WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing product concepts

  1. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...... there is a great need for full-service packages including consulting, contract work, follow-up, financing and operation and maintenance. There are few Nordic examples of such service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently. The success of these concepts is yet...

  2. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers...... two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product......, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...

  3. A METHODOLOGY FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY OF THE EXISTING SHIPBUILDING PROCESS USING MODERN PRODUCTION CONCEPTs AND THE AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venesa Stanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shipyards have been facing difficulties in controlling operational costs. To maintain continual operation of all of the facilities, a shipyard must analyze ways of utilizing present production systems for assembling interim vessel products as well as other types of industrial constructions. In the past, new machines continuously improved shipbuilding processes, including software and organizational restructuring, but management continued to search for a modern technological concept that will provide higher productivity, greater profit and overall reduction in costs. In the article the authors suggest implementing Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to apply to multi criteria decision making methods as an efficient tool for maintaining international competitiveness in the modern shipbuilding industry. This novel methodology is implemented through four phases. In the first phase, the present situation analysis is suggested for a real shipyard by establishing closest relations among production lines. The second phase presents a constraint analysis that must be evaluated when developing the design solution. The third phase involves generating a typical number of selected alternatives of the Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles. In the fourth phase, the optimal design solution is selected using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. The solution incorporating this modern methodology will improve productivity, profit and lead to decreasing operational costs.

  4. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  5. Co-existing concepts of management control : The containment of tensions due to the implementation of lean production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Sandra; van der Steen, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the implementation of lean production and similar inno-vations is not always successful. One of the explanations provided is that elements of tradi-tional control systems may frustrate the transformation process. Although various studies have investigated the

  6. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... concepts. The paper describes a few Nordic examples of full-service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently and the provisional success of these concepts. The existing Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...

  7. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  8. Communicative Competence: Existing Concepts and Prospects for Further Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is set out to be of the eight key competences which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission 2004, p. 3). The success of the sustainable development of communicative competence requires existing concepts of communicative competence…

  9. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisvold, K.M. [Golar-Nor Offshore, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  10. What kinds of scientific concepts exist? Concept construction and intellectual development in college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Alkhoury, Souheir; Benford, Russell; Clark, Brian R.; Falconer, Kathleen A.

    2000-11-01

    Previous research has found that scientific concepts can be meaningfully classified as descriptive (i.e., concepts such as predator and organism with directly observable exemplars) or theoretical (i.e., concepts such as atom and gene without directly observable exemplars). Previous research has also found that developing understanding of descriptive and theoretical concepts is linked to students' developmental levels, presumably because the procedural knowledge structures (i.e., reasoning patterns) that define developmental levels are needed for concept construction. The present study extends prior theory and research by postulating the existence of an intermediate class of concepts called hypothetical (i.e., concepts such as subduction and evolution with exemplars that cannot in practice be observed due to limits on the normal observational time frame). The hypothesis that three kinds of scientific concepts exist was tested by constructing and administering a test on concepts introduced in a college biology course. As predicted, descriptive concept questions were significantly easier than hypothetical concept questions, than were theoretical concept questions. Further, because concept construction presumably depends in part on developmental level, students at differing developmental levels (levels 3, 4, and 5, where level 5 is conceptualized as post-formal in which hypotheses involving unseen entities can be tested) were predicted to vary in the extent to which they succeeded on the concepts test. As predicted, a significant relationship (p < 0.001) was found between conceptual knowledge and developmental level. This result replicates previous research, and therefore provides additional support for the hypothesis that procedural knowledge skills associated with levels of intellectual development play an important role in declarative knowledge acquisition and in concept construction. The result also supports the hypothesis that intellectual development continues

  11. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  12. Preferences for new and existing contraceptive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Denzil G; Knox, Stephanie; Viney, Rosalie; Haas, Marion; Street, Deborah J

    2011-09-01

    New contraceptive methods provide greater choice in terms of effectiveness, management of side-effects, convenience and frequency of administration and flexibility, but make the decisions about contraception more complex. There are limited data on the factors that determine women's choices among these alternatives, to inform providers about the factors which are most important to women, or to predict uptake of new products. This paper reports on a choice experiment designed to elicit women's preferences in relation to prescribed contraception and to forecast the impact of the introduction of two new products into the Australian market. A generalised multinomial logit model is estimated and used in the simulation exercise. The model forecasts that the hormonal patch would be well received among women, achieving a greater market share than current non-pill products, but the vaginal ring would have limited appeal. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. How Existing Business Management Concepts Become School Leadership Fashions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig; Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the history of three management concepts that originated in the business sector and progressed to the K-12 education sector. Framework: We propose a new conceptual model intended to help illuminate how ideas and strategies originally created for business leadership gain influence in the realm of K-12 school…

  14. Product Differentiation and Positioning: Confused Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen Borna; Joseph Chapman

    1993-01-01

    This article examines two common marketing terms: product positioning and product differentiation. Many authors use these terms interchangeably, yet most marketing texts treat product positioning and product differentiation as two seperate concepts. This article attempts to identify the underlying concepts of both product differentiation and product positioning. Product differentiation is shown to be a special case of product positioning: therefore, it is suggested that marketers may want to ...

  15. The Production Operational Management Concept

    OpenAIRE

    STEFANESCU, Roxana

    2005-01-01

    Production Operations Management must ensure the quality of functional stability of production considering the input variables, environment disturbances as well as market requests dynamics. That is why operations management takes action over structural components, system input variables, production system variables as well as production system functions.

  16. Thematic relatedness production norms for 100 object concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.

  17. Innovation-supporting tools for novice designers: Converting existing artifacts and transforming new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Generating a range of concepts is often a significant challenge for novice designers given their limited design experience and domain knowledge. This article develops a tool to support novice designers in formulating a design strategy for converting existing artifacts or mechanical objects into abstract representations. The app-based tool is aimed at supporting novice designers in (1 archiving existing artifacts, (2 converting artifacts into abstract representations for divergent activities, and (3 observing the kinematic movements of three-dimensional mechanical objects through augmented reality. An experiment conducted in 2014 investigated how the tool’s augmented reality function and the proposed strategy supported novice designers. A total of 13 second-year industrial design students generated 88 separate ideas. From 12 possible mechanical movements, four participants generated between 11 and 22 ideas each, while another five participants generated 1 or 2 ideas each. Each participant successfully proposed a concept that adapted the selected mechanism in response to a given problem in a given environment. Comparing pre- and posttest scores of each participant, 11 of 13 participants improved their knowledge of kinematic mechanisms. The results suggested that the use of the proposed tool and strategy has potential to help some novice designers explore new concepts and acquire related design knowledge.

  18. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  19. Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Qiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2 reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.

  20. New Mission Concept Study: Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This Report summarizes the activity carried out under the New Mission Concept (NMC) study for a mission to conduct a sensitive all-sky imaging survey in the hard x-ray (HX) band (approximately 10-600 keV). The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission was originally proposed for this NMC study and was then subsequently proposed for a MIDEX mission as part of this study effort. Development of the EXIST (and related) concepts continues for a future flight proposal. The hard x-ray band (approximately 10-600 keV) is nearly the final band of the astronomical spectrum still without a sensitive imaging all-sky survey. This is despite the enormous potential of this band to address a wide range of fundamental and timely objectives - from the origin and physical mechanisms of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the processes on strongly magnetic neutron stars that produce soft gamma-repeaters and bursting pulsars; from the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars to the origin and evolution of the hard x-ray diffuse background; from the nature and number of black holes and neutron stars and the accretion processes onto them to the extreme non-thermal flares of normal stars; and from searches for expected diffuse (but relatively compact) nuclear line (Ti-44) emission in uncatalogued supernova remnants to diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton emission from galaxy clusters. A high sensitivity all-sky survey mission in the hard x-ray band, with imaging to both address source confusion and time-variable background radiations, is very much needed.

  1. Applying fluvial geomorphological riffle-pool sequences concept when rebuilding the existing drop hydraulic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of  rebuilding  the existing water straight drop  structure in Brenna on the Brennica river (Polish Carpathian mountains, which was changed into the rapid hydraulic structure. The technical project was set up in 1988 and finished in the same year. The structure was rebuilt in the field in the early autumn of 1990. One of the concepts of applied fluvial geomorphological solution was used to improve the river channel bed condition. In that case it was found that the existing hydraulic structure reducing river slope and stabilizing river bed can be changed without any harm in to semi-natural riffle structure which could be tolerated by river and organisms living in.  Artificial roughness of the slope plate of the rapid hydraulic structure was obtained by placing cobbles along all the slope apron of the structure. The diameter of cobbles was calculated applying various methods, and the optimum value for that dimension was chosen. The cobbles, used for rebuilding purposes, were taken directly from the riverbed, so that the structure is environmentally similar to the site. All work was done due to European Framework Directive for Rivers.

  2. Existence of non-Abelian vortices with product gauge groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiaosen, E-mail: xiaosenhan@gmail.com [Institute of Contemporary Mathematics, School of Mathematics, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Taida Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chang-Shou [Taida Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we establish several sharp existence and uniqueness theorems for some non-Abelian vortex models arising in supersymmetric gauge field theories. We prove these results by studying a family of systems of elliptic equations with exponential nonlinear terms in both doubly periodic-domain and planar cases. In the doubly periodic-domain case we obtain some necessary and sufficient conditions, each explicitly expressed in terms of a single inequality interestingly relating the vortex numbers, to coupling parameters and size of the domain, for the existence of solutions to these systems. In the planar case we establish the existence results for any vortex numbers and coupling parameters. Sharp decay estimates for the planar solutions are also obtained. Furthermore, the solutions are unique, which give rise to the quantized integrals in all cases.

  3. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...

  4. A Playful Programming Products Vs. Programming Concepts Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allsopp, Benjamin Brink

    2017-01-01

    to computer program: playful programming. This research also describes a project to bring together different stakeholders (developers, educators, parents and researchers) with a common vocabulary for describing, developing, teaching with and comparing these playful programming products and develops a model...... of supported programming concepts that can be used to differentiate these products. The model includes programming concepts like operators, procedures, encapsulation, variables and events, but also identifies numerous specialization and sub-specializations of these concepts. This paper aims to use this model...... to provide educators and researchers involved in pilot studies with an overview of which programming concepts various playful programming products exercise (a playful programming products vs. programming concepts matrix). We also add additional concept specializations and expand on the descriptions...

  5. Ultra-long Duration Balloon Mission Concept Study: EXIST-LITE Hard X-ray Imaging Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We carried out a mission concept Study for an ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) mission to conduct a high-sensitivity hard x-ray (approx. 20-600 keV) imaging sky survey. The EXIST-LITE concept has been developed, and critical detector technologies for realistic fabrication of very large area Cd-Zn-Te imaging detector arrays are now much better understood. A ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE is now even more attractive as a testbed for the full Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission, recommended by the Decadal Survey, and now included in the NASA Roadmap and Strategic Plan as one of the 'Einstein Probes'. In this (overdue!) Final Report we provide a brief update for the science opportunities possible with a ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE and relate these to upcoming missions (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift) as well as the ultimate very high sensitivity sky survey mission EXIST. We then review the progress made over this investigation in Detector/Telescope design concept, Gondola and Mission design concept, and Data Handling/Analysis.

  6. Development of an English Education Course from an Examination of the Existential Concept of Authentic Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ernest Wright

    Since the central concerns of existentialism are the same as the central concerns of education in a democratic society, namely the fullest and freest development of the individual, existential thought was examined for the help it could give educators in more fully realizing this aim. Specifically, the central existential concept of authenticity…

  7. Polycentric city networks in Central-Eastern Europe: existing concepts and empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramar, H.; Kadi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of polycentricity has gained significance in discussions on spatial development in Europe in recent years. This paper presents new evidence on polycentric city networks in Central-Eastern Europe based on selected results of the ESPON project POLYCE (Metropolisation and Polycentric

  8. Did "Kin-based societies" Exist? On the (DeConstruction of an Anthropological Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Ivanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of a ‘kin-based society’ relies on the assumption that, in stateless societies, kinship served as a fundamental and sufficient principle of social and political organization. Developed within the evolutionary paradigm, this concept has acquired different forms during the discipline’s history, depending on the theoretical orientation of various anthropologists and their understanding of the notion of ‘kinship’. Speaking from significantly different theoretical positions, anthropologists ranging from Rivers to Malinowski and Radcliffe- Brown, to Evans-Pritchard, Fortes and Levi-Strauss, all maintained that kinship formed a basis of social organization, although they did not always agree on the definition of the concept and the type of kinship relations that had this special quality of integrating and organizing the whole of society. The debates were primarily about whether it was consanguinity or affinity that served as a fundamental factor of forming and reproducing social relations. As modern anthropology rejects the idea that kinship relations can form the basis for social, economic and political integration in any type of society, including those without the state, class or caste system, this article considers the assumptions underpinning the construction of the concept witch for long played such an important role in the discipline’s knowledge but later came to be seriously challenged.

  9. Product sounds : Basic concepts and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigated which categories of product sounds listeners can distinguish. We explored the perceptual domain of product sounds in order to be able to derive perceptually similar categories and determine how users are able to describe these categories by merely listening to them.

  10. Research Productivity and Academics' Conceptions of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Namgung, Sang Un; Lucas, Lisa; Crawford, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question: do people with different levels of research productivity and identification as a researcher think of research differently? It discusses a study that differentiated levels of research productivity among English and Australian academics working in research-intensive environments in three broad discipline areas: science,…

  11. Individualisation of Lean Concept in Companies Dealing with Mass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, Roman

    2012-12-01

    The methods of lean manufacturing primarily designed for businesses dealing with serial production, are also used in other types of production. However the concept of lean production was not designed for these types of businesses, they are utilized only partially. Paper focuses on applying methods of lean concept in companies which are dealing with mass production and their options of exchange for other methods in the event of disagreement. Basis of the article is a list of lean methods with its description and its utilization in practice. The questionnaire was utilized to identify information from the practice. Based on this survey were identified the critical methods that are no longer appropriate for companies dealing with mass production. However, there are alternative methods of describing the problem. It is possible to say that companies are trying to get closer to their goal by modification of the basic concepts. And the concept of Lean Enterprise serves as a standard.

  12. Studying the existence and attributes of consensus on psychological concepts by a cognitive psychological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oravecz, Zita; Faust, Katherine; Batchelder, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research can take a variety of directions while building on theoretical concepts that are commonly shared among the population of researchers. We investigate the question of how agreement or consensus on basic scientific concepts can be measured. Our approach to the problem is based...... on a state-of-the-art cognitive psychometric technique, implemented in the theoretical framework of Cultural Consensus Theory (CCT). With this approach, consensus-based answers for questions exploring shared knowledge can be derived while basic factors of the human decision making process are accounted for....... An example of the approach is provided by examining the definition of behavior, based on responses from researchers and students. We conclude that the consensus definition of behavior is: Behavior is a response by the whole individual to external and/or internal stimulus, influenced by the internal processes...

  13. Arrhenius' theory of partial dissociation and hydration of electrolytes in solutions replaces existing activity concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Raji Heyrovska

    2011-01-01

    The author shows that Arrhenius's theory of partial electrolytic dissociation was immaturely displaced about eight decades ago by the empirical concept of ionic activities and the assumption of complete dissociation of electrolytes at all concentrations. The latter brought the theory of electrolytes over the next decades into a complicated state without any physical significance. Therefore, the author started a systematic investigation of the available data and could completely restore t...

  14. Big data in automotive production - concepts and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The presentation "Big Data in Automotive Production - Concepts and Experiences" deals with the following aspects: - The Digital World ofToday and Tomorrow - Change of Product Architecture - Elements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution - Everything as a Service (XaaS) - Big Data - Overview - Big Data in Production − Examples

  15. New knitted fabric concepts for denim products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaralı, A.; Ertekin, G.; Oğlakcıoğlu, N.; Kertmen, M.; Seçil Aydın, İ.

    2017-10-01

    “Denim” like knitted fabric is a new trend combining the appearance of woven denim with the knitted structures’ characteristics such as flexibility, softness, wrinkle resistance, user-friendliness, and comfortable. According to the requirements of markets, it can be obviously seen that, this fabric will be a new era for denim industry which can be competitive with woven denim garments. This study presents general information and literature survey about denim production, knitted denim structures and their characteristics.

  16. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  17. Method for alignment of product and production concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Kvist, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The right use of modular product architectures can help companies provide a great variety of customized products at a competitive price level, by reuse of knowledge, components, processes and utilization of economies of scale in many of the activities that are necessary to provide products...... and the production system upon which manufacturing will take place. This fit is referred to as alignment. The aim of this paper is to present a new design method that can help design aligned modular product and production architectures. The method has been applied and evaluated at the Danish company Danfoss...... Industrial Controls. The method consists of two tools and a guideline on how to use these tools....

  18. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exists. (a) Swine vesicular disease is considered to exist in all regions of the world except Australia..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal..., the pork or pork products must be moved under Department seals or seals of the U.S. Customs Service...

  19. SPIN SELLING CONCEPT & ITS APPLICATION IN THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF SACHET PRODUCT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hossain SOHEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is lower middle income oriented country (LMIC in South Asia where sachet product has become more popular than other scaling products. SPIN selling is an approach of consultative selling or presenting an offer to the potential clients considering their pain-points using a powerful questioning process. This study attempts to find out the reasons of gaining popularity of sachet product in Bangladesh. SPIN Selling concept is the age-old concept used in this respect. A sample size of 120 was collected from the salespeople of 15 different companies that are co-integrated sachet product in their product line. A self-administered questionnaire is applied for data collection and This study reveals hat the existence of the applicability of SPIN concept in a moderate format in Bangladesh. The findings of the study postulate that in Bangladesh, sachet product is introduced as follower product and it will be helpful for the marketing executives, R&D officers or decision makers of concerned firms in re-considering their strategic thinking aiming to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the product market of Bangladesh for sachet product.

  20. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on the basis of manufacturer brands. For instance, in the growth stage of the product life cycle, retailers expand private labels to a number of product categories and use the push strategy while manufacturers tend to expand their distribution network in the expansion of their brands and predominantly use the pull strategy in doing so. Furthermore, there is a focus shift from low-price strategy, predominantly used in the introduction phase, to increasing the quality and private label value in the later stages of the product life cycle.

  1. Solving the Mind-Body Problem through Two Distinct Concepts: Internal-Mental Existence and Internal Mental Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion G. Motofei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous published paper, we initiated in this journal discussion about new perspectives regarding the organization and functioning of the mind, as a premise for addressing the mind-body problem. In this article, we continue focussing discussion on two distinct but interrelated concepts, internal-mental existence/ entity and internal-mental reality. These two psycho-physiological subunits of the mind interact each other in the form of an internal-mental interaction, having no sense if one is isolated/ studied separately from the other. In other words, the mind (as a dynamic psycho-physiological construction has no sense in the absence of this internal mental interaction that which takes places between internal-mental existence and internal-mental reality. In the case of the `mind-body problem`, the tendency until now was to assign extremely complex functions of the mind (abstract ideas, consciousness, colors to simplistic physiological/ neuronal structures. We hope that this paper opens a new perspective, in respect to complex/ interrelated neuronal structures that construct the mind through their interaction, a process that is both physiologically (transmission of neural impulses and psychologically (transmission of information, and that requires time (an immaterial component to occurs.

  2. Biorefinery concept in organic agriculture: combined bioethanol and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one sustainable alternative to avoid the negative environmental effects often caused by conventional agriculture. BioConcens is an interdisciplinary project aims at developing new biorefinery concept and processes for co-production of bioethanol, biogas and animal feed based on resources from organic agriculture (clover grass, straw) and associated food processing (whey). Bioenergy produced in organic agriculture can reduce its dependency of fossil fuels and decrease gr...

  3. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  4. A framework for quantitative analysis of livestock systems using theoretical concepts of production ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Oosting, S.J.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    n crop science, widely used theoretical concepts of production ecology comprise a hierarchy in growth defining, limiting, and reducing factors, which determine corresponding potential, limited, and actual production levels. These concepts give insight in theoretically achievable production, yield

  5. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  6. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF INTELLECTUAL PRODUCT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF THE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej B. Ilin

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of the intellectual product, its relationship with research of higher schools in the region, the role of intellectual property in the development of innovative capacity of the region. It also contains the author’s definition of an intellectual product of Higher Education, a classification of intellectual products. Based on the analysis of existing theoretical approaches and regional practices, relations between concepts «intellectual product», «intellectual wor...

  7. JOINT OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF EXISTING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Reimann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Keen competition and increasingly demanding customers have forced companies to use their resources more efficiently and to integrate production and transportation planning. In the last few years more and more researchers have also focused on this challenging problem by trying to determine the complexity of the individual problems and then developing fast and robust algorithms to solve them. This paper reviews existing literature on integrated production and distribution decisions at the tactical and operational level, where the distribution part is modelled as some variation of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. The focus is thereby on problems that explicitly consider deliveries to multiple clients in a less-than-truckload fashion. In terms of the production decisions we distinguish in our review between tactical and operational production problems by considering lot-sizing/capacity allocation and scheduling models, respectively.

  8. Concept of Operations Visualization in Support of Ares I Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, James H.; Smith, Daid Alan

    2008-01-01

    Boeing was selected in 2007 to manufacture Ares I Upper Stage and Instrument Unit according to NASA's design which would require the use of the latest manufacturing and integration processes to meet NASA budget and schedule targets. Past production experience has established that the majority of the life cycle cost is established during the initial design process. Concept of Operations (CONOPs) visualizations/simulations help to reduce life cycle cost during the early design stage. Production and operation visualizations can reduce tooling, factory capacity, safety, and build process risks while spreading program support across government, academic, media and public constituencies. The NASA/Boeing production visualization (DELMIA; Digital Enterprise Lean Manufacturing Interactive Application) promotes timely, concurrent and collaborative producibility analysis (Boeing)while supporting Upper Stage Design Cycles (NASA). The DELMIA CONOPs visualization reduced overall Upper Stage production flow time at the manufacturing facility by over 100 man-days to 312.5 man-days and helped to identify technical access issues. The NASA/Boeing Interactive Concept of Operations (ICON) provides interactive access to Ares using real mission parameters, allows users to configure the mission which encourages ownership and identifies areas for improvement, allows mission operations or spacecraft detail to be added as needed, and provides an effective, low coast advocacy, outreach and education tool.

  9. Performance evaluation of adding ethanol production into an existing combined heat and power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, F; Thorin, E; Dotzauer, E; Yan, J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the configuration and performance of a polygeneration system are studied by modelling the integration of a lignocellulosic wood-to-ethanol process with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Data from actual plants are applied to validate the simulation models. The integrated polygeneration system reaches a total efficiency of 50%, meeting the heating load in the district heating system. Excess heat from the ethanol production plant supplies 7.9 MW to the district heating system, accounting for 17.5% of the heat supply at full heating load. The simulation results show that the production of ethanol from woody biomass is more efficient when integrated with a CHP plant compared to a stand-alone production plant. The total biomass consumption is reduced by 13.9% while producing the same amounts of heat, electricity and ethanol fuel as in the stand-alone configurations. The results showed that another feature of the integrated polygeneration system is the longer annual operating period compared to existing cogeneration. Thus, the renewable electricity production is increased by 2.7% per year.

  10. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  11. Segregated and overlapping neural circuits exist for the production of static and dynamic precision grip force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A.; Coombes, Stephen A.; Planetta, Peggy J.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2011-01-01

    A central topic in sensorimotor neuroscience is the static-dynamic dichotomy that exists throughout the nervous system. Previous work examining motor unit synchronization reports that the activation strategy and timing of motor units differ for static and dynamic tasks. However, it remains unclear whether segregated or overlapping blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity exists in the brain for static and dynamic motor control. This study compared the neural circuits associated with the production of static force to those associated with the production of dynamic force pulses. To that end, healthy young adults (n = 17) completed static and dynamic precision grip force tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both tasks activated core regions within the visuomotor network, including primary and sensory motor cortices, premotor cortices, multiple visual areas, putamen, and cerebellum. Static force was associated with unique activity in a right-lateralized cortical network including inferior parietal lobe, ventral premotor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, dynamic force was associated with unique activity in left-lateralized and midline cortical regions, including supplementary motor area, superior parietal lobe, fusiform gyrus, and visual area V3. These findings provide the first neuroimaging evidence supporting a lateralized pattern of brain activity for the production of static and dynamic precision grip force. PMID:22109998

  12. EDUCATION, WORK AND THEIR RELATIONS THROUGHOUT HISTORY OF HUMANITY IN DIFFERENT MODES OF PRODUCTION OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Cristina Kaminski Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as objective to analyze the relation between education and work throughout the history of the humanity, for in such a way, the starting point is the conceptualization of the related categories, as well as the exposition of its variations and relation in the different ways of material production of the existence human being (primitive community, slavery society, feudal system and capitalism, aiming at to apprehend the multiple influences that both exert between itself, in order to make possible a bigger understanding of the historical and social evolution of the man

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Existing Conditions and Production Strategies for the Baca Geothermal System, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Charles R.; Mercer, James W.; Thomas, Stephen D.; Balleau, W. Pete

    1984-05-01

    The Baca geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico comprise an integrated hydrogeologic system. Analysis of the geothermal reservoir either under natural conditions or subject to proposed development should account for the mass (water) and energy (heat) balances of adjacent aquifers as well as the reservoir itself. A three-dimensional model based on finite difference approximations is applied to this integrated system. The model simulates heat transport associated with the flow of steam and water through an equivalent porous medium. The Baca geothermal reservoir is dominated by flow in fractures and distinct strata, but at the scale of application the equivalent porous media concept is appropriate. The geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers are simulated under both natural conditions and proposed production strategies. Simulation of natural conditions compares favorably with observed pressure, temperature, and thermal discharge data. The history matching simulations show that the results used for comparison are most sensitive to vertical permeability and the area of an assumed high-permeability zone connecting the reservoir to a deep hydrothermal source. Simulations using proposed production strategies and optimistic estimates of certain hydrologic parameters and reservoir extent indicate that a 50-MW power plant could be maintained for a period greater than 30 years. This production, however, will result in significant decreases in the total water discharge to the Jemez River.

  14. Students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Chusnur; Katmiati, Siti; Wiji, Mulyani, Sri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to obtain some information regarding profile of students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept. A descriptive qualitative method was the method employed in the study. The participants of the study were students XI grade of a senior high school in Bandung. To collect the data, diagnostic test on mental model-prediction, observation, explanation (TDM-POE) instrument was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that on the concept of precipitation formation of a reaction, 30% of students were not able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, but they were not able to explain the interaction of particles that involved in the reaction and to calculate Qsp; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the particles involved, but they did not have the knowledge about the interactions occured and were uncapable of calculating Qsp; and 18% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the interactions of the particles involved in the reactions but they were not able to calculate Qsp. On the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility concept, 96% of students were not able to explain the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; while 4% of students were only able to explain the effect of adding common ions towards the solubility based on the chemical equilibrium shifts and predict the effect of decreasing pH towards the solubility. However, they were not able to calculate the solubility before and after

  15. Social Context in Usability Evaluations: Concepts, Processes and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul

    social context is considered important, only little research has been done to identify how it influences usability evaluations. In this thesis I explore how social context affects the process and product of a usability evaluation and explain the findings in terms of the theory of behaviour settings......This thesis addresses social context of usability evaluations. Context plays an important role in usability evaluations. A major part of the context of a usability evaluation is the people involved. This is also often referred to as the social context of the usability evaluation, and although...... and a field experiment. Findings from these activities are presented in five published paper contributions. I furthermore introduce the theory of behaviour settings as a tool to help characterise the key concepts of social context which, together with an understanding of usability evaluations, provide...

  16. The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

    2013-10-01

    The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RECONSTRUCTION OF EXISTING LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION PLANTS BY ADDING A HYDRAULIC ADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiš

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recipes determine the quality of livestock feed and the hydraulic adders are one of the elements determining if the given recipe will be carried out. Generally, construction of existing adders does not allow accomplishment of that aim i.e. they do not meet recipe requirements. Consequently, researches which determined deviations in ingredient adding present with existing adders and with the experimental hydraulic adder were conducted. The research was conducted for two years (2005 and 2006 in two livestock feed factories in the Republic of Croatia on samples of feed mixtures for pigs weighing up to 15 and 25 kilos. Relative error was the means for comparison of weighing deviations between the hydraulic adder and the adders powered by means of an electric motor. Research results indicate that none of the two observed livestock feed production plants in 30 repetitions for two kinds of feed mixture showed a feed mixture weighing that would correspond to the specifications in the recipe. Additionally, hydraulic adders showed a greater precision in adding fish meal, extruded soybean and soybean meal when compared with the adders powered by means of an electric motor. However, the adders powered by means of an electric motor showed greater precision in adding corn. Based on the research results it can be concluded that using hydraulic adders instead of the adders powered by means of an electric motor will result in more accuracy in dosing ingredients with fine and middle granularity, whereas this can not be applied to dosing coarse grained ingredients.

  18. Concept of Operations Visualization for Ares I Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Jim; Smith, David Alan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing Computer Aided Design models of the Ares I production facility, tooling and vehicle components and integrating them into manufacturing visualizations/simulations allows Boeing and NASA to collaborate real time early in the design/development cycle. This collaboration identifies cost effective and lean solutions that can be easily shared with Ares stakeholders (e.g., other NASA Centers and potential science users). These Ares I production visualizations and analyses by their nature serve as early manufacturing improvement precursors for other Constellation elements to be built at the Michoud Assembly Facility such as Ares V and the Altair Lander. Key to this Boeing and Marshall Space Flight Center collaboration has been the use of advanced virtual manufacturing tools to understand the existing Shuttle era infrastructure and trade potential modifications to support Ares I production. These approaches are then used to determine an optimal manufacturing configuration in terms of labor efficiency, safety and facility enhancements. These same models and tools can be used in an interactive simulation of Ares I and V flight to the Space Station or moon to educate the human space constituency (e.g., government, academia, media and the public) in order to increase national and international understanding of Constellation goals and benefits.

  19. Concept Modification Approach to Pedestrian Safety: A Strategy for Modifying Young Children's Existing Conceptual Framework of Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, R. T.; Pitkethly, A.

    1991-01-01

    Research suggests that many children have a concept of speed which is counterproductive to sound road crossing decisions. An attempt at conceptual change through the teaching of a unit on speed to grade one children is described. There is optimism that six- to seven-year-old children can apply classroom experiences to real life situations. (Author)

  20. Kota Bharu Islamic City – The Concept of a New Cultural Tourism Product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohd Nasir M.R; Salleh I.H

    2014-01-01

    .... The aims of this study are to introduce the concept of the Kota Bharu Islamic City as the new cultural tourism product in Malaysia as well as to enhance the reputation of the concept at the highest...

  1. Introduction of the CP concept in a factory for the production of welding electrodes – Piva, Plužine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vukčević

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new concept of Cleaner Production (CP was recently introduced in the Factory for the production of welding electrodes (FEP in Plužine, by following some activities, raw materials and products. By the identification of some sub- -processes with CP opportunities, focus points were identified and subjected to some technical modifications and innovations. The most significant results were obtained regarding waste waters, through the modifications of existing waste water generation and a possible switch to an other technology, the reduction of K-silica waste through a technological modification, a system of powder transport, as well as the production of coated electrodes.

  2. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF INTELLECTUAL PRODUCT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej B. Ilin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the intellectual product, its relationship with research of higher schools in the region, the role of intellectual property in the development of innovative capacity of the region. It also contains the author’s definition of an intellectual product of Higher Education, a classification of intellectual products. Based on the analysis of existing theoretical approaches and regional practices, relations between concepts «intellectual product», «intellectual work», «intellectual capital» and «intellectual property» are especially highlighted by the author.

  3. Product Life Cycle concept use and application by marketing decision-makers in small South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the underlying theory of the product life cycle concept with the primary objective of establishing what the use and practical value of the product life cycle concept is in making marketing decisions in small manufacturing and dealer organisations in Gauteng. The main focus was to test the ability of marketing decision-makers in these small organisations to associate their application and use of the product life cycle concept with Kotler's assumptions on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and proposed marketing strategies. A major finding was that small organisations tended to display a marketing knowledge level with the existing marketing theory. Another important conclusion of the study was that the current product life cycle concept theory needs to be broadened to include strategies on the expanded marketing mix. Apart from the different use and application by marketing decision-makers in small organisations in South Africa the product life cycle concept theory has potential as a strategic tool and a high likelihood for its future use as a marketing decision-making instrument.

  4. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exists. (a) Classical swine fever is known to exist in all regions of the world except Australia; Canada..., Nayarit, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and Yucatan; New Zealand; Norway; and Trust Territory of the... region by seals of a serially numbered type; and (2) The numbers of the seals used were entered on the...

  5. The modification of existing Bai Bithaman Ajil (BBA) instrument by using the concept of qardhul hassan and flexible sharing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Abd Aziz Arrashid Abd; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Jaaman @ Sharman, Saiful Hafizah

    2017-08-01

    Bai Bithaman Ajil (BBA) instrument as the main mode of financing has become the biggest leap in the revolution of real estate purchase. Through many years of developing and refining its usage in financial institutions, BBA has confronted several argumentation and debate among scholars on its conformity towards Shariah. Although there are cases of inconsistency findings when it comes to conformity towards Shariah, BBA is still one of the predominant, accepted mode of financing especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper will prove that BBA instrument using the approach of Constant Rate of Return (CRR) is mathematically identical to the conventional approach which is annuity. Besides, this paper will also provide the amortization of CRR. It is proven that CRR formula is likely based on the amortization of conventional approach. Besides, this paper discusses mainly on the incompliance of BBA towards Shariah and hence will introduce the proxy for BBA instruments by implementing profit-loss sharing (PLS). The modified BBA instrument is develop by deliberating the concept of qardhul hassan as its principal payment and as for its rental payment will introduce the sharing ratio to represent the ownership of bank and customers in every periodic payments by using flexible sharing ratio. This modification does not include any increment in the repayment of principal and the profit gained is based solely on the payment of rent to purchase the ownership of the bank. Hence, this modified BBA is much more compliance towards Shariah law because it does not comprise any riba, gharar, or masyir.

  6. Validation of the constitution in chinese medicine questionnaire: does the traditional chinese medicine concept of body constitution exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Wong, Vivian Taam; Yang, Zhi Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Kwan, Andrew Ka Lun

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to adapt and validate the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) in Hong Kong Chinese people. 10 patients and 10 Chinese medicine practitioners (CMP) confirmed the content validity (CVI: 50%-100%) of CCMQ. 1084 HK subjects completed a cross-sectional study with 98.6% who could be classified into one or more BC types. Scaling success rates were 85.7%-100% for the 9 BC scales. Construct validity was supported by moderate correlations between CCMQ and SF-12v2 scores. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a reproducible structure as hypothesized. People with gentleness BC type had better health-related quality of life, HRQOL, than those with other (imbalanced) BC types. Internal consistency (reliability) (Cronbach's alpha  >  0.6) and test-retest reliability were also satisfactory (ICC > 0.6) for all scales. However, the sensitivity and specificity in predicting the BC types diagnosed by CMP were only fair, ranging from 42.7% to 82.7%. 27.6% of subjects had a change from the imbalanced BC types to gentleness BC type after 6 months. The CCMQ was adapted for HK Chinese people and proved to be valid, reliable, and responsive. People classified to have imbalanced BC types had significantly lower HRQOL than gentleness BC type, which supported the validity and importance of the TCM concept of the physiological BC type.

  7. Concept research in food product design and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moskowitz, Howard R; Porretta, Sebastiano; Silcher, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    ... and the Conjoint-analysis Approach 77 6 Concepts as Combinations of Graphics 105 7 Segmentation Approaches, Results, and the Differential Importance of Categories 123 8 International Research and Transnational Segmentation Chapter written with the help of Bert Krieger 143 Part III Advanced Analytics 159 9 Believing the Results: Reliability and Validity ...

  8. A new photobioreactor concept enabling the production of desiccation induced biotechnological products using terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, S; Strieth, D; Lakatos, M; Muffler, K; Ulber, R

    2014-12-20

    Cyanobacteria offer great potential for the production of biotechnological products for pharmaceutical applications. However, these organisms can only be cultivated efficiently using photobioreactors (PBR). Under submerged conditions though, terrestrial cyanobacteria mostly grow in a suboptimal way, which makes this cultivation-technique uneconomic and thus terrestrial cyanobacteria unattractive. Therefore, a novel emersed photobioreactor (ePBR) has been developed, which can provide the natural conditions for these organisms. Proof of concept as well as first efficiency tests are conducted using the terrestrial cyanobacteria Trichocoleus sociatus as a model organism. The initial maximum growth rate of T. sociatus (0.014±0.001h(-1)) in submerged systems could be increased by 35%. Furthermore, it is now possible to control desiccation-correlated product formation and related metabolic processes. This is shown for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In this case the yield of 0.068±0.006g of EPS/g DW could be increased by more than seven times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation de l'effet des concepts de la production allegee dans une entreprise aeronautique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moknine, Myriam

    This research focuses on a project to implement a Lean approach in Quebec's aerospace business, that of Bombardier Aerospace. Developed for the automobile industry since the 1950s, the Lean has expanded its practices to various industry sectors, including the international aircraft industry, and more specifically the Quebec aircraft industry. Today, numerous companies turn more and more to the Lean Manufacturing approach to improve their competitiveness and their performance levels. The review of the literature on the Lean has allowed us to further understand the topic and more specifically its application in the aerospace sector. The Lean approach allows the improvement of operational performance indicators such as the reduction of production costs, cycle times, travel and inventories, as well as the improvement of the versatility of employees. The Lean has succeeded where many other organisational models have failed. Several success factors such as employee involvement, leadership commitment, proper integration of all tools and many others must be used in the implementation of such production practice. However, this approach is sometimes criticized by some authors who suggest that the improvements made by the Lean result in an increase in the workload of employees and a deterioration of their stress levels. Our research on the Lean has revealed gaps in available and existing research and data on the subject, particularly in the aerospace sector. This research has helped to fill this important gap, by documenting the context and highlighting the impact of the Lean on a production system in the Quebec aerospace components. A machining center having deployed a Lean approach was chosen to conduct a case study in post-implantation. Tools for data collection such as observations on the production floor, semi-structured interviews, as well as the Lean checklist, were used to perform this case study. The case study has confirmed the positive impact of Lean on operational

  10. On the existence of star products on quotient spaces of linear Hamiltonian torus actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbig, Hans-Christian; Iyengar, Srikanth B.; Pflaum, Markus J.

    2009-01-01

    that the Koszul complex on the moment map of an effective linear Hamiltonian torus action is acyclic. We rephrase the nonpositivity condition of Arms and Gotay (Adv Math 79(1):43–103, 1990) for linear Hamiltonian torus actions. It follows that reduced spaces of such actions admit continuous star products....

  11. Sustainable low cost production of lignocellulosic bioethanol - "The carbon slaughterhouse". A process concept developed by BioGasol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Langvad, Niels Bo

    2008-01-01

    technologies within pretreatment, biogas production and a unique C5-fermentation for maximum ethanol production. The BioGasol concept is a well integrated technology with more than 90% utilization of the energy potential in the biomass. The production of other biofuels such as methane and hydrogen adds value...... in the region. BioGasol has a partnership with Tate & Lyle on the conversion of residual corn fibres into more ethanol. Furthermore in collaboration with Pacific Ethanol BioGasol will build a 2.7 mn Gallon cellulosic ethanol plant co-located with an existing corn to ethanol plant on the US North West Coast.......BioGasol is a combined biotechnology and engineering company in the field of renewable energy. The core competences lie in the development and design of process technologies for the production of bioethanol and other energy products from lignocellulosic biomasses. BioGasol has developed proprietary...

  12. Quantifying the robustness of process manufacturing concept – A medical product case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Troldtoft, M.E.; Eifler, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Product robustness refers to the consistency of performance of all of the units produced. It is often the case that process manufactured products are not designed concurrently, so by the end of the product design phase the Process Manufacturing Concept (PMC) has yet to be decided. Allocating proc...

  13. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  14. The utilisation of the product life cycle concept in South African banks dealing with mortgage products and markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study as demarcated in this article was to test the use of the product life cycle concept (PLC theory among marketing decision-makers and product decision-makers dealing with mortgage products and markets in the leading South African Banks. The main focus was to test the application and likelihood to use the PLC assumptions provided by Kotler (2003:340 on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and the proposed marketing strategies in the four PLC phases. A major finding was that the majority of these decision-makers in banks indicated a high likelihood of continuing to use the product life cycle concept. Another important conclusion of this study was that further empirical research is needed to develop product life cycle concept assumptions to be inclusive of the intangible nature linked to the marketing of services.

  15. Experience in applying lean production concepts in the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyrina Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experience of implementing lean production tools in the company services. The authors have based the research of the chef’s work, built Ishikawa’s diagram on one of the most important problems of the company and proposed the cyclogram of cooks at work. Problems were identified using this technology after analyzing domestic and foreign experience in implementing lean production. The algorithm for implementing lean production and the necessary tools for achievement of the goals of the enterprise were authored on the basis of experience gained analyses of theoretical materials, which were tested on the basis of the small business «White Dragon».

  16. Using an In-Class Demonstration To Enhance Understanding of Product-Costing Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Marianne L.; Blaszcynski, Carol

    2002-01-01

    To help accounting students understand product costing, a class demonstration of the transformation of raw materials into finished goods was conducted. A survey of 55 students found the demonstration was highly correlated with enjoyment, concept usefulness, and improved understanding. (SK)

  17. Algal Biomass for Bioenergy and Bioproducts Production in Biorefinery Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina

    is becoming impellent. Macro- and microalgae have the ability to transform nutrients into valuable biomass. Being a good source of vitamins, minerals, lipids, proteins and pigments, they represent a promising source of various products. However these biomasses are still very little explored as biorefinery...... feedstocks. Biorefinery represents an important tool towards the development of a sustainable economy. Within the biorefinery framework several bioproducts, such as food, feed and biofuels, can be produced from biomass. The specific composition of the biomass feedstock determines the potential final product...

  18. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  19. Realizing block planning concepts in make-and-pack production using MILP modelling and SAP APO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, H.O.; Grunow, M.; Neuhaus, U.

    2006-01-01

    In the industrial application environment considered, different variants of a basic product type are produced using the same resources and following the same basic process plan. To support production planning and scheduling for this type of production system, the concept of block planning...... is introduced, which has gained considerable attention, particularly in the consumer goods industry. A block represents a pre-defined sequence of production orders of variable size. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed block planning concept, we consider the production system...... of a major producer of hair dyes as a case study. We present two different implementations of the block planning concept. One utilizes the Production Planning/Detailed Scheduling module of the SAP APO© software. The other approach is based on a mixed-integer linear programming formulation. In contrast...

  20. Applying the means-end chain concept to product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    This paper proposes that the means-end chain (MEC) approach can influence the use of market information and inter-functional communication in new product development (NPD). The central question is whether market information represented by means-end chain data can be a vehicle for inter-functional...

  1. Quantifying the robustness of process manufacturing concept – A medical product case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Troldtoft, M.E.; Eifler, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Product robustness refers to the consistency of performance of all of the units produced. It is often the case that process manufactured products are not designed concurrently, so by the end of the product design phase the Process Manufacturing Concept (PMC) has yet to be decided. Allocating...... the unit-to-unit robustness of an early-stage for a PMC is proposed. The method uses variability and adjustability information from the manufacturing concept in combination with sensitivity information from products' design to predict its functional performance variation. A Technology maturation factor...

  2. ISOLATION OF VIRUS IN PRODUCTS OF CONCEPTION IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMYAB S.D. AZARI S.D. NATEGH R

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred pa t ient s o f t he l ow socioe conomic g roup wi th an aborti on o f the f i r s t t r i mest e r were stud 1ed . The s ter i l e produc ts o f concept ion were c ul t ured on Gr e e n Monke y Kidney ti s sue cul t ure f or v i r a l de t e c - tion. Four po s i t i ve Herpe s virus, two positive Rubella"nv~ru s and t hree pos i tive unidentifie d Entero v irus l ike Vlrus were obtained The sera of 192 of these patients were titrated for Rubella antibody. The sera of a control group of 150 normal pregnant women were titrated for Rubella antibody and 8.8 per cent of these patients had a negative titre and 21.3 per cent , 1 had a tltre over 40

  3. Agile Organization as a concept of production adjustment in the face of the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Tyszkiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an Agile Organization is the part of the management concepts which aim at adjustment of the production to ever changing environmet. In today’s fast changing landscape, agility may prove to be the difference between success and failure for any business. An organization can be agile only and only if it is focused on business drivers and the factors that shape the business drivers. The aim of the article is to present the concept of an Agile Organization and to identify its basic assumptions for the production in the face of crisis.

  4. Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bezryadin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.

  5. Concepts for laser beam parameter monitoring during industrial mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Nicholas J.; Maerten, Otto; Wolf, Stefan; Kramer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    In today's industrial mass production, lasers have become an established tool for a variety of processes. As with any other tool, mechanical or otherwise, the laser and its ancillary components are prone to wear and ageing. Monitoring of these ageing processes at full operating power of an industrial laser is challenging for a range of reasons. Not only the damage threshold of the measurement device itself, but also cycle time constraints in industrial processing are just two of these challenges. Power measurement, focus spot size or full beam caustic measurements are being implemented in industrial laser systems. The scope of the measurement and the amount of data collected is limited by the above mentioned cycle time, which in some cases can only be a few seconds. For successful integration of these measurement systems into automated production lines, the devices must be equipped with standardized communication interfaces, enabling a feedback loop from the measurement device to the laser processing systems. If necessary these measurements can be performed before each cycle. Power is determined with either static or dynamic calorimetry while camera and scanning systems are used for beam profile analysis. Power levels can be measured from 25W up to 20 kW, with focus spot sizes between 10μm and several millimeters. We will show, backed by relevant statistical data, that defects or contamination of the laser beam path can be detected with applied measurement systems, enabling a quality control chain to prevent process defects.

  6. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  7. The Service for the Customers of Coal Products in the Context of the Conception of Relationship Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing approaches to the service for various groups of customers of coal products in the context of the conception of relationship marketing. Content of the term of «service of the customers of coal products» has been clarified. An analysis of the dynamics of volume and structure of coal consumption in Ukraine was carried out. It has been proven that in organizing the marketing processes in terms of coal enterprise activities, it is appropriate to apply the conception of relationship marketing, essence of which is formation of a partnership based on a customer-oriented approach to the service for customers of coal products. A feature of this approach, unlike the existing ones, is the allocation of different groups of consumers of coal products, taking into consideration the volume of their annual demand and the specifics identified. It has been suggested that a systemic, process, and functional approaches to the organization of processes of service for the consumers of coal products be used in a single complex through the implementation of management functions.

  8. Product quality : an investigation into the concept and how it is perceived by consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are (1) to review the literature on product quality from different perspectives, (2) to develop a model that describes the way consumers form judgments about product quality, and (3) to investigate the proposed model empirically. In addition, price-perceived quality tradeoffs and the relationship between price and product quality in the marketplace are investigated. The main conclusions are summarized in this chapter.

    The concept o...

  9. Integrating landslide and liquefaction hazard and loss estimates with existing USGS real-time earthquake information products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Kate E.; Thompson, Eric M.; Hearne, Mike; Nowicki Jessee, M. Anna; Zhu, J.; Wald, David J.; Tanyas, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made significant progress toward the rapid estimation of shaking and shakingrelated losses through their Did You Feel It? (DYFI), ShakeMap, ShakeCast, and PAGER products. However, quantitative estimates of the extent and severity of secondary hazards (e.g., landsliding, liquefaction) are not currently included in scenarios and real-time post-earthquake products despite their significant contributions to hazard and losses for many events worldwide. We are currently running parallel global statistical models for landslides and liquefaction developed with our collaborators in testing mode, but much work remains in order to operationalize these systems. We are expanding our efforts in this area by not only improving the existing statistical models, but also by (1) exploring more sophisticated, physics-based models where feasible; (2) incorporating uncertainties; and (3) identifying and undertaking research and product development to provide useful landslide and liquefaction estimates and their uncertainties. Although our existing models use standard predictor variables that are accessible globally or regionally, including peak ground motions, topographic slope, and distance to water bodies, we continue to explore readily available proxies for rock and soil strength as well as other susceptibility terms. This work is based on the foundation of an expanding, openly available, case-history database we are compiling along with historical ShakeMaps for each event. The expected outcome of our efforts is a robust set of real-time secondary hazards products that meet the needs of a wide variety of earthquake information users. We describe the available datasets and models, developments currently underway, and anticipated products

  10. A comprehensive review on the implementation of the biorefinery concept in biodiesel production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian David Botero Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel and its production from various generations of feedstocks by using different technologies has been constantly growing globally. However, in spite of such large scale of production, serious considerations should be taken into account to ensure the long-term sustainability of biodiesel production. This issue becomes more of concern given the fact that some generations of feedstocks used for biodiesel production are in clear conflict with food security. The concept of biorefinery has been at the center of attention with an aim to address these challenges by promoting an integral use of biomass to allow the production of multiple products along with biodiesel. Such implementation has been extensively studied over the last years and is expected to lead to economic, environmental, and social advantages over individual processes. The current review first presented an overview on biodiesel, its different feedstocks, and production technologies. Subsequently, the biorefinery concept and its correct implementation was technically discussed. Biodiesel production under the biorefinery scheme was also presented. Finally, techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production under the biorefinery concept by considering palm oil-based biorefinery as case study was investigated.

  11. Peri-conception hyperglycaemia and nephropathy are associated with risk of congenital anomaly in women with pre-existing diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R; Glinianaia, S V; Tennant, P W G; Bilous, R W; Rankin, J

    2012-02-08

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of major congenital anomaly, and to assess the influence of peri-conception HbA(1c) and other clinical and socio-demographic factors on the risk of congenital anomaly occurrence in offspring of women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using linked data from registers of congenital anomaly and diabetes in pregnancy. A total of 401,149 singleton pregnancies (1,677 in women with diabetes) between 1996 and 2008 resulting in live birth, fetal death at ≥20 weeks' gestation or termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly were included. RESULTS: The rate of non-chromosomal major congenital anomaly in women with diabetes was 71.6 per 1,000 pregnancies (95% CI 59.6, 84.9), a relative risk of 3.8 (95% CI 3.2, 4.5) compared with women without diabetes. There was a three- to sixfold increased risk across all common anomaly groups. In a multivariate analysis, peri-conception glycaemic control (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.3 [95% CI 1.2, 1.4] per 1% [11 mmol/mol] linear increase in HbA(1c) above 6.3% [45 mmol/mol]) and pre-existing nephropathy (aOR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1, 5.3]) were significant independent predictors of congenital anomaly. Associations with gestation at booking (aOR 1.1 [95% CI 1.0, 1.1]) and parity (aOR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0, 2. 5]) were not significant. Unadjusted risk was higher for women from deprived areas or who did not take folate. Type and duration of diabetes, ethnicity, age, BMI, preconception care, smoking and fetal sex were not associated with congenital anomaly risk. CONCLUSIONS: Peri-conception glycaemia is the most important modifiable risk factor for congenital anomaly in women with diabetes. The association with nephropathy merits further study.

  12. Smart Product Design and Production Control for Effective Mass Customization in the Industry 4.0 Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawadzki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general concept of smart design and production control as key elements for efficient operation of a smart factory. The authors present various techniques that aid the design process of individualized products and organization of their production in the context of realization of the mass customization strategy, which allows a shortened time of development for a new product. Particular attention was paid to integration of additive manufacturing technologies and virtual reality techniques, which are a base of the so-called hybrid prototyping.

  13. Correction of existing generic and species concepts in Platyceroidini (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae) and the description of four new species of Platyceroides Benesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, M J

    2017-05-23

    The endemic North American stag beetle tribe Platyceroidini Paulsen & Hawks (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae) is reviewed. All primary types were studied and the existing generic and species concepts are subsequently corrected. Based on study of the male genitalia and external morphology, the previously monotypic genus Platyceropsis Benesh is reduced to subgeneric status under Platyceroides Benesh, new status, and the species Platyceroides laticollis (Casey) and Platyceroides keeni (Casey) new combination are transferred to this subgenus. Praocerus, new subgenus, is created to contain the species Platyceroides latus (Fall), and P. viriditinctus (Benesh). In the nominal subgenus, confusion has resulted from the historic misapplication of the oldest available name, Platyceroides agassii (LeConte), resulting in significant underestimation of the number of extant taxa. Lectotypes are designated for four species-group names (listed in their original combinations): Platycerus latus Fall, Platycerus opacus Fall, Platycerus pacificus Casey, and Platycerus parvicollis Casey. Four new species (Platyceroides barrae, P. infernus, P. pampinatus, and P. umpquus) are described from California and Oregon, United States of America. The following species are valid and are removed from synonymy with P. agassii: P. pacificus (Casey), revised status, and P. californicus (Casey), revised status. The synonym Platycerus parvicollis Casey is transferred from Platyceroides agassii to P. californicus, new synonymy. With the addition of four new species and the correction of the mistaken synonymies the total number of species in the tribe Platyceroidini is now 16.

  14. Discussion on the Concept of Forest Public Product Based on the Relationship of Modern Population, Resource and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Changchun; Zhang, Enguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the unbalanced relationship among modern population, resource and environment, as well as the weak awareness and supply-demand conflict of forest public product, the paper exposed the public product function of forestry and explained its meaning, then evaluated the traditional concepts of forestry, product, and forest products, and finally redefined the extension of forest products. On this basis, the concepts of forestry and public products were elaborated, and the connotation, char...

  15. Value Creation Training Course at DENSO for Abilities to Create New Business and New Products Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Hiroo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Imaeda, Makoto

    We are developing training courses to enhance motivation and promote innovation in order to cope with increasing diversity of personal values. As one of the courses, we improved a conventional training course for products development into the training course aiming at acquiring abilities to create new business and/or new products concepts. This paper illustrates the outline of the course and the features in the curriculum to acquire the abilities.

  16. Retained Products of Conception: An Atypical Presentation Diagnosed Immediately with Bedside Emergency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Adkins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with postpartum complaints. Bedside ultrasound is a rapid, accurate, noninvasive modality to evaluate these patients. Objective. To report an atypical case of retained products of conception diagnosed with bedside ultrasound in the emergency department. Case Report. A 27-year-old female who was 1-month postpartum presented with vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and no fever. At the time of initial H&P, bedside ultrasound revealed echogenic material within the endometrial cavity with blood flow seen by color Doppler consistent with retained products of conception. The bedside ultrasound rapidly narrowed the differential and allowed a definitive diagnosis immediately. Ob/Gyn was consulted and dilation and curettage was performed in the operating room. Conclusions. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis for the emergency physician to consider in at-risk patients. The sonographic findings are easily obtained and interpreted by emergency physicians. Earlier diagnosis of this disease process should lead to more focused patient evaluations and management.

  17. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R. [and others

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  18. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sherwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  19. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  20. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  1. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl V. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of “gateway effects”, in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product. Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  2. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V

    2015-05-21

    It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of "gateway effects", in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco) cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives) or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product). Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  3. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  5. Organic Production Business Model and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina ARABSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR considering competitiveness and sustainability issues in contemporary globalizing world is closely linked to organic production being a production system applying holistic approaches in the overall management and production activities and assurance of the highest degree of conformability to sustainable use and preservation of resources. The paper examines the organic production as a business model corresponding to the spheres of CSR regarding society, environment, human capital and work conditions, knowledge and education. The focus in on sustainable business practices in organic production assessed in the study from the point of view of management, environment, human resources, public relations and business environment considered in five dimensions: economic, social, environmental, cultural and accountability.

  6. Microalgae as substrates for fermentative biogas production in a combined biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussgnug, J H; Klassen, V; Schlüter, A; Kruse, O

    2010-10-01

    Most organic matter can be used for bioenergy generation via anaerobic fermentation. Today, crop plants like maize play the dominant role as substrates for renewable biogas production. In this work we investigated the suitability of six dominant microalgae species (freshwater and saltwater algae and cyanobacteria) as alternative substrates for biogas production. We could demonstrate that the biogas potential is strongly dependent on the species and on the pretreatment. Fermentation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was efficient with a production of 587 ml(±8.8 SE) biogas g volatile solids(-1) (VS(-1)), whereas fermentation of Scenedesmus obliquus was inefficient with only 287 ml(±10.1 SE) biogas g VS(-1) being produced. Drying as a pretreatment decreased the amount of biogas production to ca. 80%. The methane content of biogas from microalgae was 7-13% higher compared to biogas from maize silage. To evaluate integrative biorefinery concepts, hydrogen production in C. reinhardtii prior to anaerobic fermentation of the algae biomass was measured and resulted in an increase of biogas generation to 123% (±3.7 SE). We conclude that selected algae species can be good substrates for biogas production and that anaerobic fermentation can seriously be considered as final step in future microalgae-based biorefinery concepts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kota Bharu Islamic City – The Concept of a New Cultural Tourism Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concept of the Kota Bharu Islamic city in the eyes of tourists, with focus on recent trends affecting Malay cultural landscape and urban planning issues in Kelantan. The aims of this study are to introduce the concept of the Kota Bharu Islamic City as the new cultural tourism product in Malaysia as well as to enhance the reputation of the concept at the highest peak and Malay community development in Malaysia by using multiple methods including literature review, site observation and document analysis. The Kelantan Malay heritage should be highlighted as a main consideration in the future planning to avoid further damage or loss of valuable heritage. Finally, a regional vernacular tradition should be set as the focal point in making of the Islamic City of Kota Bharu without mimicking from other Islamic countries and subsequently the concept of the Kota Bharu Islamic City to be promoted as a new cultural tourism product in Malaysia will be successful.

  8. Multi-board concept - a scenario based approach for supporting product quality and life cycle oriented design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John; Hertzum, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the multi-board concept, which is a working approach for supporting life cycle oriented design and product quality. Aspects of this concept include construction of a common working environment where multiple display boards depict scenarios of the product life cycle, creat...

  9. Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology; Dynamic Aspects of the Introduction and Dissemination of New Concepts in Industrial Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Baas (Leo)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses the awareness-raising processes related to the development and dissemination of new concepts such as pollution prevention, cleaner production and industrial ecology. The concepts of Cleaner production and Pollution prevention can both be described as: `the

  10. The liquid concept in Zygmunt Bauman: contemporaneity and production of subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bianchi Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is discuss the concept of liquid from the work of Zygmunt Bauman. Therefore, a debate was held from three analysis axes: the order, uncertainty and dissatisfaction. It’s seen a new man setting in this liquefied scenario, marked by the modification and extension of the notion of time and space electing the consumption as society parameter in view of the loss of reference of social institutions while organizing and guiding sphere of life, which challenges the individual to survive in the middle of the instability that all of this represent. Thus, the term employee seeks to demonstrate the existence of a new relationship between man and the world, marked by identity instability, the weakening link and establishing relationships mediated by sense of fear. It concludes that the concept investigated is not configured as a complete breakdown of the assumptions of modernity, but rather, its radicalization.

  11. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  12. Productive potentials or protected individuals? The concept of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...... in research as well as clinical experiences from advanced welfare services might support a new model for understanding mental vulnerability....

  13. Nanocrystals of medium soluble actives--novel concept for improved dermal delivery and production strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-08-15

    After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration. Caffeine was used as model compound with relevance to market products, and a particular process was developed for the production of caffeine nanocrystals to overcome the supersaturation related effect of crystal growth and fiber formation - typical with medium soluble compounds. It is based on low energy milling (pearl milling) in combination with low dielectric constant dispersion media (water-ethanol or ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures) and optimal stabilizers. Most successful was Carbopol(®) 981 (e.g. 20% caffeine in ethanol-propylene glycol 3:7 with 2% Carbopol, w/w). Nanocrystals with varied sizes can now be produced in a controlled process e.g. 660 nm (optimal for hair follicle accumulation) to 250 nm (optimal for fast dissolution). The short term test proved stability over 2 months of the present formulation being sufficient to perform in vivo testing of the novel concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key factors of formation, development and destruction (absorption related branches of knowledge the industrial production management as the theory and practical activities, given the critical approach to its nature and processes. Revealed common signs of the industrial production management need as a field of knowledge in the framework of previous and current industrial revolutions. It is shown that the industrial production management effectively solves the problem of subsistence economy, and substantiates that the modern digital economy also has the characteristics of subsistence economy. It is important the necessity of formulation of a new organizational thinking, the implementation of which is possible in the modern interpretation of the project office. The article represents the theoretical basis for developing practical recommendations for the formation of the new concept of industrial production management to take advantage of the impact of engineering component on the economic results and the creation of project offices for the development of traditional and created markets in the organization of a new production mode (based on the digital economy.

  15. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... (> 95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol...

  16. Narrative transportation in concept tests for really new products: the moderating effect of reader-protagonist similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, E.A.; Dahl, D.W.; Schoormans, J.P.L.; Snelders, D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate the benefits of using a narrative (i.e., a storyline featuring a protagonist) to convey product information in the evaluation of really new product concepts by consumers. In the context of early product evaluation, the imagination of consumers can be guided by a narrative

  17. New process concepts for CO2 post-combustion capture process integrated with co-production of hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M.R.M.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansens, P.J.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a study in advanced post-combustion based on CO2-capture technologies to be integrated within the Hypogyny concept (electricity generation with co-hydrogen production). Two different Hypogen concepts based on integrating IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) and

  18. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low

  19. The FlexControl concept - a vision, a concept and a product for the future power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2011-01-01

    in order to maintain the power balances and the high security of supply and power quality in all parts of the grid. FlexControl is a flexible, modular, scalable and generic control concept designed for smart control of a huge number of distributed, controllable power units (DERs) in the power system. Flex...

  20. Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

  1. Legal concepts to eliminate the bottleneck in energy-saving modernisations for existing buildings; Rechtskonzepte zur Beseitigung des Staus energetischer Sanierungen im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The research project looked at the following: 1. Whether and to what extent the German tenancy law creates, on the one hand, adequate incentives for energy-saving modernisations of existing buildings, on the one hand, and, on the other, whether it creates legal obstacles. 2. How these obstacles could be eliminated i.e. by changing existing tenancy law and instead creating stimuli for energy-saving modernization of existing rental buildings. The report contents a number of specific recommendations for an energy-related reform of the German tenancy law. Major recommendations are: - to eliminate the current toleration duty for modernisation measures if changes are made to the building that conflict with the duties arising from the energy saving provisions of public law, - to consider energy-saving characteristics in the reference rent customary in the locality, - to create a possibility for imposing a flat-rate surcharge which is linked to the savings in heating costs for energy-saving improvement. (orig.)

  2. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  3. Influence of stage of lactation and level of milk production on conception rates after timed artificial insemination following Ovsynch

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    Influence of stage of lactation and level of milk production on conception rates after timed artificial insemination following Ovsynch It was the objective of this study to investigate, whether conception rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI), are influenced by the stage of lactation or the level of milk production. In the experiment 1288 Holstein cows of a commercial dairy herd in Brandenburg, Germany, were used. All cows were examined by palpation of the uterus between ...

  4. Polygeneration-IGCC concepts for the production of hydrogen rich fuels based on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Bernd; Ogriseck, Katrin

    2007-08-15

    This paper presents three IGCC-power plant concepts for central production of a hydrogen-rich fuel (methanol, hydrogen, synthetic natural gas SNG) from lignite. Each concept contains a CO{sub 2} separation, which produces a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} rich stream. Thus, CO{sub 2} emissions caused by use of lignite are considerably reduced. Furthermore, the produced low-carbon fuels are converted in decentralised Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHPP). CHPP leads to high efficiencies of fuel utilisation between 54 and 62%, which exceed the efficiencies of single power generation. Regarding to the CO{sub 2} emissions of a natural gas fired CHPP, heat and power can be generated by lignite as clean as by natural gas. The specific CO{sub 2} emissions are even much lower in the case of hydrogen production. Costs for the centrally produced methanol and hydrogen are with 29 and 19 EUR/MWh(LHV) already within an economic range. Synthetic natural gas can be produced for 23 EUR/MWh (LHV).

  5. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-11-15

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  7. Evaluation of the Potential for the Production of Lignocellulosic Based Ethanol at Existing Corn Ethanol Facilities: Final Subcontract Report, 2 March 2000 - 30 March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Subcontract report on opportunities to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. The goals of this study were: (1) To provide the opportunity to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. (2) To take advantage of the grain-processing infrastructure by investigating the co-location of additional biomass conversion facilities at an existing plant site.

  8. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  9. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment for remanufactured products : a critical review of existing studies and an illustrative case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Remanufacturing is an important strategy in the manufacturing industry. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to measure whether, and to what extent, a remanufactured product is ‘better’ for the environment than a newly produced equivalent. In order to obtain valid and meaningful outcomes, LCA

  10. Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a

  11. THE ANCIENT FOUNDATION’S CONCEPT OF THE FAIR RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ILIADI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses about the development of philosophical concepts, motivation and fair protection of national-public interests of the state and the population. Particular attention is given to the contribution to solving the problem from outstanding creative personalities of ancient Greece. For ancient thinkers gathering knowledge and its use for reasonable welfare of the country and citizens is higher than any other activity. Contemporary issues of fair relations of production and distribution remain popular in most countries, including the Republic of Moldova which recently became an independent state. Conceptual approaches can be used to develop strategies and tactics of motivating the fair protection of national-public interests of the state and the population, both in law and in their practical implementation.

  12. A neutron production target for ESS based upon the Canned-rods concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglino, A., E-mail: angeloglinovoa@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Terrón, S. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomsen, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wolters, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Magán, M.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, P.J. de; Vivanco, R.; Sordo, F. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Butzek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-21

    The neutron production targets operating within the present day spallation neutron sources in the MW power range are either based on water-cooled solid state devices such as that implemented at the SINQ source at PSI or liquid metal loops such as those installed at SNS and MLSF. Here we describe a water-cooled rotating solid target as an option for the 5 MW ESS project as an alternative to the current design based upon a helium-cooled solid rotating target. Implementation of the proposed option would provide comparable neutronic performance to that of the gas-cooled concept and furthermore, it would involve a relatively straightforward adaptation of the current ESS baseline geometry.

  13. Concepts for fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The huge success of Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without detailed detector simulation of the experiments. The outstanding performance of the accelerator with a delivered integrated luminosity of 25 fb-1 has created an unprecedented demand for large simulated event samples. This has stretched the possibilities of the experiments due to the constraint of their computing infrastructure and available resources. Modern, concurrent computing techniques optimized for new processor hardware are being exploit to boost future computing resources, but even most optimistic scenarios predict that additional action needs to be taken to guarantee sufficient Monte Carlo production statistics for high quality physics results during Run 2. In recent years, the ATLAS collaboration has put dedicated effort in the development of a new Integrated Simulation Framework (ISF) that allows running full and fast simulation approaches in parallel and even within one event. We present the main concepts of the ISF, which a...

  14. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  15. Do Digital Systems and Concept in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics......Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service...

  16. Marijuana as a 'concept' flavour for cigar products: availability and price near California schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Ababseh, Kimberly; Johnson, Trent O; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2017-10-12

    To assess the retail availability of cigar products that refer to marijuana and the largest package size of cigarillos available for ≤$1. Trained data collectors conducted marketing surveillance in a random sample of licensed tobacco retailers that sold little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) (n=530) near a statewide sample of middle and high schools (n=132) in California. Multilevel models examined the presence of marijuana co-marketing and cigarillo pack size as a function of school/neighbourhood characteristics and adjusted for store type. Of stores that sold LCCs, approximately 62% contained at least one form of marijuana co-marketing: 53.2% sold cigar wraps marketed as blunt wraps, 27.2% sold cigarillos marketed as blunts and 26.0% sold at least one LCC with a marijuana-related 'concept' flavour. Controlling for store type, marijuana co-marketing was more prevalent in school neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of young residents (ages 5-17 years) and with lower median household income. Nearly all stores that sold LCCs (87.9%) offered the products for ≤$1. However, significantly larger packs at similarly low prices were available near schools in lower-income neighbourhoods and with a lower percentage of Hispanic students. Understanding how the tobacco industry manipulates cigar products and marketing to capitalise on the appeal of marijuana to youth and other priority populations is important to inform regulation, particularly for flavoured tobacco products. In addition, the retail availability of five and six packs of LCCs for ≤$1 near California schools underscores policy recommendations to establish minimum prices for multipacks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The contribution of nucleation to the global CCN budget spans a relatively large uncertainty range, which, together with our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions, results in major uncertainties in the radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. In order to better quantify the role of atmospheric nucleation in CCN formation and Earth System behavior, more information is needed on (i the factors controlling atmospheric CCN production and (ii the properties of both primary and secondary CCN and their interconnections. In future investigations, more emphasis should be put on combining field measurements with regional and large-scale model studies.

  18. Produtividade sistêmica: conceitos e aplicações Systemic productivity: concepts and aplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Cesar de Oliveira King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de temas relacionados à produtividade ocupa um lugar de destaque na agenda estratégica das empresas desde a gênese dos modelos de produção em massa. Vários modelos, processos e técnicas vêm sendo desenvolvidos com o propósito de melhorar os atuais níveis de desempenho das organizações. O conceito de produtividade evoluiu de uma abordagem unidimensional para um enfoque sistêmico, no entanto as diferentes técnicas desenvolvidas para a sua mensuração tratam de dimensões específicas. Há, portanto, a necessidade de se integrar tais técnicas em um modelo de gestão pela produtividade sistêmica, o que constitui o principal objetivo deste artigo. Partindo da construção de um conjunto de determinantes teóricos que representam a produtividade sistêmica, desenvolveu-se um processo para a sua mensuração utilizando-se como metodologia a abordagem por processos de Cambridge. Tal processo foi refinado via entrevistas e é ilustrado por um caso de simulação.The study of themes related to productivity has occupied a special place in the strategic agenda of enterprises since the beginnings of mass production. Several models, processes and techniques have been developed with the purpose of improving the present performance levels of organizations. The concept of productivity has been following an evolution cycle from one-dimension approach to a systemic view; however, the different techniques used for its measurement are designed only for some of its specific dimensions. There is a need for integrating those techniques through a systemic productivity management model, and this is the main objective of this paper. Starting from a set of theoretical guidelines that represents the systemic productivity management model, a process was developed for its measurement using the Cambridge process approach. This process was refined by interviews with experts and illustrated by a case study simulation.

  19. Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Shirai, Tatsuo; Osawa, Takefumi; Terawaki, Yoshinori; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of heat stress (HS) on production traits, somatic cell score (SCS) and conception rate at first insemination (CR) in Holsteins in Japan. We used a total of 228 242 records of milk, fat and protein yields, and SCS for the first three lactations, as well as of CR in heifers and in first- and second-lactation cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2012. Records from 47 prefectural weather stations throughout Japan were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI); areas were categorized into three regional groups: no HS (THI < 72), mild HS (72 ≤ THI < 79), and moderate HS (THI ≥ 79). Trait records from the three HS-region groups were treated as three different traits and trivariate animal models were used. The genetic correlations between milk yields from different HS groups were very high (0.91 to 0.99). Summer calving caused the greatest increase in SCS, and in the first and second lactations this increase became greater as THI increased. In cows, CR was affected by the interaction between HS group and insemination month: with summer and early autumn insemination, there was a reduction in CR, and it was much larger in the mild- and moderate-HS groups than in the no-HS group. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Concept Design of New Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karunakaran Nair Ajith; Jagathy Raj, Vettuvila Purushothaman

    2017-04-01

    A successful engineering design is one that meets the user requirements completely. Design essentially starts with concept design followed by detailed design. The importance of concept design is brought out in this paper. Systems engineering principles and practices are used to build the concept design starting from user requirements and user specified reference scenarios. Systems engineering methodology helps in proper understanding of the user requirements, identifying multiple solutions, short listing the candidate solutions and finally selecting one or two feasible designs. A case study analysis is presented to demonstrate the systems engineering practices followed for concept abstraction and preliminary design of a typical engineering system.

  1. Sensitivity of Water-Energy Nexus to dam operation: A Water-Energy Productivity concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Mohammed; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and modelling the complex nature of interlinkages between water and energy are essential for efficient use of the two resources. Hydropower storage dams represent an interesting example of the water-energy interdependencies since they are often multipurpose. The concept of Water-Energy Productivity (WEP), defined as the amount of energy produced per unit of water lost in the process, is introduced in this study to illustrate the relationship between energy generation and water losses by examining the sensitivity of the Water-Energy Nexus (WEN) to changing dam operation policy. This concept is demonstrated by developing a water allocation model of the White Nile in Sudan, including Jebel Aulia Dam (JAD), using a general river and reservoir simulation software called RiverWare. A number of 77 operation scenarios of JAD are examined for 30 hydrologic years (1980-2009), considering reducing the Full Supply Level (FSL) gradually from its current value to the minimum possible value, increasing the Minimum Operating Level (MOL) gradually to the maximum possible level, and operating the dam at a Constant Operating Level (COL). The results show that raising the operating level does not necessarily increase the WEP. In comparison to the current policy, the analysis shows that a maximum WEP of 32.6GWh/BCM (GWh/Billion Cubic Meters) would be reached by raising the MOL to 375masl (meters above sea level), resulting in an increase in average annual energy generation to 164.6GWh (+18.1%) at the expense of an annual water loss of 5.05BCM (+12.7%). Even though this operation policy results in a more efficient water use compared to the original operation policy, a basin-wide assessment that includes all hydropower storage dams in the Nile basin should be conducted to decide on where and how much energy should be generated. The present analysis and future examination of the multi-dimensions of the WEN in the context of dam operation are imperative to improve the

  2. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  3. Comparison of the new Japanese legislation for expedited approval of regenerative medicine products with the existing systems in the USA and European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Yoji; Yano, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-02-17

    Legislation for expedited-approval pathways and programmes for drugs, biologics or medical devices has been enacted for rapid commercialization of innovative products in the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU). However, less innovative products are increasingly benefitting from these expedited-approval pathways, and obligations to collect and report post-marketing data on approved products are being bypassed frequently. The Japanese government recently enacted legislation for a new conditional and time-limited approval pathway dedicated to regenerative medicine products. The current study examines this new legislation and compares it with existing US and EU regulatory frameworks, with a particular focus on how it addresses the limitations of existing systems. Regulations, guidance documents and approval information were gathered from the websites of the respective authorities in the USA, the EU and Japan, and the systems were categorized through qualitative analysis. The pathways and programmes from each region were categorized into four groups, based on the requirement of pre- or post-marketing clinical data. Expedited-approval pathways in the USA and the EU provide similar qualification criteria, such as severity of target disease; however, such criteria are not specified for the new pathway in Japan. Only the Japanese pathway stipulates a time limitation on exceptional approval, requiring post-marketing study for conditional and time-limited products. Continuous improvement is necessary to solve previously addressed issues within the expedited-approval pathways and programmes and to ensure that innovative medical products are rigourously screened, but also readily available to patients in need. The time limitation of conditional approval could be a potential solution to some of these problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Tissue Engineering Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Tissue

  4. The EXIST OIRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Golisano, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, H.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST Optical / Infrared Telescope (OIRT) has been integrated into the EXIST concept design for the determination GRB redshifts on orbit and to preform follow up source identification and studies following the generation of a trigger from the EXIST high energy telescope (HET). The base OIRT main design has been inherited from the NextView OIRT has been operating in low earth orbit since September of 2007 and is currently being used for the acquisition of geospatial data. After reconfiguration of the instrumentation for astrophysical observations the OIRT will have an angular resolution of 0.15" and a 5'×5' field of view and be sensitive to emission in the range of 0.4 $\\mu$m - 2.2 $\\mu$m. Passive cooling of the tertiary, secondary, and primary mirrors will enable observation into the Ks$ band.

  5. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  6. Development of a concept for the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products for authorization purposes (BIOEXPO). Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Dokkum, H.P. van; Scholten, M.C.Th.; Bakker, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Directive (Draft 97/C69/03; latest version December 12' 1997, 95/0465 (COD); PE CONS 3633/97) will complete the European chemicals regulation, which consists of the directives on existing substances (Council regu-lation 793/93), new substances (Directive 92/32/EC) and agricultural pesticides (Directive 91/414/EC). Biocides include a wide range of product types, such as pest control products, disinfectants, preservatives, and antifouling products. In Annex V of the Biocid...

  7. Cyber-physical production systems combined with logistic models - a learning factory concept for an improved production planning and control

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Kai-Frederic; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, production enterprises are faced with an array of challenges including increasing pressure regarding costs, demands for individualized products as well as the growing significance of logistic performance and costs, to name just a few. These in turn give rise to special requirements that the production planning, control and monitoring, among others, need to meet with suitable methods and techniques. Within this context, developments such as Industry 4.0 and cyber-physical production ...

  8. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus......, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. [Metabolic isotopic effects of carbon and production process in cultivated plants in light of oscillatory concept for photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A A; Dubinskiĭ, A Iu; Pichuzhkin, V I

    2013-01-01

    Some perspectives on the use of stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in studying production processes are considered. It has been shown that the efficiency of the isotope technique depends on the adequacy of the chosen model. The model of isotope fractionation proposed based on the oscillatory concept of photosynthesis provides for more accurate and comprehensive description of the observed empirical correlations between the yield (bioproductivity) and carbon isotope composition in cereal cultures as compared with the widely used stationary model.

  10. Animal welfare: concepts and practical procedures to evaluate the swine productions systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manteca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of animal welfare have received a wide discussion by international scientific community during the last decades. The most accepted definition consider the animal welfare like a multidimensional theme, where are involved the emotion, the biological activity and the natural behavior. However, considering the clearness of this concepts, another challenge is presented, where is questioned how we can evaluate the animal welfare in commercial systems. Thus, the Welfare Quality® project gave the understanding about the welfare subjects and how we can to evaluate its in commercial farms and slaughterhouses. Then the main of this article is present the principal concepts and practical means to evaluate the animal welfare in swine, according the Welfare Quality® protocols, with the identifications of the positive and critical aspects involved.

  11. Production process stability - core assumption of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromjakova, F.; Bobak, R.; Hrusecka, D.

    2017-06-01

    Today’s industrial enterprises are confronted by implementation of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept with basic problem - stabilised manufacturing and supporting processes. Through this phenomenon of stabilisation, they will achieve positive digital management of both processes and continuously throughput. There is required structural stability of horizontal (business) and vertical (digitized) manufacturing processes, supported through digitalised technologies of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept. Results presented in this paper based on the research results and survey realised in more industrial companies. Following will described basic model for structural process stabilisation in manufacturing environment.

  12. Development of a concept for the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products for authorization purposes (BIOEXPO). Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, H.P. van; Scholten, M.C.Th.; Bakker, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Directive (Draft 97/C69/03; latest version December 12' 1997, 95/0465 (COD); PE CONS 3633/97) will complete the European chemicals regulation, which consists of the directives on existing substances (Council regu-lation 793/93), new substances (Directive 92/32/EC) and

  13. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  14. National organic standards for Iran: I. Concepts, principles and aims of organic production and standards for agronomic and horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghorbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture and non-chemical crop production have a long story; however organic agriculture which relies on local and in-farm inputs, with the aim of protecting ecological balances and developing biological cycles on the one hand while regarding regulations and specific standards on the other hand, doesn’t have a very long history. There are numerous environmental reasons for the priority of organic agriculture to conventional systems such as increasing biodiversity, reducing chemical residue in plant and animal products, reducing greenhouse gases and air temperatures; and socio-economic factors like equity and sustainability. Worldwide, in 2006 about 31 million hectares were managed organically with estimated international sales of over 38 billion US dollars. There are very specific standards, regulations and criteria for organic agriculture for the security of producers and consumers, suitable competition between producers and clear regulations for international trades of organic products. Standards in organic agriculture are principles, regulations and criteria that must be considered from production up to processing and consumption. Although Iran has a very long history in agriculture and a variety of cereals and pulses have been domesticated in its regions, unfortunately, there are no organic production plans and standards for this country. During these recent years, there have been international interests especially on behalf of European countries towards exporting some organic products such as pistachio, walnut, date, fresh fruits and saffron from Iran, but the main reason for the refusal of our products could be the absence of organic standards which are to be considered during the production of those products. The present paper recommends the principles and standards, considering IFOAM standards for organic plant products in Iran.

  15. Kierkegaardovo pojetí existence

    OpenAIRE

    Janatová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Kierkegaard's conception of existence". There are both the life of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and his philosophy discussed. The issue of human existence is analysed with its main three stages which are focused on aesthetics, ethics and religion. These stages of existence are at first described and afterwards compared with each other. The aesthetic represents the first stage of life and the religious stage is considered to be the highest aim o...

  16. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Microarray Ploidy Analysis of Paraffin-Embedded Products of Conception in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Budinetz, Tara; Sueldo, Carolina; Anspach, Erica; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2015-07-01

    To compare the analysis of chromosome number from paraffin-embedded products of conception using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray with the recommended screening for the evaluation of couples presenting with recurrent pregnancy loss who do not have previous fetal cytogenetic data. We performed a retrospective cohort study including all women who presented for a new evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss over a 2-year period (January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013). All participants had at least two documented first-trimester losses and both the recommended screening tests and SNP microarray performed on at least one paraffin-embedded products of conception sample. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray identifies all 24 chromosomes (22 autosomes, X, and Y). Forty-two women with a total of 178 losses were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded products of conception from 62 losses were sent for SNP microarray. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray successfully diagnosed fetal chromosome number in 71% (44/62) of samples, of which 43% (19/44) were euploid and 57% (25/44) were noneuploid. Seven of 42 (17%) participants had abnormalities on recurrent pregnancy loss screening. The per-person detection rate for a cause of pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the SNP microarray (0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.64) compared with recurrent pregnancy loss evaluation (0.17; 95% CI 0.08-0.31) (P=.002). Participants with one or more euploid loss identified on paraffin-embedded products of conception were significantly more likely to have an abnormality on recurrent pregnancy loss screening than those with only noneuploid results (P=.028). The significance remained when controlling for age, number of losses, number of samples, and total pregnancies. These results suggest that SNP microarray testing of paraffin-embedded products of conception is a valuable tool for the evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss in patients without prior fetal

  17. GAEC cross-compliance standard Vegetation buffer on water courses: possible methods of detection by Remote Sensing products and existing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Tosi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agency for Agricultural Payments National Payment Agency (AGEA in Italy, in order to manage and control EU farmer subsidies in Agriculture, is supported by SIN, an owned public/private company, aiming at facing technical solutions and innovation developments. Since 2005 SIN-AGEA have been testing and performing innovation tools and methods, especially in CAP cross compliance application. A vegetation buffer strip is requested, flanking pre-defined water streams, by Reg. EC 73/2009, CAP cross compliance policies, with pertinence from 2012. Due to the existing collaboration agreement JRC-AGEA-SIN, and the Rete Rurale Nazionale, tests and feasibility have been started to: - improve the knowledge of cross compliance; - identify feasible farmer obligations and clear rules of behaviour; - develop updated controls methods; - integrate available territorial information, creating awareness and user connection The paper faces criteria definition for water streams identification, application areas, different risk zones, buffer width, efficiency indicators, through: existing data, new Remote Sensing (RS products and GIS tools for watersheds characterization. A shared decision, both for methodology and homogeneous farmer commitments at national/EU level, using validated layers/data set, at contained costs, is the main target.

  18. Development of a concept that combines the production of biogas with the elimination of ammonia in agricultural wastes; Developpement d'un concept combine de production de biogaz et d'elimination de l'ammoniac applique aux effluents agricoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau, H.; Membrez, Y; Dovat, J.; Tacchini, C. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Villegas, J.; Holliger, Ch. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Environnementale (LBE), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a concept that allows the production of biogas whilst eliminating ammonia-emissions in agricultural wastes. The authors state that the biological treatment of ammonia using classical procedures of nitrification / de-nitrification faces two major problems: cost and complexity. The results of experimental research conducted at the Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on the digested effluent of an existing biogas installation are presented and discussed. The production of biogas and ammonia emissions are examined along with recent developments in this area. The installation examined is described and its characteristics are discussed. An experimental installation for the treatment of ammonia emissions is described. The results of the experiments are presented and discussed. Feasibility and costs are also examined.

  19. Case studies of large-scale biorefining concepts for production of biofuels, fertilizer, and feed - recent Danish developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Boland, Ludovic; Honnay, Stephanie; Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz (Aalborg Univ., Esbjerg Inst. of Technology, Bioenergy and Biotechnology Research Group, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark)). e-mail: jhn@bio.sdu.dk; Madsen, Michael (Aalborg Univ., Esbjerg Inst. of Technology, ACABS Research Group, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2008-10-15

    Biorefinery concepts have attracted much attention over the past years, since these integrated systems based on renewable carbon sources can substitute a wide range of inefficient chemical syntheses and on top supply the global society with renewable energy in the form of biofuels, but the challenge is to make the carbon footprint as low as possible. It has to outrange the fossil transport fuels and the old first generation biofuels, fossil fuel energy generation based. The biotechnological approach exerts some fundamental advantages compared to the classical chemical synthesis. Low process temperature, low energy consumption, and high product specificity are the most important ones. Meanwhile, many biorefinery projects have been criticized for not being sustainable and they often hit very low scores in Life Cycle Analyses compared to fossil fuel technology, since current biorefineries utilize fossil fuels for both cultivation of the agricultural feedstocks and the biorefining itself. The core in any biorefinery concept must be to utilize the feedstock(s) optimally and to exert optimal energy efficiency, mainly based on renewable energy in order for the concept to be truly sustainable. In the context of bioenergy production, the best possible carbon dioxide reduction effect must also be obtained given the circumstances. The challenge is to make biomass based products with as low carbon footprint as possible. Several large-scale biorefinery projects are being planned in Denmark in these years. The debate is very much focused on the applied technologies in the proposed concepts (i.e. 1st generation versus 2nd generation liquid biofuels). In this paper, the authors would like to draw the attention to the base assumptions feedstock yield (kg dry matter/ha) and feedstock composition. Feedstocks such as sugar beets and maize silage both have huge potentials in the context of biorefining and can show excellent efficiencies provided they are cultivated and processed in a

  20. Sustainability Concept in Decision-Making: Carbon Tax Consideration for Joint Product Mix Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Tsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions are receiving greater scrutiny in many countries due to international forces to reduce anthropogenic global climate change. Carbon taxation is one of the most common carbon emission regulation policies, and companies must incorporate it into their production and pricing decisions. Activity-based costing (ABC and the theory of constraints (TOC have been applied to solve product mix problems; however, a challenging aspect of the product mix problem involves evaluating joint manufactured products, while reducing carbon emissions and environmental pollution to fulfill social responsibility. The aim of this paper is to apply ABC and TOC to analyze green product mix decision-making for joint products using a mathematical programming model and the joint production data of pharmaceutical industry companies for the processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs in drugs for medical use. This paper illustrates that the time-driven ABC model leads to optimal joint product mix decisions and performs sensitivity analysis to study how the optimal solution will change with the carbon tax. Our findings provide insight into ‘sustainability decisions’ and are beneficial in terms of environmental management in a competitive pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Product quality : an investigation into the concept and how it is perceived by consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are (1) to review the literature on product quality from different perspectives, (2) to develop a model that describes the way consumers form judgments about product quality, and (3) to investigate the proposed model empirically. In addition,

  2. The last food mile concept as a city logistics solution for perishable products

    OpenAIRE

    Eléonora Morganti; Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2015-01-01

    Cet article analyse la logistique du dernier kilomètre pour les produits frais, dans les différents secteurs impliqués, i.e. grande distribution organisée, commerces indépendants et secteur de la restauration. Nous présentons deux concepts : celui du pole alimentaire et celui du dernier kilomètre alimentaire, ainsi qu'un cadre d'analyse pour comprendre la distribution alimentaire en ville. Pour l'illustrer, deux expériences de logistique alimentaire urbaine sont comparés à une situation de ré...

  3. Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), anchoring of the life cycle concept in industry and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1999-01-01

    The Danish methodology and tools for environmental assessment of products (EDIP) became public available in 1996-97. Following the EDIP-project, projects reflecting methodological developments and simplifications for a broader use have been lanuched, also taking the methodology beyond Danish...... borders and into Europe and Asia. Simplification projects comprise development of a manual for SME's and identification of product families. Industrial applications are exemplified by a product development project at the pump manufacturer Grundfos, and by this company's use of the EDIP...

  4. The Improvement of Answering Questions Skills in Solubility and Solubility Product Concept by Problem Solving Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    marthandila, ria; Fadiawati, Noor; diawati, chansyanah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the effectiveness of problem solving learning model in solubility and solubility product concept to enhance skill in answering questions. Students who became the subject of this research was XI grade of Science 1 Batanghari Senior High School in Batanghari Academic Year 2011/2012. This research used the pre-experimental method and one group pretest-posttest design. The effectiveness of problem solving learning model was determined based on the ave...

  5. A Process Concept for High-Purity Production of Amines by Transaminase-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis: Combining Enzyme Cascade and Membrane-Assisted ISPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börner, Tim; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl

    2015-01-01

    in situ product removal (ISPR) approach using liquid-membrane extraction together with an enzyme cascade. This ISPR strategy facilitates very high (>98%) product purity with an integrated enrichment step and eliminates product as well as coproduct inhibition. In the presented proof-of-concept alanine...

  6. An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production : Fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A new treatment concept for drinking water production from surface water has been investigated on a pilot scale. The treatment concept consists of fluidized ion exchange (FIEX), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC). The FIEX process removed

  7. The QWERTY/EE concept, Quantifying Recyclability and Eco-Efficiency for End-of-Life Treatment of Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The QWERTY/EE concept addresses recyclability and eco-efficiency of take-back and recycling of consumer electronic products, a topic currently receiving large international attention. Through the environmental part of the concept an alternative for usual weight based recycling percentages is

  8. Customized, rapid-production microstereotactic table for surgical targeting: description of concept and in vitro validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, Robert F. [Vanderbilt University, Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nashville, TN (United States); Mitchell, Jason [Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Balachandran, Ramya [Vanderbilt University, Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fitzpatrick, J.M. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-05-15

    To introduce a novel microstereotactic frame, called the Microtable, consisting of a tabletop that mounts on bone-implanted spherical markers. The microtable is customized for individual patient anatomy to guide a surgical instrument to a specified target. Fiducial markers are bone-implanted, and CT scanning is performed. A microtable is custom-designed for the location of the markers and the desired surgical trajectory and is constructed using a computer-numerical-control machine. Validation studies were performed on phantoms with geometry similar to that for cochlear implant surgery. Two designs were tested with two different types of fiducial markers. Mean targeting error of the microtables for the two designs were 0.37{+-}0.18 and 0.60{+-}0.21 mm (n=5). Construction of each microtable required approximately 6 min. The new frame achieves both high accuracy and rapid fabrication. We are currently using the microtable for clinical testing of the concept of percutaneous cochlear implant surgery. (orig.)

  9. Biorefineries: from concepts to reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The concept of biorefineries addresses the conversion of plant biomass to fuels, materials and chemicals, waste streams being minimized and used for the production of electricity and heat. Four different types are presently discussed: - Sugar-based biorefineries - Whole-crop biorefineries - Green biorefineries - Lignocellulose biorefineries Besides the lack of existing technical solutions and limited land resources, competition with food production and, as a consequence, rising raw material prices considered. (orig.)

  10. The Nemesis E-Learning 4-Sectors-Model - A Concept to Enhance the Reusability of E-Learning Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hendricks

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-Sectors-Model has been developed by the TU Berlin and is intended to facilitate providing customized e-learning products to different target learner groups, while keeping the same basic content. This is made possible by the independent development of user interface and content. The different components are assembled at the end to produce the final e-learning product. Software development is based on the Generative Learning Objects concept (UCeL. Further improvements based on results of the ongoing test phase will make the 4-Sectors-Model better adapted to fit user needs. Finally, this project is dedicated to establishing a high standard of didactic quality for the future development of e-learning software at the TU Berlin.

  11. Concept evaluation of a nuclear design for electronuclear fuel production: evaluation of ORNL's proposed TMF--ENFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T.J.; Bartine, D.E.; Renier, J.P.

    1979-05-01

    The use of an external neutron source, generated via an accelerator, represents a potential means for producing the fissile isotopes /sup 233/U and /sup 239/Pu. One promising accelerator-breeder concept employs a sodium-cooled ternary metal fertile blanket (/sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th) surrounding a central column of sodium. A preliminary assessment of the neutronic characteristics and the relevant economic parameters for this system, designated the TMF--ENFP (Ternary Metal Fueled ElectroNuclear Fuel Producer) is described here. The rationale for selecting the particular configuration utilized was addressed from the standpoints of fissile production, heat generation, and target interaction. The basic assumption assumed a 300-mA beam of 1-GeV protons from the accelerator. A calculational model of the target blanket assembly was developed which met certain prespecified design limitations. A preliminary assessment of the nuclear performance, thermal-hydraulic, and economic parameters was made. For the latter, the use of the TMF--ENFP in conjunction with the denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U) fuel cycle in both PWRs and CANDUs was considered. The basic accelerator-driven blanket concept requires a tradeoff between fissile production and the heat-removal capability. Moreover, the centrally located proton beam results in a significant gradient in the power density (Peak/Average approx. 2). Fissile production of the TMF--ENFP configuration considered was 5.8 kg/day of /sup 233/U. Such a production rate would support a maximum of 5.58 GW(e) of denatured PWR capacity (or alternatively 11.58 GW(e) of denatured CANDU capacity). The cost of the TMF--ENFP/thermal reactor system is judged to be competitive with current--generation LEU--PWRs operating from a > $80/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resource base.

  12. The North-American Long-Term Soil Productivity Study: Concepts and literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The resiliency of forest sites after a pulse disturbance is one of the key questions mandated by the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. This Act mandated that we maintain the productive capacity of federally managed stands. The original USDA Forest Service soil quality standards were based largely on professional judgment. The North American Long-Term Soil...

  13. Biosynthetic concepts for the production of beta-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    Industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on successive classical strain improvement cycles. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the results of this classical strain improvement process, and discusses avenues to improve

  14. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product (DAPw ). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a 60Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors—in terms of dose-area product—in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of DAPw of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields DAPw values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  15. A Short Course on Concepts of Modern Ship Production, Course Notes (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A1most all steel materials arrive at the yard by ship. After unload- ing. the materials are stored in specialised stockyards , one for plates and one...Frame Construction -- Steel --Welding --Computer process control 2. Availability of Natural Resources. --USA and hardwood forests --Great Britain and...units -building program -interim product groups and work stations -work station load analyses VII. Main Purchasing Dates - steel -high cost/long lead

  16. The perception of academic plagiarism concept among production engineering students and actions for its reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Garcia Barbastefano; Cristina Gomes de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Academia has been concerned with plagiarism in last ten years. Literature has shown several works in many areas about this issue. These works cite as explanations for cybercheating: lack of knowledge about plagiarism and its legislation, easy obtention of academic material, and incacpacity of paraphrasing. The goal of this article is presenting the results of a survey about copyrights acomplished with Production Engineering students in Rio de Janeiro, and actions for curb academic dishonesty....

  17. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchuk Julia; Stepnov Igor

    2017-01-01

    The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key fact...

  18. Customized, rapid-production microstereotactic table for surgical targeting: description of concept and in vitro validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Robert F; Mitchell, Jason; Balachandran, Ramya; Fitzpatrick, J Michael

    2009-05-01

    To introduce a novel microstereotactic frame, called the Microtable, consisting of a tabletop that mounts on bone-implanted spherical markers. The microtable is customized for individual patient anatomy to guide a surgical instrument to a specified target. Fiducial markers are bone-implanted, and CT scanning is performed. A microtable is custom-designed for the location of the markers and the desired surgical trajectory and is constructed using a computer-numerical-control machine. Validation studies were performed on phantoms with geometry similar to that for cochlear implant surgery. Two designs were tested with two different types of fiducial markers. Mean targeting error of the microtables for the two designs were 0.37 +/- 0.18 and 0.60 +/- 0.21 mm (n = 5). Construction of each microtable required approximately 6 min. The new frame achieves both high accuracy and rapid fabrication. We are currently using the microtable for clinical testing of the concept of percutaneous cochlear implant surgery.

  19. Concept, production and validation of a 3D-printed coil frame for the UST{sub 2} modular stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •A construction method for stellarator modular coils is developed and validated. •3D printed truss structure filled and moulded with a material able to solidify. •The structure capability for forces in small stellarators has been estimated. •A light bare truss frame and a covered rigid double hull frame have been tested. -- Abstract: Geometric complexity of stellarators hampers a straightforward production of conceived optimised magnetic configurations. Integration of the engineering design with new fabrication methods may reduce the production cost and accelerate the production process. A fast cycle production of experimental fusion devices also might result in a faster advance in fusion plasma science. Several different stellarators could be used to test configurations for improved turbulent transport or to validate new divertor configurations. In this framework, and based on the results from the previously built UST{sub 1} stellarator, the present work try to study and validate the feasibility of 3D printing methods (additive manufacturing) for small experimental stellarators. The paper summarises the engineering development, fabrication and validation of a coil frame test sector for the UST{sub 2} stellarator. The definition of the Last Closed Flux Surface and winding surface for the test sector is based on an optimised quasi-isodynamic poloidal stellarator, modified for enhanced in-vessel remote handling manipulation and wide space for divertors. A Filled-sparse coil frame concept is developed to still keep low the cost in spite of the present expensive 3D printing materials and printers.

  20. Maximizing the Production of Biogas in an Instructional Manipulative Designed to Teach Energy Concepts to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shakira Renee

    In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were effective in helping students learn and retain the information presented on energy and biogas production. To improve future implementations of these modules, specifically the module on biogas production, the anaerobic digester was redesigned. In addition, a designed experiment was conducted to determine how to optimize the influent and operational environment that is available in an average high school classroom to generate maximum biogas yield. Eight plug-flow anaerobic digesters made of PVC piping and fixtures were used in a 2x3 factorial design assessing: co-digestion (20mL or 50mL) used cooking oil, temperature (25°C or 40°C), and addition of inoculum (0mL or 200mL). Biogas production was captured at two intervals over a 30-day period, and the experiments were replicated three times. Results showed that temperature at 40°C significantly increased biogas production and should be used over 25°C when using anaerobic digesters. Other factors that may potentially increase biogas production are combination of temperature at 40°C and 50mL of used cooking oil. In the future, the improvements made in the design of the anaerobic digester, and the applications of the finding from the experimental design, are expected to lead to an improved manipulative for teaching students about biogas production.

  1. Concepts for fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The huge success of Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without detailed detector simulation of the experiments. The outstanding performance of the accelerator with a delivered integrated luminosity of 25fb$^{−1}$ has created an unprecedented demand for large simulated event samples. This has stretched the possibilities of the experiments due to the constraint of their computing infrastructure and available resources. Modern, concurrent computing techniques optimised for new processor hardware are being exploited to boost future computing resources, but even the most optimistic scenarios predict that additional action needs to be taken to guarantee sufficient Monte Carlo production statistics for high quality physics results during Run 2.\

  2. Perspectives on Resource Recovery from Bio-Based Production Processes: From Concept to Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    and environmental points of view, implying relatively easy future implementation on pilot- and full-scale levels in the bio-based industry. Reviewing such technologies is therefore the focus here. Considerations about technology readiness level (TRL) and Net Present Value (NPV) are included in the review, since TRL...... and NPV contribute significantly to the techno-economic evaluation of future and promising process solutions. Based on the present review, a qualitative guideline for resource recovery from bio-based production processes is proposed. Finally, future approaches and perspectives toward identification...

  3. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  4. Concepts of increasing productivity and reducing the processing cost of machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Кленов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic conditions to reduce the cost of processing technology and improve productivity through the use of modern cutting tools produced by leading foreign firms producing tools have been appraised from theory in the work. Theoretically, it has been found that an increase in the cost of processing varies according to extremum dependence, passing the minimum point. It is possible to reduce the minimum processing cost due to the increase of productivity using cutting edge tools, characterized by a high capacity for work in high cutting temperatures. The criterion showing the technological price cost minimum is the ratio of the expenditures on workers’ wages to the expenditures on the cutting tools, it being quite specific for various processing conditions. To analyze the possibilities of practical use of the proposed criterion, a complex of experimental researches of the technological prime cost and productivity of the processing with hard alloy cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings produced by the company «Iscar» has been carried out. It has been established that their use makes it possible by more than one half to reduce the labour consumption and overall costs as compared to the hard alloy cutting tools traditionally used in home industry. It has been shown that this effect is achieved by increasing the cutting speed and feed due to increased wear resistance and heat resistance of the «Iscar» company tools. It was established that it is much more possible to achieve low processing cost at milling than at turning. It was stated with regard to all major expenditures including the workers' wages, the cost of the cutting tools, equipment and other costs, allowing more correctly estimate the cost-effectiveness of mechanical processing. Experiments confirmed that the main condition for reducing the processing cost to its minimum value is to increase the processing performance through the use of a heat-resistant and wear-resistant cutting

  5. Changing innovation into a registered product: From concept to regulatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2017-07-06

    Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples. The regulatory path is discussed, with a review of the various oversight agencies, and the categories of data required to be submitted, including safety, efficacy, manufacturing, environmental impact and human food safety. In conclusion, the cost, development time, and barriers to innovation in veterinary medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Concepts and Plans towards fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Duehrssen, M; Elsing, M; Froidevaux, D; Harrington, R; Jansky, R; Langenberg, R; Mandrysch, R; Marshall, Z; Ritsch, E; Salzburger, A

    2013-01-01

    The huge success of Run 1 of the LHC for particle physics would not have been possible without detailed detector simulation of the experiments. However, the outstanding performance of the accelerator with a delivered luminosity of $L = 25 fb^{1}$ has created an unprecedented demand for Monte Carlo statistics. This has stretched the possibilities of the experiments due to the constraint of their computing infrastructure and available resources. Ensuring high quality Monte Carlo simulation samples with sufficient statistics became one the major focus points of experimental high energy physics and first analyses saw the advent of limitations in sensitivity or precision due to the lack of available Monte Carlo samples. Modern, concurrent computing techniques optimized for new processor hardware are being exploit to boost future computing resources, but even most optimistic scenarios predict that additional action needs to be taken to guarantee sufficient Monte Carlo production for high quality physics results dur...

  7. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    to enzymatic hydrolysis, while Jerusalem artichoke tubers needed 0.2% H2SO4 in combination with heat-treatment as a direct hydrolysis method. Bioethanol was produced from industrial hemp hydrolysates. Ethanol yields in the range of 74-92% of theoretical yield were reported, while ethanol concentrations...... composition and productivity of eleven different Jerusalem artichoke clones was examined at three harvest times. Yields of up to 35 t ha-1 of dry lignocellulose matter was reported, nonetheless the amount of cellulose in many cases was less than 50% of what was observed in e.g. hemp. However, the underground...... tubers which the plant produces, contained high amounts carbohydrates (≤88% of dry weight) and yielded up to 6 t ha-1 dry matter of additional carbohydrates. The carbohydrate content found in L. digitata was also shown to be exceptionally high (77.6% of dry weight) compared to other studies. Diverse...

  8. A high-compression electron gun for C6+ production: concept, simulations and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, M.; Mathot, S.; Pitters, J.; Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we report on simulations and the mechanical design of a high-compression electron gun for an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) dedicated for production of high intensity and high repetition rate pulses of bare carbon ions for injection into linac-based hadron therapy facilities. The gun is presently under construction at CERN to be retrofitted into the TwinEBIS test bench for experimental studies. We describe the design constraints, show results of numeric simulations and report on the mechanical design featuring several novel ideas. The reported design makes use of combined-function units with reduced number of mechanical joints that were carefully controlled and tuned during the manufacturing phase. The simulations addressed a wide range of topics including the influence of thermal effects, focusing optics, symmetry-breaking misalignments and injection into a full 5 T field.

  9. Pathfinder to EXIST: ProtoEXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, A. B., III; Allen, B.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burke, M.; Burnham, J.; Chammas, N.; Collins, J.; Cook, W. R.; Copete, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gauron, T.; Grindlay, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J.; Howell, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Labov, S.; Said, B.; Sheikh Sheikh, S.

    2008-04-01

    We describe the ProtoEXIST instrument, our fist-generation wide-field hard X-ray imaging (20 - 600 keV) balloon-borne telescope. The ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a candidate for the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST consists of two independent coded-aperture telescopes using pixellated (2.5mm pitch) CZT detectors. The two telescopes will provide performance comparison of two shielding configurations, for optimization of the EXIST design. We report on the science goals and designs of both ProtoEXIST and EXIST and their implications for hard X-ray astronomy and astrophysics.

  10. Is tissue an issue? Current practice and opinion in Western Australia for routine histopathology on products of conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Shui-Jean; Watts, Jared C; Faithfull, Tiffany J; Wong, Sabrina Z; Wylde, Kate L; McGurgan, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine current practices and opinions of senior health professionals working in Western Australian (WA) hospitals performing gynaecological procedures, regarding the routine use of histopathology for products of conception (POC) obtained either from the surgical management of miscarriage or termination of pregnancy. Sixty-one senior health professionals completed the survey. Tissue histopathology on POC was routinely requested for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy (TOP) by 87 and 59% of respondents, respectively. Respondents listed the main reasons for requesting routine histopathology as avoidance of misdiagnosis, medico-legal and quality assurance. There were inconsistent practices among WA health professionals regarding sending POC for histopathology; 63% of gynaecology head of departments recommend the introduction of state or national guidelines for the use of histopathology in the surgical management of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  12. Repowering existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steazel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Increased competition among power generation companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performances of older electric generation units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including; environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g.; increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy to use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant option. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the US, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Closed Crawl Space Performance: Proof of Concept in the Production Builder Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin-Weber, Melissa; Dastur, Cyrus; Mauceri, Maria; Hannas, Benjamin

    2008-10-30

    This overview is intended to be a very concise, limited summary of the key project activities discussed in the detailed report that follows. Due to the large scope of this project, the detailed report is broken into three individually titled sections. Each section repeats key background information, with the goal that the sections will eventually stand alone as complete reports on the major activities of the project. The information presented herein comes from ongoing research, so please note that all observations, findings and recommendations presented are preliminary and subject to change in the future. We invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for improving the project. Advanced Energy completed its first jointly-funded crawl space research project with the Department of Energy in 2005. That project, funded under award number DE-FC26-00NT40995 and titled 'A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South' demonstrated the substantial energy efficiency and moisture management benefits that result from using properly closed crawl space foundations for residential construction instead of traditional wall vented crawl space foundations. Two activities of this first project included (1) an assessment of ten existing homes to document commonly observed energy and moisture failures associated with wall-vented crawl space foundations and (2) a detailed literature review that documented both the history of closed crawl space research and the historical lack of scientific justification for building code requirements for crawl space ventilation. The most valuable activity of the 2005 project proved to be the field demonstration of various closed crawl space techniques, which were implemented in a set of twelve small (1040 square feet), simply designed homes in eastern North Carolina. These homes had matched envelope, mechanical and architectural designs, and comparable

  14. The QWERTY concept, a powerful concept for evaluating the environmental consequences of end-of-life processing of consumer electronic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Ansems, T.; Feenstra, L.; Stevels, A.

    2001-01-01

    The QWERTY concept (Quotes for environmentally WEighted RecyclabiliTY) focuses on the determination of environmentally weighted recycling scores rather than weight-based recycling scores. The approach describes precisely what is happening in end-of-life scenarios from the environmental perspective.

  15. 9 CFR 94.8 - Pork and pork products from regions where African swine fever exists or is reasonably believed to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fully-sterilized product which is shelf-stable without refrigeration; or (2) Such pork or pork product... arrival in the United States to a meat processing establishment operating under Federal meat inspection... issue the foreign meat inspection certificate required by part 327 of chapter III of this title. Upon...

  16. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  17. Function Concepts for Machine Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The majority of resources, like time and costs, consumed in industrial product development can be related to detailed design, i.e. the materialisation of machine parts (German Maschinenteile). Existing design theories based on a systems approach, e.g. Haberfellner [5] all have function, i...... to be identification of a purposeful behaviour concept, i.e. function for a machine part. The contribution is based on the theory of technical systems, Hubka and the domain theory, Andreasen....

  18. Catalytic water co-existing with a product peptide in the active site of HIV-1 protease revealed by X-ray structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Prashar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that HIV-1 protease is an important target for design of antiviral compounds in the treatment of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. In this context, understanding the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme is of crucial importance as transition state structure directs inhibitor design. Most mechanistic proposals invoke nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule. But such a water molecule coexisting with any ligand in the active site has not been found so far in the crystal structures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here the first observation of the coexistence in the active site, of a water molecule WAT1, along with the carboxyl terminal product (Q product peptide. The product peptide has been generated in situ through cleavage of the full-length substrate. The N-terminal product (P product has diffused out and is replaced by a set of water molecules while the Q product is still held in the active site through hydrogen bonds. The position of WAT1, which hydrogen bonds to both the catalytic aspartates, is different from when there is no substrate bound in the active site. We propose WAT1 to be the position from where catalytic water attacks the scissile peptide bond. Comparison of structures of HIV-1 protease complexed with the same oligopeptide substrate, but at pH 2.0 and at pH 7.0 shows interesting changes in the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions from the catalytic aspartates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The structure is suggestive of the repositioning, during substrate binding, of the catalytic water for activation and subsequent nucleophilic attack. The structure could be a snap shot of the enzyme active site primed for the next round of catalysis. This structure further suggests that to achieve the goal of designing inhibitors mimicking the transition-state, the hydrogen-bonding pattern between WAT1 and the enzyme should be replicated.

  19. Touch Preps of Products of Conception for Rule-Out Ectopic Pregnancy:  A Viable Alternative to Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Athena L; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Roberts, Drucilla J

    2016-06-01

    Tissue confirmation of the intrauterine location of a pregnancy can be difficult grossly, necessitating a frozen section diagnosis. First-trimester tissue is often scant and can be exhausted by frozen section. We examined 39 endometrial curettings performed for rule-out ectopic pregnancy by touch prep to examine the utility of cytopathology in documenting trophoblast or chorionic villi (products of conception [POC]). First-trimester curettage specimens sent to the Massachusetts General Hospital Pathology Departmentreceived a gross examination followed by a touch prep of the area most suspicious for villi. Touch preps were reviewed blinded to the final diagnosis and then compared. Thirty-three of the 39 touch preps and histology specimens were concordant, including all 11 negative histology specimens and 22 of the 28 positive histology specimens. POC can be diagnosed by touch prep and may offer confirmation of grossly identified villi. Positive predictive value is 100%. Negative touch preps should receive further evaluation. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  1. Concept Generation in Language Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Martha; Lawry, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the generation of new concepts from combinations of existing concepts as a language evolves. We give a method for combining concepts, and will be investigating the utility of composite concepts in language evolution and thence the utility of concept generation.

  2. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  3. The development of new diagnostic test-systems and improvement of the existed radio immunochemical kits in the industrial production conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdukayumov, A M

    2002-01-01

    completed the laboratory and clinical testing of the kits of reagents 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I', 'ELISA-HBsAg', 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' that had shown the high specificity and reproduction of the analysis results. Immunoenzymetic kit 'ELISA-HBsAg' of the third generation for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with the sensitivity not less than 0.5 ng/ml was introduced into industrial production. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the highly sensitive immunoenzymetic test-system 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' of the third generation for antibodies to hepatitis C virus detection in human blood serum. The highly effective method had been developed for HBsAg preparing and purification that allowed to use as the raw material a plasma of donors with low content of the target product and based on the application of the stepped fractionation by Ammonium Sulphate and affinity chromatography. The use efficiency of the produced HBsAg preparations had been shown for laboratory ...

  4. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... by commercial software. The aim of this work is to develop detailed process flow diagram for the FT technology in order to subsequently study the economic feasibility based on once-Through mode. A cost analysis is performed to find out the convenience of the proposed solutions....

  5. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  6. Spectrum of Cytogenomic Abnormalities Revealed by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Products of Conception Culture Failure and Normal Karyotype Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Shen-Yin; Amato, Katherine; DiAdamo, Autumn; Li, Peining

    2016-03-20

    Approximately 30% of pregnancies after implantation end up in spontaneous abortions, and 50% of them are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. However, the spectrum of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in products of conception (POC) and the underlying gene-dosage-sensitive mechanisms causing spontaneous abortions remain largely unknown. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed as a salvage procedure for 128 POC culture failure (POC-CF) samples and as a supplemental procedure for 106 POC normal karyotype (POC-NK) samples. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 10% of POC-CF and pathogenic CNVs were detected in 3.9% of POC-CF and 5.7% of POC-NK samples. Compiled results from this study and relevant case series through a literature review demonstrated an abnormality detection rate (ADR) of 35% for chromosomal abnormalities in POC-CF samples, 3.7% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-CF samples, and 4.6% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-NK samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed on the genes from pathogenic CNVs found in POC samples. The denoted primary gene networks suggested that apoptosis and cell proliferation pathways are involved in miscarriage. In summary, a similar spectrum of cytogenomic abnormalities was observed in POC culture success and POC-CF samples. A threshold effect correlating the number of dosage-sensitive genes in a chromosome with the observed frequency of autosomal trisomy is proposed. A rationalized approach using firstly fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing with probes of chromosomes X/Y/18, 13/21, and 15/16/22 for common aneuploidies and polyploidies and secondly aCGH for other cytogenomic abnormalities is recommended for POC-CF samples. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeries, Paul, E-mail: paul.bazeries@chu-angers.fr; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France); Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département de Gynécologie et Obstétrique (France); Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France)

    2017-04-15

    ObjectiveTo report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment.MethodsThis was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization.ResultsRPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt.ConclusionRPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  8. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeries, Paul; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic; Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    To report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment. This was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization. RPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt. RPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  9. ''Health Needs'' Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Eržen, Ivan; Premik, Marjan

    2008-01-01

    The concept of ''health needs'' is one of key concepts in public health. From the public health standpoint, the most important perspective on this concept is the perspective of a population, or an individual respectively. But along this perspective there exist several other perspectives, which can be to the certain extent similar, but also could be also very different. All this enters an enormous confusion in its understanding, and consecutively this concept seems rather elusive. This confusi...

  10. Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ehud; Lagunes, Paulino Martinez; Riov, Joseph; Weiss, David; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2004-06-01

    Mature citrus fruits, which are classified as non-climacteric, evolve very low amounts of ethylene during ripening but respond to exogenous ethylene by ripening-related pigment changes and accelerated respiration. In the present study we show that young citrus fruitlets attached to the tree produce high levels of ethylene, which decrease dramatically towards maturation. Upon harvest, fruitlets exhibited a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production, preceded by induction of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1 (CsACS1), ACC oxidase 1 (CsACO1) and the ethylene receptor CsERS1. This induction was advanced and augmented by exogenous ethylene or propylene, indicating an autocatalytic system II-like ethylene biosynthesis. In mature, detached fruit, very low rates of ethylene production were associated with constitutive expression of the ACC synthase 2 (CsACS2) and ethylene receptor CsETR1 genes (system I). CsACS1 gene expression was undetectable at this stage, even following ethylene or propylene treatment, and CsERS1 gene expression remained constant, indicating that no autocatalytic response had occurred. The transition from system II-like behavior of young fruitlets to system I behavior appears to be under developmental control. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  11. Accelerator breeder nuclear fuel production: concept evaluation of a modified design for ORNL's proposed TME-ENFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bartine, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in accelerator beam technology have made it possible to improve the target/blanket design of the Ternary Metal Fueled Electronuclear Fuel Producer (TMF-ENFP), an accelerator-breeder design concept proposed by Burnss et al. for subcritical breeding of the fissile isotope /sup 233/U. In the original TMF-ENFP the 300-mA, 1100-MeV proton beam was limited to a small diameter whose power density was so high that a solid metal target could not be used for producing the spallation neutrons needed to drive the breeding process. Instead the target was a central column of circulating liquid sodium, which was surrounded by an inner multiplying region of ternary fuel rods (/sup 239/Pu, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U) and an outer blanket region of /sup 232/Th rods, with the entire system cooled by circulating sodium. In the modified design proposed here, the proton beam is sufficiently spread out to allow the ternary fuel to reside directly in the beam and to be preceded by a thin (nonstructural) V-Ti steel firThe spread beam mandated a change in the design configuration (from a cylindrical shape to an Erlenmeyer flask shape), which, in turn, required that the fuel rods (and blanket rods) be replaced by fuel pebbles. The fuel residence time in both systems was assumed to be 90 full power days. A series of parameter optimization calculations for the modified TMF-ENFP led to a semioptimized system in which the initial /sup 239/Pu inventory of the ternary fuel was 6% and the fuel pebble diameter was 0.5 cm. With this system the /sup 233/Pu production rate of 5.8 kg/day reported for the original TMF-ENFP was increased to 9.3 kg/day, and the thermal power production at beginning of cycle was increased from 3300 MW(t) to 5240 MW(t). 31 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. A call to incorporate systems theory and human factors into the existing investigation of harm in clinical research involving healthcare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D; Bégaud, Bernard; Daemen, Esther; Dokas, Ioannis; Fishbein, Jonathan M; Greenberg, Howard E; Hochberg, Alan; Le Louet, Hervé; Lyngvig, Jytte; Mogles, Nataliya; Owen, Kathryn; Prendergast, Christine; Rejzek, Martin; Trantza, Sophia; Webb, David J; Whalen, Matthew; Whiteley, Simon

    2017-11-01

    This is a joint statement from individual pharmacology and pharmaceutical professionals acting in their own capacity, including members of the Alliance for Clinical Research Excellence and Safety (ACRES) and the International Society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP). By building on the extensive pharmacological and regulatory investigations that already take place, we are calling for a fuller and more robust systems-based approach to the independent investigation of clinical research when serious incidents of harm occur, starting with first-in-human clinical trials. To complement existing activities and regulations, we propose an additional approach blending evidence derived from both pharmacological and organizational science, which addresses human factors and transparency, to enhance organizational learning and continuous improvement. As happens with investigations in other sectors of society, such as the chemical and aviation sector, this systems approach should be seen as an additional way to understand how problems occur and how they might be prevented in the future. We believe that repetition of potentially preventable and adverse outcomes during clinical research, by failing to identify and act upon all systematic vulnerabilities, is a situation that needs urgent change. As we will discuss further on, approaches based on applying systems theory and human factors are much more likely to improve objectivity and transparency, leading to better system design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. A High Diversity in Chitinolytic and Chitosanolytic Species and Enzymes and Their Oligomeric Products Exist in Soil with a History of Chitin and Chitosan Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampally, Malathi; Rajulu, M B Govinda; Gillet, Dominique; Suryanarayanan, T S; Moerschbacher, Bruno B

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs) have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering.

  14. A High Diversity in Chitinolytic and Chitosanolytic Species and Enzymes and Their Oligomeric Products Exist in Soil with a History of Chitin and Chitosan Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi Nampally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering.

  15. Reflex fluorescent in situ hybridization testing for unsuccessful product of conception cultures: a retrospective analysis of 5555 samples attempted by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Brandon M; Thorland, Erik C; Carlson, Austin W; Jalal, Syed M; Ketterling, Rhett P

    2011-06-01

    The use of chromosome analysis on products of conception from spontaneous abortions is recommended to identify a genetic etiology. However, 20% of products of conception cultures are unsuccessful due to microbial contamination or lack of viable dividing cells. Our laboratory implemented a reflex fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to detect numeric chromosome abnormalities for unsuccessful cultures. All products of conception samples were simultaneously processed for both chromosome analysis and FISH analysis. If the chromosome analysis was unsuccessful, interphase FISH was performed for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y. To assess the performance of the FISH assay, a 3-year retrospective comparative analysis of the FISH results versus chromosome results was performed. Of 5555 total specimens, 4189 (75%) represented chorionic villi/fetal tissue and 1366 (25%) represented tissue of unidentified origin. Of the 1189 tissues of unidentified origin with chromosome or FISH results, 1096 (92%) were XX, indicating that the majority of these tissues are likely maternal in origin. Of the 3361 successful chromosome studies on the chorionic villi/fetal tissue specimens, 1734 (52%) samples had a chromosome abnormality. Of the 762 successful FISH studies on chorionic villi/fetal tissue specimens that were unsuccessful by chromosome studies, 181 (25%) had an abnormal result with the targeted FISH panel. Overall, the FISH panel detected approximately 70% of the chromosome abnormalities in products of conception detectable by karyotype. When the FISH panel results were combined with chromosome analysis for the 4189 chorionic villi/fetal tissue specimens, the overall abnormality rate is 47%. Our reflex FISH assay proved useful for the detection of common chromosome aneuploidies in products of conception samples that failed conventional chromosome analysis. Because of its limited view of the genome, cautious interpretation of FISH results is required for all samples

  16. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  17. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  18. The last food mile concept as a city logistics solution for perishable products : The case of Parma's Food Urban Distribution Center

    OpenAIRE

    MORGANTI, Eléonora; Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes last mile logistics for fresh food products and the food deliveries schemes to urban food outlets, i.e. corporate retail chains, independent retailers and hotel, restaurants and catering (Ho.Re.Ca.) sector. We present two concepts: that of food hub and that of last food mils, as well as an analysis framework to understand food last mile distribution. To illustrate it, two experiences of urban food distribution are compared to a reference situation using the proposed framew...

  19. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-01-01

    More than 30% of the world's food production is wasted. Organic waste and residues are produced in a variety of sectors, including agriculture, food industry and forestry. Residues and waste are generated throughout the entire food production and use cycle: surplus food production, processing and distribution, and consumption. Some food that has not been consumed should be managed. Bioconversion using insects provides the opportunity to produce feed and energy using by-products of the agro-fo...

  20. The danger of naturalizing water policy concepts: Water productivity and effiency discourses from field irrigation to virtual water trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Naturalization and universal application of concepts such as ‘efficiency’ and ‘productivity’ by policy makers and water experts in the water sector leads water managers and water users to internalize these norms. As we show in this exploratory paper, the effects could be threefold: first, evidence

  1. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  2. Introducing the CTA concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  3. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  4. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... a literature study and by using a method developed during the study for first hand assessment and comparison of biorefinery system characteristics. The management of an average alder plantation in a 6-year coppicing system was found to fixate atmospheric nitrogen to the soil in yearly rates between 50 and 200...

  5. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  6. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    (Alnus incana), and provide the following end products: Heat and power, bio-pharmaceuticals (diaryl heptanoids), Bio-SNG, ethyl acetate, replenished soils and a carbon sink. Several system setups were examined and compared. The optimal design obtained the following production characteristics: Total...

  7. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  8. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    was higher when the consumers were informed about the product versus blind tasting. This shift was explained by an assimilation effect i.e. the consumers rated the liking in the informed product condition closer to their expectations. However, the assimilation effect was incomplete as the product information....... No effects were found for liking of the apple juices over repeated exposure. Also, the consumers did not change their sensory perception over repeated consumption. However, the local apple juices were conceptualised as more familiar but remained exclusive after repeated consumption. When local producers have...

  9. Nursing workload: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept 'workload' within the nursing profession in order to arrive at a clear definition of nursing workload based on the evidence in existing literature. Nursing workload is a common term used in the health literature, but often without specification of its exact meaning. Concept clarification is needed to delineate the meaning of the term 'nursing workload'. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of nursing workload. As the subject matter was nursing focused, only one database was searched, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles that did not use 'workload' in the title or abstract were excluded. A model case, contrary case, related case and empirical referents were constructed to clarify the concept and to demonstrate how the workload is captured by the main attributes. The attributes of nursing workload found in the literature fall into five main categories: the amount of nursing time; the level of nursing competency; the weight of direct patient care; the amount of physical exertion; and complexity of care. The attributes were organised according to the leading antecedents, which were identified as the patient, nurse and health institution. Nurse managers need to address the workload issues with regard to the real nature of nursing work; this could increase nurses' productivity, nurses' satisfaction, turnover, work stress and provide sufficient staffing to patient care needs. The concept analysis demonstrated clearly the complexity of the concept and its implications for practice and research. It is believed that the current concept analysis will help to provide a better understanding of nursing workload and contribute towards the standardisation of the nursing workload and the development of a valid and reliable measurement system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CONCEPT OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION INFORMATION SITUATIONAL CENTERS FOR OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MACHINEBUILDING DIVISION WITH A GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Rechkalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of organizing the planning system based on virtual manufacturing in constructingsituational center for engineering division. The analysis of foreign and domestic experience in the field of situational management, organization planning and managementsystems as virtual production in relation to the real (underlying production is provided. The scheme of organization situational center for engine-building enterprises of theEngineering Division is given.

  11. Evaluation of existing assessment approaches and development of a concept for the integrated assessment of the effects of priority pollutants across all pathways on the basis of their bioavailability; Evaluierung vorhandener Bewertungsansaetze und Entwicklung eines Konzeptes zur integrierten Wirkungsbewertung prioritaerer Schadstoffe ueber alle Pfade auf der Grundlage der Bioverfuegbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macholz, Rainer M.; Kaiser, David B. [Prof. Dr. Macholz Umweltprojekte GmbH, Stahnsdorf (Germany); Koerdel, Werner; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Derz, Kerstin; Bernhardt, Cornelia [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    (A) The problem: There is an urgent need to further develop investigation and assessment systems for the assessment of pollutant concentrations in soil and their potential effects on relevant protected assets on the basis of bioavailability. A concept for integrated effect analysis has to be developed which considers the distribution behaviour of a contaminant on the basis of its physicochemical properties and focuses especially on that fraction that may actually exert an effect. The inclusion of bioavailability is in keeping with the regulatory framework set by the Federal Soil Protection Act (BBodSchG) and the Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV). Implementation requires the development of a concept and of guidance facilitating its application in enforcement practice. (B) Need for action: Case-by-case investigations achieve their objective only partially with the methods referred to in Article 9 BBodSchG and Annex 1 BBodSchV. In particular, no suitable methods have been identified so far which consider the bioavailability of soil contaminants via all pathways. In addition, guidance on how to integrate the bioavailability of soil contaminants needs to be developed which can be used, especially by enforcement authorities, to determine the actual hazards which harmful soil changes presents to individuals and the general public. This should include a review of different combinations of approached applied in relevant legislation. (C) The purpose of the project is to compile and evaluate existing concepts for the evaluation of soil quality taking different forms of use into account. Based on this evaluation, a concept for the integration of bioavailability into soil assessment as well as a guidance document are to be developed, taking all pathways into account. The results shall be presented and discussed at an international workshop. (orig.)

  12. Background Studies for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  13. Agriculture in Transformation. Concepts for agriculture production systems that are socially fair environmentally safe: Proceedings of the PSC Summer Schools 2014 and 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Future demand in agricultural output is supposed to match the needs of 9 billion people with less input of resources. Can we transform our agricultural practices and move behind existing paradigms to develop innovative and sustainable agriculture production systems? A transformation of the regime is needed: a change in the socio-economic system through new narratives and diversification. Not driven by monopolising technologies but supported by innovation, knowledge and careful evaluation of s...

  14. Actually existing silk roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relevance of the concept of Silk Road for understanding the patterns of trade and exchange between China, Eurasia and the Middle East. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Yiwu, in China's Zhejiang Province. Yiwu is a node in the global distribution of Chinese ‘small commodities’ and home to merchants and traders from across Asia and beyond. The article explores the role played by traders from Afghanistan in connecting the city of Yiwu to markets and trading posts in the world beyond. It seeks to bring attention to the diverse types of networks involved in such forms of trade, as well as their emergence and development over the past thirty years.

  15. An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production: fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment concept for drinking water production from surface water has been investigated on a pilot scale. The treatment concept consists of fluidized ion exchange (FIEX, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF, and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC. The FIEX process removed calcium and other divalent cations; the UF membrane removed particles and micro-organisms; and the NF membrane and GAC removed natural organic matter (NOM and micro-pollutants. This study focused on the prevention of fouling of the UF and scaling of the NF and investigated the overall removal of micro-pollutants by the treatment concept. The results of the experiments showed that in 14 days of continuous operation at a flux of 65 l/h m2 the UF performance was stable with the FIEX pre-treated feed water without the aid of a coagulant. The scaling of the NF was also not observed even at 97% recovery. Different micro-pollutants were spiked in the NF feed water and their concentrations in the effluent of NF and GAC were measured. The combination of NF and GAC removed most of the micro-pollutants successfully, except for the very polar substances with a molecular weight lower than 100 Daltons.

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in products of conception of first-trimester miscarriages detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis: a review of 1000 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyp, Larysa Y; Spynenko, Lyudmyla O; Verhoglyad, Nataliya V; Mishenko, Anna O; Mykytenko, Dmytro O; Zukin, Valery D

    2017-10-30

    The purpose of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic studies in first-trimester miscarriages after spontaneous conception and IVF. Standard cytogenetic analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes obtained from products of conception (POCs): semi-direct and short-term cultured chorionic villi or long-term cultured fetal mesodermal cells. 50.1% of first-trimester miscarriages in the studied group had chromosomal abnormalities: 59.7% of trisomies, 22% of poliploidies, 7.5% of monosomies, 7% of unbalanced structural abnormalities, and 3.8% of multiple aneuploidies. An increase in the frequency of chromosomally abnormal miscarriages was observed in the group of women above 40 when compared to groups of women under 35 (P < 0.05). No difference in frequencies and types of chromosomal abnormalities in POCs of miscarriages after ICSI and spontaneous conception was observed. Approximately, 50% of first-trimester miscarriages have chromosomal abnormalities which can be detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The presence of chromosomal abnormality may explain the cause of miscarriage, improving the reproductive counseling and planning.

  17. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  18. Do multiquark hadrons exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.; Isgur, N.

    1982-03-08

    The qqq-barq-bar system has been examined by solving the four-particle Schroedinger equation variationally. The main findings are that: (1) qqq-barq-bar bound states normally do not exist, (2) the cryptoexotic 0/sup + +/ sector of this system with KK-bar quantum numbers is probably the only exception to (1) and its bound states can be identified with the S* and delta just below KK-bar threshold, (3) qqq-barq-bar bound states provide a model for the weak binding and color-singlet clustering observed in nuclei, and (4) there is no indication that this system has strong resonances.

  19. The Lund–York–Cologne Calorimeter (LYCCA): Concept, design and prototype developments for a FAIR-NUSTAR detector system to discriminate relativistic heavy-ion reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P., E-mail: Pavel.Golubev@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wendt, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Scruton, L. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Taprogge, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Reiter, P. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Bentley, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Avdeichikov, V. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Boutachkov, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fox, S.P. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gerl, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Görgen, Ch. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); and others

    2013-09-21

    The concept, design and prototype developments for the Lund–York–Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) is presented. LYCCA is a modular device for the NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions (NUSTAR) science pillar of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. LYCCA is designed to discriminate heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions induced by relativistic radioactive ion beams. Measurements of energy loss, total energy, and time-of-flight allow the derivation of proton number, Z, and mass number, A, of the reaction products. LYCCA-inherent tracking of the flight paths of the reaction products enables coincident HIgh-resolution in-beam γ-ray SPECtroscopy (HISPEC) of atomic nuclei far from the line of β-stability.

  20. The Lund-York-Cologne Calorimeter (LYCCA): Concept, design and prototype developments for a FAIR-NUSTAR detector system to discriminate relativistic heavy-ion reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, P.; Wendt, A.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Rudolph, D.; Reiter, P.; Bentley, M. A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Boutachkov, P.; Fox, S. P.; Gerl, J.; Görgen, Ch.; Hoischen, R.; Kurz, N.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Pascovici, G.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.; Taylor, M. J.; Thiel, S.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2013-09-01

    The concept, design and prototype developments for the Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) is presented. LYCCA is a modular device for the NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions (NUSTAR) science pillar of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. LYCCA is designed to discriminate heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions induced by relativistic radioactive ion beams. Measurements of energy loss, total energy, and time-of-flight allow the derivation of proton number, Z, and mass number, A, of the reaction products. LYCCA-inherent tracking of the flight paths of the reaction products enables coincident HIgh-resolution in-beam γ-ray SPECtroscopy (HISPEC) of atomic nuclei far from the line of β-stability.

  1. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  2. Existence of Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks present Minkowski space as an almost pure mathematical construct, without any explicit restriction on a domain where it is applicable in physics. Meanwhile, its physical meaning cannot but follow the same premises as those which underlies the special relativity theory: motion of free point particles and propagation of electromagnetic waves. However, the common formalism of coordinate transformations between any two inertial frames appears too ponderous to infer the existence of Minkowski space. For this reason, the time dilation and retardation, the contraction of the length along and the spatial invariance across the direction of relative motion of two frames are presented in a coordinate-free manner. This results in the transformation between two frames in the form of relationships between the time moments and the components of the position vector of a given event, along and across the directions of the frames' motion. The obtained transformation rules for the components of the position ve...

  3. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  4. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  5. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  6. The development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems: a review of established and novel concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, Daryl; Maguire, Julie; Burnell, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, pa...

  7. The concept of in-house management of the formation of the cost of production in the agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern methods of intra-formation control the cost of agricultural production, the composition of the costs of agricultural firms, the order of their control and optimization. A structural model, which is a technique of internal control and audit at the macro and micro level hierarchical control agricultural enterprise. The composition of the information required to implement a methodology in-house control, accounting and analytical procedures used to assess the cost items and management decisions.

  8. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: concept and product characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundtorp, K; Jensen, D L; Sørensen, M A; Christensen, T H; Mogensen, E P B

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes a new concept for treatment of air pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration and characterises the wastewater and stabilised residues generated by the process. The process involves mixing of APC-residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation of the suspension (Ferrox-process 1996). The process results in a significant reduction in the leaching of salts and heavy metals from the residue, by washing out most of the salts and by binding the heavy metals in the iron oxides formed. In the laboratory, a semidry gas-cleaning residue and a fly ash were treated by the process. The generated wastewater contained low concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Pb: 27-39 microg l(-1) and Cd: 2.6-4.6 microg l(-1)), but high concentrations of salts (e.g. Cl, Na, K, and Ca). The treatment process redUced the leaching of Pb from the residues by more than two orders of magnitude at fixed pH as determined by pH-static leaching tests. Likewise, the leaching of Cd, Zn and Cu was significantly reduced. The effect on elements that form oxyanions (e.g. Cr) is marginal and in the current process there is no reduction in the release of Hg.

  9. The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gunning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS systems methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA. This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems.

  10. Wykrzyknik - istnienie - zmiana (Exclamation - Existence - Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Karpiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It, what exists, so to say, demands for the addressee – the thing exists in the face of (for something (or somebody. In other words, the existence is the relation. The competitive conception of the existence outside the relation (existence isolated leads to the contradiction. The existential proposition ‘Some A exists’, understoodliterally, is the pleonasm. It tends to treat the existential proposition as the conventional figure, expressing the simple act of an A affirmation (the exclamation ‘A!’. The existence’s relation should not be narrowed down only to the relation of perception(esse est percipi. It is needed to be understood widely, as every relation, in which something influences on whatever (that is, some change occurs. This influence (change can take place both inside or outside the consciousness. The existing thing, the influence exerted by it, and the change, occurred as the result of this influence, are identical. Thanks to it, we can eliminate difficulties connected withfinding ‘the point of contact’ between modules of the existence’s relation (that is, ‘the place’ where existing thing and its addressee are connected. The existence, as the relation of influence-change, is modal and gradual (as regards both intensity and extensiveness: the thing, in different aspects, can exist more or less. Theoretically, discussed relation can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical. The concept of error should be redefined. The error concerning the existence (resp. the nonexistence of specified thing, must not mean the incompatibility between this thing and the perception (widely: between this thing and the change causedby this thing in its addressee. The existence is the unity of the thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change. That is why the incompatibility can occur only between the state of thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change and the related state of duty. The conception of the existence as the relation

  11. Dissociations in the effects of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists on cAMP formation and superoxide production in human neutrophils: support for the concept of functional selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Brunskole Hummel

    Full Text Available In neutrophils, activation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR, a Gs-coupled receptor, inhibits inflammatory responses, which could be therapeutically exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various β2AR ligands on adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP accumulation and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced superoxide anion (O2(•- production in human neutrophils and to probe the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations (also referred to as functional selectivity or biased signaling in a native cell system. This is an important question because so far, evidence for functional selectivity has been predominantly obtained with recombinant systems, due to the inherent difficulties to genetically manipulate human native cells. cAMP concentration was determined by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry, and O2(•- formation was assessed by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. β2AR agonists were generally more potent in inhibiting fMLP-induced O2(•- production than in stimulating cAMP accumulation. (--Ephedrine and dichloroisoproterenol were devoid of any agonistic activity in the cAMP assay, but partially inhibited fMLP-induced O2(•- production. Moreover, (--adrenaline was equi-efficacious in both assays whereas the efficacy of salbutamol was more than two-fold higher in the O2(•- assay. Functional selectivity was visualized by deviations of ligand potencies and efficacies from linear correlations for various parameters. We obtained no evidence for involvement of protein kinase A in the inhibition of fMLP-induced O2(•- production after β2AR-stimulation although cAMP-increasing substances inhibited O2(•- production. Taken together, our data corroborate the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations with unique signaling capabilities in native human cells and suggest that the β2AR inhibits O2(•- production in a cAMP-independent manner.

  12. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  13. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan-Clark Deborah J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Methods Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15 that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14 to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Results Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Conclusions Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase

  14. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah J; Neale, Elizabeth P; Probst, Yasmine C; Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C

    2011-11-03

    Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15) that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14) to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase intake of this food group.

  15. A Perspective on the Prowaste Concept: Efficient Utilization of Plastic Waste through Product Design and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Frigione, Mariaenrica; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Marseglia, Alessandro; Passaro, Alessandra

    2014-07-23

    This work is aimed to present an innovative technology for the reinforcement of beams for urban furniture, produced by in-mold extrusion of plastics from solid urban waste. This material, which is usually referred to as "recycled plastic lumber", is characterized by very poor mechanical properties, which results in high deflections under flexural loads, particularly under creep conditions. The Prowaste project, founded by the EACI (European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation) in the framework of the Eco-Innovation measure, was finalized to develop an innovative technology for selective reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber. Selective reinforcement was carried out by the addition of pultruded glass rods in specific positions with respect to the cross section of the beam, which allowed optimizing the reinforcing efficiency. The reinforcement of the plastic lumber beams with pultruded rods was tested at industrial scale plant, at Solteco SL (Alfaro, Spain). The beams obtained, characterized by low cost and weight, were commercialized by the Spanish company. The present paper presents the most relevant results of the Prowaste project. Initially, an evaluation of the different materials candidates for the reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber is presented. Plastic lumber beams produced in the industrial plant were characterized in terms of flexural properties. The results obtained are interpreted by means of beam theory, which allows for extrapolation of the characteristic features of beams produced by different reinforcing elements. Finally, a theoretical comparison with other approaches which can be used for the reinforcement of plastic lumber is presented, highlighting that, among others, the Prowaste concept maximizes the stiffening efficiency, allowing to significantly reduce the weight of the components.

  16. A Perspective on the Prowaste Concept: Efficient Utilization of Plastic Waste through Product Design and Process Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Greco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to present an innovative technology for the reinforcement of beams for urban furniture, produced by in-mold extrusion of plastics from solid urban waste. This material, which is usually referred to as “recycled plastic lumber”, is characterized by very poor mechanical properties, which results in high deflections under flexural loads, particularly under creep conditions. The Prowaste project, founded by the EACI (European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation in the framework of the Eco-Innovation measure, was finalized to develop an innovative technology for selective reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber. Selective reinforcement was carried out by the addition of pultruded glass rods in specific positions with respect to the cross section of the beam, which allowed optimizing the reinforcing efficiency. The reinforcement of the plastic lumber beams with pultruded rods was tested at industrial scale plant, at Solteco SL (Alfaro, Spain. The beams obtained, characterized by low cost and weight, were commercialized by the Spanish company. The present paper presents the most relevant results of the Prowaste project. Initially, an evaluation of the different materials candidates for the reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber is presented. Plastic lumber beams produced in the industrial plant were characterized in terms of flexural properties. The results obtained are interpreted by means of beam theory, which allows for extrapolation of the characteristic features of beams produced by different reinforcing elements. Finally, a theoretical comparison with other approaches which can be used for the reinforcement of plastic lumber is presented, highlighting that, among others, the Prowaste concept maximizes the stiffening efficiency, allowing to significantly reduce the weight of the components.

  17. The concept of system for chips production need to work demo CHP plant in company 'AGROSAVA' from Šimanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Aleksandar Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper according to the calculation of chips productivity needs for gasification in the demo CHP plant for co-generation: electricity and heat, chippers were analyzed due to: the type of mobility, running for chipping and the method of delivering chips to temporary yard. The plant was planned to generate electricity power up to 200kWelec. First, in consideration were taken the chippers with medium capacity, which mainly served for chipping brushwood and leaves that remain after harvest plantations on mostly flat terrain and parks. Later, the comparative characteristics of the world's three largest manufacturers of machinery for the production of wood chips significantly larger amounts (up to 30m3/h were given. These chippers were particularly suitable for the higher density of crops and stationed yard, in which brushwood would be brought and chip. At the end, the types of convective dryers were analyzed that could be successfully used for drying wood chips (drum and pneumatic dryer and based on the calculation proposed the types of dryers that were available in the local market.

  18. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies.

  19. Mauriac syndrome still exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Joana; Martins, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Marques, Olinda; Antunes, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Mauriac syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). It is related to low insulin concentrations and is less common since longer-acting insulins became available. It is characterized by hepatomegaly, growth and puberty delay, and the presence of elevated transaminases and serum lipids. The aim of this study was to describe the patients from a pediatric diabetic population that fulfill the criteria of MS. A retrospective analysis of the pediatric diabetic population with diagnostic criteria of MS currently followed at Hospital de Braga, was performed. From a population of 91 patients with DM1 18 years, 6 patients with the criteria for MS were identified: 5 girls, and 1 boy. The age at presentation was 13-17 years, with a minimum interval between DM1 diagnosis and MS criteria of 4 years. All the patients were prescribed intensive insulin therapy (median daily insulin dose: 0.88 U/kg). All had a previous history of poor glycemic control before the diagnosis of MS with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 8.8 and 12.9%. Increase of hepatic enzymes was present in all the patients; 4 of them had associated hepatomegaly. All the girls presented puberty delay and cushingoid features. None of the patients presented short stature and 5 of them presented mixed dyslipidemia. Although MS is an ancient entity described in DM1, it still exists, particularly in adolescent females. Being aware of MS is of extreme importance since most of the clinical features are reversible with better glycemic control. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus

  1. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  2. Techno-economic assessment of a wood-based biorefinery concept for the production of polymer-grade ethylene, organosolv lignin and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Roy; Budzinski, Maik; Gröngröft, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose biorefineries are distinguished by an explicitly integrative, multi-functional concept that transforms biomass into multiple products, using a variety of conversion and separation processes. This study focuses on the technical design and economic evaluation of a lignocellulose biorefinery, that converts 400,000tDM/a (≙250MW) of beech wood into chemicals and fuel. A model was simulated with Aspen Plus® including the process steps pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, alcoholic fermentation, dehydration and biogas generation and upgrading. Mass and energy balances showed that 61,600t/a polymer-grade ethylene, 58,520tDM/a organosolv lignin, 38,400t/a biomethane and 90,800tDM/a hydrolysis lignin can be produced with a total energy efficiency of 87.1%. A discounted cash flow analysis indicated that the heat integrated biorefinery concept is not yet profitable. However, the economic results are greatly sensitive regarding various assumptions, in particular in terms of the prices for beech wood, ethylene and organosolv lignin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Robustness and health monitoring of existing bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Rius, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows how the robustness concept, mainly developed and thought for the design of new structures, and the monitoring by suitable sensors based on fiber optics can also play a relevant role in the safety and management of existing bridges. A new approach of robustness more related to the long-term and service life of bridges is presented and its advantages in the decision-making process during the management of existing bridges are highlighted and afterwards applied on a real brid...

  4. Assessing the human health impacts of exposure to disinfection by-products--a critical review of concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; Rushton, Lesley; Briggs, David J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the public health implications of chemical contamination of drinking water is important for societies and their decision-makers. The possible population health impacts associated with exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) are of particular interest due to their potential carcinogenicity and their widespread occurrence as a result of treatments employed to control waterborne infectious disease. We searched the literature for studies that have attempted quantitatively to assess population health impacts and health risks associated with exposure to DBPs in drinking water. We summarised and evaluated these assessments in terms of their objectives, methods, treatment of uncertainties, and interpretation and communication of results. In total we identified 40 studies matching our search criteria. The vast majority of studies presented estimates of generic cancer and non-cancer risks based on toxicological data and methods that were designed with regulatory, health-protective purposes in mind, and therefore presented imprecise and biased estimates of health impacts. Many studies insufficiently addressed the numerous challenges to DBP risk assessment, failing to evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship, not appropriately addressing the complex nature of DBP occurrence as a mixture of chemicals, not adequately characterising exposure in space and time, not defining specific health outcomes, not accounting for characteristics of target populations, and not balancing potential risks of DBPs against the health benefits related with drinking water disinfection. Uncertainties were often poorly explained or insufficiently accounted for, and important limitations of data and methods frequently not discussed. Grave conceptual and methodological limitations in study design, as well as erroneous use of available dose-response data, seriously impede the extent to which many of these assessments contribute to understanding the public health implications of

  5. Contribution to the study of {sup 233}U production with MOX-ThPu fuel in PWR reactor. Transition scenarios towards Th/{sup 233}U iso-generating concepts in thermal spectrum. Development of the MURE fuel evolution code; Contribution a l'etude de la production d'{sup 233}U en combustible MOX-ThPu en reacteur a eau sous pression. Scenarios de transition vers des concepts isogenerateurs Th/{sup 233}U en spectre thermique. Developpement du code MURE d'evolution du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel-Sendis, F

    2006-12-15

    If nuclear power is to provide a significant fraction of the growing world energy demand, only through the breeding concept can the development of sustainable nuclear energy become a reality. The study of such a transition, from present-day nuclear technologies to future breeding concepts is therefore pertinent. Among these future concepts, those using the thorium cycle Th/U-233 in a thermal neutron spectrum are of particular interest; molten-salt type thermal reactors would allow for breeding while requiring comparatively low initial inventories of U-233. The upstream production of U-233 can be obtained through the use of thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel in present-day light water reactors. This work presents, firstly, the development of the MURE evolution code system, a C++ object-oriented code that allows the study, through Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation, of nuclear reactors and the evolution of their fuel under neutron irradiation. The M.C. methods are well-suited for the study of any reactor, whether it'd be an existing reactor using a new kind of fuel or a future concept altogether, the simulation is only dependent on nuclear data. Exact and complex geometries can be simulated and continuous energy particle transport is performed. MURE is an interface with MCNP, the well-known and validated transport code, that allows, among other functionalities, to simulate constant power and constant reactivity evolutions. Secondly, the study of MOX ThPu fuel in a conventional light water reactor (REP) is presented; it explores different plutonium concentrations and isotopic qualities in order to evaluate their safety characteristics. Simulation of their evolution allows us to quantify the production of U-233 at the end of burnup. Last, different french scenarios validating a possible transition towards a park of thermal Th/U-233 breeders, are presented. In these scenarios, U-233 is produced in ThPu moxed light water reactors. (author)

  6. ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF EXISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIA POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Nuratinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Adaptation possibilities of mycobacteria in the conditions of existence in the external environment and habitats of animals and man are studied. Adaptation mechanisms, which have pathogenic mycobacteria, allow them to survive long and circulate in the environment, which leads to special sanitary and epidemiological value of pathogens of tuberculosis. Location. Russia, Dagestan.Results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a high resistance to influence of cold, heat, chemical and physical factors, moisture and light. They carry high and low temperatures, while more than a year pathogenic properties, and even more in the dark and without sunlight. It should be noted that the stability of pathogenic species of mycobacteria in the external environment is relatively lower than that of saprophytes, capable of quickly adapting to the external environment. Raonin’s groups have more widespread in environment, in water, soil, air, plants, and habitats of animals, products of plant and animal origin and their often isolated from clinical samples.Main conclusions. Environmental conditions define the intensity of habitats of any species of mycobacteria in certain landscapes and their circulation in macroorganism. The impact of the various elements of the environment both in the macro- and microorganisms is a response that was the basis for the development of the doctrine about “limiting factors”. This concept applies not only to the necessary for mycobacteria chemical elements, but also to all the other environmental factors (temperature, humidity, aeration conditions etc. Minimum and maximum intensity factors determine the limits of endurance species. Beyond these limits, due to sharply expressed extreme conditions and is portable microorganism existence of species is not possible. The most favorable for the species optimum intensity of environmental factors, usually occupied a middle position. This provision is significantly

  7. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  8. Conceitos de Vigotski no Brasil: produção divulgada nos Cadernos de Pesquisa Vygotsky's concepts in Brazil: the production published in Cadernos de Pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gonçalves da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é identificar como os conceitos de Vigotski foram apropriados por autores vinculados à área da Psicologia da Educação que divulgaram seus trabalhos no Brasil, bem como suas metas e o momento em que tais idéias foram aqui utilizadas. Serviram de base para a pesquisa os artigos publicados nos Cadernos de Pesquisa - revista da Fundação Carlos Chagas -, que citavam, nas referências bibliográficas, alguma obra de Vigotski. Foram encontrados 37 artigos, entre 1971 e 2000. A produção foi organizada por década e analisada por meio de categorias construídas a posteriori. Os resultados mostram que os trabalhos que fizeram uso dos conceitos de Vigotski não avançaram suficientemente do ponto de vista teórico, ficando restritos aos processos de desenvolvimento e aprendizagem, bem como à relação entre pensamento e linguagem.The purpose of this article is to identify how Vygotsky's concepts were appropriated by authors related to Education Psychology in Brazil, as well as their aims and the moment in which such ideas were here employed. The basis for this research was the whole of articles published in Cadernos de Pesquisa, journal of Fundação Carlos Chagas, which mentioned, in their bibliographical references, any work of Vygotsky. Since 1971 up to 2000, 37 articles were found. The production was organized by decade and analysed through categories built a posteriori. The results have shown that works based on Vygotsky concepts not only did not advance sufficiently from the theoretical point of view, but were also restricted to development and learning processes and to the relationship between thought and language.

  9. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  10. Existing bridge evaluation using deficiency point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transforming EU countries, transportation infrastructure has a prominent position in advancing industry and society. Recent developments show, that attention should be moved from the design of new structures towards the repair and reconstruction of existing ones to ensure and increase their satisfactory structural reliability and durability. The problem is very urgent because many construction projects, especially transport infrastructure, in most European countries are more than 50-60 years old and require rehabilitations based on objective evaluations. Therefore, the paper presents methodology of existing bridge evaluation based on reliability concept using Deficiency Point Method. The methodology was prepared from the viewpoint to determine the priority order for existing bridge rehabilitation.

  11. Virtual Prototyping: Concept to Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    environments that are meaningful and realis- lations will be used for training, doctrine and tic to human participants; having computers organizational...to attack this tics . Our purpose is to describe current and problem. The DODD 5000.1, "Defense Acqui- potential applications in each of these areas...wrote in Construction Failures (New York, 1968) that "the photographic record of the torsional oscillations made by Profesor F B. Farquharson did more to

  12. Frequency synthesizers concept to product

    CERN Document Server

    Chenakin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating any of a range of frequencies from a single fixed oscillator. They are found in modern devices like radio receivers, mobile phones, and GPS systems. This comprehensive resource offers RF and microwave engineers a thorough overview of both well-established and recently developed frequency synthesizer design techniques. Professionals find expert guidance on all design aspects, including main architectures, key building blocks, and practical circuit implementation. Engineers learn the development process and gain a solid understanding

  13. The Concept of Alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miray Sasioglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alexithymia, which means “no words for emotions”, emerged in order to explain the symptoms of psychosomatic patients and gained a quick recognition among psychiatrists. However, current studies indicate that alexithymia may be a personality trait seen both in different pathological groups and even in healthy population. At this point, many researches have been made in order to distinguish alexithymia from existing constructs and diagnosis, and to remove the questions on reliability and validity of the con-cept and its measurement. Ongoing discussions on alexithymia will be re-viewed in this study. The controversial concept of alexithymia will be exam-ined in terms of characteristics, theoretical background, relationship with the other disorders, measurement and the critique of the measurement and the concept.

  14. Intellect and Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Rattan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The connections between theories of concepts and issues of knowledge and epistemic normativity are complex and controversial. According to the general, broadly Fregean, view that stands in the background of this paper, these connections are taken not only to exist, but also to be fundamental to issues about the individuation of concepts. This kind of view fleshed out should clarify the nature and role of epistemic norms, and of different kinds of epistemic norms, in concept individuation. This paper takes up an aspect of this general task and tries to make explicit the nature and role of intellectual norms, and to argue that extant paradigms for theorizing concepts fail because they fail to recognize the nature and individuative relevance of intellectual norms.

  15. Existence and Detection of Fireballs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An attempt is made to analyze critically the experimental proofs indicating the existence of fireballs. Some ideas are presented on methods of the...properties of fireballs if their existence will be checked by other methods. (Author)

  16. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement.

  17. Utility and limitations of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Introduction: Chromosomal abnormality is found in about half of first-trimester abortions. Karyotype is the gold standard to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA offers advantage over karyotype in terms of lower failure rate, faster turnaround time, and much higher resolution than conventional karyotyping and found to be 98% concordant with conventional karyotype. Aim: We performed this study to look for the utility of MLPA in diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester abortions. Materials and Methods: MLPA using subtelomeric SALSA probe sets (P036 and P070 was used to detect cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception in missed/spontaneous abortions. Results: A total of ninety abortus samples were analyzed by MLPA. Successful results were provided in (67 74.4% of the cases while no conclusion could be drawn in 25.6% (23 of the cases. Fifty-five (82.1% cases were cytogenetically normal and 17.9% (12 had some abnormality. Aneuploidy was detected in 8 (66.7% cases, 3 (25% had double-segment imbalance, and one (8.3% had partial aneuploidy. Conclusion: We suggest that MLPA is a good substitute to traditional karyotype.

  18. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  19. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF LAND COVER USING LANDSAT 8 OLI SURFACE REFLECTANCE PRODUCT AND SPECTRAL PATTERN ANALYSIS CONCEPT - CASE STUDY IN HANOI, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nguyen Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently USGS released provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product, which allows conducting land cover mapping over large composed of number of image scenes without necessity of atmospheric correction. In this study, the authors present a new concept for automated classification of land cover. This concept is based on spectral patterns analysis of reflected bands and can be automated using predefined classification rule set constituted of spectral pattern shape, total reflected radiance index (TRRI and ratios of spectral bands. Given a pixel vector B6 = {b1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6} where b1, b2,...,b6 denote bands 2, 3, ...,7 of OLI sensor respectively. By using the pixel vector B6 we can construct spectral reflectance curve. Each spectral curve is featured by a shape, which can be described in simplified form of an analogue pattern, which is consisted of 15 digits of 0, 1 and 2 showing mutual relative position of spectral vertices. Value of comparison between band i and j is 2 if bj > bi, 1 if bj = bi and 0 if bj i. Simplified spectral pattern is defined by 15 digits as m1,2m1,3m1,4m1,5m1,6m2,3m2,4m2,5m2,6m3,4m3,5m3,6m4,5m4,6m5,6 where mi,j is result of comparison of reflectance between bi and bj and has values of 0, 1 and 2. After construction of SSP for each pixel in the input image, the original image will be decomposed to component images, which contain pixels with the same SRCS pattern. The decomposition can be written analytically by equation A = Σnk=1Ck where A stands for original image with 6 spectral bands, n is number of component images decomposed from A and Ck is component image. For this study, we use Landsat 8 OLI reflectance image LC81270452013352LGN00 and LC81270452015182LGN00. For the decomposition, we use only six reflective bands. Each land cover class is defined by SSP code, threshold values for TRRI and band ratios. Automated classification of land cover was realized with 8 classes: forest, shrub, grass, water, wetland

  20. The solution of location problems with certain existing facility structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that in the Euclidean distance case, the optimal minisum location of a new facility in relation to four existing facilities is at the intersection of the two lines joining two pairs of the facilities. The authors extend this concept to minisum problems having any even number of existing...... facilities and characterized by generalized distance norms...

  1. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  2. Existence of collateral Equilibrium without survival assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a collateral equilibrium without assuming any hypotheses on the strict positivity, be they individual initial endowments, including the ex post initial endowments, or aggregated initial endowments. Because of dropping the strict positivity of social initial endowment we fail to get an equilibrium. Instead, we get a quasi-equilibrium. Then, appealing to the concept of irreducibility (introduced by McKenzie in 1959 which is adapted to the collateral model, we show that the quasi-equilibrium is indeed a legitime equilibrium.

  3. Weighing Supermassive Black Holes with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo S.; Pappadakis, I.; ScienceTeam, EXIST

    2009-12-01

    The EXIST mission concept features a wide field of view telescope that scans the full sky every two orbits at hard X-ray energies (5-600 keV) as well as a high resolution (R 3000) near infrared/optical spectrograph that can be quickly slewed to new targets. These two instruments will enable us to extend supermassive black hole timing studies (reverberation mapping and power spectrum break determination) from the current sample of 30 objects to well over 300, including highly obscured ones. We present examples of the direct black hole mass determinations such studies will enable.

  4. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  5. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    sustainable building. In other words: the question is if it sensible to talk about a ‘sustainable building’ without taking the activities in the building into account? In many contexts, maintenance of the existing building stock is not a hot political topic. Facilities management can, however, be a vehicle......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities......, QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most...

  6. Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  7. Extending Profiles with Stereotypes for Composite Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Dijkman, R.M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Briand, L.; Williams, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the UML 2.0 profiling mechanism. This extension facilitates a language designer to introduce composite concepts as separate conceptual and notational elements in a modelling language. Composite concepts are compositions of existing concepts. To facilitate the

  8. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    environment to evaluate their biofilm formation capability. It was found that multispecies consortia could lead to increased biofilm formation compared to mono species growth. This shows how co-localized isolates are able to influence biofilm production in a community with high relevance for food safety...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...... generally lead to enhanced biofilm formation in complex communities. We showed that bacteria, expected to have co-existed for a long time, generated more biofilm biomass in co-culture. This was further tested against random co-cultures of bacteria, which supported the conclusion. Discovering that some...

  9. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  10. Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, I.N.; Potting, J.M.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Phong, L.T.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the

  11. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  12. Precision livestock production: tools and concepts Precisão de produção de gado: ferramentas e conceitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Laca

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Precision livestock production (PLP is the augmentation of precision agriculture (PA concepts to include all components of agroecosystems, particularly animals and plant-animal interactions. Soil, plants and soil-plant interactions are the subjects of PA or site-specific farming, where the main principle is to exploit natural spatial heterogeneity to increase efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. For the most part, PA has been studied and developed for intensive cropping systems with little attention devoted to pastoral and agropastoral systems. PLP focuses on the animal component and exploits heterogeneity in space and among individual animals towards more efficient and environmentally friendly production. Within PLP, precision grazing consists of the integration of information and communication technologies with knowledge about animal behavior and physiology to improve production of meat, milk and wool in grazing conditions. Two main goals are to minimize overgrazing of sensitive areas and to maximize the quality of the product through enhanced traceability. An integrated precision grazing system is outlined with its components: sensors of animal position, behavior and physiological status, real-time transmission of information to a decision support system, and feed-back through a series of actuators. Control of animal movement and diets is based on knowledge about species specific responses to various stimuli within the paradigms of flavor aversions and operant conditioning. Recent advances in the technologies and instrumentation available are reviewed briefly and linked to current livestock identification systems. The precision grazing vision is presented in full and the areas that need further research and development are discussed.A precisão de produção de gado (PPG se constitui em ampliação do conceito de agricultura de precisão (AP e que inclui todos os componentes de ecossistemas agrícolas, especialmente as intera

  13. Existence of mesons after deconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Brau (Fabian); F. Buisseret

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the possibility for a quark-antiquark pair to form a bound state at temperatures higher than the critical one ($T>T_c$), thus after deconfinement. Our main goal is to find analytical criteria constraining the existence of such mesons. Our formalism relies on a Schrödinger

  14. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  15. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  16. Exploring Normalized Systems Potential for Dutch MoD’s Agility : A Proof of Concept on Flexibility, Time-to-market, Productivity and Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Land, M.; Krouwel, M.R.; Van Dipten, E.G.; Verelst, J.

    2011-01-01

    Both the Command and Control Support Centre (C2SC) of the Dutch Ministry of Defense, and Capgemini are constantly exploring better ways of building and maintaining information systems which ef- fectively support strategy and operations of an enterprise. In a Proof of Concept conducted in March and

  17. Analysis of existing structure and emissions of wood combustion plants for the production of heat and electricity in Bavaria; Analyse der Bestandesstruktur und der Emissionen von Holzfeuerungsanlagen zur Erzeugung von Waerme und Strom in Bayern.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joa, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    This work deals with the detailed analysis of the existing structure of all Bavarian wood burning plants for the generation of heat and electricity as well as the determination of the resulting emission emissions in 2013. The number of wood burning plants in the single-chamber fireplaces, wood central heating and wood-fired heating plants which are in operation in the year 2013 were determined, and how many plants are existing in the various areas like pellet stoves, traditional ovens, wood-burning fireplace, pellet central heating systems, wood chips central heating systems, fire-wood central heating systems, wood combined heat and power plant (electricity and heat) and wood power plants (heat). In addition, the regional distribution of the wood burning plants in the Bavarian governmental districts is investigated as well as the type and amount of energy produced by them (heat, electricity). [German] Diese Arbeit behandelt die detaillierte Analyse der Bestandesstruktur saemtlicher bayerischer Holzfeuerungsanlagen zur Erzeugung von Waerme und Strom sowie die Ermittlung des dabei entstehenden Emissionsausstosses im Jahr 2013. Dabei wurde ermittelt wie viele Holzfeuerungsanlagen in den Segmenten Einzelraumfeuerstaetten, Holz-Zentralheizungen und Holzheiz(kraft)werke im Jahr 2013 in Bayern in Betrieb sind und wie viele Anlagen es in den einzelnen Bereichen Pelletoefen, traditionelle Oefen, Kaminoefen, Heizkamine, offene Kamine, Kacheloefen, Pellet-Zentralheizungen, Hackschnitzel-Zentralheizungen, Scheitholz-Zentralheizungen, Holzheizkraftwerke (Waerme und Strom), Holzheizwerke (Waerme) sowie Holzkraftwerke (Strom) gibt. Des Weiteren wird die regionale Verteilung der Holzfeuerungsanlagen in den bayerischen Regierungsbezirken erforscht sowie die durch sie produzierte Art und Menge an Energie (Waerme, Strom).

  18. Some aspects of monogenean existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, B I

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with some ecology and evolution problems of monogeneans--gill parasites of fishes, such as congeneric simultaneous doublets, spatial distribution of species on the gills, interspecific restrictions of biotopes etc. The author proves competitive character of site selection in monogeneans. The role of hermaphroditism in the evolution and biology of monogeneans, and morphological adaptations (mainly androgynous) directed to increasing of mating chance are discussed. The author concentrates on analyzing the cases of monoxenous distribution and speciation and also on examining the concept of symxenity and alloxenity. He attaches great importance to ecological and evolutionary investigations of Monogenoidea.

  19. Human Rights Being and Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Etexeberria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontological perspective in the approach to human rights is subject to different traps,against which measures must be taken. But it also faces us to the challenge of precisely specifying what they are and how are they to be based. In this paper we try to face this challenge, paying attention to avoid the traps above mentioned. The first part of it is focused on being-existence of human rights,trying to specify critically their «places»: social reality, laws and, in a founding sense, human dignity.The second part takes the category being-essence as reference, asking about the kind of being of humanrights in their different types. This «kind» will show itself densely mediated by cultural diversity andtemporality-historicity. What is really pretended with this reflection is to contribute to the cause of thesocial existence of human rights.

  20. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  1. A critical assessment of the modern sociotechnical approach within production and operations management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaan, A.H.; de Vries, J.

    2000-01-01

    The field of production and operations management nowadays includes various concepts, theories and approaches. The theoretical background of these concepts and theories however, can be found in many different disciplines and it is therefore not surprising that still no clear body of knowledge exists

  2. Práticas de formação e a produção de políticas de existência Formation practices and the production of existential politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que somos herdeiros e estamos imersos no processamento de uma cultura - a cultura ocidental - que tem se caracterizado pelo investimento em fazer valer apenas uma política de existência, queremos partilhar algumas marcações que têm nos apoiado no exercício de deslocamento na perspectiva da criação de possíveis, da ampliação de espaços de liberdade. Entendendo as práticas de formação como importantes vetores no exercício cotidiano de civilizar, cabe aqui problematizar algumas instituições que nelas se instrumentalizam. Faremos isso chamando Nietzsche e Foucault como intercessores, para nos instalar num debate entre ciência e filosofia tencionando interrogar a primazia do referencial do direito em nosso presente.Considering that we are heir and immersed in a cultural process - the occidental culture - which character is based in the investment of imposing a single existential politic, we wish to share some guidelines that have been supporting us in the continuous exercise of perspective dislocation for the creation of possibles, enlargement of freedom areas. Understanding the formation practices as an important vector in the usual exercise of civilization, this article intends to question some institutions that use it as instrument. We will do that with the support of Nietzsche and Foucault as interlocutors, in a way that puts us in a debate between science and philosophy with the intention of questioning the primacy of the legal reference in our present.

  3. production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Society of Animal Production, Transkei,. 15-17 April, 1986. N.M. Tainton. Department of ... association with grazing and browsing animals, whilst of course its general degradation in recent years can be ... physiology, anatomy, histology, pathology and animal pro- ducts technology required by Animal Science ...

  4. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  5. On the relation between ecosystem services, intrinsic value, existence value and economic valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various attempts have been made to amalgamate the concepts of intrinsic value and ecosystem services, often with a stop-over at the economic concept of existence value. These attempts are based on a confusion of concepts, however. In this article, two types of non-use values are distinguished: warm

  6. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  7. Existence of solutions for mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Aghajani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we give some results concerning the continuity of the nonlinear Volterra and Fredholm integral operators on the space $L^{1}[0,infty$. Then by using the concept of measure of weak noncompactness, we prove an existence result for a functional integral equation which includes several classes of nonlinear integral equations. Our results extend some previous works.

  8. Unheimlichkeit: Alienated and Integrated Identities and Criminal Existence(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Amatrudo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that we should reinterpret Merton’s retreatist category by using Heidegger’s notion of unheimlichkeit (uncanniness which relates to the claim that our consciousness and sense-making are grounded in our own openness to finitude. It will also make use of Heidegger’s concept of Dasein which relates to the uncovering of a primal nature of Being (Sein. When we do this we note how the existential potential of this category are at once released from the bonds of an overly objectivised Sociology and open to the possibility of a richer understanding of action and motivation within this class of persons. It argues that we should make Durkheim compatible with Marx. This is if one allows that the empirical basis for Durkheim’s ‘social condition’ is as set out by Marx. Durkheim was preoccupied by the micro-level of analysis and Marx with wider economic conditions of the nineteenth century. Merton was tied up with detailing the America of his day and with individualized goal-setting and means-ends rationality. By employing the concept of unheimlichkeit in relation to Merton’s work we open up a new form of explanation able to understand the psychic and existential striving for meaning, that Heidegger terms Dasein. Este ensayo defiende que debemos reinterpretar la categoría retraída de Merton utilizando la noción de unheimlichkeit (extrañeza de Heidegger, que se refiere a la exigencia de que nuestra consciencia y toma de decisiones se basan en nuestra aceptación de la finitud. También emplea el concepto de Heidegger del Dasein que se refiere al descubrimiento de una naturaleza primigenia del ser (Sein. Al hacer esto se observa cómo el potencial existencial de esta categoría se libera de las ataduras de una sociología excesivamente objetivizada, y se abre a la posibilidad de un entendimiento más rico de la acción y motivación entre este tipo de personas. Se defiende que deberíamos hacer que Durkheim sea compatible con

  9. Turbulence: does energy cascade exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Josserand, Christophe; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber $k_{1}$ to $k_{2}$ than from $k_{1}$ to $k'_{2}$ larger than $k_{2}$.

  10. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah J; Neale, Elizabeth P; Probst, Yasmine C; Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C

    2011-01-01

    .... This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods...

  11. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  12. EXIST OIRT Camera and Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Woodgate, B.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST mission includes a 1.1m infrared and visible telescope which provides the capability to locate, identify, and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. To allow rapid identification and spectroscopic follow up, the instruments will provide wide band imaging, covering the full error circle of the Gamma Ray Telescope (GRT), low spectral resolution slitless spectroscopy, and high resolution integral field spectroscopy. The integral field unit will have a small field of view of 2" x 2" to study diffuse objects, e.g. GRB host galaxies. The instrumentation capabilities will allow this telescope quickly identify the afterglow, measure its brightness curves, redshift, measure spectral characteristics of the GRBs, and measure absorption spectra of the intervening intergalactic medium. With this instrument, high redshift GRBs become important tools for observing the processes through which the universe is ionized.

  13. Why do interstellar grains exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seab, C. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included.

  14. Old concept with new power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik; de Vreese, Claes Holger

    ) to this selection. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates the existence of four distinct types of political participation. We show that activities formerly described as civic engagement (Zukin et al., 2006; Norris, 2002) can be re-integrated into the concept of political participation and confirm...

  15. Certification, agricultural waste, organic production, herbal medicine and biotechnology in the conception of farmers of the State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Lucas Ribeiro Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The organic production system aims not at the intensive exploitation of resources, but the correct management of waste, the use of alternative treatments of animal diseases, and the utilization of some biotechnologies to assist in production. This is an exploratory study to evaluate the way farmers perceive the certification of their farms, the organic agricultural production, waste control, and the use of herbal medicine and biotechnologies in their properties. Fifteen farmers from the Dom Fernando Gomes dos Santos (GI settlement, in Itaberaí, participated in the study, besides 15 farmers (GII who are not participants in agrarian reform programs from different municipalities in the state of Goiás. Information was collected using questionnaires that addressed issues related to certification of farms, production of waste, organic agricultural production, herbal medicine, and biotechnology. Most farmers of GI and GII were unfamiliar with farm certification. Most GII farmers knew about agricultural waste, but few GI farmers knew its meaning. Most farmers of the two groups were familiar with the term organic agricultural production. More GII farmers were familiar with herbal medicines than GI. In both groups the term biotechnology was unknown to most people. It was concluded that this lack of knowledge by the majority of farmers about most topics presented shows the need to plan and execute actions to assist in the dissemination of information among farmers, settlers or not, using practical and functional strategies.

  16. Concept Overview & Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is an opportunity for wide-scale use of hydrogen as an intermediate that carries energy from various production options to multiple uses. It is based on identifying and developing opportunities for low-cost hydrogen production and investigating opportunities for using that hydrogen across the electricity, industrial, and transportation sectors. One of the key production opportunities is use of low-cost electricity that may be generated under high penetrations of variable renewable generators such as wind and solar photovoltaics. The technical potential demand for hydrogen across the sectors is 60 million metric tons per year. The U.S. has sufficient domestic renewable resources so that each could meet that demand and could readily meet the demand using a portfolio of generation options. This presentation provides an overview of the concept and the technical potential demand and resources. It also motivates analysis and research on H2@Scale.

  17. Repowering existing coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, E.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Increased competition among power generating companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performance of older electric generating units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including: environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g., increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, and optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy-to-use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant options. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the United States, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper. 14 figs.

  18. Existing and Future Urban Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Atkinson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rising focus on urban issues at both European and national levels, the well being of cities and the quality of life of their citizens has taken on greater salience for economic and political reasons. This situation has developed not least because the vast majority...... of the population now lives in urban areas and the main economic activities of nations are located in cities which are seen as essential to the enhancement of Europe’s economic growth and competitiveness. Moreover, most cultural production and consumption are also urban. Cities (or perhaps city-regions) are viewed...

  19. Pre-existing Antibody: Biotherapeutic Modality-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gorovits, Boris; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Birchler, Mary; Liang, Meina; Myler, Heather; Peng, Kun; Purushothama, Shobha; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Salazar-Fontana, Laura; Sung, Crystal; Xue, Li

    2016-01-01

    Pre-existing antibodies to biotherapeutic drugs have been detected in drug-naïve subjects for a variety of biotherapeutic modalities. Pre-existing antibodies are immunoglobulins that are either specific or cross-reacting with a protein or glycan epitopes on a biotherapeutic compound. Although the exact cause for pre-existing antibodies is often unknown, environmental exposures to non-human proteins, glycans, and structurally similar products are frequently proposed as factors. Clinical conseq...

  20. ETHICAL FASHION CONCEPT AND DESIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar GOKLUBERK OZLU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some problems like rapidly developing industrialization, irregular population growth, environmental pollution and to feel the impact of global warming as seriously, has been giving significant damage to the earth. People has realized that, after polluting to clean is harder than polluting of the measures to be taken before. And again people showed the sensitivity to the environment through different reactions and sanctions, took measures and created the new concepts about the enviroment. "Ethical Fashion" concept was created by the conscious and responsible individuals in the last two decades. However, that are being implemented as a concept is noticeable. Textile and fashion industry cover "Ethical Fashion"; ecological product, working conditions, fair trade and sustainable product are all in that concept. "Ethical Fashion" appeared and developed especially in United Kingdom, the USA and the other European countries. Nowadays, we may see a lot of textile and fashion designers, fabric and clothing collections, fairs and some specific courses at the universities about "Ethical Fashion". In this research contains "Ethical Fashion" concept, it's development processes and fashion designers who is working for this concept at the present time, also the main target is in this research, semtinizing "Ethical Fashion" concept.

  1. A new concept for the modeling of the positron emitter production for the particle therapy; Ein neues Konzept zur Modellierung der Positronenemitter-Produktion bei der Partikeltherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priegnitz, Marlen

    2012-07-01

    One of the three main tumour treatment forms is radiation therapy. Here, the application of ion beams, in particular protons and carbon ions, is of growing importance. This high precision therapy requires a consequent monitoring of the dose delivery since the induced dose deposition is very sensitive to density changes in the irradiated tissue. Up to now, positron emission tomography (PET) is the only in vivo method in clinical use for monitoring the dose deposition in ion beam therapy. It allows for the verification of the particle range as well as the position of the irradiation field. The distribution of activity measured by means of PET cannot be compared directly to the planned dose distribution. Thus, a calculation of the expected activity distribution is required which then can be compared to the measurement. Simulation of the expected activity distribution requires the exact knowledge of various cross sections. Only a few of them have been measured in the required energy range so far. Therefore, in Monte Carlo simulations often intrinsic nuclear models or semi-empirical parametrization are used which often exhibit insufficient accuray. Among experts the question on the optimum ion species for tumour therapy is still open. Especially lithium ions exhibit a great potential due to their favourable physical and radiobiological properties. Also for these ions a PET monitoring is highly desirable. The presented work shows the feasibility of range verification by means of PET for lithium irradiation. Furthermore, a concept for modeling positron emitter distributions without the knowledge of cross sections is developed. This prediction is based on depth-dependent positron emitter yields measured in reference materials (water, graphite and polyethylene). With these data the positron emitter distribution in any material of known stoichiometry can be calculated by means of an appropriate linear combination. The feasibility of the yield concept is shown for lithium and

  2. Does the mental lexicon exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the central and mostintriguing components of language processing to researchers is the mentallexicon. The term was used for the first time by Ann Triesman in 1961 and westill do not have clear answers on how it is structured and how muchinformation it contains, or even if there is something to be called a mentallexicon. For some time, mental lexicon has been compared to a mental dictionaryboth storing and organizing word knowledge; however, they are surely differentin structure and quantity/quality of information. Neuroimaging studies havealso tried to bring contributions to these questions. Some researchers believethat there are many lexicons, one for each level of stored information (ULLMAN,2007: orthographic, phonological, semantic and syntactic lexicons. Another group of researchers (MCCLELLAND;ROGERS, 2003; SEIDENBERG, 1997, etc. postulates the existence of only onelexicon where all information levels are integrated. Recently, a new audaciousproposal has been done by Elman (2009, the inexistence of a mental lexicon. Inthis paper, we discuss the different views of mental lexicon structure andcontent. We try to proceed on the discussion of Elman’s new proposal andconfront it to data obtained by behavioral, neuroimaging and computationalstudies.

  3. System concepts for biofuel-production based on the Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis; Systemkonzepte fuer die Produktion von Fischer-Tropsch-Biokraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Bolhar-Nordenkampf, M. [Technische Univ. Wien, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften (Austria); Hofbauer, H. [Technische Univ. Wien, Chemische Verfahrenstechnik und Wirbelschichttechnik (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    On the background of a CO2-neutral energy provision under conservation of fossil resources as the political aim, biomass gasification seems to be - among others - a technique with good prospects for the production of liquid biofuels. Based on the suitable gasification techniques for a combination with the Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis promising overall systems for fuel production are discussed. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund der politischen Zielvorgaben einer moeglichst CO2-neutralen und ressourcenschonenden Energiewandlung gilt die Vergasung biogener Festbrennstoffe unter anderem auch im Bereich der Kraftstofferzeugung als Schluesseltechnologie. Auf der Grundlage geeigneter Vergasungsverfahren fuer die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese werden vielversprechende Gesamtsystemkonzepte zur Produktion von Biokraftstoffen diskutiert.

  4. The high energy telescope on EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  5. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature...... and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  6. Conception of the technology of wood production from short rotation coppice. Pt. 2; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Firus, Siegfried; Grosa, Andre; Herlitzius, Thomas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) of fast-growing tree species are becoming more and more important in Germany. Already in the issue 1.2011 of Landtechnik a part of the current research and development projects in the field of SRC at the professorship of agricultural machines of the Technische Universitaet Dresden were presented. In this second part the importance of harvesting, drying and storage of wood chips will be shown in detail, as they have significant influence on the chip quality. Possible solutions, studies and required developments will be highlighted to existing problems. (orig.)

  7. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  8. Content validity--establishing and reporting the evidence in newly developed patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments for medical product evaluation: ISPOR PRO good research practices task force report: part 1--eliciting concepts for a new PRO instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald L; Burke, Laurie B; Gwaltney, Chad J; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Martin, Mona L; Molsen, Elizabeth; Ring, Lena

    2011-12-01

    The importance of content validity in developing patient reported outcomes (PRO) instruments is stressed by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Content validity is the extent to which an instrument measures the important aspects of concepts that developers or users purport it to assess. A PRO instrument measures the concepts most significant and relevant to a patient's condition and its treatment. For PRO instruments, items and domains as reflected in the scores of an instrument should be important to the target population and comprehensive with respect to patient concerns. Documentation of target population input in item generation, as well as evaluation of patient understanding through cognitive interviewing, can provide the evidence for content validity. Developing content for, and assessing respondent understanding of, newly developed PRO instruments for medical product evaluation will be discussed in this two-part ISPOR PRO Good Research Practices Task Force Report. Topics include the methods for generating items, documenting item development, coding of qualitative data from item generation, cognitive interviewing, and tracking item development through the various stages of research and preparing this tracking for submission to regulatory agencies. Part 1 covers elicitation of key concepts using qualitative focus groups and/or interviews to inform content and structure of a new PRO instrument. Part 2 covers the instrument development process, the assessment of patient understanding of the draft instrument using cognitive interviews and steps for instrument revision. The two parts are meant to be read together. They are intended to offer suggestions for good practices in planning, executing, and documenting qualitative studies that are used to support the content validity of PRO instruments to be used in medical product evaluation. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR

  9. Limb-Nadir Matching Using Non-Coincident NO2 Observations: Proof of Concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS Prototype Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cristen; Normand, Elise N.; Mclinden, Chris A.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Rivas, Maria Belmonte; Boersma, K. Folkert; Eskes, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical boxmodel. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product - referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO) - was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60 deg S to 60 deg N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 x 10(exp 15) molecules per sq cm over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.

  10. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  11. Natural existence of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variyar, Prasad S; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sajilata, M G; Singhal, Rekha S; Sharma, Arun

    2008-12-24

    Increased outbreaks of food-borne illnesses, including deaths in recent years, attributed in large part to consumption of food contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, have become a worldwide concern. Food-borne illnesses constitute an unacceptable health risk demanding stringent food safety controls. Despite food irradiation being a known effective method to eliminate pathogens that are difficult to eradicate by conventional methods, consumers and industry at large have been reluctant to adopt it. This is mainly attributed to some apprehensions regarding the safety of irradiated food. One such apprehension relates to 2-alkylcylcyclobutanones, unique radiolytic products thought to be formed in minute quantities in food during radiation processing. We demonstrate here for the first time the natural occurrence of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone in commercial nonirradiated as well as fresh cashew nut samples and 2-decylcyclobutanone as well as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in nonirradiated nutmeg samples. The presence of 2-tetradecenylcyclobutanone was also observed in both commercial and irradiated cashew nuts. The present study will provide greater impetus for wider adoption of radiation technology for elimination of food-borne pathogenic bacteria without apprehensions about the technology that can help ensure food safety.

  12. Structural Patterns in Students' Conceptions in Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jose Ma

    1999-01-01

    Reports the existence of patterns of reasoning that are common to students' conceptions in different areas of mechanics. Finds that the common frameworks between different ideas have a generality level that lies between Piaget's stage theory and the approach of alternative conceptions. Contains 30 references. (Author/WRM)

  13. Cultivating a Caring, Environmental Self: Using the Figured World Concept to Explore Children's Environmental Identity Production in a Public School Garden Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsberger, Megan Jane

    This ethnographic case study investigates the diverse means and processes by which environmental identities were produced by five first grade students as they participated in an emergent, public school garden space. The children's histories, choices, personal and social experiences, expressions, and corresponding narratives are explored alongside the garden structure and social context to unpack the individualized and layered nature of children's environmental identity and care development. To locate and analyze children's engagements in the garden space, ethnographic, discourse, and narrative analysis methods are employed. The figured world concept is used to theorize and study the caring, environmental identities taken up and enacted by the children in this context. Through participation in emergent provocations, the creation and leveraging of garden artifacts, and investments in caring relationships, the children in this study shaped and cared for the garden space while it simultaneously shaped and cared for them. The environmental identity stories presented in this work broaden the definition of environmental identity to be more inclusive and less normalizing, thus, creating new spaces and moments for children to identify as environmentalists. The stories also raise implications for environmental education researchers to utilize more rigorous frameworks for investigating environmental care and identity development in the field. Findings from this research indicate that emergent garden spaces are potential sites for children to build relationships with nature in the public school. This is a significant practice for schools, as children today lack spaces in which to form environmental identities that implicate environmental care behaviors.

  14. Synthesis of a Cementitious Material Nanocement Using Bottom-Up Nanotechnology Concept: An Alternative Approach to Avoid CO2 Emission during Production of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wan Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s increasing need is to develop smart and sustainable construction material, which will generate minimal climate changing gas during their production. The bottom-up nanotechnology has established itself as a promising alternative technique for the production of the cementitious material. The present investigation deals with the chemical synthesis of cementitious material using nanosilica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, and calcium nitrate as reacting phases. The characteristic properties of the chemically synthesized nanocement were verified by the chemical composition analysis, setting time measurement, particle size distribution, fineness analysis, and SEM and XRD analyses. Finally, the performance of the nanocement was ensured by the fabrication and characterization of the nanocement based mortar. Comparing the results with the commercially available cement product, it is demonstrated that the chemically synthesized nanocement not only shows better physical and mechanical performance, but also brings several encouraging impacts to the society, including the reduction of CO2 emission and the development of sustainable construction material. A plausible reaction scheme has been proposed to explain the synthesis and the overall performances of the nanocement.

  15. Future Interagency Range and Spaceport Technologies (FIRST) Formulation Products: 1. Transformational Spaceport and Range Concept of Operations. 2. F.I.R.S.T. Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Baseline Report captures range and spaceport capabilities at five sites: KSC, CCAFS, VAFB, Wallops, and Kodiak. The Baseline depicts a future state that relies on existing technology, planned upgrades, and straight-line recapitalization at these sites projected through 2030. The report presents an inventory of current spaceport and range capabilities at these five sites. The baseline is the first part of analyzing a business case for a set of capabilities designed to transform U.S. ground and space launch operations toward a single, integrated national "system" of space transportation systems. The second part of the business case compares current capabilities with technologies needed to support the integrated national "system". The final part, a return on investment analysis, identifies the technologies that best lead to the integrated national system and reduce recurring costs..Numerous data sources were used to define and describe the baseline spaceport and range by identifying major systems and elements and describing capabilities, limitations, and capabilities

  16. GRB Probes of the High-z Universe with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan; EXIST Team

    2009-05-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission concept was selected for further study under the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program. The mission design is optimized for study of high-z GRBs as probes of the early Universe. With a 4.5 m2 imaging 5-600 keV (CZT) detector imaging a 90°×70° (>10% coding fraction) field of view with 2' resolution and 5σ sources, EXIST will perform rapid (exist, and spectra for studies of the host galaxy and local re-ionization bubble as well as intervening cosmic structure. With ~600 GRBs/yr expected, EXIST will open a new era in studies of the early Universe as well as carry out a rich program of AGN and transient-source science. An overview of the GRB science objectives and a brief discussion of the overall mission design and operations is given, and example high-z GRB spectra are shown. EXIST is being proposed to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey as a Medium Class mission that could be launched as early as 2017.

  17. Social Justice: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwick, Angela L; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2017-03-01

    Social justice is presented frequently as a core or shared value at the very foundation of nursing practice. Despite its acceptance as a core value, its use is varied and there has been inherent difficulty in establishing a definitive explanation for what is meant by social justice. As such, a clearly defined meaning for the concept of social justice does not exist in contemporary nursing literature. Following the method outlined by Walker and Avant, an analysis of the concept of social justice provides clarity to the meaning of social justice as it is used within the nursing profession, in academia, education, and practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  19. Novel Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts and process concepts for selective transportation fuel production: Quarterly technical progress report for the period 1 April-30 June 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, W.E.; Eliezer, K.F.; Mitchell, J.W.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    In the seventh, and final quarter, work continued on the three major tasks: Task 2 - Development of Improved Supported Catalyst Compositions, Task 3 - Slurry Reactor Kinetic Studies, and Task 4 - Fuel Product Characterization. To examine the importance of surface area effects on the activity enhancement of the Co/Zr/silica catalyst, a Co/Zr/silica catalyst having the same surface area as the Co/Zr/alumina catalyst was tested in the fixed bed reactor. Silica provided an inherently more active catalyst than alumina but some of the enhancement that was initially observed was due to the increased surface area. The effect of increasing metal loadings on the performance of the Co/Zr/silica catalyst was examined with tests of 11% and 14.4$ Co catalysts in the fixed bed reactor. The 11% Co catalyst gave the highest syngas conversion (52%) at 220/sup 0/C of any catalyst tested at this temperature during this contract. Selectivity to liquid fuel product declined with increasing Co loading with an overall flattening of the hydrocarbon distribution. Slurry screening tests were performed on two catalysts. One was a cobalt on silica catalyst without any added promoter atoms such as Zr or Ti. The other screening test was a Zr promoted cobalt on silica catalyst with a high loading of Co. The extended slurry test which was begun in December 1985 was completed in June. During this quarter, a series of experiments was run to try to determine reaction kinetics. The spent catalyst from the extended slurry test of the Co/Zr/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst was found to contain 43.2% carbon and 2.4% hydrogen. This indicated a significant amount of coke formation. A second sample of liquid organic product was collected from the extended slurry test for testing as a diesel fuel. This sample met all the requirements for the highest quality diesel fuel except for viscosity and cloud point. 6 refs., 57 figs., 98 tabs.

  20. Biogas production liquid and solid waste for power generation. Total concept for utilization of wastes; Biogasherstellung aus Abwasser und Feststoffen dient zur Stromerzeugung. Gesamtkonzept zur Nutzung von Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Stephan [Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Aerzen (Germany)

    2010-06-14

    Processing of vegetables and potatoes uses produces large amounts of liquid and solid waste materials every day. These can be used for biogas production and for electric power generation in a cogeneration unit. The liquid waste is processed and then discharged into a nearby streamlet and/or into a public sewage plant. The waste heat of the process can be used for heating. A plant working by this principle was constructed at Twistringen in the German state of Niedersachsen. The system incorporates two biogas blowers and two oil-free compressing rotary piston blowers by Aerzener Maschinenfabrik. (orig.)

  1. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  2. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  3. A pioneering healthcare model applying large-scale production concepts: Principles and performance after more than 11,000 transplants at Hospital do Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, José Medina

    2016-10-01

    The kidney transplant program at Hospital do Rim (hrim) is a unique healthcare model that applies the same principles of repetition of processes used in industrial production. This model, devised by Frederick Taylor, is founded on principles of scientific management that involve planning, rational execution of work, and distribution of responsibilities. The expected result is increased efficiency, improvement of results and optimization of resources. This model, almost completely subsidized by the Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym), has been used at the hrim in more than 11,000 transplants over the last 18 years. The hrim model consists of eight interconnected modules: organ procurement organization, preparation for the transplant, admission for transplant, surgical procedure, post-operative period, outpatient clinic, support units, and coordination and quality control. The flow of medical activities enables organized and systematic care of all patients. The improvement of the activities in each module is constant, with full monitoring of various administrative, health care, and performance indicators. The continuous improvement in clinical results confirms the efficiency of the program. Between 1998 and 2015, an increase was noted in graft survival (77.4 vs. 90.4%, p<0.001) and patient survival (90.5 vs. 95.1%, p=0.001). The high productivity, efficiency, and progressive improvement of the results obtained with this model suggest that it could be applied to other therapeutic areas that require large-scale care, preserving the humanistic characteristic of providing health care activity.

  4. A pioneering healthcare model applying large-scale production concepts: Principles and performance after more than 11,000 transplants at Hospital do Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medina Pestana

    Full Text Available Summary The kidney transplant program at Hospital do Rim (hrim is a unique healthcare model that applies the same principles of repetition of processes used in industrial production. This model, devised by Frederick Taylor, is founded on principles of scientific management that involve planning, rational execution of work, and distribution of responsibilities. The expected result is increased efficiency, improvement of results and optimization of resources. This model, almost completely subsidized by the Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym, has been used at the hrim in more than 11,000 transplants over the last 18 years. The hrim model consists of eight interconnected modules: organ procurement organization, preparation for the transplant, admission for transplant, surgical procedure, post-operative period, outpatient clinic, support units, and coordination and quality control. The flow of medical activities enables organized and systematic care of all patients. The improvement of the activities in each module is constant, with full monitoring of various administrative, health care, and performance indicators. The continuous improvement in clinical results confirms the efficiency of the program. Between 1998 and 2015, an increase was noted in graft survival (77.4 vs. 90.4%, p<0.001 and patient survival (90.5 vs. 95.1%, p=0.001. The high productivity, efficiency, and progressive improvement of the results obtained with this model suggest that it could be applied to other therapeutic areas that require large-scale care, preserving the humanistic characteristic of providing health care activity.

  5. Children's conceptions of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Elsa; Rice Meyer, Karen

    An examination of children's notions about light and visual phenomena shows the existence of mental models, that is to say, ways of thinking that are consistent and pervasive. These naive conceptual schemes, used by different children to explain similar phenomena, determine the kinds of responses given by the children in problem-solving situations. In this article we study children's ideas about colored objects and colored shadows, with special attention to the ways in which these ideas are organized into mental models. The elucidation of these models provides valuable instructional tools that serve to assess and to confront students' naive conceptions. This work was carried out in a science museum at the site of interactive exhibits that show unexpected effects. Children who visited the museum were engaged in problem-solving situations that involved predictions, explanations, and manipulations of the exhibit.

  6. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their concept, establishment, evaluates the factors leading to their production capacity, for developing efficiency measures and model presentation.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Reactor core and plant design concepts of the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisir, M.; Gaudet, M.; Bailey, J.; Rhodes, D.; Guzonas, D.; Hamilton, H.; Haque, Z.; Pencer, J.; Sartipi, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Canada is developing a 1200 MWe supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), which has evolved from the well-established pressure-tube type CANDU{sup 1} reactor. This SCWR reactor concept, which is often referred to as the Canadian SCWR, uses supercritical water as a coolant, has a low-pressure heavy water moderator and a direct cycle for power production. The reactor concept incorporates advanced safety features, such as passive emergency core cooling, long-term decay heat rejection to the environment and fuel melt prevention via passive moderator cooling. These features significantly reduce the core damage frequency beyond existing nuclear reactors. This paper presents a description of the Canadian SCWR core design concept, the integration of in-core and out-of-core components and the mechanical plant design concept. Supporting systems for reactor safety, reactor control and moderator cooling are also described. (author)

  8. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  9. Nanotechnology: the word is new but the concept is old. An overview of the science and technology in food and food products at the nanoscale level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Bryksa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food scientists and technologists are actively engaged in examining and developing nanotechnologies for applications such as novel functional ingredients and nutrient delivery systems, safety testing, packaging, and authenticity/authentication at an ever-increasing pace. However, before these new products/technologies are commercialised, rigorous safety testing and risk/benefit analysis are required to ensure that public and environmental concerns are addressed. This review provides an overview of food nanoscience and technology including a brief history, education, definitions pertaining to policy and regulation, and applications. The most recent findings and advances are emphasised, focussing on bioactives' delivery. In addition, proposed directions in the area of nano-based targeting of pathogens for food safety as well as medical foods are discussed. As food nanoscience and technology has been extensively reviewed in recent years, specific case examples will be limited to those reported within the past year.

  10. The shame of existing: an extreme form of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents 'the shame of existing' as a form of shame that is deeper and more extensive than those customarily encountered. 'The shame of existing' is defined as shame about existing as we are and especially at the fact that we are. It is accompanied by merciless and total rejection of the subject's self and by feelings of extreme worthlessness and inferiority coupled with the all-pervasive conviction that it would be better not to exist. On the basis of clinical material, consideration is given to the specific transference and countertransference aspects of analyses in which the shame of existing constitutes an important part of the patient's pathology. Disturbance of handling and holding by the primary objects right from birth is suggested as the earliest developmental basis of the shame of existing. This disturbance is attributed to hate and rejection of the infant by the primary objects and to the infant's not being touched emotionally and physically and not having its right to exist acknowledged. The paper begins with an introduction to shame as an affect and as a concept in psychoanalytic theory. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...

  12. APORTES CONCEPTUALES PARA UN ANÁLISIS DE LA PRODUCCIÓN ORGÁNICA, ELEMENTO TRANSFORMADOR DE LA NUEVA RURALIDAD CONCEPTUAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANALYSING ORGANIC PRODUCTION AS TRANSFORMER OF NEW RURAL CONCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA LUCÍA CADENA DURÁN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para abordar en campo, las dinámicas generadas por la producción orgánica, es necesario tener en cuenta algunos elementos conceptuales que permitan interpretar de manera fundamentada los asuntos sociales, económicos y ambientales, en el marco de la Nueva ruralidad en Colombia y en América Latina. Si bien el medio rural presenta desequilibrios importantes y urgentes de solucionar (agotamiento del suelo, extinción de especies de fauna y flora, erosión, contaminación de los ríos y quebradas, entre otras, a la vez dispone de capital físico, capital natural, capital cultural, capital humano, capital social y capital institucional, capaces de generar soluciones viables mediante un enfoque de desarrollo sostenible, y así hacerse partícipes de un proceso de transformación. Los productores y productoras y sus sistemas de producción, han cambiado durante el proceso de consolidación de la producción orgánica; estos cambios están conformando nuevas dinámicas en la ruralidad. Este proceso y sus particularidades reflejan una nueva ruralidad de la cual no es posible ser ajenos. Revisando algunas experiencias en sistemas sostenibles en diferentes zonas rurales de Colombia, específicamente en municipios de Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Tolima y Cauca, puede decirse que estas desbordan el espacio geográfico de la región, al estar interactuando con otras comunidades ubicadas en otros municipios, reconformando las regiones. En este sentido, este documento es una aproximación conceptual para el análisis de las dinámicas generadas en la población y el medio rural, por la producción orgánica como un elemento transformador en la nueva ruralidad.To approach the dynamics generated by organic production in the country side, it`s necessary to have accounting some conceptual tools wich let us to interpretate in found way social, economic and environmental matters into the context of the new conception of rural both Colombia and Latin America. Although

  13. A CLASSIFICATION ON THE CONCEPT OF GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The governance concept has been come into use within the period started upon the narrowing of nation-state borders. And when it comes to the present day, it fronts us as a concept which "exists in everywhere at the same time" and there isn't any significant classification in the literature. The purpose of the study is to make a classification on the concept of governance. In the study, the governance concept is addressed in 3 different categories as according to dimension of management, form ...

  14. Assessment of the high performance light water reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J. [Univ. of Stuttgart, IKE, (Germany); Schulenberg, T. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Bittermann, D. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Andreani, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Maraczy, C. [AEKI-KFKI, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    From 2006-2010, the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) was investigated within a European Funded project called HPLWR Phase 2. Operated at 25MPa with a heat-up rate in the core from 280{sup o}C to 500{sup o}C, this reactor concept provides a technological challenge in the fields of design, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and heat transfer, materials, and safety. The assessment of the concept with respect to the goals of the technology roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors of the Generation IV International Forum shows that the HPLWR has a potential to fulfil the goals of economics, safety and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In terms of sustainability, the HPLWR with a thermal neutron spectrum investigated within this project, does not differ from existing Light Water Reactors in terms of usage of fuel and waste production. (author)

  15. Spatio-temporal quantification of differential growth processes in root growth zones based on a novel combination of image sequence processing and refined concepts describing curvature production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Nagel, Kerstin A; Palme, Klaus; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim; Scharr, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    Differential growth processes in root and shoot growth zones are governed by the transport kinetics of auxin and other plant hormones. While gene expression and protein localization of hormone transport facilitators are currently being unraveled using state-of-the-art techniques of live cell imaging, the quantitative analysis of growth reactions is lagging behind because of a lack of suitable methods. A noninvasive technique, based on digital image sequence processing, for visualizing and quantifying highly resolved spatio-temporal root growth processes was applied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and was adapted to provide precise information on differential curvature production activity within the root growth zone. Comparison of root gravitropic curvature kinetics in wild-type and mutant plants altered in a facilitator for auxin translocation allowed the determination of differences in the location and in the temporal response of curvature along the growth zone between the investigated plant lines. The findings of the quantitative growth analysis performed here confirm the proposed action of the investigated transport facilitator. The procedure developed here for the investigation of differential growth processes is a valuable tool for characterizing the phenomenology of a wide range of shoot and root growth movements and hence facilitates elucidation of their molecular characterization.

  16. Innovative biorefinery concept for sugar-based ethanol industries: production of protein-rich fungal biomass on vinasse as an aquaculture feed ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the potential of producing a protein-rich fungus, Rhizopus microsporus (var. oligosporus), as an aquaculture feed ingredient on vinasse generated during sugar-based ethanol fermentation. Optimization studies showed prolific fungal growth at pH 5.0 and 30 degrees C on vinasse with nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) supplementation. The molasses-vinasse resulted in the highest specific fungal biomass yield of 0.21 (g biomass increase/(g initial biomassxg soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removed)). Organic and inorganic matters were significantly reduced, e.g., 42.02% SCOD and 24.41% total dissolved solids. Thus, the treated effluent could be recycled as process water or used for land applications. The fungal biomass was found to have 45.55% crude protein with significantly high amino acids, arginine and threonine. The integration of innovative fungal technology with sugar-based ethanol production could provide an opportunity for producing food-grade fungal protein for animal feed application with simultaneous water reclamation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the concept of transcreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    for in this context, and this seems to have led to the genesis of a concept that is often described both as a kind of translation and in opposition to translation, as ‘more than translation’: transcreation. Thus, the transcreation industry itself often defines transcreation based on how it differs from translation...... the industry’s perception of transcreation relates to already existing Translation Studies literature....

  18. Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coloration of Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Christiansen, Alexander Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We present reflective plasmonic colors based on the concept of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) for plastic consumer products. In particular, we bridge the widely existing technological gap between clean-room fabricated plasmonic metasurfaces and the practical call for large-area struc...

  19. Production planning and control in SMEs : time for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to provide a profound picture of where existing production planning and control (PPC) concepts fail in small to medium sized make-to-order (MTO) companies. While several studies have discussed the specific requirements of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) through surveys or

  20. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  1. A produção de serviços de saúde mental: a concepção de trabalhadores The production of mental health services: the conception of the workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Sivalli Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da produção de serviços de saúde mental. O objetivo foi descrever as concepções de serviços de saúde mental de trabalhadores de diferentes serviços de saúde mental do município de São Paulo, que fizeram o curso de especialização em tecnologias em saúde mental. No âmbito hospitalar, ambulatorial e da unidade básica de saúde, a concepção de saúde-doença é multifatorial e centrada no indivíduo. Já no centro de atenção em saúde mental (CAPS, a concepção aproximou-se da teoria da determinação social. Quanto ao processo de trabalho, o objeto recortado foi predominantemente o indivíduo doente e até mesmo o sintoma da doença, distinguindo-se no CAPS uma concepção que relaciona o usuário à sua "rede social". O desafio é avançar o entendimento da concepção do processo saúde-doença e redefinir processos de trabalho, pautados no âmbito dos determinantes e não somente no dos resultados do processo saúde-doença.The object of this study is the production of mental health service. It is composed by working processes organized to improve the object of the health care, through institutions and knowledge, technology and health practices. The aim of this study was to describe the conceptions of the workers of different mental health services on the production of these services. The workers took a specialization course in mental health technologies, financed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Data were collected during a class period, with previous participant’s authorization. Among the workers of the Psychiatry Hospitals, Mental Health Ambulatories and Health Care Units, the conception of the health illness-process was multifactorial and individual centred. At the Psychosocial Attention Center (PAC the conception appeared to be similar to the theory of the social determination. The object of the assistance was the sick person or even the illness symptom, but PAC workers linked the sick person to

  2. Pathologic Left-Handedness: Does It Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I. C.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of pathologic left-handedness is reviewed, from historical and empirical perspectives. It is suggested that there is no adequate evidence to justify its continued use, and the fact that the concept is still much used may be the result of a desire to restore lost symmetry to the brain. (Author/CL)

  3. MODERN LAND MANAGEMENT UKRAINE: CONCEPT, ESSENCE, TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak Anton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of

  4. Concepts in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Vishnu S

    2008-01-01

    NEED FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ITS PHYSICAL BASIS Inadequacy of Classical Description for Small Systems Basis of Quantum Mechanics Representation of States Dual Vectors: Bra and Ket Vectors Linear Operators Adjoint of a Linear Operator Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Linear Operator Physical Interpretation Observables and Completeness Criterion Commutativity and Compatibility of Observables Position and Momentum Commutation Relations Commutation Relation and the Uncertainty ProductAppendix: Basic Concepts in Classical MechanicsREPRESENTATION THEORY Meaning of Representation How to Set up a Representation Representatives of a Linear Operator Change of Representation Coordinate Representation Replacement of Momentum Observable p by -ih d/dqIntegral Representation of Dirac Bracket A2|F|A1> The Momentum Representation Dirac Delta FunctionRelation between the Coordinate and Momentum RepresentationsEQUATIONS OF MOTIONSchrödinger Equation of Motion Schrödinger Equation in the Coordinate Representation Equation o...

  5. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  6. Existence and essence in Venda oral literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Kruger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses two Venda ngano narratives that portray coming-of-age experiences. Viewed in juxtaposition, they express the radical shift from premodern modes of material and symbolic production to the reified consciousness of capitalist relations. This shift implicates the rootedness of local world views and global market forces within colonial and Western history, as well as contemporary political and economic conditions. The first narrative accordingly describes a classic rite of passage towards adulthood and citizenship within an ancient, precolonial world. Its protagonist is the culture hero whose society prioritises qualities and ideals like spirituality and social integration. In contrast, the second story is located in the colonial world. Its young hero migrates from his rural village to the city, and his adventure is an embryonic representation of the sociopolitical and racial dynamics of the colonial encounter. His actions evolve within a modernist world view, specifically a rational materialism driven by a teleology of progress that conceives economic organisation as the mediator of social relationships and personal fulfilment. The engagement of these diverse world views with history is explored from a perspective that aligns the ancient Venda concept of zwivhuya with Fromm’s notion of qualitative freedom, of actualisation in all realms of human experience and of transcendence in all forms. The resplendent materiality presented in the second narrative is accordingly argued to conceal a spectre of fear and incomplete selfawareness. This poses a dilemma that speaks to all humanity, namely the need to transform the actual poverty of reified materiality into the wealth of an integrated world.

  7. Optimizing The Imaging Performance Of The Exist High Energy Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.; Finger, M. H.; Hong, J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Sturner, S. J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The baseline concept for the primary instrument of the EXIST mission, the high energy telescope (HET), is a coded mask instrument with a wide field of view and extremely good sensitivity (Hong et al., this meeting). Achieving the performance goals requires an imaging capability close to the statistical photon limit, minimizing systematic errors even when the total integration time is very long. At the same time there is a requirement to be able to reconstruct images on board in near real time in order to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts. This must be done while the spacecraft is scanning the sky with a motion designed to help reduce systematic errors and to provide all-sky coverage. During the 2008 Advanced Mission Concept Study, the Exist Imaging Technical Working Group has investigated and compared numerous alternative designs for the HET. The selected baseline concept meets all of the scientific requirements, while being compatible with spacecraft and launch constraints and with those imposed by the Infra-Red Telescope that forms the other key part of the mission. The approach adopted depends on a unique annular coded mask with two spatial scales, offering good resolution and low background at low energies, with a lower resolution but enhanced sensitivity in the upper part of the energy band. Monte Carlo simulations and analytic analysis techniques have been used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed design.

  8. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Khandare, Shobha M

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3-4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. There is a need-supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower.

  9. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  10. Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Emanuel R; Fisher, Matthew J; Goethert, Wolfhart; Marino, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    ...) developed in the early 1980s for the Department of Defense (DoD) by Baker and colleagues. The original quality concepts of the SQF are extended beyond software to include products, services, and processes...

  11. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  12. A "See and Treat" Office Procedure for Retained Products of Conception Removal After Normal Vaginal Delivery Using Manual Vacuum Aspiration: Preliminary Efficacy and Reproductive Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavani, Gilad; Bahar, Raz; Herzberg, Shmuel; Yanai, Nili

    To compare the efficacy and reproductive outcomes of an ultrasound-guided manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) procedure with the widely accepted operative hysteroscopic (OH) procedure in the removal of retained products of conception (RPOCs) after normal vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). A university-affiliated tertiary medical center. Eighty-six patients after normal vaginal delivery diagnosed with RPOCs from 2005 through 2015. This study was approved by the local institutional review board. Treatment with either MVA or OH for patients diagnosed with RPOCs. Of 86 patients, 23 underwent remnant removal by ultrasound-guided MVA using a 6- to 7-mm catheter in a "see and treat" office procedure. Sixty-three patients underwent remnant removal using the OH procedure. Follow-up included sonographic examination 3 to 5 weeks after the procedure and long-term follow-up on complications and reproductive outcomes. Successful remnant evacuation and the overall complications rates were similar when comparing the MVA group and the OH group (95.7% vs 96.8% and 4.3% vs 4.7%, respectively). Conception rates and miscarriage rates were comparable in the MVA and OH groups (78.6% vs 72.2% and 9.1% vs 14.8%, respectively). Preliminary results from 23 patients suggest that MVA is an efficient procedure with low complication rates and satisfactory reproductive outcomes. It does not require anesthesia or operating room facilities, allowing an immediate and inexpensive "see and treat" option for RPOCs. Further larger controlled trials are required. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenging industry conceptions with provotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared; Buur, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    . Provotypes are ethnographically rooted, technically working, robust artefacts that deliberately challenge stakeholder conceptions by reifying and exposing tensions that surround a field of organizational interest. The daily and local experience of provotypes aim to stir dialectical processes of reflection...... on how conceptions currently are, and fuel the front end of a development process by speculating how conceptions could be different. In this article we start by making explicit the relation between provotypes, practices of critical design and organizational sense-making. We then illustrate through...... a multi-stakeholder project that concerned the field of indoor climate how provotypes facilitate transfers of user knowledge to industry, and how they contribute to the development of new products and services. We end by framing the role of the design researcher and discuss the politics that are inherent...

  14. The High Energy Telescope on EXIST: Hunting High Red-shift GRBs and Other Exotic Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G. K.; Finger, M. H.; Jernigan, J. G.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The current baseline design of the High Energy Telescope (HET) on EXIST will localize high red-shift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other exotic transients fast (EXIST design concept, we review the observing strategy to maximize the science return and report the latest development of the CZT detectors for HET.

  15. Stratifying the Develoment of Product Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    The prior research on product platforms has added to our knowledge from a strategic, technological, and organizational point of view. However, the existing literature, while exploring the platform concept, considers the actual development of platforms from a rather general perspective although...... elaborating on this, the research behind this article uses a clinical research approach in seven platform development cases from eight years' longitudinal research in three global manufacturing automotive original equipment manufacturers. Platform development is here defined and treated as development...

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  17. On the Concept of Culture Goods Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong

    The article on the consumer psychology, consumer behavior, cultural concepts of the market so their products relating to the concept of corporate culture and business aspects of the image was further explained that the merchandise sold is a commercial act, a cultural transmission consumers to make consumption choices in the same time, he believed that the use of such products with their values and way of life is consistent, for the maintenance of their social status and self-recognition of the need for a sales role in the cultural concept of human group psychology, and affect people's consumption behavior.

  18. Transformed objects: the influence of unruly product design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manavis Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the image of a product becomes more important than the product itself. Unruly design is defined as the methodology of all objects that are designed with the intention to undermine the existing design-paradigm of the functionalists. At the same time, the term surreal object is based on the magical, transformative concept of the juxtaposition of diverse elements usually found in everyday objects. The present paper outlines the general principles of the unruly design and surrealism art movement, together with their influence on styles of the conceptual product design. A number of illustrative case studies are depicted, through an ergonomic approach, in order to ensure an appropriate interface relationship between art and product design. The products’ transformations have been selected in order to stress the idea that using unruly design offers additional advantages in creating concepts from a different point of view. Innovation and unusual product design can create the basis for a complete product design transformation culture.

  19. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  20. Threshold concepts in prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. Objectives: To explore possible thresh...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas : Development and Evaluation of Existing and Novel Process Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Zahra, M.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main global challenges in the years to come is to reduce the CO2 emissions in view of the apparent contribution to global warming. Carbon dioxide capture, transport, and storage (CCS) from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increased interest as an intermediate solution towards

  2. Extracting Various Classes of Data From Biological Text Using the Concept of Existence Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2015-11-01

    One of the key goals of biological natural language processing (NLP) is the automatic information extraction from biomedical publications. Most current constituency and dependency parsers overlook the semantic relationships between the constituents comprising a sentence and may not be well suited for capturing complex long-distance dependences. We propose in this paper a hybrid constituency-dependency parser for biological NLP information extraction called EDCC. EDCC aims at enhancing the state of the art of biological text mining by applying novel linguistic computational techniques that overcome the limitations of current constituency and dependency parsers outlined earlier, as follows: 1) it determines the semantic relationship between each pair of constituents in a sentence using novel semantic rules; and 2) it applies a semantic relationship extraction model that extracts information from different structural forms of constituents in sentences. EDCC can be used to extract different types of data from biological texts for purposes such as protein function prediction, genetic network construction, and protein-protein interaction detection. We evaluated the quality of EDCC by comparing it experimentally with six systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  3. Influence of stone content on soil hydraulic properties: experimental investigation and test of existing model concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mahyar; Richter, Niels; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Rock fragments in soil, in this contribution referred to as "stones", play an important role for water flow in the subsurface. To successfully model soil hydraulic processes such as evaporation, redistribution and drainage, an understanding of how stones affect soil hydraulic properties (SHP) is crucial. Past investigations on the role of stones in soil have focused on their influence on the water retention curve (WRC) and on saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, and have led to some simple theoretical models for the influence of stones on effective SHP. However, studies that measure unsaturated SHP directly, i.e., simultaneously the WRC and hydraulic conductivity curve (HCC) are still missing. Also, studies so far were restricted to low or moderate stone contents of less than 40%. We conducted a laboratory study in which we examined the effect of stone content on effective WRC and HCC of stony soils. Mixtures of soil and stones were generated by substituting background soil with stones in weight fractions between 0% (fine material only) to 100% (pure gravel). Stone sizes were 2-5 mm and 7-15 mm, respectively, and background soils were Sand and Sandy Loam. Packed samples were fully saturated under vacuum and subsequently subjected to evaporation in the laboratory. All experiments were done in three replicates. The soil hydraulic properties were determined by the simplified evaporation method using the UMS HYPROP setup. Questions were whether the applied measurement methodology is applicable to derive the SHP of the mixtures and how the gradual increase of stone content will affect the SHP, particularly the HCC. The applied methodology was successful in identifying effective SHP with a high precision over the full moisture range. WRC and HCC were successfully obtained by HYPROP, even for pure gravel with a size of 7-15 mm. WRCs changed qualitatively in the expected manner, i.e., an increase of stone content reduced porosity and soil water content at all suctions. However, the effect on SHP could not be modelled by assuming stones to be simply impermeable objects that occupy a part of the soil space. This was indicated by a nonlinear increase of the van Genuchten shape parameter α and a decrease of n with increasing gravel content, the latter indicating a widening of the effective pore-size distribution. Saturated conductivity decreased with increasing stone content, but then steeply increased for stone contents > 40%. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves of stone-soil mixtures showed a less pronounced decrease with increasing suction as compared to the pure components, again indicating a widening of the effective pore-size distribution and a nonlinear dependence of the effective unsaturated conductivity on stone content.

  4. Pro et con analysis of existing ranking and occupational risk assessment concepts for Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Alstrup-Jensen, Keld; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    and discuss various elements of the tools (input data requirements, risk evaluation and risk handling) as well as pros and cons. We find that most of the tools provide a transparent and comprehensible approach and a few include risk management and communication going well beyond what is normally considered...

  5. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  6. Foreign Concepts of Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Sklyarenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses various foreign concepts of distance education of the past and future. In spite of the considerable progress in theoretical concept developments, the distance education still lacks the required scientific basis. This retrospective analysis is aimed at systemizing the key elements of the theory and practice of education in question, and outlining the main trends. The technology of distance education is reviewed from the following standpoints: industrialization development, distance concept and communication environment. The author points out that the modern concept of distance education has been developed under the influence of the postindustrial society and differs from the preceding approaches to education (pre-industrial and industrial; from the instrument of standard mass education it turns into the individualized way of acquiring the necessary knowledge and information. The innovative information and communication technologies make it indifferent to the time and space barriers; though the distance education is more then just a new way of transmitting the content of traditional education. The author regards it as the potential alternative to the existing educational system due to its capability to assimilate the principles of modern information society and meet its requirements. 

  7. Sortal concepts, object individuation, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei

    2007-09-01

    Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise. This review highlights how the philosophical notion of a 'sortal'--a concept that provides principles of individuation and principles of identity - has been introduced into cognitive developmental psychology. Although the notion 'sortal' originated in metaphysics, importing it into the cognitive sciences has bridged a gap between philosophical and psychological discussions of concepts and has generated a fruitful and productive research enterprise. As I review here, the sortal concept has inspired several lines of empirical work in the past decade, including the study of object individuation; object identification; the relationship between language and acquisition of kind concepts; the representational capacities of non-human primates; object-based attention and cognitive architecture; and the relationship between kind concepts and individual concepts.

  8. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....

  9. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  10. Working with concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity in the humanities should seek its heuristic and methodological basis in concepts rather than in methods. Concepts are the tools of intersubjectivity: They facilitate discussion on the basis of a common language. But concepts are not fixed. They travel - between disciplines,

  11. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  12. Pre-existing Antibody: Biotherapeutic Modality-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovits, Boris; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Birchler, Mary; Liang, Meina; Myler, Heather; Peng, Kun; Purushothama, Shobha; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Salazar-Fontana, Laura; Sung, Crystal; Xue, Li

    2016-03-01

    Pre-existing antibodies to biotherapeutic drugs have been detected in drug-naïve subjects for a variety of biotherapeutic modalities. Pre-existing antibodies are immunoglobulins that are either specific or cross-reacting with a protein or glycan epitopes on a biotherapeutic compound. Although the exact cause for pre-existing antibodies is often unknown, environmental exposures to non-human proteins, glycans, and structurally similar products are frequently proposed as factors. Clinical consequences of the pre-existing antibodies vary from an adverse effect on patient safety to no impact at all and remain highly dependent on the biotherapeutic drug modality and therapeutic indication. As such, pre-existing antibodies are viewed as an immunogenicity risk factor requiring a careful evaluation. Herein, the relationships between biotherapeutic modalities to the nature, prevalence, and clinical consequences of pre-existing antibodies are reviewed. Initial evidence for pre-existing antibody is often identified during anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay development. Other interfering factors known to cause false ADA positive signal, including circulating multimeric drug target, rheumatoid factors, and heterophilic antibodies, are discussed.

  13. Barbárie estética e produção jornalística: a atualidade do conceito de Indústria Cultural Aesthetic barbarism and journalistic production: the update of the culture industry concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarmino Cesar Guimarães da Costa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho busca, através da atualidade do conceito de indústria cultural, demonstrar as contribuições da Teoria Crítica para os estudos de comunicação, em particular, para a identificação do processo de heteronomia cultural, hierarquização dos artefatos e universalização de padrões estéticos. Toma como referência a produção jornalística para verificar, na construção da notícia, a apropriação da racionalidade técnica e explora a questão da violência na perspectiva de que ela não se esgota com o enunciado da mensagem, mas deve ser compreendida também nas condições de sua produção. A estetização da realidade, a mediação tecnológica e a relação entre sensibilidade e experiência complementam a exposição.This work intends, through the update of the concept of culture industry, to demonstrate the contributions of the Critical Theory to the communication studies, especially regarding the identification of the cultural heteronomy process, the hierarchical arrangement of artifacts and the globalization of aesthetic standards. It takes the journalistic production as a reference to verify the appropriation of the technical rationalization in the construction of the news, and explores the violence issue taking into consideration the fact that this subject doesn't drain away at the moment of its message enunciation, but must also be understood under the conditions of its production. The technological intervention in the perception of reality and the relationship between sensitiveness and experience complement the exposition.

  14. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  15. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  16. Developing products on Internet time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansiti, M; MacCormack, A

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the World Wide Web has provided one of the most challenging environments for product development in recent history. The market needs that a product is meant to satisfy and the technologies required to satisfy them can change radically--even as the product is under development. In response to such factors, companies have had to modify the traditional product-development process, in which design implementation begins only once a product's concept has been determined in its entirety. In place of that traditional approach, they have pioneered a flexible product-development process that allows designers to continue to define and shape products even after implementation has begun. This innovation enables Internet companies to incorporate rapidly evolving customer requirements and changing technologies into their designs until the last possible moment before a product is introduced to the market. Flexible product development has been most fully realized in the Internet environment because of the turbulence found there, but the foundations for it exist in a wide range of industries where the need for responsiveness is paramount. When technology, product features, and competitive conditions are predictable or evolve slowly, a traditional development process works well. But when new competitors and technologies appear overnight, when standards and regulations are in flux, and when a company's entire customer base can easily switch to other suppliers, businesses don't need a development process that resists change--they need one that embraces it.

  17. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  18. Concept and implementation of an agent-based control architecture for a cyber-physical assembly system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s production companies are challenged with: the assembly of different product variants with lot size of one on a single assembly line and the increase of product variants. The implementation of reconfigurable assembly systems with a modular design is a solution, which allows a flexible adaptation to different product variants. However, handling different assembly modules via specific communication protocols is limited by the current centralized control concepts. Therefore, this paper presents a concept for an agent-based control architecture. This concept uses coherent information starting from the planning process of the assembly system until the system is put into operation allowing a decentralized control. The decentralized agents in each station act as mediators between the modules and the assembly memory database enabling the product autonomous control throughout the assembly system. Moreover, the agent manages the data transfer for the modules with different specific syntaxes via respective communication protocols since a standardized communication protocol does not exist in industry. The concept is verified in a test assembly line for the production of small electronic components.

  19. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52... AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52 Existing mortgages. Nothing contained in this subpart amends, invalidates, terminates or rescinds any...

  20. Structural reliability of existing city bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrandt, L.; Steenbergen, R.; Vrouwenvelder, T.; Blom, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full probabilistic reliability analysis may be valuable for assessing existing structures. Measures for increasing the safety level are quite costly for existing structures and may be unnecessary when such a decision is grounded on a conservative analysis for determining the structural reliability.

  1. Existence of solutions of functional differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions of a functional differential inclusion. By using the variation of parameters formula we convert the functional differential inclusion into an integral inclusion and prove the existence of a fixed point of the set-valued mapping with the help of the Kakutani-Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem.

  2. On determining if a specular point exists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W; Sørensen, O

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the existence of a specular point on a convex surface of revolution can be determined without actually finding it. Only the evaluation of two simple algebraic expressions is involved. Should a specular point be found not to exist, a search procedure has been thereby...

  3. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  4. A Concept of Corporate Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-17

    keeping a low inventory level may be in conflict with a marketing organization which wishes to be able to meet any demands quickly. If production has...organization over This system will b existing component Office Automation database managemen decision support ai systems problems i a collection

  5. İşletmeler Var Olma Sebeplerini Nasıl İfade Ederler?: KOBİ’lerin Misyon İfadeleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma(How Do Enterprises Explain Reasons of Existence?: A Study on SMEs Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali KÖSEOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate whether there are similarities or not in mission statement items which are used by SMEs for explaining reason of existence. For this purpose, content analysis was carried out for mission statements of the SMEs by using nine items (costumers, product, market, technology, survival, philosophy, self-concept, public image, and employees. As a result of the analysis, it was found that SMEs explaining reason of existence by using philosophy, self concept and technology items in mission statements and there are similarities in items used by SMEs in mission statements. Finally, suggestions for future research were made.

  6. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  7. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  8. Inhibition of existing denitrification enzyme activity by chloramphenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.H.; Smith, R.L.; Macalady, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chloramphenicol completely inhibited the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in acetylene-block incubations with (i) sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer and (ii) a continuous culture of denitrifying groundwater bacteria. Control flasks with no antibiotic produced significant amounts of nitrous oxide in the same time period. Amendment with chloramphenicol after nitrous oxide production had begun resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of nitrous oxide production. Chloramphenicol also decreased (>50%) the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in pure cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans that were harvested during log- phase growth and maintained for 2 weeks in a starvation medium lacking electron donor. Short-term time courses of nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide production in the presence of acetylene with P. denitrificans undergoing carbon starvation were performed under optimal conditions designed to mimic denitrification enzyme activity assays used with soils. Time courses were linear for both chloramphenicol and control flasks, and rate estimates for the two treatments were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Complete or partial inhibition of existing enzyme activity is not consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of chloramphenicol or current practice, in which the compound is frequently employed to inhibit de novo protein synthesis during the course of microbial activity assays. The results of this study demonstrate that chloramphenicol amendment can inhibit the activity of existing denitrification enzymes and suggest that caution is needed in the design and interpretation of denitrification activity assays in which chloramphenicol is used to prevent new protein synthesis.

  9. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based...

  10. EXIST's Gamma-Ray Burst Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J.; Fishman, G.; Hartmann, D. H.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Skinner, G.

    2008-02-01

    We use semianalytic techniques to evaluate the burst sensitivity of designs for the EXIST hard X-ray survey mission. Applying these techniques to the mission design proposed for the Beyond Einstein program, we find that with its very large field of view and faint gamma-ray burst detection threshold, EXIST will detect and localize approximately two bursts per day, a large fraction of which may be at high redshift. We estimate that EXIST's maximum sensitivity will be ~4 times greater than that of Swift's Burst Alert Telescope. Bursts will be localized to better than 40'' at threshold, with a burst position as good as a few arcseconds for strong bursts. EXIST's combination of three different detector systems will provide spectra from 3 keV to more than 10 MeV. Thus, EXIST will enable a major leap in the understanding of bursts, their evolution, environment, and utility as cosmological probes.

  11. Bullying, Genealogy of the Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem among children in schools and institutions. However, it is only relatively recently that bullying has emerged as a field of research, although the phenomenon itself has likely existed in various forms among children for as long as mankind has walked the earth. The ge....... The genealogy of bullying as a concept has taken the understanding of bullying in different directions with a varying emphasis on either the roles played by individuals (victims and perpetrators) or on social and relational aspects....

  12. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    industry, and will also significantly alter the functionality of future distributed aviation concepts. Many hurdles exist, including technology, regulation, and perception. Aviation has an inherent governmental role not present in other recent on-demand transformations, which may pose a risk of curtailing aviation democratization .

  13. EXIST: The Next Large GRB Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have begun on the EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) Mission as a Black Hole Survey 'Einstein Probe', a major element in the new NASA Beyond Einstein Program in the Office of Space Science. This program was approved by the US Congress, in February 2003 as part of the NASA FY2004 NASA budget. EXIST is planned as a very wide-field coded aperture telescope and a positional accuracy for GRBs better than one arc-minute. The baseline detectors are Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), with a total sensitive area of approximately 8 m2. EXIST will use SWIFT as a pathfinder mission; the findings of SWIFT will refine the scientific objectives of EXIST and will help to determine many of its design parameters. EXIST will study early star and galaxy formation at high redshifts through observations of thousands of GRBs, their afterglows and host galaxies. It is intended that the international GRB community will play a large role in EXIST through direct participation as well as with complementary observational programs, both space-based and ground-based. Some preliminary design features and capabilities of the EXIST Mission will be presented.

  14. Suspending group debate and developing concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.; de Vet, A.; Barkema, H.G.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of new product development (NPD) teams to generate ideas and develop high-quality concepts for new products is a crucial determinant of NPD success. Although prior research in this area has developed various interventions to enhance the ability of teams to generate ideas, such

  15. EXISTENCE OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE

    OpenAIRE

    Aksakallı, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that restricts the universe because of the metric expansion of space, and to determine whether there may be a new universe or existence  in the case of extinction of all the universe by way of mathematical and physical functions.This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that res...

  16. On performing concepts during science lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    When lecturing, teachers make use of both verbal and nonverbal communication. What is called teaching, therefore, involves not only the words and sentences a teacher utters and writes on the board during a lesson, but also all the hands/arms gestures, body movements, and facial expressions a teacher performs in the classroom. All of these communicative modalities constitute resources that are made available to students for making sense of and learning from lectures. Yet in the literature on teaching science, these other means of communication are little investigated and understood - and, correspondingly, they are undertheorized. The purpose of this position paper is to argue for a different view of concepts in lectures: they are performed simultaneously drawing on and producing multiple resources that are different expressions of the same holistic meaning unit. To support our point, we provide examples from a database of 26 lectures in a 12th-grade biology class, where the human body was the main topic of study. We analyze how different types of resources - including verbal and nonverbal discourse and various material artifacts - interact during lectures. We provide evidence for the unified production of these various sense-making resources during teaching to constitute a meaning unit, and we emphasize particularly the use of gestures and body orientations inside this meaning unit. We suggest that proper analyses of meaning units need to take into account not only language and diagrams but also a lecturer's pointing and depicting gestures, body positions, and the relationships between these different modalities. Scientific knowledge (conceptions) exists in the concurrent display of all sense-making resources, which we, following Vygotsky, understand as forming a unit (identity) of nonidentical entities.

  17. State of the Art: Solution Concepts for Coalitional Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Branzei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates solution concepts for coalitional games. Several solution concepts are characterized, such as the core, Shapley value, bargaining set, stable set, nucleolus, and kernel. We look at recent developments of succinct representations of coalitional games, such as weighted voting games, coalitional resource games, cooperative boolean games, and marginal contribution nets. Existing solution concepts have prohibitive complexity requirements even for very simple classes of games. We discuss an agenda for finding an equilibrium solution concept that is as appealing as the core, but that is tractable and guaranteed to exist.

  18. Ausubel's understanding of concept development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of relatively new cognitivistic learning and cognition theories - the theory by American psychologist David Ausubel. We consider this theory to be very usable for teaching beginners or for cognition process. It is of utmost importance that first or elementary concepts concerning natural and social phenomena a pupil aquires need to be accurate, understandable and properly connected in a cause-effect sequence of conceptual systems so that items of knowledge aquired can be stable and usable. For correct understanding of Ausubel's claims concerning processes and procedures involved in the acquisition of elementary concepts, which is central to this investigation, it is necessary to address problems and questions concerning the following: the process of aquisition or construction of first concepts; how to base verbal learning; how is subsuming achieved, that is connecting of new and previously acquired concepts; what is the relation of this theory with other cognitivistic theories of learning, and, finally, what are critical views or evalutions which can make this theory truly productive in relation to teaching.

  19. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  20. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  1. LANDFIRE (90m) Existing Vegetation Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map depicts the distribution of existing vegetation types contained in the LANDFIRE dataset. All 30-meter EVT grids were resampled to 90-meter grids and merged...

  2. Functional interpretation and the existence property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two.......It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two....

  3. Optimality and existence for Lipschitz equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of certain boundary value problems are shown to exist for the nth order differential equation y(n=f(t,y,y′,…,y(n−1, where f is continuous on a slab (a,b×Rn and f satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the slab. Optimal length subintervals of (a,b are determined, in terms of the Lipschitz coefficients, on which there exist unique solutions.

  4. Embryo selection versus natural selection: how do outcomes of comprehensive chromosome screening of blastocysts compare with the analysis of products of conception from early pregnancy loss (dilation and curettage) among an assisted reproductive technology population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Purata, Jorge; Lee, Joseph; Whitehouse, Michael; Moschini, Rose Marie; Knopman, Jaime; Duke, Marlena; Sandler, Benjamin; Copperman, Alan

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities (NCAs) reported after preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis compared with that reported after cytogenetic analysis of products of conception after spontaneous abortion. Retrospective study. Private academic in vitro fertilization center. Cytogenetic reports of patients who underwent an IVF cycle with PGS of at least one biopsied embryo were compared with cytogenetic analysis reported from patients who had dilation and curettage (D&C) for the treatment of a spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. None. Frequencies for each numerical chromosomal abnormality from both groups were compared. A total of 1,069 NCAs were reported after PGS (trisomy 54.3%, monosomy 45.7%, no polyploidies), resulting in a trisomy/monosomy ratio of 0.82. A total of 447 NCAs was reported after D&C (trisomy 83%, polyploidy 10.7%, monosomy 6.3%). The aneuploidies most frequently identified were similar in both groups and included 15, 16, 18, 21, and 22. Monosomies (n = 28, 6.3%) were rarely observed in the group that underwent D&C after ART. This review provides an analysis of the most commonly identified NCAs after PGS and in first-trimester D&C samples in an infertile population utilizing ART. Although monosomies comprised >50% of all cytogenetic anomalies identified after PGS, there were very few identified in the post-D&C samples. This suggests that although monosomies occur frequently in the IVF population, they commonly do not implant. Despite this difference, this study demonstrated that the specific NCAs observed after PGS analysis and D&C were comparable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The concept of employability

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W; Lindsay, Colin Dale

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ‘employability’ plays a crucial role in informing labour market policy in the UK, the EU and beyond. This paper analyses current and previous applications of the term and discusses its value as an exploratory concept and a framework for policy analysis. It then traces the development of the concept, discusses its role in current labour market and training strategies (with particular reference to the UK) and seeks to identify an approach to defining employability that can better...

  6. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  7. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  8. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin

    2014-01-01

    of the concept over the course of the authorship, and explains how it functions in the wider context of Kierkegaard’s thought. Concepts have been selected on the basis of their importance for Kierkegaard’s contributions to philosophy, theology, the social sciences, literature and aesthetics, thereby making......Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...

  9. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  10. The education coaching concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borova T.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with education coaching concept in the context of higher education. The main coaching and concept definitions are analyzed. The education coaching definition is given. The main ideas, principles and methodology approaches to the education coaching concept are identified and characterized. It is grounded the methodological approaches that are the basis of the educational coaching concept. The main points of education coaching are summarizes. The aim of education coaching is defined as professional self-development university teachers' staff and their self-realization.

  11. Sustainable compact city concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Šulin Košar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city concept has emerged at the end of the 20th century as one of the solutions for sustainable urban development. The concept brings development, which emphasizes urban density, while avoiding urban sprawl. The key features of the concept are mixed land use, construction of higher density (city intensification as well as better access for the entire population and most importantantly, development of the public transport system. The concept has advantages, but also disadvantages, because too much density affects the quality of life in the city.

  12. ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF DIALOGUE

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMED MUSTAFI

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Islamic concept of dialogue and toelrance is essential because it has to do with the spirit of the movement that changed the history of human thought, and for this reason, the study of this phenomenon implies the study of Islamic thought throughout society since its establishment until today. Studies of this issue are made by Muslims and non-Muslims. This concept motivated me to deal with the understanding of Islamic concept of dialogue, the source of Islamic concept of dialogue,...

  13. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Concept of human bonding; concept of dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cianconi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the anthropological theme of dependence in human cultural frameworks, highlighting the usefulness of the concept of human bonding. The human bonding is seen as a function and useful tool for cross-explaining the construction, maintenance and fall of alliances within the physiological relationships between humans and between humans and objects.Keywords: Bond; Dependence; Bond quality

  15. EDUCATION FOR SALVATION: PLATO'S CONCEPTION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9. R. Cushman, Therapeia: Plat.o's Conception of. Philosophy, Chapel Hill N. Carolina, 1958 p.46. 10. Gorgia 477, Laws 888b, Sophistes 227d-228e. 11. There exists a wide variety of opinions concerning the sources of evil in the Platonic thought. see H. Chemiss,. "The Source of Evil According to Plato" in G. Vlastos (ed),.

  16. Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt

    2014-01-01

    , which can support design work and to form elements of designers’ mindsets and thereby their practice. The theory is a model-based theory, which means it is composed of concepts and models, which explains certain design phenomena. Many similar theories are described in the literature with differences...... and industrial applications especially for the DFX areas (not reported here) and for product modelling. The theory therefore contains a rich ontology of interrelated concepts. The Domain Theory is not aiming to create normative methods but the creation of a collection of concepts related to design phenomena...... in the set of concepts but assumingly all valid. The Domain Theory cannot be falsified or proven; but its value may be seen spanning from its range and productivity as described in the article....

  17. Incentives to Repurpose Existing Drugs for Orphan Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Annette K.; Koenigbauer, Fabian M.

    2015-01-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has been successful in providing incentives to find cures for orphan diseases. However, many orphan diseases are still without cure. Therefore, the 114th Congress has introduced the 21st Century Cures Act and the Orphan Product Extension Now Accelerating Cures and Treatment Act of 2015 to further provide incentives to innovators to repurpose existing drugs for treatment of these orphan diseases. However, these bills are currently pending and their ince...

  18. Incentives to Repurpose Existing Drugs for Orphan Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Annette K; Koenigbauer, Fabian M

    2015-08-13

    The Orphan Drug Act has been successful in providing incentives to find cures for orphan diseases. However, many orphan diseases are still without cure. Therefore, the 114th Congress has introduced the 21st Century Cures Act and the Orphan Product Extension Now Accelerating Cures and Treatment Act of 2015 to further provide incentives to innovators to repurpose existing drugs for treatment of these orphan diseases. However, these bills are currently pending and their incentives might not go far enough.

  19. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  20. Waste management concept for the south western and southern Palatinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K.

    1986-06-01

    In addition to the reduction or avoidance of waste products, the political concept of the government of Rhineland-Palatinate contains following alternatives: composting; recycling of materials; energy recovery by incineration; sorting of waste products; storing.

  1. Minimum action curves in degenerate Finsler metrics existence and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heymann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a study of geometric action functionals (i.e., non-negative functionals on the space of unparameterized oriented rectifiable curves), this monograph focuses on the subclass of those functionals whose local action is a degenerate type of Finsler metric that may vanish in certain directions, allowing for curves with positive Euclidean length but with zero action. For such functionals, criteria are developed under which there exists a minimum action curve leading from one given set to another. Then the properties of this curve are studied, and the non-existence of minimizers is established in some settings. Applied to a geometric reformulation of the quasipotential of Wentzell-Freidlin theory (a subfield of large deviation theory), these results can yield the existence and properties of maximum likelihood transition curves between two metastable states in a stochastic process with small noise. The book assumes only standard knowledge in graduate-level analysis; all higher-level mathematical concept...

  2. A sociological approach to the concept of God amongst Iranian youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most fundamental concepts in Sociology of Religion, the concept of God, was emphasised in this article. Although the God concept is not the same as the transcendental existence of God, it is this concept that is the most fundamental social construct in the entire history of world religions. The aim of this article was ...

  3. Semantic reclassification of the UMLS concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2008-09-01

    Accurate semantic classification is valuable for text mining and knowledge-based tasks that perform inference based on semantic classes. To benefit applications using the semantic classification of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, we automatically reclassified the concepts based on their lexical and contextual features. The new classification is useful for auditing the original UMLS semantic classification and for building biomedical text mining applications. http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~juf7002/reclassify_production

  4. [Concepts for immune intervention in psoriasis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, F O

    2000-09-14

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a genetic background. Activated T-cells and their secreted products seem to play an essential role in the induction as well as the promotion of the psoriatic plaque. We will focus on some recent concepts on the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis highlighting the role of dendritic cells as initiators of the disease as well as the recruitment of disease specific T-cells. Concepts for immunointervention will be introduced.

  5. APPLICATION OF USABILITY CONCEPTS IN WINE MARKETING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina CHIVU-DRAGHIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.

  6. The vacuum window - a minimal concept with maximum effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredsdorff, M.; Moltke, I.; Bezzel, E.

    1997-12-01

    The projects primary aim was to develop a production technology in order to produce evacuated panes at a competitive price. Insulating using vacuum is not a new concept. It has been described in patents for over a century. The field of usage of this concept is immense, and the potentials even greater. The general principle of the vacuum window is to have nothing, namely vacuum, in-between two low radiant surfaces, thus obtaining very low heat transmission technique for highly insulating evacuated windows has most certainly been reached. To obtain the mentioned vast improvements in thermal performance of the new generation of glazing there were several technical issues to be dealt with. They have been divided up into 6 tasks: Low emission glass, spacers, tempering, edge seal, evacuation and framing. The target center U-value of the vacuum window was set to be 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K, an ambitious target requiring several previously unsolved details to be solved. The center U-value of 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K has been reached and documented through this project. The production costs compares to that of existing glazing with the same insulating capabilities. (EHS) EFP-93; EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96; EU-BRITE-DURAM; 13 refs.

  7. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  8. Some questions about the concept of enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Cañón Loyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the eighties, the question of the moral legitimacy of enhancement related to therapy emerged. In order to approach the issue at the present, the author gives the concept: Bodily Intervention Practices (BIP, characterised by five parameters: M or the material involved in the transformation, TC or the available technoscience, A or the current conceptions regarding the natural and the artificial, N or the concept of human nature culturally shared and E or the ethical evaluations appealed to justify the transformation. The ontological level is indicated as necessary in order to understand the present debate the existing differences in moral criteria. The concept of human nature as a normative reference is in crisis and its absence leaves a vacuum which makes the need for deliberation with the aim of reaching common normative criteria urgent.

  9. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  10. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  11. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.

    2015-01-01

    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...

  12. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  13. Rethinking concepts of peace

    OpenAIRE

    Ganter, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by a structural blind spot of Peace Studies regarding the (manifoldness of) definitions of its central concept "peace", I argue that this blind spot is especially manifested in the Eurocentric view on peace. My claim: Non-"Western" concepts of peace should be considered more in Peace Studies...

  14. Transcendental Self and the Feeling of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I investigate one aspect of Kant’s larger theory of the transcendental self. In the Prolegomena, Kant says that the transcendental self can be represented as a feeling of existence. In contrast to the view that Kant errs in describing the transcendental self in this fashion, I show that there exists a strand in Kant’s philosophy that permits us to interpret the representation of the transcendental self as a feeling of existence—as the obscurely conscious and temporally inaccessible modification of the state of the discursive subject, which is built into all the representations of such a subject. I also provide an account of how the transcendental self can be legitimately understood both as an epistemic condition for the possibility of experience as well as the representation of a non-naturalistic feeling of existence.

  15. Nanofertilizers: New Products for the Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Bindraban, Prem S

    2017-06-02

    Mineral fertilizers are key to food production, despite plant low nutrient uptake efficiencies and high losses. However, nanotechnology can both enhance crop productivity and reduce nutrient losses. This has raised interest in nanoscale and nanoenabled bulk fertilizers, hence the concept of nanofertilizers. Nevertheless, large-scale industrial production of nanofertilizers is yet to be realized. Here, we highlight the science-based evidence and outstanding concerns for motivating fertilizer industry production of nanofertilizers, including the notion of toxicity associated with nanoscale materials; scant nanofertilizer research with key crop nutrients; inadequacy of soil- or field-based studies with nanofertilizers; type of nanomaterials to produce as fertilizers; how to efficiently and effectively apply nanofertilizers at the field scale; and the economics of nanofertilizers. It is anticipated that the development and validation of nanofertilizers that are nondisruptive to existing bulk fertilizer production systems will motivate the industry's involvement in nanofertilizers.

  16. Intuitive Direction Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klippel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural direction concepts do not follow a one-size-fits-all strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.

  17. Takt-time: conceitos e contextualização dentro do Sistema Toyota de Produção Takt-time: concepts and context in Toyota Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto dos Reis Alvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como preocupação central esclarecer, o máximo possível, o conceito de takt-time, na medida em que se pode observar um hiato na literatura que trata do tema em relação à compreensão das diferenças conceituais entre esse e as definições de tempo de ciclo e tempo padrão. Procura-se estabelecer uma conceituação rigorosa desses termos, tendo como referência básica os princípios gerais do Sistema Toyota de Produção (STP. Enfatiza-se a importância crucial da variável tempo para a gestão dos sistemas de produção, partindo-se da problemática da sincronização do fluxo dos materiais ao longo do tempo e do espaço no STP. Nesse contexto, ressalta-se a centralidade do takt-time na gestão da produção em diferentes aspectos do Sistema. Nuances relativas à flexibilidade também são destacadas. Os pontos conceituais que marcam a lógica da utilização do takt-time, a partir da ótica mais ampla da sincronização da produção, permitem identificar os limites de aplicação da sistemática. Finalmente, é analisada a relação da sistemática de gestão baseada na definição do takt-time com as lógicas da qualidade assegurada e da formação de recursos humanos.This text aims at clarifying, as much as possible, the concept of takt-time, considering that it is possible to perceive a gap in the literature in relation to the understanding of the conceptual differences between this and the definition of cycle time. An attempt to establish a rigorous conceptual framework for the understanding of the terms is made here, taking the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS as a basic reference. Based on the problem of synchronizing materials flow along time and space in the TPS, the emphasis is put on the comprehension of time as a fundamental variable for production systems' management. In such a context, takt-time's central role in TPS' management scheme is highlighted. Aspects concerning the

  18. Student connections of linear algebra concepts: an analysis of concept maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.; Berry, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the connections of linear algebra concepts in a first course at the undergraduate level. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are grounded in the constructivist perspective (including social constructivism), Vernaud's theory of conceptual fields and Pirie and Kieren's model for the growth of mathematical understanding. In addition to the existing techniques for analysing concept maps, two new techniques are developed for analysing qualitative data based on student-constructed concept maps: (1) temporal clumping of concepts and (2) the use of adjacency matrices of an undirected graph representation of the concept map. Findings suggest that students may find it more difficult to make connections between concepts like eigenvalues and eigenvectors and concepts from other parts of the conceptual field such as basis and dimension. In fact, eigenvalues and eigenvectors seemed to be the most disconnected concepts within all of the students' concept maps. In addition, the relationships between link types and certain clumps are suggested as well as directions for future study and curriculum design.

  19. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice

    2017-11-01

    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The concept exploration model and an application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Gao, Kening; Zhang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    For a user who is unfamiliar with a target domain, the first step to conduct an exploratory search task is to go over a learning phrase, which means to learn from the search results to acquire basic domain knowledge. Since lots of search results could be returned by a search engine, and usually only a small portion of all the results contain valuable knowledge to the current search task, the user usually needs to read lots of documents and could only learn limited knowledge. This makes the learning phrase a low efficiency, time consuming and easy to fail process. In order to support the learning phrase of the exploratory search process, this paper proposes the concept exploration model which describes how a user reads search results and figures out interesting concepts. The model focuses on how does a user explore related concepts during the learning phrase, and factorizes the concept exploration process as a production of the probability that concepts form a specific relation structure, and the probability that a user is attracted by a concept. In an application example, the concept exploration model is used in a query recommendation task to support exploratory search. We demonstrate how to determine the two probabilistic factors and evaluate the model with a set of metrics. The experiment results show that the application example could help users explore domain concepts more effectively.

  1. The Myth of Concept Publicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Duhau Girola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the claim that concepts are not public. I argue that two of the main constraints for theories of concepts, namely (1 that concepts are public and (2 that they serve to explain Frege Cases, are in tension. (1 requires concepts to be individuated coarsely, while (2 requires concepts to be individuated finely. Thus, no theory of concepts can accommodate both (1 and (2. I argue that (2 is a non-negotiable constraint for theories of concepts, while (1 is negotiable. Therefore, theories of concepts should individuate concepts finely enough to solve Frege Cases, and claim that concepts are not public.

  2. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  3. Proof That Chronic Lyme Disease Exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence continues to mount that Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD exists and must be addressed by the medical community if solutions are to be found. Four National Institutes of Health (NIH trials validated the existence and severity of CLD. Despite the evidence, there are physicians who continue to deny the existence and severity of CLD, which can hinder efforts to find a solution. Recognizing CLD could facilitate efforts to avoid diagnostic delays of two years and durations of illness of 4.7 to 9 years described in the NIH trials. The risk to society of emerging antibiotic-resistant organisms should be weighed against the societal risks associated with failing to treat an emerging population saddled with CLD. The mixed long-term outcome in children could also be examined. Once we accept the evidence that CLD exists, the medical community should be able to find solutions. Medical professionals should be encouraged to examine whether: (1 innovative treatments for early LD might prevent CLD, (2 early diagnosis of CLD might result in better treatment outcomes, and (3 more effective treatment regimens can be developed for CLD patients who have had prolonged illness and an associated poor quality of life.

  4. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  5. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. ... Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... Abstract. Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are ...

  6. 36 CFR 9.33 - Existing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing operations. 9.33 Section 9.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... permit may be continued for the term of that permit, exclusive of any renewal period whether mandatory or...

  7. Factorial Structure of the Existence Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Tomic, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Existential meaning in life is becoming an increasingly important measure of personal assessment. In search of a suitable instrument to measure existential meaning, the authors reviewed several measures. Eventually, they selected the Existence Scale (ES), doing so on theoretical grounds. The ES is a

  8. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  9. 7 CFR 15b.18 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... access to otherwise inaccessible areas or features of historic properties; (ii) Using audio-visual... visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of exiting facilities and... significant alteration in its existing facilities, the recipient may, as an alternative, refer the handicapped...

  10. Implementation of ventilation in existing schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    ; they evaluate both scientific and practical implementation The analyses lead to a list of criteria associated with the implementation of ventilation in existing schools. Generic retrofitting scenarios which prioritize energy savings, indoor climate and building/facade integration are assembled and illustrated...

  11. Human organisms begin to exist at fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calum; Pruss, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Eugene Mills has recently argued that human organisms cannot begin to exist at fertilization because the evidence suggests that egg cells persist through fertilization and simply turn into zygotes. He offers two main arguments for this conclusion: that 'fertilized egg' commits no conceptual fallacy, and that on the face of it, it looks as though egg cells survive fertilization when the process is watched through a microscope. We refute these arguments and offer several reasons of our own to think that egg cells do not survive fertilization, appealing to various forms of essentialism regarding persons, fission cases, and a detailed discussion of the biological facts relevant to fertilization and genetics. We conclude that it is plausible, therefore, that human organisms begin to exist at fertilization - or, at the very least, that there are grounds for thinking that they existed as zygotes which do not apply to the prior egg cells. While this does not entail that human persons begin to exist at this point, it nevertheless has considerable significance for this latter question. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. "Giftedness Science": Does It Exist at All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author finds that the target article, "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Culture-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness", has three substantial failures: (1) an unproven, even incorrect assumption about the existence of bias in the "science of giftedness" due to…

  13. The proposed high-energy telescope (HET) for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Cook, W.; Harrison, F.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The hard X-ray sky now being studied by INTEGRAL and Swift and soon by NuSTAR is rich with energetic phenomena and highly variable non-thermal phenomena on a broad range of timescales. The High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission will repeatedly survey the full sky for rare and luminous hard X-ray phenomena at unprecedented sensitivities. It will detect and localize (<20", at 5σ threshold) X-ray sources quickly for immediate followup identification by two other onboard telescopes - the Soft X-ray imager (SXI) and Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). The large array (4.5 m2) of imaging (0.6 mm pixel) CZT detectors in the HET, a coded-aperture telescope, will provide unprecedented high sensitivity (~0.06 mCrab Full Sky in a 2 year continuous scanning survey) in the 5 - 600 keV band. The large field of view (90° × 70°) and zenith scanning with alternating-orbital nodding motion planned for the first 2 years of the mission will enable nearly continuous monitoring of the full sky. A 3y followup pointed mission phase provides deep UV-Optical-IR-Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy for thousands of sources discovered in the Survey. We review the HET design concept and report the recent progress of the CZT detector development, which is underway through a series of balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope experiments, ProtoEXIST. We carried out a successful flight of the first generation of fine pixel large area CZT detectors (ProtoEXIST1) on Oct 9, 2009. We also summarize our future plan (ProtoEXIST2 & 3) for the technology development needed for the HET.

  14. Does Local Allergy (Entopy Exists in Asthyma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available   Although elevated serum IgE is accepted as a sign of atopy, high total IgE level may accompany with non-allergic asthma and contribute to pathogenesis and severity of the disease independently from atopy. Some case reports shows that   omelizumab can be effective in patients  with high  or  even low IgE level non atopic severe asthyma. Non atopic patients with severe asthyma having dramatic beneficial effect from omalizumab treatment show us that concept of local allergy (entopy is worth discussing in asthyma.        

  15. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Appendix B. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    The overall objective of the on-going analytical efforts was to develop in-house expertise and analytical capability for the analysis of coal and coal-derived products in support of SRC-I process technology. The approach taken and work accomplished involved: identification of test methods and associated equipment; review and implementation of analytical facility plan; evaluation of existing instrumentation; evaluation and purchase of new instruments; training of laboratory personnel; validation or development of analytical methods; development of standard product work-up methods and development of analytical protocol for detailed characterization of SRC-I solid and liquid products. This volume contains Appendix B with the following attachments: solvent separation procedure A; Wilsonville solvent separation procedure, distillation separation procedure; solvent separation modified Wilsonville Procedure W; statistical comparison of 3 solvent separation procedures; methods development for column chromatography, and application of gas chromatography to characterization of a hydrogen donor solvent; and high performance liquid chromatographic procedure.

  16. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  17. German utility nuclear power plant ageing management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzner, K.-J. [E.ON Kernkraft, TTF, Hannover (Germany); Alt, M. [Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN) (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    This paper is supposed to clarify the existing German utility integrity concept and is its sound application regarding ageing management issues covering the following key topics: requirements established in the German regulations and codes/standards, NPP safety relevance; NPP availability concerns, safety relevant systems to be considered, component ranking concerning safety significance, explanation of ageing management concept elements, examples for the application of ageing management concepts. (orig.)

  18. DPRK Information Strategy - Does It Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    that could be refurbished and recommence production for export of minerals such as magnesite and zinc. An example is given below in Figure 4.3...inefficient technology (such as making fertilizer from coal) should not

  19. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  20. Does Sense of Place Still Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ruotsala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article my aim is to discuss place, locality and their role and changed significance in the ethnological studies. I argue that although the meaning and role of place have been changed, place still is an important concept in ethnology. Researches are now paying more attention to the changed nature of the concept, e.g. for the multivocality of places. The anthropological literature on space and place forms my theoretical framework, with which I study some empiric cases from my familiar environment, from Finnish Lapland and from Kola Peninsula. ‘Place’, in my examples the sieidi of Taatsi, Lake Seidjavr, the Pallas fells or the tourist centre Levi, can have a unique reality for each inhabitant and visitor. While the meanings may be shared with others, the views of the place are often likely to be competing, and contested in practice. According to Margaret Rodman (2004: 207, researchers should empower place by returning control over meanings of place to the rightful producers, and empower their own analysis of place by attending to the multiplicity of local voices found about place.

  1. The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. Cañas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This text presents the origin of the concept map tool and some of the early history in the development of this tool. Some of the ideas from Ausubel’s (1963; 1968 assimilation theory of cognitive learning that served as a foundation for concept mapping are presented, including the important role that assimilating new concepts and propositions into a learner’s existing cognitive framework plays in meaning making. Epistemological foundations are also presented including the idea that creative production of new knowledge can be seen as a very high level of meaningful learning, and concept mapping can facilitate the process. The wide range of tools available in free CmapTools software and some applications are illustrated, including application for facilitating meaningful learning, better curriculum development, capturing and archiving tacit and explicit expert knowledge, and enhancing creative production. Using CmapTools, WWW resources, and other digital resources provide for a powerful New Model for Education leading to the creation of individual knowledge portfolios that can document significant learning and serve as a foundation for future related learning. CmapTools also provides extensive support for collaboration, publishing and sharing of knowledge models.

  2. Gambling on the existence of other universes

    CERN Document Server

    Sangalli, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Speculations and theories about the existence of other worlds have a long history. In recent times, the arguments have shifted away from their typical philosophical and theological character to supposedly become more objective thanks to their scientific underpinnings. A prime example of this is the current parallel universes or multiverse theory, which has the support of a number of famous cosmologists. In this article, we contend that the claim for the existence of those parallel universes, as presented in Max Tegmark's book "Our Mathematical Universe", rests crucially on some questionable probability arguments involving infinity. As a result, a doubt is cast over the multiverse hypothesis: Is it more credible than the counterarguments based on philosophical and metaphysical considerations?

  3. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  4. LOVE’S SYMPHONY: MULTIPLICITY OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINE McNEILL-MATTESON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Love, although universal in thought, is explicitly complex and articulately multi-defined in almost every idea and expression. Love written is timeless from the molecules we possess within us, to the cosmos we study and explore. We can only exist and continue to exist in harmony with creation. Harmony reaches far beyond galaxies and universes, flowing backinto the most separate of the smallest molecules. Within all common denominators of harmony there is love: the very catalyst of harmony itself. This paper will look at harmony from a poetic point of view and examine how it is expressed always in the context of the mystery of sentience and conscience from human biology to the divine cosmos

  5. Does H4SO5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Fernando; Vargas-Caamal, Alba; Pan, Sudip; Cabellos, José Luis; Mora-Fonz, Miguel J; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Restrepo, Albeiro; Merino, Gabriel

    2017-07-14

    The possible existence of H4SO5 in aqueous sulfuric acid is analyzed in detail. For bare H4SO5, the computed free energy barrier for the exergonic transformation of H4SO5 into the H2SO4H2O complex is only 3.8 kcal mol-1. The presence of water or sulfuric acid catalyzes the dehydration to such an extent that it becomes almost a barrierless process. In the gas phase, dehydration of H4SO5 is an autocatalytic reaction as the water molecule produced by the decomposition of one H4SO5 molecule induces further dissociation. Thus, in solution, the surrounding water molecules make the para-sulfuric acid a very vulnerable species to exist. The simulated Raman spectra also corroborate the absence of H4SO5 in solution.

  6. The Italian contribution to the EXIST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalucci, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Caraveo, P.; Pareschi, G.; Ubertini, P.; Villa, G.

    The EXIST Mission is a proposed multi-wavelength observatory to carry out the most sensitive hard X-ray survey and census of SMBH as well as the most powerful follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This mission will carry a large area (4.5m2) CdZnTe modular detector with an angular resolution of ˜2arcmin, sensitive in the energy range 5-600 keV, and a near infrared telescope with cooled mirror with outstanding sensitivity and capability of measuring onboard the redshift of many GRBs. Italy will contribute to EXIST with the provision of a soft X-ray telescope sensitive in the energy range 0.1-10 keV with an effective area approximately equivalent to one mirror module of XMM-Newton. We will describe hereafter the characteristics and performance of this instrument together with its capability of performing serendipitous surveys.

  7. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  8. Standing on the shoulders of giants: production concepts versus production applications. The Hitachi Tool Engineering example Sobre ombros de gigantes: conceitos de produção versus aplicações na produção. O exemplo da Hitachi Tool Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyahu M. Goldratt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the methodologies of Henry Ford, Taiichi Ohno, and Eliyahu Goldratt and presents explicitly the four principles of flow management according to these operations management philosophies. The differences among them are related to different instances of the same principles in different environments: Ford in his industry focusing on mass production of few (or one products, Ohno at Toyota with the Toyota production System (TPS, and Goldratt in a wide range of production environments. The concepts are illustrated and tested in a practical case of implementation in the Hitachi Tool Engineering company. Here, we have the classic case of an unlikely successful attempt to implement a methodology (Lean, and how the Theory of Constraints (TOC solved this issue. Finally, the limits for the solution proposed by Goldratt for operations management (DBR are described.Este artigo avalia as metodologias de Henry Ford, Taiichi Ohno e Elyahu Goldratt e apresenta de maneira explícita os quatros princípios de gestão do fluxo que estão por trás destas filosofias de gestão de operações. As diferenças entre estas três são traçadas para diferentes instâncias dos mesmos princípios em ambientes específicos: Ford em sua indústria, com foco na produção em massa de poucos (ou um produtos; Ohno na Toyota, com o Toyota Production System (TPS; e Goldratt, em uma classe ampla de ambientes de produção. Os conceitos são ilustrados e postos à prova no caso prático da Hitachi Tool Engineering. Este é o caso clássico de tentativa de implementação de uma metodologia (Lean que não se aplica e como isto foi resolvido pela Teoria das Restrições (TOC. Finalmente os limites da solução proposta por Goldratt para a gestão de operações (TPC são explicitados.

  9. A General Existence Thorem of Zero Points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Koshevoy, G.A.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2002-01-01

    Let X be a non-empty, compact, convex set in Rn and ° an upper semi-continuous mapping from X to the collection of non-empty, compact, convex subsets of Rn.It is well known that such a mapping has a stationary point on X, i.e. there exists a point in X satisfying that its image under ° has a

  10. Maximising the value of existing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Graham McCorkindale, who heads the Health and Wellbeing strand at multi-disciplinary architecture, town planning, interior design, and landscape architecture practice, Keppie Design, examines how architects can best support the NHS at a time of major change by refocusing design skills hitherto focused on creating new healthcare facilities on the need to work within the existing estate--'maximising utilisation and getting best value from any available spend'.

  11. Business Plan for Existing Venture: Papu Cafe

    OpenAIRE

    Truc, Nha

    2017-01-01

    Finland is considered as one of the potential markets for specialty coffee industry with the high amount of coffee consumption. The aim of this research is developing a business plan for existing business – Papu Cafe in the center of Helsinki, Finland. In this research, the author focuses on investigating the entrepreneurship and coffee industry in Finland, the characteristics of coffee drinking trends. Besides, it is essential to understand the purpose of conducting a business plan for ...

  12. On the existence of persistently outperforming firms

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, M.; Cefis, E.; Frenken, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses persistence in growth rates for a data set of manufacturing firms of all sizes. Previous quantile autoregressions of firm growth rates show that extreme growth events are likely to be negatively correlated over time, thus questioning the existence of persistent outperformers. By supplementing the quantile regression analyses with transition probability matrices, our study shows that "bouncing" firms coexist with persistent outperformers. This result is shown to be robust f...

  13. The slowdown in existing home sales

    OpenAIRE

    Krainer, John

    2014-01-01

    Sales of existing homes slowed noticeably over the second half of 2013, reflecting a more drawn-out recovery than expected for housing markets. A main reason for the slowdown is higher mortgage rates that have made financing more costly nationwide. Sales appear to be slowing even more in distressed markets, where real estate investors had bought up single-family homes to convert into rental properties following the housing bust. Evidence suggests that investors may be retreating from these ma...

  14. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  15. Childhood: An Endangered Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret G.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the concept of childhood as it evolved from Aristotle and Plato's time and cites the threat to the childhood today of eletronic media, which may lead to a majority of asocial, amoral, child-adults. (CL)

  16. Some Fundamental Cybersecurity Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Kelce S; Kiy, Muge Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The results of successful hacking attacks against commercially available cybersecurity protection tools that had been touted as secure are distilled into a set of concepts that are applicable to many...

  17. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  18. Stormwater Management Concept Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A stormwater management concept is a statement or drawing, or both, describing the manner in which stormwater runoff from a proposed development will be controlled...

  19. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  20. Overview of EXIST mission science and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, Al.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Fishman, G.; Ramsey, B.; Della Ceca, R.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P., III

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is designed to i) use the birth of stellar mass black holes, as revealed by cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), as probes of the very first stars and galaxies to exist in the Universe. Both their extreme luminosity (~104 times larger than the most luminous quasars) and their hard X-ray detectability over the full sky with wide-field imaging make them ideal "back-lights" to measure cosmic structure with X-ray, optical and near-IR (nIR) spectra over many sight lines to high redshift. The full-sky imaging detection and rapid followup narrowfield imaging and spectroscopy allow two additional primary science objectives: ii) novel surveys of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) accreting as very luminous but rare quasars, which can trace the birth and growth of the first SMBHs as well as quiescent SMBHs (non-accreting) which reveal their presence by X-ray flares from the tidal disruption of passing field stars; and iii) a multiwavelength Time Domain Astrophysics (TDA) survey to measure the temporal variability and physics of a wide range of objects, from birth to death of stars and from the thermal to non-thermal Universe. These science objectives are achieved with the telescopes and mission as proposed for EXIST described here.