectors in order to minimizing the negative impact of development to the environment and other living organism. Retrofit an existing building is one of the solutions to reduce the dependency on constructing new buildings. There are huge numbers of existing building stocks that suitable to be retrofitted such as historical buildings, offices, residential, warehouse, factories, vacant buildings and other historical buildings. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide information on the application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting an existing building. Two buildings were chosen as case studies following by site visits and observation to the buildings. The data were then compared in a table form. Primary and secondary sources were also used for this research. The application of retrofit should be promoted across the construction and conservation industries since it has significant tangible and intangible benefits. It is one of the most environmentally friendly and efficient solutions to optimize the energy performance and could also helps to extend the life of the existing building or historical buildings while ensuring optimum thermal comfort for the occupants which leads to higher productivity.

  8. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes; Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented. The goal of existing home high performing remodeling quality management systems (HPR-QMS) is to establish practices and processes that can be used throughout any remodeling project. The research presented in this document provides a comparison of a selected retrofit activity as typically done versus that same retrofit activity approached from an integrated high performance remodeling and quality management perspective. It highlights some key quality management tools and approaches that can be adopted incrementally by a high performance remodeler for this or any high performance retrofit. This example is intended as a template and establishes a methodology that can be used to develop a portfolio of high performance remodeling strategies.

  9. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  10. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  11. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  12. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Paul Hackett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective: To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI, height for age (HA and weight for age (WA of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results: On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8% than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%, but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0% and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. −2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions: A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First Nations children's communities were satisfactory during the residential school era.

  13. Children and Residential Experiences: A Comprehensive Strategy for Implementing a Research-Informed Program Model for Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Martha J.; Izzo, Charles; Nunno, Michael; Smith, Elliott G.; Endres, Thomas; Holden, Jack C.; Kuhn, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to bridge research and practice in residential care through implementing a program model titled Children and Residential Experiences (CARE). The strategy involves consulting at all levels of the organization to guide personnel to incorporate CARE evidence-based principles into daily practice, and fostering an…

  14. Existence of mesons after deconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Brau (Fabian); F. Buisseret

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the possibility for a quark-antiquark pair to form a bound state at temperatures higher than the critical one ($T>T_c$), thus after deconfinement. Our main goal is to find analytical criteria constraining the existence of such mesons. Our formalism relies on a Schrödinger

  15. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  16. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  17. Residential solar energy users: a review of empirical research and related literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseld, C.T.; Crews, R.

    1979-12-01

    This report reviews 15 empirical studies of residential solar energy users and related literature on residential solar energy use. The purpose of the review is to summarize and analyze the experiences of residential solar users for helping formulate policies concerning the accelerated commercialization of solar technologies. Four of the studies employed case histories or focus group techniques. The 11 questionnaire studies represented interviews with over 1,600 owners of solar systems. The demographic characteristics of samples are listed and compared; research findings and conclusions are presented. Findings on user satisfaction and system performance, possible reasons for evidence of lacking correlation between them, and implications for consumer protection and future research are discussed. General findings are: (1) systematic research on the experiences of solar users is lacking - much research remains to be done; (2) the reported overall experiences of users has been very positive; (3) user reports indicate that system performance is generally good but there is some evidence that user reports are not accurate measures of actual performance; (4) a need exists for adequate consumer protection; (5) design or installation problems are evidenced in significant numbers of early solar installations; and (6) these problems evidently are resolvable. An annotated bibliography describes 10 other studies in progress.

  18. Residential air-conditioning and climate change: voices of the vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbotko, Carol; Waitt, Gordon

    2011-12-01

    Decreasing the risk of heat-stress is an imperative in health promotion, and is widely accepted as necessary for successful adaptation to climate change. Less well understood are the vulnerabilities that air-conditioning use exacerbates, and conversely, the need for the promotion of alternative strategies for coping with heat wave conditions. This paper considers these issues with a focus on the role of air-conditioning in the everyday life of elderly public housing tenants living alone, a sector of the population that has been identified as being at high risk of suffering heat stress. A vulnerability analysis of domestic air-conditioning use, drawing on literature and policy on air-conditioning practices and ethnographic research with households. Residential air-conditioning exacerbated existing inequities. Case studies of two specifically selected low-income elderly single person households revealed that such households were unlikely to be able to afford this 'solution' to increasing exposure to heat waves in the absence of energy subsidies. Residential air-conditioning use during heat waves caused unintended side-effects, such as system-wide blackouts, which, in turn, led to escalating electricity costs as power companies responded by upgrading infrastructure to cope with periods of excess demand. Air-conditioning also contributed to emissions that cause climate change. Residential air-conditioning is a potentially maladaptive technology for reducing the risk of heat stress.

  19. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  20. The Analysis of Renovation Strategies of Multi-Storey Apartment Houses in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Ramanauskaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of renovating a residential district of multi-storey apartment houses is analysed. Multi-storey buildings make a large percentage of all housing facilities. Therefore, renovation is a significant problem for most countries. Germany has great experience in renovating multi-storey apartment houses, and therefore could be usefully applied under Lithuanian conditions. To increase the efficiency of renovation, a complex approach to this process, including the modernization of the whole residential district, should be used. The present paper considers the strategies of modernizing Hellersdorf district in Berlin embracing the problem of sustainable renovation and building management, the differentiation of dwellings supply in order to maintain a mixed social structure, the development of the city centre as a functional core in the district of multi-storey apartment houses, improvement in life standards and quality, the integration of residential houses into the existing environment, the development of democratic planning and the selection of partners. Article in Lithuanian

  1. Assessing effects of military aircraft noise on residential property values near airbases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Silvati, Laura; Cook, Brenda

    The question, 'Does military aircraft noise exposure affect residential property values in the vicinity of Air Force bases?', can be asked and answered with varying degrees of generality and tolerable errors of inference. Definitive answers are difficult to develop because the question itself may not be meaningful in some circumstances: property values are affected by many factors other than aircraft noise which can fluctuate greatly in different areas and during different time periods; credible attribution of causality for changes in property values uniquely to aircraft noise requires many costly study design measures; and prior findings suggest that if a relationship exists, it is not a large or especially strong one. Thus, evidence of a simple geographic association between aircraft noise exposure and residential property values does not provide a conclusive answer to the question. In an effort to develop more compelling evidence, the US Air Force is planning to compare historical records of sale prices of properties in areas of differential aircraft noise exposure during specific time periods with predictions of sale prices derived from a validated statistical model of residential property values.

  2. Multiresistant pathogens in geriatric nursing - infection control in residential facilities for geriatric nursing in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Claudia; Schablon, Anja; Bollongino, Kirsten; Maaß, Monika; Kaß, Dietmar; Dulon, Madeleine; Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff. A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs. The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution. There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.

  3. Regional determinants of residential energy expenditures and the principal-agent problem in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Hill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: 1 to examine the determinants of residential energy expenditures and compare them on a regional level; and, 2 attempt to identify and measure the effect of possible principal-agent (PA problems on residential energy efficiency in Austria. The results of this paper are partially based on findings from a master’s thesis, which focused more directly on the PA problem. This paper expands on those results to include regional aspects in energy expenditures. A conditional demand model is regressed on a large number of variables representing housing characteristics, socio-economic factors, occupancy type, and regional characteristics sourced from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions dataset. The analysis indicates that significant regional differences exist in the determinants of residential energy expenditures and that PA problems appear to be unimportant to energy efficiency in Austria, even at the regional level. It concludes with some possible explanations as to why this is the case.

  4. Interpersonal styles, peer relationships, and outcomes in residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Anna J; Timko, Christine; Blonigen, Daniel M

    2017-10-01

    Interpersonal relationships play a key role in recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). We examined the associations between problematic interpersonal styles, peer relationships, and treatment outcomes in a sample of U.S. military veterans in residential SUD treatment. Participants were 189 veterans enrolled in a residential SUD treatment program at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed at the time of treatment entry (baseline), one month into treatment, and 12months following discharge from treatment. More problematic interpersonal styles at treatment entry, measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C), predicted more SUD symptoms 12months post-discharge (r=0.29, Prelationship between these interpersonal styles and SUD symptoms 12months after discharge was mediated by relationship quality with peers one month in treatment: i.e., more problematic interpersonal styles at baseline predicted poorer relationship quality with peers at 1month, which in turn predicted more SUD symptoms at 12months. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing interpersonal styles among patients in residential SUD treatment, as well as potentially augmenting existing evidence-based psychosocial treatments with a focus on interpersonal styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  6. Have Chinese water pricing reforms reduced urban residential water demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Fang, K. H.; Baerenklau, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    China continues to deal with severe levels of water scarcity and water pollution. To help address this situation, the Chinese central government initiated urban water pricing reforms in 2002 that emphasized the adoption of increasing block rate (IBR) price structures in place of existing uniform rate structures. By combining urban water use records with microlevel data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey, this research investigates the effectiveness of this national policy reform. Specifically, we compare household water consumption in 28 cities that adopted IBR pricing structures during 2002-2009, with that of 110 cities that had not yet done so. Based on difference-in-differences models, our results show that the policy reform reduced annual residential water demand by 3-4% in the short run and 5% in the longer run. These relatively modest reductions are consistent with the generous nature of the IBR pricing structures that Chinese cities have typically chosen to implement. Our results imply that more efforts are needed to address China's persistent urban water scarcity challenges.

  7. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1985-11-01

    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  8. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  9. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  10. Residential cluster based on climate and energy considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahamimoff, A.

    1984-10-01

    Responsive architecture in general and solar design in particular have been directed in recent years mainly towards the development of individual buildings. This article presents a project for the design of a cluster of 100 residential units in the cold highlands of the Israeli desert - the Negev. The project shows the transformation of environmental conditions to built form at different scales: the entire cluster, the individual building and the architectural components of the building. The trajectory of the sun in winter and summer, the direction of strong disturbing winds, and the daily and annual temperature readings are form determinants that establish the structure of the project. It is suggested that an expansion of this design approach can create a ''solar urbanism'' that will enhance the adaptation of settlements to their environments and thus form a ''new sense of place'' that so often does not exist in contemporary town planning and architecture. This project is the winning entry of a national competition for the design of ''an urban cluster based on climate and energy considerations'' organized by the Ministries of Housing and Construction, and Energy and Infrastructure, together with the Israeli Association of Engineers and Architects.

  11. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  12. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  13. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  14. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

    2002-04-28

    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  15. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  16. Where's the evidence? a systematic review of economic analyses of residential aged care infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2017-03-21

    Residential care infrastructure, in terms of the characteristics of the organisation (such as proprietary status, size, and location) and the physical environment, have been found to directly influence resident outcomes. This review aimed to summarise the existing literature of economic evaluations of residential care infrastructure. A systematic review of English language articles using AgeLine, CINAHL, Econlit, Informit (databases in Health; Business and Law; Social Sciences), Medline, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science with retrieval up to 14 December 2015. The search strategy combined terms relating to nursing homes, economics, and older people. Full economic evaluations, partial economic evaluations, and randomised trials reporting more limited economic information, such as estimates of resource use or costs of interventions were included. Data was extracted using predefined data fields and synthesized in a narrative summary to address the stated review objective. Fourteen studies containing an economic component were identified. None of the identified studies attempted to systematically link costs and outcomes in the form of a cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analysis. There was a wide variation in approaches taken for valuing the outcomes associated with differential residential care infrastructures: 8 studies utilized various clinical outcomes as proxies for the quality of care provided, and 2 focused on resident outcomes including agitation, quality of life, and the quality of care interactions. Only 2 studies included residents living with dementia. Robust economic evidence is needed to inform aged care facility design. Future research should focus on identifying appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level, as well as the broader health benefits and cost-saving potential of different organisational and environmental characteristics in residential care. International Prospective Register of

  17. Burnout in nonhospital psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Laura; Magni, Laura Rosa; Giovannini, Caterina; Panetta, Valentina; Zacchi, Valeria; Rossi, Giuseppe; Placentino, Anna

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated levels and risk factors of burnout in a sample of mental health professionals employed in nonhospital psychiatric residential facilities of northern Italy. Nurses, nurse assistants, and educators completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic variables, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), job characteristics (Job Diagnostic Survey), workload, relationships with colleagues, and support from supervising coordinators. A total of 202 (83% response rate) questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic linear regressions were used to estimate predictors of burnout dimensions. Burnout risk was widespread. Low feedback about job performance, poor support from coordinators, and young age predicted emotional exhaustion. Low feedback about job performance predicted feelings of depersonalization. Low task identity and young age predicted reduced feelings of personal accomplishment. Interventions to prevent burnout among employees should be developed. These include providing feedback about performance, clearly identifying the tasks of the job, and providing support.

  18. Residential Solar Power and the Physics Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David

    2007-10-01

    The roof of my house sports one of the largest residential photovoltaic arrays in Ohio. It produces all of the electricity for my house and family of four. With state and federal incentives, it cost less to install than the price of a new car. It will pay for itself within the warrantee period. A picture of my house with solar panels is the background on my classroom computer. I am the physics teacher at Hayes High School in Delaware, Ohio. I don't need a formal curriculum. Sooner or later my students start asking questions. They even ask the exact same questions that adults do. The inverter for my PV system sends performance data to my computer. I post this on my website, which takes it into my classroom. This sparks conversation on a whole variety of topics, from sun angles to energy, electricity, technology and climate studies.

  19. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    . In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  20. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...