WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing policy affecting

  1. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  2. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  3. Existence and Policy Effectiveness in Feedback Nash LQ-Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Acocella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the classical theory of economic policy can profitably be used to verify some properties of the Linear Nash Feedback Equilibrium in difference LQ-games. In particular, we find that both a necessary condition for the equilibrium existence and a sufficient condition for policy ineffectiveness can be defined in the terms of the simple Tinbergen counting rule.

  4. Environmental policy evaluation under co-existing evaluation imaginaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunseler, E.M.; Vasileiadou, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines what the co-existence of different evaluation imaginaries – understandings of what environmental policy evaluation ‘is’ and ‘should do’ – means for everyday evaluation practice. We present a case study in which we show how these different understandings influence the evaluation

  5. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  6. Do existing policy and teacher guide documents address the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Department of Education has issued a large number of policy and teacher guides to give assistance to teachers in the Foundation Phase including those in Grade R. However, a review of these documents revealed that of the 12 documents only three were specific to Grade R and of these only one made a brief ...

  7. The existence of policies, practices and perceptions regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These policies allowed children to visit family or parents in adult wards, but only 2 would allow children to visit a family member and only 1 would allow visits to a friend in the children's wards. ... Justifications for not allowing children to visit centred on infection risks and the emotional trauma of visiting a sick loved one.

  8. The existence of policies, practices and perceptions regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disruption of the family unit by hospitalisation can cause major physical and psychological stress for patients and their families, particularly children. Flexible visiting policies are advocated as a positive intervention to help families cope with the stress of illness. Current surveys, conducted in the adult critical care setting in ...

  9. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...... will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  10. Affect Theory and Policy Mobility: Challenges and Possibilities for Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing literature on policy mobilities by proposing that affect be considered in analyses of the movements and transformations of policy over time and space. In particular, collective affective conditions, the role of affect in terms of infrastructures and actors of policy apparatuses and the mediating influences of…

  11. Managing Interactions Between Carbon Pricing and Existing Energy Policies. Guidance for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Christina

    2013-07-01

    Carbon pricing can be a key policy tool to help countries move their energy sectors onto a cleaner development path. One important issue to consider when introducing carbon pricing is how it will integrate with other energy policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including policies to support low-carbon technologies (such as renewable energy) and energy efficiency programmes. Poor policy integration can undermine energy security and affordability, and affect the performance of renewable energy policies and energy markets. Climate objectives can also be undermined, through low and uncertain carbon prices and the risk of stop-start policy. Understanding how to manage policy interactions can improve the climate and energy policy package, reducing the trade-offs and advancing the synergies between energy and climate objectives. This will benefit the country in terms of a more effective and lower-cost low-carbon development path, as well as supporting a more energy-secure future.

  12. 40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing affected... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  13. The Uses of Affect in Education: Chilean Government Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to the uses of affect to produce specific subjectivities and moralities in educational policies. It highlights the connections between specific ideas of the educated subject, the family role presented in governmental educational policies in Chile, and the ways these ideas are linked to the subjectivities and…

  14. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...... generation facilities are covered. The question in which policy segment to incorporate locational signals is at the heart of the debate...

  15. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  16. Factors affecting ICT Policy Implementation in Rural Namibian Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT provision is often limited in scope to allow optimal usage of education systems. A study to investigate factors that affect ICT Policy implementation in Namibia was conducted in 2010. In order to describe the rural area situation with regard to ICT implementation in the education sector, a quantitative approach was used to ...

  17. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  18. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  19. Acoustic emission measurement in the proof loading of an existing bridge affected by ASR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Hordijk, D.A.; de Boer, A.; Bakker, J.; Frangopol, D.M.; van Breugel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Proof loading has been considered as an effective approach in the assessment of existing concrete bridges. This paper presents a study of acoustic emission measurement in a proof loading of an ASR affected concrete slab bridge (Zijlweg bridge). Because of the uncertainty on the mechanical properties

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at...

  1. Analysis of existing international policy evidence in public health genomics: mapping exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syurina, Elena V; In den Bäumen, Tobias Schulte; Feron, Frans J M; Brand, Angela

    2012-02-17

    In the last decades we have seen a constant growth in the fields of science related to the use of genome-based health information. However, there is a gap between basic science research and the Public Health everyday practice. For a successful introduction of genome-based technologies policy actions on the international level are needed. This work represents the initial stage of the PHGEN II (Public Health Genomics European Network II) project. In order to prepare a base for bridging genomics and Public Health, an inventory study of the existing legislative base dealing with controversies of genome-based knowledge was conducted. The work results in the mapping of the most and the least legislatively covered areas and some preliminary conclusions about the existing gaps. The collection of the evidence-based policies was done through the PHGEN II project. The mapping covered the meta-level (international, European general guidelines). The expert opinion of the partners of the project was required to reflect on and grade the collected evidence. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EVIDENCE WAS MADE BY THE AREA OF COVERAGE: using the list of important policy areas for successful introduction of genome-based technologies into Public Health and the Public Health Genomics Wheel (originally Public Health Wheel developed by Institute of Medicine). Severe inequalities in coverage of important issues of Public Health Genomics were found. The most attention was paid to clinical utility and clinical validity of the screening and the protection of human subjects. Important areas such as trade agreements, Public Health Genomics literacy, insurance issues, behaviour modification in response to genomics results etc. were paid less attention to. For the successful adoption of new technologies on the Public Health level the focus should be not only on the translation to clinical practice, but the translation from bench to Public Health policy and back. Coherent and consistent coverage of all aspects

  2. Data Security and Privacy in Apps for Dementia: An Analysis of Existing Privacy Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lisa; Torous, John; Vahia, Ipsit V

    2017-08-01

    Despite tremendous growth in the number of health applications (apps), little is known about how well these apps protect their users' health-related data. This gap in knowledge is of particular concern for apps targeting people with dementia, whose cognitive impairment puts them at increased risk of privacy breaches. In this article, we determine how many dementia apps have privacy policies and how well they protect user data. Our analysis included all iPhone apps that matched the search terms "medical + dementia" or "health & fitness + dementia" and collected user-generated content. We evaluated all available privacy policies for these apps based on criteria that systematically measure how individual user data is handled. Seventy-two apps met the above search teams and collected user data. Of these, only 33 (46%) had an available privacy policy. Nineteen of the 33 with policies (58%) were specific to the app in question, and 25 (76%) specified how individual-user as opposed to aggregate data would be handled. Among these, there was a preponderance of missing information, the majority acknowledged collecting individual data for internal purposes, and most admitted to instances in which they would share user data with outside parties. At present, the majority of health apps focused on dementia lack a privacy policy, and those that do exist lack clarity. Bolstering safeguards and improving communication about privacy protections will help facilitate consumer trust in apps, thereby enabling more widespread and meaningful use by people with dementia and those involved in their care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent years, the pace of efforts

  4. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent

  5. A Policy Analysis of the Coast Guard's Existing Patient Satisfaction System and Recommendations for Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coughlin, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper evaluates CG organizational demands, describes CG practice landscape, presents standards, reviews initial clinic process analysis, and evaluates the cost and criteria of proposed policy alternatives...

  6. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  7. How influenza vaccination policy may affect vaccine logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-06-22

    When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Building research evidence for policy advocacy: a qualitative evaluation of existing smoke-free policies in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Khalil, Joanna; Chaaya, Monique; Afifi, Rema A

    2010-07-01

    Secondhand smoke is harmful to smokers and nonsmokers, and smoke-free legislation worldwide improves health status. Lebanon has one of the weakest tobacco control regulatory environments in the Eastern Mediterranean region. However, several Lebanese workplaces and hospitality venues have chosen to implement such policies on their own. The objective of this study was to document their experiences. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with management, employees, and clients. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent themes. describe the types of bans implemented; the reasons for adopting a policy; and the barriers and facilitators to implementation, enforcement, and compliance. A main facilitator was management support, whereas a main barrier was prosmoking norms. This analysis provides insight and lessons learned that can aid in scaling up tobacco control efforts in Lebanon and the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  9. Court's Flag Ruling Could Affect Policies against Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    1990-01-01

    The Supreme Court's ruling in a flag-burning case raises questions about whether antiharassment policies that colleges and universities have adopted, penalizing slurs and epithets used by students to harass others, violate the First Amendment to the Constitution. If public college policies were found unconstitutional, private colleges would not…

  10. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  11. A review of the existing agricultural policies in Nigeria and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although several agricultural policies have been implemented in Nigeria, the agriculture sector is yet to bring about the desired growth and achieve food security for the country's over 140 million population. However, it is expected that the on-going Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) of the present administration of ...

  12. Affect-related synaesthesias: A prospective view on their existence, expression and underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele eDael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on developmental synaesthesia has seen numerous sensory combinations, with surprisingly few reports on synaesthesias involving affect. On the one hand, emotion, or more broadly affect, might be of minor importance to the synaesthetic experience (e.g. Sinke et al., 2012. On the other hand, predictions on how affect could be relevant to the synaesthetic experience remain to be formulated, in particular those that are driven by emotion theories. In this theoretical paper, we hypothesize that a priori studies on synaesthesia involving affect will observe the following. Firstly, the synaesthetic experience is not merely about discrete emotion processing or overall valence (positive, negative but is determined by or even altered through cognitive appraisal processes. Secondly, the synaesthetic experience changes temporarily on a quantitative level according to i the affective appraisal of the inducing stimulus or ii the current affective state of the individual. These hypotheses are inferred from previous theoretical and empirical accounts on synaesthesia (including the few examples involving affect, different emotion theories, crossmodal processing accounts in synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes, and the presumed stability of the synaesthetic experience. We hope that the current review will succeed in launching a new series of studies on affective synaesthesias. We particularly hope that such studies will apply the same creativity in experimental paradigms as we have seen and still see when assessing and evaluating traditional synaesthesias.

  13. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...

  14. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Colleen L.; Brescoll, Victoria L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies.

  15. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing. Danish experiences with different policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K.; Haunstrup Christensen, T. (Aalborg Univ., Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    This report contains a memo written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy-efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent and relevant instruments concluding both on the results concerning the impact of the instruments especially on owners of single-family houses and on more general experiences with their implementation. Finally the memo concludes on the general lessons that can be learned from the Danish experiences. (Author)

  16. Current policies affecting the market penetration of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837415; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X

    2011-01-01

    Policies aimed at supporting the bio-based economy have so far centered on biomass use for electricity and fuels. But using biomass for the production of materials offers higher greenhouse gas savings than bioenergy per kg feedstock as well as per hectare. This has received comparatively little

  17. Educational Television Broadcasting in Germany: Prevailing Practices, Existing Challenges and Adoptable Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Television is widely used for educational purposes but has still not achieved its fullest potential neither in developed nor in developing countries. This worldwide under performance invite experts and academics to join hands to search causes and provide suggestions to make television a better and popular learning tool. Guided by this philosophy, the present paper analyzes the educational television broadcasting in Germany from different perspectives. The focus of analysis includes measures and practices adopted by German institutions/broadcasters to promote educational television. Besides dealing with these issues, the paper discusses existing challenges and suggests best adoptable educational television broadcasting polices from Germany to promote educational television in global perspectives.

  18. Ex Ante Impact Assessment of Policies Affecting Land Use, Part B: Application of the Analytical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Helming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of science-based tools for impact assessment has increasingly gained focus in addressing the complexity of interactions between environment, society, and economy. For integrated assessment of policies affecting land use, an analytical framework was developed. The aim of our work was to apply the analytical framework for specific scenario cases and in combination with quantitative and qualitative application methods. The analytical framework was tested for two cases involving the ex ante impact assessment of: (1 a European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP financial reform scenario employing a modeling approach and combined with a comprehensive indicator analysis and valuation; and (2 a regional bioenergy policy scenario, employing a fully participatory approach. The results showed that European land use in general is less sensitive to changes in the Common Agricultural Policy, but in the context of regions there can be significant impacts on the functions of land use. In general, the implementation of the analytical framework for impact assessment proved to be doable with both methods, i.e., with the quantitative modeling and with the qualitative participatory approach. A key advantage of using the system of linked quantitative models is that it makes possible the simultaneous consideration of all relevant sectors of the economy without abstaining from a great level of detail for sectors of particular interest. Other advantages lie in the incontestable character of the results. Based on neutral, existing data with a fixed set of settings and regions, an absolute comparability and reproducibility throughout Europe can be maintained. Analyzing the pros and cons of both approaches showed that they could be used complementarily rather than be seen as competing alternatives.

  19. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) PROVISIONS What... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

  1. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  3. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    exist in our knowledge of processes affecting egg and larval growth and survival, but some promising areas of research are indicated. In particular the seasonality of spawning, deep water oxygen concentrations, predation on eggs, and larval food production require further investigation....

  4. Trade policy responses to food price crisis and implications for existing domestic support measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2014-01-01

    jointly moderated rises of domestic grain prices. In particular, domestic and trade measures on key agricultural inputs such as fertilizers are shown to contribute significantly to expand grain outputs and reduce domestic market prices. While the short-term goal in stabilizing domestic grain prices......Many national governments around the world applied export restrictions in order to achieve domestic market stabilization during the 2007/8 world food price crisis. However, current literature says little about how these export restrictions interact with existing domestic support measures in jointly...... determining domestic market outcomes. This paper analyzes this interaction by providing a quantitative assessment on how increased spending on agricultural domestic support in China offset the negative effects on grain production caused by the country's export restrictions and how these two types of measures...

  5. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  6. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  7. Study Of The Existence Of Neoantigens In Affected Hair Follicles Using Lymphocyte Transformation Test In Alopecia Areata And Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehi Nodeh A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a common, inflamatory and chronic disease of hair and nails, which in some cases result in growth inhibition and lose of hairs. Several factors such as genetic factors, autoimmunity, atopy, stress, fear etc, are known as effective factors in induction and severity of the disease, but the ethiology of this disease is not known exactly so far. Some evidences such as presence of an autoantibodies against hair follicules and infiltration of immunocompetent cells in affected areas of the disease lead that most investigators classify alopecia as autoimmune disease. In one investigation in immunology department of Tarbiat Modarres university concerning the humoral immunity in alopecia pathogenesis some evidences were found for the presences of a neoantigen in affected hair follicles. Since various studies indicates that cellular arm of the immune system is more important in alopecia areata pathogenesis, in this investigation we studied the existence of neoantigens in affected hair follicles using lymphocyte transformation test (LTT. Materials and Methods: The proliferation responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC from alopecia patients and normal individuals were investigated against the follicular extracts of affected and normal hairs separately. Results: Our results indicate a non significant difference between proliferation responses of MNC’s from alopecia patients and normal controls against follicular extract of normal hairs. These responses were not significantly different against folliclar extracts of affected hairs as well. Regarding our results. Conclusion: We could not show the existence of a neoantigen in alopecia hair follicles, but the obtained results can not completely reject the role of a neoantigen in alopecia pathogenesis as well, because in LTT the responding cells are of memory type and these cells may be very low in peripheral blood. The immune response in this disease may be restricted

  8. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  9. Does financial inclusion affect monetary policy in SAARC countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar Lenka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alike the role of heart for human body, finance is the focal point of an economy, whereas savings and investment are its tubes and vessels. Hence, a solid financial system is a fundamental character of an enduring economy. The frozen financial system endures longer if its foundation is concrete and subsists in the people of grass-root level. They are those, who live in villages and small towns, earn meager income, work in primary sector, spend more on food, and have lesser social securities. In this setting, the process of bringing these people into the main stream of financial activities is called financial inclusion. This study describes the impact of financial inclusion on monetary policy of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC countries from 2004–2013. The study uses principal component analysis (PCA to construct a Financial Inclusion Index that serves as a proxy variable for the accessibility of financial inclusion in the SAARC countries. Adding to it, three different models like FEM, REM, and Panel-corrected standard errors are used for the analysis. In this study, an empirical result of generalized least square(GLS estimation shows that financial inclusion, exchange rate, and interest rate are negatively associated with inflation in SAARC countries.

  10. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  11. How social security policies and economic transformation affect poverty and inequality: Lessons for South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how various characteristics of social and economic policy frameworks affect poverty and inequality levels in developing countries, principally in Botswana and Mauritius. The research findings suggest that poverty and inequality are lower in countries with generous and broad......-based – rather than pro-poor – social security policies, and where social policies are complemented by economic policies promoting economic transformation rather than mere economic growth. While South Africa’s challenges of combating poverty and inequality are shaped by its own historical context, the lessons...

  12. Political past weight: factors that affect the development of policies of memory in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario SOLÍS DELGADILLO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why the Argentine and Chilean presidents believe important to face the political past of their countries; or in other words, why no president resists the temptation to interfere in the issue of public policies of the memory through different strategies with different political costs. In that sense, we try to explain what factors mainly affect the decision of the Argentine and Chilean presidents when they adopting public policies of memory. Following the analysis made by means of logistic regressions, it is estimated that the ideology of the leaders, affect on the repair policies. In justice policies, the analysis shows that these are particularly conducive in times of critical juncture. And in the symbolic policies, anniversaries are not so decisive as might be expected.

  13. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  14. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies. Methods: This article used the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, a nationally representative web sample surveyed from the Knowledge Networks panel in 2006/07 (N = 1,009). The study examines how respondents' demographic and health characteristics, political attitudes, and agreement with seven obesity metaphors affect support for sixteen policies to reduce obesity rates. Findings: Including obesity metaphors in regression models helps explain public support for policies to curb obesity beyond levels attributable solely to demographic, health, and political characteristics. The metaphors that people use to understand rising obesity rates are strong predictors of support for public policy, and their influence varies across different types of policy interventions. Conclusions: Over the last five years, the United States has begun to grapple with the implications of dramatically escalating rates of obesity. Individuals use metaphors to better understand increasing rates of obesity, and obesity metaphors are independent and powerful predictors of support for public policies to curb obesity. Metaphorical reasoning also offers a potential framework for using strategic issue framing to shift support for obesity policies. PMID:19298414

  15. What about Us? Economic and Policy Changes Affecting Rural HIV/AIDS Services and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Tashuna; Martinez, Isabel; Gibson, Crystal; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen R

    2017-01-01

    Health care budgets and policies are chief drivers in the delivery and access to health services. Place is also a factor that affects patient and provider experiences within the health care system. We examine the impact of policy changes and subsequent budget cuts on rural HIV/AIDS care, support services, and prevention. We interviewed 11 social workers, case managers, and outreach workers who serve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted telephone interviews inquiring about the effect of economics and policies on direct practice with rural clients. We analyzed data using a content analysis approach. We found several themes from the data. Ryan White funding and policy changes shifted direct practice to a medical case management model. Changes in federal and state poverty levels affected client eligibility for the AIDS Drugs Assistance Program. Policy banning financial support for syringe service programs hindered prevention efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. Ancillary services were reduced, such as housing assistance, transportation, and emergency financial assistance. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of place-based policies to improve access to healthcare and services. We also provide recommendations for greater inclusion in HIV/AIDS-related policy development, care, and service planning for rural workers.

  16. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  17. Old and New Policies in Dialogue: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Interpretations of a Peace-Related Initiative through Existing Policy Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at teachers' interpretations of a recent and controversial Greek-Cypriot policy initiative, which aimed to promote "peaceful coexistence" between the two rival communities in conflict-ridden Cyprus. Specifically, it focuses on the ways in which Greek-Cypriot teachers constructed the relation between the new policy for…

  18. The European Policy for Liver Allocation in Patients Affected by Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Lauterio, Andrea; Mangoni, Iacopo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of allocation system is to guarantee an equal access to the limited resource of liver grafts for every class of patients on the waiting list, balancing between the ethical principles of equity, utility, benefit, need, and fairness. The aim of this review was to analyze liver allocation policies among these organizations, focusing on HCC. The European area considered for this analysis included 6 macro-areas or countries, which are congregated from the same policy of liver sharing and allocation. By this definition, the 6 areas identified are: Centro Nazionale Trapianti (CNT) in Italy; Eurotransplant (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, and Croatia); Organizacion Nacional de Transplantes (ONT) in Spain; Etablissement francais des Greffes (EfG) in France; NHS Blood Transplant (NHSBT) in the United Kingdom and Ireland; Scandiatransplant (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland); Romanian National Policy. Each identified area, as network for organ sharing in Europe, adopts a basic allocation system that consider a policy center oriented or patient oriented. Priorization of patients affected by HCC in the waiting list for deceased donors liver transplant worldwide is dominated by 2 main principles: urgency and utility. The main message of this review is the absence of a common organs allocation policy over the Eurpean countries. Despite that, long-term survival of the community of patients listed for transplant due to HCC results, however, highly acceptable in Europe and comparable to the long-term survial reported in the UNOS register. Celsius.

  19. Does National Context Affect Target Firm Employees' Trust in Acquisitions? A Policy-Capturing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Günter; Chua, Chei Hwee; Pablo, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test the assumption that the way target firm employees respond to a takeover is contingent on their national origin. The antecedents of target firm member trust in the acquiring firm management were examined in a cross-national sample of German and Singaporean employees using a policy-capturing design. Five factors hypothesized to affect target firm member trust after a takeover were found to be significant influences on employees' trust judgments in a decision-making ...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB Affects Susceptibility to Hydrogen Peroxide and Co-Existence with Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogai, Yuichi; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen and a commensal bacterial species that is found in humans. Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) sense and respond to environmental stresses, which include antimicrobial agents produced by other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed the relation between the TCS SrrAB and susceptibility to the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, which is a commensal oral streptococcus. An srrA-inactivated S. aureus mutant demonstrated low susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis. We investigated the expression of anti-oxidant factors in the mutant. The expression of katA in the mutant was significantly higher than in the wild-type (WT) in the presence or absence of 0.4 mM H2O2. The expression of dps in the mutant was significantly increased compared with the WT in the presence of H2O2 but not in the absence of H2O2. A katA or a dps-inactivated mutant had high susceptibility to H2O2 compared with WT. In addition, we found that the nitric oxide detoxification protein (flavohemoglobin: Hmp), which is regulated by SrrAB, was related to H2O2 susceptibility. The hmp-inactivated mutant had slightly lower susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis than did WT. When a srrA-inactivated mutant or the WT were co-cultured with S. sanguinis, the population percentage of the mutant was significantly higher than the WT. In conclusion, SrrAB regulates katA, dps and hmp expression and affects H2O2 susceptibility. Our findings suggest that SrrAB is related in vivo to the co-existence of S. aureus with S. sanguinis.

  1. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA.

  2. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dd of... - Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63.685(b)(1) 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Tank Control Levels for Tanks at Existing Affected Sources as Required by 40 CFR 63...

  4. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.; Narita, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost−benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost−benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost−benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  5. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  6. Protocol for a scoping review of existing policies on the prevention and control of obesity across countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-02-22

    The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa. This scoping review seeks to examine the nature, extent and range of policies covering obesity prevention in Africa in order to assess how they align with international efforts in creating less obesogenic environments. This will help identify gaps in the approaches that are adopted in Africa. Using the Arksey and O'Malley's scoping methodological framework as a guide, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost) CINAHL (EbscoHost), Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) databases will be carried out for peer reviewed journal articles related to obesity prevention policies using the African search filter. A grey literature search for policy documents and reports will also be conducted. There will be no language and date restrictions. Eligible policy documents and reports will be obtained and screened using the inclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and results analysed using descriptive numerical summary analysis and qualitative thematic analysis. No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this systematic review will be presented at workshops and conferences; and will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journal. This will also form a chapter of a PhD thesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  7. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen

    2017-11-28

    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners.Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice.Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did.Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual.What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other.What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'.What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking to

  8. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  9. Liver-allocation policies for patients affected by HCC in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlis, Luciano; Di Sandro, Stefano; Centonze, Leonardo; Lauterio, Andrea; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Ferla, Fabio; Sguinzi, Raffaella; Okolicsanyi, Stefano; Belli, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of organ allocation systems is to guarantee an equal access to the limited resource of liver grafts for every patients on the waiting list, balancing between the ethical principles of equity, utility, benefit, need, and fairness. The European heath care scenario is very complex, as it is essentially decentralized and each Nation and Regions inside the nation, operate on a significant degree of autonomy. Furthermore the epidemiology of liver diseases and HCC, which is different among European countries, clearly inpacts on indications and priorities. The aims of this review are to analyze liver allocation policies for hepatocellular carcinoma, among different European. The European area considered for this analysis included 5 macro-areas or countries, which have similar policies for liver sharing and allocation: Centro Nazionale Trapianti (CNT) in Italy; Eurotransplant (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, and Croatia); Organizacion Nacional de Transplantes (ONT) in Spain; Etablissement français des Greffes (EfG) in France; NHS Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) in the United Kingdom and Ireland; Scandiatransplant (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland). Each identified area, as network for organ sharing in Europe, adopts an allocation system based either on a policy center oriented or on a policy patient oriented. Priorization of patients affected by HCC in the waiting list for deceased donors liver transplant worldwide is dominated by 2 main principles: urgency and utility. Despite the absence of a common organs allocation policy over the Eurpean countries, long-term survival patients listed for transplant due to HCC are comparable to the long-term survival reported in the UNOS register. However, as the principles of allocation are being re-discussed and new proposals emerge, and the epidemiology of liver disease changes, an effort toward a common system is highly advisable.

  10. National and state policies influencing the care of children affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K M

    2000-04-01

    The portrait of HIV-affected children and youth that emerges from this policy overview is still one of children obscured from view by the shadow of their parents' and siblings' illness and policies that only address the needs of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the secrecy and stigma that still surround HIV and AIDS make it difficult for HIV-affected children and youth to benefit as fully as they might from policies and programs that provide more generic types of care and assistance. Our failure as a nation to better illuminate the plight of HIV-affected children and youth can only leave us with a generation of children who are at greater risk of psychiatric illness, involvement with the criminal justice system, substance abuse, and contracting HIV. To avoid these consequences, both public and private sectors must place the spotlight on the development of new policies and programs designed to specifically meet their needs. Because the solutions defy traditional disciplinary and administrative boundaries, we also need to become more skilled at interagency planning and collaboration. No one system alone can be responsive to the many social, mental health, legal, and support needs of these children and their caretakers. More specifically, recommendations for improved systems of care to HIV-affected children, youth, and their families are as follows: To promote and fund cross-disciplinary initiatives among agencies that administer child welfare services, income supports, AIDS care, and children's mental health services at the national, state, and local levels to specifically meet the mental health, psychosocial, and permanency planning needs of HIV-affected children and youth. To provide training opportunities for Ryan White Title I, II, and III case managers on assessing the needs of HIV-affected children and youth, developmental theories and concepts, principles of family-centered care, and child welfare issues. To increase funding of the Ryan White CARE Act to

  11. Waking a sleeping giant : Policy tools to improve the energy performance of the existing housing stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, L.C.; Meijer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands like many European countries has issued ambitious national targets to achieve climate change goals. It is recognised that to achieve these goals the energy saving potential idling in the existing housing stock must be exploited. To date the Dutch response is largely defined by the

  12. Towards a Policy Social Psychology: Teacher Engagement with Policy Enactment and the Core Concept of Affective Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Irfan; Bagley, Carl

    2018-01-01

    The article uncovers the complex process of educational policy enactment and the impact this process has on teachers as policy actors as they undertake the task of introducing a new mathematics curriculum in a Canadian secondary school. The three year study based on in-depth qualitative interviews adopts a classic grounded theory approach of…

  13. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  14. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively) and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively), and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training, and encouraging

  15. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively, and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training

  16. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Source Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  18. Drug policy and administration affecting quality of life of the poor in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutipinyo, Chardsumon; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to analyze drug policy and administration affecting quality of life of the poor in Thailand. Review of official reports and related documents, for the past 10 years (from 2000-2010). By imposing compulsory licensing, the Thai government maintains negotiating power over the price of pharmaceutical products with the patent holders of the original drugs. This gives an opportunity for relevant government agencies to produce or import patented drugs. At present, there are many problems and obstacles. The findings show that developing countries need to strengthen their negotiating power so that the pharmaceutical manufacturers cannot take advantage through mechanisms provided for such as compulsory licensing and provisions for flexibility in Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. Furthermore, these countries must support and empower the local pharmaceutical manufacturers to produce generic drugs. Developing countries should ensure that their populations have confidence in universal coverage service and medical systems regarding the quality of generic drugs.

  19. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  20. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-06-26

    The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on peoples' health, with a particular focus on women. To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male-female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens' health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns

  1. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  2. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  3. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  4. How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson's disease in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen's rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson's disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population.

  5. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  6. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  7. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  8. Fallacies Affecting Policy and Practice in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in State Primary Schools in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the worldwide trend to introduce English as a foreign language (EFL) into primary schools at ever younger ages. This trend has gained momentum in recent years, affecting millions of children in countries throughout Asia. A policy decision of this kind has far-reaching implications but it is often made without…

  9. Existing plaques and neuritic abnormalities in APP:PS1 mice are not affected by administration of the gamma-secretase inhibitor LY-411575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golde Todd E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The γ-secretase complex is a major therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that treatment of young APP mice with specific inhibitors of γ-secretase prevented formation of new plaques. It has not yet been shown directly whether existing plaques would be affected by γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. Similarly, alterations in neuronal morphology in the immediate vicinity of plaques represent a plaque-specific neurotoxic effect. Reversal of these alterations is an important endpoint of successful therapy whether or not a treatment affects plaque size. In the present study we used longitudinal imaging in vivo with multiphoton microscopy to study the effects of the orally active γ-secretase inhibitor LY-411575 in 10–11 month old APP:PS1 mice with established amyloid pathology and neuritic abnormalities. Neurons expressed YFP allowing fluorescent detection of morphology whereas plaques were labelled with methoxy-XO4. The same identified neurites and plaques were followed in weekly imaging sessions in living mice treated daily (5 mg/kg for 3 weeks with the compound. Although LY-411575 reduced Aβ levels in plasma and brain, it did not have an effect on the size of existing plaques. There was also no effect on the abnormal neuritic curvature near plaques, or the dystrophies in very close proximity to senile plaques. Our results suggest that therapeutics aimed at inhibition of Aβ generation are less effective for reversal of existing plaques than for prevention of new plaque formation and have no effect on the plaque-mediated neuritic abnormalities, at least under these conditions where Aβ production is suppressed but not completely blocked. Therefore, a combination therapy of Aβ suppression with agents that increase clearance of amyloid and/or prevent neurotoxicity might be needed for a more effective treatment in patients with pre-existing pathology.

  10. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  11. Sustainability or profitability? How communicated motives for environmental policy affect public perceptions of corporate greenwashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de vries, G; Terwel, B; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Daamen, D.

    Companies in the energy sector face a dilemma regarding how to communicate their environmental policies to the public. Communicating that environmental policies and activities are motivated by concern for the environment could elicit positive reactions, but may also lead to accusations of corporate

  12. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dollars, lobbying, and secrecy: how campaign contributions and lobbying affect public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Whitney North; Seymour, Gabriel North

    2013-01-01

    Public policy is too often determined not by the merits of the case but, rather, by individuals, corporations, and even countries who buy influence and alter public policy for the benefit of only a few. As a wrap-up for this conference on "Corporate Interference with Science and Health: Fracking, Food and Wireless," it is our intent to provide a personal story of how money can buy favors and determine policies that are often counter to the public interest and can even lead to failure to protect the health of the public. Given our background in law specific to the US, the basis of our evidence comes from legal rulings as well as legislative actions that have had an impact on policies in the US. While the specifics of governments vary, related activities surrounding money, lobbying, who knows who, and how decisions are made in secret to benefit a few are events that occur everywhere.

  14. Equality and difference: persisting historical themes in health and alcohol policies affecting Indigenous Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    Disseminating national health and alcohol policies to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia has been a challenging task for governments and public servants. This has been for a number of reasons, including the enduring (negative) legacy of past “Aboriginal affairs” policies, the fact that Indigenous health programmes and alcohol programmes have been treated separately since the 1970s, and a more recent context in which the recognition of cultural difference was privileged....

  15. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  16. What can we learn from the existing evidence of the business case for investments in nursing care: importance of content, context, and policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Wholey, Douglas; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    Decisions of health care institutions to invest in nursing care are often guided by mixed and conflicting evidence of effects of the investments on organizational function and sustainability. This paper uses new evidence generated through Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI)-funded research and published in peer-reviewed journals, to illustrate where the business case for nursing investments stands and to discuss factors that may limit the existing evidence and its transferability into clinical practice. We conclude that there are 3 limiting factors: (1) the existing business case for nursing investments is likely understated due to the inability of most studies to capture spillover and long-run dynamic effects, thus causing organizations to forfeit potentially viable nursing investments that may improve long-term financial stability; (2) studies rarely devote sufficient attention to describing the content and the organization-specific contextual factors, thus limiting generalizability; and (3) fragmentation of the current health care delivery and payment systems often leads to the financial benefits of investments in nursing care accruing outside of the organization incurring the costs, thus making potentially quality-improving and cost-saving interventions financially unattractive from the organization's perspective. The payment reform, with its emphasis on high-quality affordable patient-centered care, is likely to strengthen the business case for investments in nursing care. Methodologically rigorous approaches that focus on broader societal implications of investments in nursing care, combined with a thorough understanding of potential barriers and facilitators of nursing change, should be an integral part of future research and policy efforts.

  17. Can Green Traffic Policies Affect Air Quality? Evidence from A Difference-in-Difference Estimation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yi Qiu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been a serious challenge for human sustainable development. Researches show that emissions from the transport sector have been found to be a main source of air pollution in cities. Governments have implemented numerous green traffic policies to mitigate harmful emissions. However, the problem as to whether the green traffic policies are effective, and the extent to which the policies affect air quality remain unknown. This paper is the first attempt to apply a difference-in-difference method to investigate how a specific green traffic policy (in our case, the green traffic pilot cities program affects air quality. The estimates show that the pilot program is associated with consistent reductions in annual concentration of pollutants. In pilot cities of China, the annual concentration of SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 decrease by 10.71 percent, 11.26 percent and 9.85 percent, respectively, after the implementation of the green traffic pilot cities program. The results show that the green traffic pilot has a noticeable improvement on air quality of the pilot cities, implying that government intervention has a positive influence on pollution prevention in the transport sector. Moreover, the green traffic system construction can be popularized in other cities to mitigate air pollution.

  18. Equality and difference: persisting historical themes in health and alcohol policies affecting Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Maggie

    2007-09-01

    Disseminating national health and alcohol policies to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia has been a challenging task for governments and public servants. This has been for a number of reasons, including the enduring (negative) legacy of past "Aboriginal affairs" policies, the fact that Indigenous health programmes and alcohol programmes have been treated separately since the 1970s, and a more recent context in which the recognition of cultural difference was privileged. Confronted with the politics of difference, health departments were slow to examine avenues through which best practice advice emanating from WHO, and alcohol policies such as harm minimisation and early identification and treatment in primary health care, could be communicated in culturally recognisable ways to independent Indigenous services. In addition, there was hostility towards harm minimisation policies from Indigenous service providers, and Indigenous treatment programmes remained largely committed to abstinence-oriented modalities and the disease model of alcoholism, despite moves away from these approaches in the mainstream. However, genuinely innovative acute interventions and environmental controls over alcohol have been developed by Indigenous community-based organisations, approaches that are reinforced by international policy research evidence.

  19. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Policies and regulations affecting biomass-related energy sector development in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The future predictions of energy demand, limitations of hydro expansion and inadequate fossil fuel supplies in Sri Lanka suggest the requirement for a diversity of power sources in the future. It has been recognized that renewable energy (particularly biomass, hydro, wind and solar) will have an important role in meeting future energy demands. The main objective of this policy brief is to discuss the current status of the biomass energy sector of Sri Lanka and to lay a foundation for a process of further studies and consultations leading towards a well-integrated energy policy.

  1. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  2. How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Children: A Synthesis of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Huston, Aletha C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Crosby, Danielle A.; Bos, Johannes M.

    This monograph synthesizes findings from five large-scale studies investigating welfare and employment programs in order to examine the effects on children of key policies: providing financial support for working families, requiring single parents to work, and limiting time on welfare. It identifies program features associated with effects on…

  3. "Don't Affect the Share Price": Social Media Policy in Higher Education as Reputation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…

  4. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  5. How is Policy Affecting Classroom Instruction? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Adam; Polikof, Morgan; Desimone, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Five-plus years into the experiment with new "college- and career-ready standards" (of which Common Core is the most notable and most controversial example), we know little about teachers' implementation and the ways policy can support that implementation. This paper uses new state-representative teacher survey data to characterize the…

  6. Probing the smoking-suicide association: do smoking policy interventions affect suicide risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Plunk, Andrew D; Krauss, Melissa J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Deak, Joseph; Gebhardt, Kacie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Bierut, Laura J

    2014-11-01

    Smokers exhibit elevated risk for suicide, but it is unknown whether smoking interventions reduce suicide risk. We examined whether state-level policy interventions-increases in cigarette excise taxes and strengthening of smoke-free air laws-corresponded to a reduction in suicide risk during the 1990s and the early 2000s. We also examined whether the magnitude of such reductions correlated with individuals' predicted probability of smoking, which would be expected if the associations stemmed from changes in smoking behavior. We paired individual-level data on suicide deaths from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, years 1990-2004, with living population data from the same period. These were linked with state data on cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies. Utilizing a quasiexperimental analytical approach, we estimated the association between changes in policy and suicide risk. To examine whether associations correlated with individuals' probability of smoking, we used external survey data to derive a predicted probability of smoking function from demographic variables, which was then used to stratify the population by predicted smoking prevalence. Cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free air policies, and an index combining the two policies all exhibited protective associations with suicide. The associations were strongest in segments of the population where predicted smoking prevalence was the highest and weaker in segments of the population where predicted smoking prevalence was the lowest, suggesting that the protective associations were related to changes in smoking behavior. These results provide support for the proposition that population interventions for smoking could reduce risk for suicide. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Probing the Smoking–Suicide Association: Do Smoking Policy Interventions Affect Suicide Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Deak, Joseph; Gebhardt, Kacie; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers exhibit elevated risk for suicide, but it is unknown whether smoking interventions reduce suicide risk. We examined whether state-level policy interventions—increases in cigarette excise taxes and strengthening of smoke-free air laws—corresponded to a reduction in suicide risk during the 1990s and the early 2000s. We also examined whether the magnitude of such reductions correlated with individuals’ predicted probability of smoking, which would be expected if the associations stemmed from changes in smoking behavior. Methods: We paired individual-level data on suicide deaths from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, years 1990–2004, with living population data from the same period. These were linked with state data on cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies. Utilizing a quasiexperimental analytical approach, we estimated the association between changes in policy and suicide risk. To examine whether associations correlated with individuals’ probability of smoking, we used external survey data to derive a predicted probability of smoking function from demographic variables, which was then used to stratify the population by predicted smoking prevalence. Results: Cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free air policies, and an index combining the two policies all exhibited protective associations with suicide. The associations were strongest in segments of the population where predicted smoking prevalence was the highest and weaker in segments of the population where predicted smoking prevalence was the lowest, suggesting that the protective associations were related to changes in smoking behavior. Conclusion: These results provide support for the proposition that population interventions for smoking could reduce risk for suicide. PMID:25031313

  8. A Response to Proposed Budget Cuts Affecting Children's Mental Health: Protecting Policies and Programs That Promote Collective Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Atkins, Marc; Horwitz, Sarah; Kutash, Krista; Olin, S Serene; Burns, Barbara; Peth-Pierce, Robin; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Shorter, Priscilla; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2017-11-01

    Children stand to lose if the federal government follows through on threats to cut funding for critical safety-net programs that have long supported families and communities. Although cuts directly targeting children's mental health are a great concern, cuts to policies that support health, housing, education, and family income are equally disturbing. These less publicized proposed cuts affect children indirectly, but they have direct effects on their families and communities. The importance of these services is supported by an extensive body of social learning research that promotes collective efficacy-neighbors positively influencing each other-shown to have positive long-term effects on children's development and adult outcomes. In this article, the authors describe two federal programs that by virtue of their impact on families and communities are likely to promote collective efficacy and positively affect children's mental health; both programs are facing severe cutbacks. They suggest that states adopt a cross-system approach to promote policies and programs in general medical health, mental health, housing, education, welfare and social services, and juvenile justice systems as a viable strategy to strengthen families and communities and promote collective efficacy. The overall goal is to advance a comprehensive national mental health policy for children that enhances collaboration across systems and strengthens families and communities, which is especially critical for children living in marginalized communities.

  9. THE ECONOMIC CRISIS AFFECTS THE COHESION POLICY AND SLOWS DOWN THE MIGRATION IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela Feraru

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has made it difficult to achieve the key objectives of the European Union and the cohesion policy as a result of the increase in regional disparities. The main causes are the decrease of employment rates, increasing poverty and social exclusion. Among the effects of the crisis, there have been identified within the present work, on the one hand, some Member States of the European Union, who are facing more problems, but also fewer public resources and, on the other hand, the trend of population migration slowdown in regions marked by large flows of migrant workers in the pre-crisis period. All these issues highlight the need to reconsider the cohesion policy. In the present work, we are trying to establish to what extent the tools for the reduction of discrepancies between EU Member States on the management and impact can be successfully developed within the new cohesion policy for 2014-2020, starting from the compromises made for the purpose of connecting the European objectives to the national ones.

  10. How Fiscal Policy Affects Non-Oil Economic Performance in Azerbaijan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal policy in promoting economic growth has been subject to many studies since its suggestion by Keynes who stated expansionary/contractionary impact of public expenditures/taxes. In this context, effectiveness of fiscal policy use to develop non-oil sector in resource rich economies should be studied. This paper investigates short- and long-run effects of budget expenditures and tax related budget revenues (direct transfers from oil fund excluded over non-oil GDP while controlling for oil price volatility and oil production in case of Azerbaijan. Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing (ARDLBT Approach to cointegration is employed for data covering 2000Q1-2015Q2. Estimation results theoretically consistent and statistically significant long-run effects of both budget expenditures and tax-related budget revenues. However, in the short-run, the effects are contrary to the theoretical expectations. Findings are useful for Azerbaijan fiscal policy makers especially in the current complicated nature of economic processes in the economy due to oil related challenges.

  11. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  12. Forest economics and policy in a changing environment: how market, policy, and climate transformations affect forests -- Proceedings of the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; Prakash Nepal

    2016-01-01

    Economics can affect decisions about forest resource management and utilization, and in turn, the ecosystem benefits received. In a time of market, policy, and climate transformations, economic analyses are critical to help policy-makers and resource managers make appropriate decisions. At the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics (...

  13. Does corporate governance affect dividend policy: Evidence from ASEAN emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research-work uses a survey which comes from three different countries in ASEAN region i.e Indonesian, Thiland and Malaysian. This work integrate whole data from above all countries to examine whether firms that do corporate governance practising will pay higher dividends. This study has two issues: how regulation of stock exchange affects good corporate governance and how corporate governance affects value of the firm. Using OLS regression, our finding shows that good corporate governance practices has positive sign to dividend pay out. Our finding may contribute to corporate governance literature.First, result finding support Jensen’s (1986 that states free csah flow not reduce dividends pay out. Second, integrating emprical model from three different countires in ASEAN region.

  14. Capacity of US Forests to Maintain Existing Carbon Sequestration will be affected by Changes in Forest Disturbances and to a greater extent, the Economic and Societal Influences on Forest Management and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, L. A.; Running, S. W.; Breshears, D. D.; Dale, V.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Sampson, N.; Sohngen, B.; Woodall, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly the value of US forest carbon dynamics and carbon sequestration is being recognized in discussions of adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Past exploitation of forestlands in the United States for timber, fuelwood, and conversion to agriculture resulted in large swings in forestland area and terrestrial carbon dynamics. The National Climate Assessment explored the implications of current and future stressors, including climate change, to the future of forest carbon dynamics in the United States. While U.S forests and associated harvested wood products sequestered roughly 13 percent of all carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2010, the capacity of forests to maintain this amount of carbon sequestration will be affected by the effects of climate change on forest disturbances, tree growth and mortality, changes in species composition, and to a greater extent, the economic and societal influences on forest management and forestland use. Carbon mitigation through forest management includes three strategies: 1) land management to increase forest area (afforestation) and/or avoid deforestation; 2) carbon management in existing forests; and 3) use of wood in place of materials that require more carbon emissions to produce, in place of fossil fuels to produce energy or in wood products for carbon storage. A significant financial incentive facing many private forest owners is the value of their forest lands for conversion to urban or developed uses. In addition, consequences of large scale die-off and wildfire disturbance events from climate change pose major challenges to forestland area and forest management with potential impacts occurring up to regional scales for timber, flooding and erosion risks, other changes in water budgets, and biogeochemical changes including carbon storage. Options for carbon management on existing forests include practices that increase forest growth such as fertilization, irrigation, switch to fast

  15. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  17. Engaging the Voice of Patients Affected by Gender-Based Violence: Informing Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Chadwick, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence regarding the benefits, opportunities, and risks associated with providing health care to patients experiencing gender-based violence (GBV) and, moreover, their satisfaction with health care services is sparse. Using a patient- and trauma-informed relationship-based framework, survivors of GBV who were referred for follow-up care were asked to participate in a quality improvement (QI) initiative in an effort to understand their perspectives of receiving healthcare services. Patients were asked to answer three open-ended questions in regard to their healthcare experience. Individuals who were eligible for evidence collection after sexual assault (<5 days) were asked two additional questions. Of the 353 women and six men (359) referred to the C.A.R.E. (Coordinated Approach to Recovery and Empowerment) Clinic, 327 patients were contacted. Of the participants, 24% (86) had a mental health diagnosis; 41% (145) reported their incident to the police; 8% (28) had comorbidities of substance abuse, mental health, and/or homelessness; and 33% (118) of the incidents involved alcohol or drugs. Most of the patients stated that they were well cared for and felt safe during their visit. However, many reported "long waits," "disjointed," "chaotic," "too many" providers, "conflicting" and "miss-information," and "confusion" about what to do after their acute care visit. Over half (59%) did not report incident to the police. Some reported regrets with reporting to the police (16%) and regrets in having evidence collection (15%). Of the patients who did not have evidence collected (47), none expressed regret over choosing not to have evidence collected. Five patients with mental health problems were hospitalized within 5 days of their emergency department visit for suicidal thoughts. A number of opportunities to improve the healthcare response were identified. Patients affected by GBV require an improved coordinated and trauma-informed approach. Explicit consent related to

  18. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  19. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  20. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  1. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  2. Interrelationships between Hormones, Behavior, and Affect during Adolescence: Complex Relationships Exist between Reproductive Hormones, Stress‐Related Hormones, and the Activity of Neural Systems That Regulate Behavioral Affect. Comments on Part III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CAMERON, JUDY L

    2004-01-01

    ..., and changes in behavioral affect regulation. The interactions between activity in the reproductive axis, the neural systems that regulate stress, hormones produced in response to stress, and neural systems governing behavioral affect regulation...

  3. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Ormond, Meghann

    2015-07-04

    Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua's previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua's framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua's policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. The framework

  4. How Do Organizational Policies and Practices Affect Return to Work and Work Role Functioning Following a Musculoskeletal Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amick, Benjamin C; Lee, Hyunmi; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Katz, Jeffrey N; Brouwer, Sandra; Franche, Renée-Louise; Bültmann, Ute

    Purpose Organizational-level policies and practices that promote safety leadership and practices, disability management and ergonomic policies and practices are considered key contextual determinants of return to work. Our objective was to examine the role of worker-reported organizational policies

  5. Policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Pacific region: an historical comparison of the United States and the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a history of policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Far Eastern Economic Region of the USSR, a similar history for the Pacific Division of the US, and compares the major differences and similarities between the policies and legislation of these 2 nations with respect to settlement of what are now the Pacific territories of the 2 nations. By policy regarding settlement is meant legislation intentionally designed to acquire sovereignty and then populate a region with persons owing allegiance to the given nation. By legislation regarding settlement is meant simply those laws which have consequences for settlement regardless of intent. The history starts with the early 17th century for the USSR and with the early 19th century for the US. In the USSR and in the US, areas adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were annexed by means of direct governmental measures. During the 17th century the efforts on the part of the Tsarist government of Russia to annex territory resulted in armed conflict with the troops of the Chinese Empire. In the middle of the 19th century, following the substantial weakening of Chinese military prowess and in the face of territorial demands on China by the British and French, the Russians were able to impose treaties on the Chinese granting them substantial Pacific territories until then under Chinese rule. A war of conquest against Mexico in 1846-48 made possible for the US the acquisition of California. In addition, a treaty with England in 1846 gave international recognition to US sovereignty in Oregon and Washington. Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, and Hawaii was annexed to the US in 1898. In both nations the construction of railroads to link the Pacific coast with the rest of the nation was actively promoted by governmental legislation. In the US and in the USSR migration to the Pacific region has been promoted by direct financial subsidies to settlers -- in the US by the Homestead Act and irrigation

  6. The greening of existing buildings. The position of heat distribution in several policy areas; Bestaande bouw moet nog sterker vergroenen. Positie van warmtenetten op diverse beleidsterreinen nog zwak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, K.

    2012-04-15

    The Netherlands will have to take some major steps to realize its sustainability ambitions in eight years' time. With this challenge in mind, the Dutch Stichting Warmtenetwerk organized a symposium on green heat for existing buildings in press centre Nieuwspoort, The Hague on 25 January. The deployment of heat distribution is bringing the targets much closer. [Dutch] Nederland moet nog flinke stappen maken om over acht jaar de voorgenomen duurzaamheidsambities te kunnen halen. Met deze uitdaging in gedachten, werd op 25 januari door de Stichting Warmtenetwerk in perscentrum Nieuwspoort, Den Haag een symposium georganiseerd over groene warmte voor de bestaande bouw. De inzet van warmtenetten brengt de doelen een flink stuk dichterbij.

  7. What factors affect patient access and engagement with clubfoot treatment in low- and middle-income countries? Meta-synthesis of existing qualitative studies using a social ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Sarah; Lavy, Christopher; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2016-05-01

    To conduct a systematic synthesis of previous research to identify factors that affect treatment-seeking for clubfoot and community-level interventions to improve engagement in low- and middle-income counties. A search of five databases was conducted, and articles screened using six criteria. Quality was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Eleven studies were identified for inclusion. Analysis was informed by a social ecological model, which specifies five inter-related factors that may affect treatment-seeking: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community or socio-cultural factors and public policy. Intrapersonal barriers experienced were a lack of income and additional responsibilities. At the interpersonal level, support from fathers, the extended family and wider community affected on treatment-seeking. Institutional or organisational factors included long distances to treatment centres, insufficient information about treatments and challenges following treatment. Guardians' beliefs about the causes of clubfoot shaped behaviour. At the level of public policy, two-tiered healthcare systems made it difficult for some groups to access timely care. Interventions to address these challenges included counselling sessions, outreach clinics, brace recycling and a range of education programmes. This study identifies factors that affect access and engagement with clubfoot treatment across diverse settings and strategies to address them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    steps of operational planning and the reviewing of precaution, addressing and rehabilitation measures are analyzed. This action plan, risk analysis and maps are of decisive importance not only for prevention and operational planning purposes, but can also prove useful during the crisis and the rehabilitation processes as well. Additionally, we conducted a large questionnaire survey among the municipalities of Greece to assess the existing situation regarding forest fire prevention. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform, which acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). 23% of the municipalities have not compiled an action plan yet despite the fact that the 3013/2002 Act of the Greek National Law requires one. Moreover, existing action plans are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. They lack important information, present no spatial data and display no prevention measures. Indeed, 85% of the municipalities that have action plans do not use risk maps and spatial data, which are of decisive importance for compiling the plans. 74% of the municipalities do not keep a record of forest fires. The jurisdiction area has been modified after the new administrative plan of Kallikratis in 2010 in 74% of the municipalities, however, local action plans were not adapted accordingly in 61% of these. The daily Fire Risk Map of the General Secretariat of Civil Protection has a key role, since 77% of the municipalities take additional measures in case of increased fire risk. According to the civil protection officials, existing action plans suffer from several major problems which emerge due to the fact: that there is no assessment on the fire hazard 67%, there is lack of personnel training

  9. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  10. “Don't affect the share price”: social media policy in higher education as reputation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony McNeill

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including learning, teaching and assessment. This study considers the social media policies of 14 universities in the United Kingdom (UK that are currently in the public domain. It addresses some of the ways in which Higher Education Institutions (HEIs are responding to both the positive potential of social media as well as its perceived threats. Drawing inspiration, if not actual method, from critical discourse analysis, this study argues that marketisation has been the main policy driver with many social media policies being developed to promote university “brands” as well as protect institutional reputation. The creation and implementation of social media policies are therefore playing a role in helping universities manage both the risks and the benefits of social media in the context of an increasingly marketised Higher Education (HE environment in which protecting institutional reputation has become a priority. However, in the defence of the metaphorical institutional “share price”, some policies constrain both academic autonomy and the possibilities for innovation and risk-taking.

  11. Constraints to implementing an equity-promoting staff allocation policy: understanding mid-level managers' and nurses' perspectives affecting implementation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vera; Mathews, Verona; Gilson, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    Much of current research on issues of equity in low- and middle-income countries focuses on uncovering and describing the extent of inequities in health status and health service provision. In terms of policy responses to inequity, there is a growing body of work on resource reallocation strategies. However, little published work exists on the challenges of implementing new policies intended to improve equity in health status or health service delivery. While the appropriateness of the technical content of policies clearly influences whether or not they promote equity, policy analysis theory suggests that it is important to consider how the processes of policy development and implementation influence policy achievements. Drawing on actor analysis and implementation theory, we seek to understand some of the dynamics surrounding the proposed implementation of one set of South African staff allocation strategies responding to broader equity-oriented policy mandates. These proposals were developed by a team of researchers and mid-level managers in 2003 and called for the reallocation of staff between better- and lesser-resourced districts in the Cape Town Metropolitan region to reduce broader resource allocation inequities. This was felt necessary because up to 70% of public health expenditure was on staff, and new financing for health care was unavailable. We focus on the views and reactions of the two sets of implementing actors most directly influenced by the proposed staff reallocation strategies: district health managers and clinic nurses. One strength of this analysis is that it gives voice to the experience of the district level--the key but much neglected implementation arena in a decentralized health system. The paper's findings unpack differences in these actors' positions on the proposed strategies, and explore the factors influencing their positions. Ultimately, we show how a lack of trust in the relationships between mid-level managers and nurse service

  12. A multi-site review of policies affecting opportunities for children with developmental disabilities to become bilingual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesco, D.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Cleave, P.; Trudeau, N.; Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Cain, K.; Marinova-Todd, S.H.; Colozzo, P.; Stahl, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    This review of special education and language-in-education policies at six sites in four countries (Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Netherlands) aimed to determine the opportunities for bilingualism provided at school for children with developmental disabilities (DD). While research has

  13. Contracts Contrary to Public Policy under English Law and Dutch Law : The Case of Agreements Affecting Matrimony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoor, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Both English law and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts that conflict with morality or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of

  14. How Funding and Policy Affect Access to and Modernization of Major Air Force Ground Test Infrastructure Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    high Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) suitability failure rates.xi “Early in the DSB study it became obvious that high suitability...directly against flight and IOT &E testing needs, and a lack of policy to support tester involvement in technology development. Due to the funding

  15. Does a policy of earlier induction affect labour outcomes in women induced for postmaturity? A retrospective analysis in a tertiary hospital in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Anna; Marshall, Paul

    2017-07-01

    to investigate whether a change in the management of postmature pregnancy to earlier induction affects the length of labour and the induction process. Secondly, to assess the feasibility of the research process to inform a future larger study. a change in management of postmature pregnancy in an NHS hospital in October 2013, from induction at 42 weeks gestation to induction between 41-42 weeks, provided an opportunity to conduct a retrospective analysis. Pre-existing data from the maternity database and casenotes were collected and primary outcomes analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Hodges-Lehman confidence interval for differences in medians. a large city based tertiary referral hospital in the North of England. 125 women induced before the change in policy were compared with 309 women induced after the change. primary outcomes were length of 1st and 2nd stage of labour, overall length of labour, length of induction to established labour and length of induction to birth. the median overall length of labour for women induced at 42 weeks was 6.5hours, while for women induced at 41-42 weeks this was 5.2hours. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.15, 95% CI for median difference -0.27 to 1.93hours) with a small effect size (Pearson's r=-0.08). The median length of induction to birth was 13.6hours for women induced at 42 weeks and 16.5hours for women induced at 41-42 weeks. This difference was also not statistically significant (p=0.14, 95% CI for median difference -7.25 to 1.20hours) with a small effect size (Pearson's r=-0.13). This study demonstrated no statistically significant differences in length of labour and induction following a change in the management of postmature pregnancy to earlier induction. A large study is needed to establish definitively the effects of earlier induction on labour outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High efficient removal of molybdenum from water by Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}: Effects of pH and affecting factors in the presence of co-existing background constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majunhit@126.com; Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zou, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Proposed high efficient Mo (VI) removal with Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} coagulation-filtration. • Studied different effects of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} due to different anionic portions. • Reported the adverse effect of calcium on the removal of Mo (VI). • Proposed factors affecting Mo (VI) removal: intercepted Fe and adsorption affinity. - Abstract: Comparatively investigated the different effects of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} coagulation-filtration and FeCl{sub 3} coagulation-filtration on the removal of Mo (VI). And the influence of calcium, sulfate, silicate, phosphate and humic acid (HA) were also studied. The following conclusions can be obtained: (1) compared with the case of FeCl{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} showed a higher Mo (VI) removal efficiency at pH 4.00–5.00, but an equal removal efficiency at pH 6.00–9.00. (2) The optimum Mo (VI) removal by Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was achieved at pH 5.00–6.00; (3) The presence of calcium can reduce the removal of Mo (VI) over the entire pH range in the present study; (4) The effect of co-existing background anions (including HA) was dominated by three factors: Firstly the influence of co-existing background anions on the content of Fe intercepted from water (intercepted Fe). Secondly the competition of co-existing anions with Mo (VI) for adsorption sites. Thirdly the influence of co-existing background anions on the Zeta potential of the iron flocs.

  17. Challenges to Affirmative Action Race Conscious College Admissions Policies Affecting the Affordability of Higher Education for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sky Lark, Taj'ullah

    2012-01-01

    The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…

  18. Four Case Studies on Corporate Social Responsibility: Do Conflicts Affect a Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Cedillo Torres

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught using child labour in Bangladesh and has faced gender discrimination charges. In 2010 the media reported on suicides at Foxconn, one of Apple's biggest suppliers. And although Canon did not mention any employee stress-related problems at its factories, they nevertheless occurred.This article will discuss the different CSR issues that emerged within the mentioned multinationals. It will provide a comparison of the companies' CSR reporting before and after the problematic events occurred. The case studies show whether the multinationals acted before a conflict emerged or adapted their CSR policy when the problem was already widely known. Thus, it analyses whether the companies adopted clear and quantifiable policies after the issues occurred. The conclusion points out that the companies not only reported on CSR but that they also adopted long-term commitments. The findings also suggest that the conflicts may have contributed to the adoption of these multinationals' CSR commitments.

  19. Evaluating public participation in Denmark’s water councils: How policy design and boundary judgements affect water governance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversgaard, Morten; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    water planning, this does not accord with reality. The water council processes are limited in scope and controlled by the central government. Their process can be better characterized as expanded stakeholder consultation, officially part of the policy process but involving very little active public......Under the Water Framework Directive, public participation was identified as a key part of water planning. This caused a paradigm shift in Danish water planning. Water councils in River Basin Districts were established to provide public input on how to improve the physical conditions in streams....... A study of the water councils found that Denmark has complied with the requirements of making background information available to the public and ensuring consultation. The facilitation of the councils’ processes has worked well. However, while they are presented as the ‘new governance option’ in Danish...

  20. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  1. Urban Health Educators' Perspectives and Practices regarding School Nutrition Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Although nutrition-related health education policies exist at national, state and local levels, the degree to which those policies affect the everyday practices of health education teachers who are charged with executing them in schools is often unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition-related health education policy matrix…

  2. Factors Affecting Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors of Hispanic Families With Young Children: Implications for Obesity Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Jamie; Bonilla, Zobeida

    2017-09-29

    To determine preferred policies and programs to prevent obesity and diabetes as identified by parents and caregivers of 3- to 5-year-old Latino children. Constructs from the Social Ecological Model were used to develop 10 focus group and key informant interview questions. Community venues and schools in St Paul, MN. A total of 64 parents and caregivers and 20 key informants provided comments. Community-based participatory research methods were used to gather opinions regarding appropriate and preferred methods to prevent obesity and diabetes among Latino youth. Native Spanish-speaking investigators who were members of the community conducted 7 focus groups (60-90 minutes each) and 20 key informant interviews. Themes and subthemes of preferences based on participant comments. Transcript-based, long-table qualitative analysis. Five themes were identified: (1) cultural beliefs and practices are inconsistent with obesity prevention; (2) cost and convenience; (3) positive parenting practices; (4) we want to learn more about being healthy; and (5) gardens, parks, gyms, and school meals. At least 1 theme fell within each of the social ecological model domains. Our results suggest that parents of young Hispanic children prefer that obesity and diabetes prevention programs address multiple levels of influence. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathfinder to EXIST: ProtoEXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, A. B., III; Allen, B.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burke, M.; Burnham, J.; Chammas, N.; Collins, J.; Cook, W. R.; Copete, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gauron, T.; Grindlay, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J.; Howell, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Labov, S.; Said, B.; Sheikh Sheikh, S.

    2008-04-01

    We describe the ProtoEXIST instrument, our fist-generation wide-field hard X-ray imaging (20 - 600 keV) balloon-borne telescope. The ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a candidate for the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST consists of two independent coded-aperture telescopes using pixellated (2.5mm pitch) CZT detectors. The two telescopes will provide performance comparison of two shielding configurations, for optimization of the EXIST design. We report on the science goals and designs of both ProtoEXIST and EXIST and their implications for hard X-ray astronomy and astrophysics.

  4. The Politics of Urban Policies in Lagos, 1914 - 1960 | Davies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the present study aims at bridging the gap in the existing studies by focusing attention on the politics of colonial urban policies of town planning, segregation, sanitation, and land. The paper argues that the formulation and implementation of urban policies in Lagos in the period under study, were affected by the idea, ...

  5. Policy in the Way of Practice: How Assessment Legislation Is Affecting Social Studies Curriculum and Instruction in Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Misco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In a national context of standards and high-stakes testing, concerns are emerging about challenges to the already tenuous position of the citizenship mission in the social studies curriculum. In this qualitative study, the authors administered a survey to social studies teachers in Ohio and conducted follow-up interviews focusing on the present purposes of social studies and the ways in which standards and testing are affecting instructional practice. The findings reveal a perception of standards as being of high quality, yet ultimately undermined through changes in scope and se-quence, narrowing of the curriculum, and a paucity of time to enact them. In addition, respondents indicated that high-stakes testing has become the primary curricular focus, which impacts instructional strategy decision making and frustrates citizenship education.

  6. Setting the agenda for a healthy retail environment: content analysis of US newspaper coverage of tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale (POS) are an emerging intervention, yet POS-related news media content has not been studied. We describe news coverage of POS tobacco control efforts and assess relationships between article characteristics, including policy domains, frames, sources, localisation and evidence present, and slant towards tobacco control efforts. High circulation state (n=268) and national (n=5) newspapers comprised the sampling frame. We retrieved 917 relevant POS-focused articles in newspapers from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. 5 raters screened and coded articles, 10% of articles were double coded, and mean inter-rater reliability (IRR) was 0.74. POS coverage emphasised tobacco retailer licensing (49.1% of articles) and the most common frame present was regulation (71.3%). Government officials (52.3%), followed by tobacco retailers (39.6%), were the most frequent sources. Half of articles (51.3%) had a mixed, neutral or antitobacco control slant. Articles presenting a health frame, a greater number of protobacco control sources, and statistical evidence were significantly more likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Articles presenting a political/rights or regulation frame, a greater number of antitobacco control sources, or government, tobacco industry, tobacco retailers, or tobacco users as sources were significantly less likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Stories that feature procontrol sources, research evidence and a health frame also tend to support tobacco control objectives. Future research should investigate how to use data, stories and localisation to encourage a protobacco control slant, and should test relationships between content characteristics and policy progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-09-07

    The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding) were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  8. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Amy E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. Conclusions EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  9. Minimum pricing of alcohol versus volumetric taxation: which policy will reduce heavy consumption without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP compared with a uniform volumetric tax. METHODS: We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885 collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011 in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. FINDINGS: The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs, are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]. Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69] and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05] compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively. A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00] and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75], compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively. Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. CONCLUSIONS: While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.

  10. Minimum Pricing of Alcohol versus Volumetric Taxation: Which Policy Will Reduce Heavy Consumption without Adversely Affecting Light and Moderate Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. Methods We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010–22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. Findings The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20–1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10–2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86–16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64–2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10–10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46–0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19–413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76–121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55–574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79–175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. Conclusions While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers. PMID:24465368

  11. Minimum pricing of alcohol versus volumetric taxation: which policy will reduce heavy consumption without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.

  12. What Can Be Learned from Existing Investigations of Weight-Related Practices and Policies with the Potential to Impact Disparities in US Child-Care Settings? A Narrative Review and Call for Surveillance and Evaluation Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ayers Looby, Anna; Frost, Natasha; Nanney, Marilyn S; Story, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Child-care settings and the combination of policies and regulations under which they operate may reduce or perpetuate disparities in weight-related health, depending on the environmental supports they provide for healthy eating and activity. The objectives of this review are to summarize research on state and local policies germane to weight-related health equity among young children in the United States and on how federal policies and regulations may provide supports for child-care providers serving families with the most limited resources. In addition, a third objective is to comprehensively review studies of whether there are differences in practices and policies within US child-care facilities according to the location or demographics of providers and children. The review found there is growing evidence addressing disparities in the social and physical child-care environments provided for young children, but scientific gaps are present in the current understanding of how resources should best be allocated and policies designed to promote health equity. Additional research is needed to address limitations of prior studies relating to the measurement of supports for weight-related health; complexities of categorizing socioeconomic position, ethnicity/race, and urban and rural areas; exclusion of legally nonlicensed care settings from most research; and the cross-sectional nature of most study designs. There is a particularly great need for the development of strong surveillance systems to allow for better monitoring and evaluation of state policies that may impact weight-related aspects of child-care environments, implementation at the program level, and needed implementation supports. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  14. How will changes in health insurance tax policy and employer health plan contributions affect access to health care and health care costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Buchanan, J L

    To understand how changes in federal taxation of and employer contributions to health insurance benefits affect the decisions of firms to offer insurance, the willingness of households to purchase different health plans, and the resultant health expenditures. Economic policy simulation. Secondary data analysis. A total of 18,343 sampled families (representing 77 million total families throughout the United States) with a working household head from the 1988 Current Population Survey who were not covered by either Medicare, Medicaid, or CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services) insurance. One intervention limits the amounts of tax-free employer contributions to health insurance premiums to 80% of our estimate of the base plan in the market and assumes that employer contributions will also be limited to this maximum. A second intervention eliminates the favorable tax treatment of employer-paid premiums altogether and assumes that employees will pay the full price of insurance. Change in the number of working families offered employment-based insurance, change in insurance plan choice, and change in medical spending. Capping the favorable tax treatment and employer contributions decreases the number of families offered employment-based insurance by approximately 91,000, increases the number of families selecting the least generous insurance plan from 20% under the current situation to 33%, and reduces overall health spending by less than 2%. By eliminating the tax exemption altogether, the number of families offered employment-based insurance decreases by approximately half a million families, the number of families selecting the least generous plan goes from 20% to 40%, and overall spending falls by about $16 billion. Eliminating the tax subsidy and limiting employer-paid contributions to the low-cost plan substantially increases the number of low-income uninsured under a voluntary insurance system, decreases overall spending only

  15. The Institute of Medicine study of dental education: issues affecting prosthodontics. Report of the Educational Policy Subcommittee of the American College of Prosthodontists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In 1993, the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a committee to study dental education and to make recommendations regarding the future of dentistry. The study was prompted by educational and professional concerns: specifically, the number of dental school closures, the high cost of dental education, the size of the dental workforce, and the role of dentistry within medicine and the health care system. In January 1995, the IOM's Committee on the Future of Dental Education concluded "Dental Education at the Crossroads-Challenges and Change," a 345-page report that includes eight policy and strategic principles and presents 22 recommendations. The unabridged text of the strategic principles and recommendations is published at the beginning of this paper. The IOM text notes impressive achievements in dentistry, and the recommendations form a foundation for the assessment of the many crucial issues that face dental education and dentistry today. The IOM report urges each dental school to review its curriculum and individually determine how best to fulfill its missions of education, research, and patient care. As dental education looks to the future, the practice of dentistry will be altered by social, economic, political, and technological developments as our consumers (students and patients) demand professional accountability and effectiveness. In the midst of this call for change, the specialty of prosthodontics is faced with many challenges and opportunities. This article is the response to a request from the American Dental Association (ADA) to address the IOM study on dental education as it affects the specialty and practice of prosthodontics. This article presents the position of the American College of Prosthodontists (ACP); however, some sections have been expanded to provide additional background information.

  16. Jordanian Nurses' involvement in health policy: perceived benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, R F; Foudeh, F N

    2017-03-01

    To examine (1) the level of involvement of Jordanian nurses in health policy development and (2) perceived benefits, barriers and impacts on health outcomes of involvement in health policy process. Lack of nurses' political involvement may result in self-serving policies by policymakers who are in power and passing policies that are less than optimum. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. A convenience sample of 231 nurses was recruited with a response rate of 77%. The instrument of Registered Nurses' Involvement in Health Policies was used in this study. The results revealed that participants were most frequently involved in the health policy activity 'voting for a candidate or a health policy proposal'. The mean scores for involvement of participants as nurses and as citizens were low. The most perceived frequent barrier to involvement in health policy was lack of time. The low rate of Jordanian nurses' involvement in health policy could be explained by the fact that most participants had family roles in addition to work roles, which might leave little time for health policy activities. Lack of mentoring for nurses by nursing leaders could also negatively affect their involvement in health policy development. Results of this study could be baseline information for Jordanian nurse leaders to enhance the level of nurses' involvement in health policy development. Such findings could also add knowledge to the existing literature about nurses' involvement in health policy. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  17. Extreme Poverty Rising, Existing Government Programs Could Do More. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-45. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedlewski, Sheila R.; Giannarelli, Linda; Morton, Joyce; Wheaton, Laura

    This brief examines how decreased program participation has affected poverty since welfare reform, reviewing changes in poverty from 1996-1998 and comparing families' current economic status with a scenario that assumes full participation in government support programs. Data come from the 1997 and 1999 National Surveys of America's Families (NSAF)…

  18. Global financial crisis-driven mutations affecting the transmission mechanism customized to monetary policy strategies. A VAR, SVAR and BVAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Iulian Vasile

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries on the road to euro adoption depending on the monetary policy strategies used by the national central banks (CBs). The scientific construction of the paper is based on three methods: vector autoregressive (VAR), structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) and Bayesian techniques-estimated vector autoregressive (BVAR). The main results have indicated: 1) lack of sim...

  19. Consuming spaces or living places: the competition policy and centres policy dilemma for Main Street planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with the issue of growing tensions in Australian retail planning between centres policy and competition policy. Centres policies, including restrictions on supermarket locations, have long been viewed by many retail planners as key to the maintenance of Main Street viability and vitality. More recently, advocates of competition policy have suggested existing centres policies are anti-competitive, and have argued for a more ‘flexible’ approach to centres development. Against this backdrop, the broad aim of the paper is to explore how more relaxed controls on supermarket locations might affect Main Street viability and vitality. Two town centres are examined, each associated with different degrees of regulation and characterised by different levels of competition. The effects of these differences on the viability and vitality of the respective centres are explored through analysis of the movement patterns of 148 tracked pedestrians, along with various land use and built form factors.

  20. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social......Public and individual support for a policy is affected by how it is designed – that is, how eligibility is determined. This results in universal policies being more popular than contributions-based policies, which in turn enjoy more public support than the selective kind. The literature on welfare...... attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...

  1. The EXIST OIRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Golisano, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, H.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST Optical / Infrared Telescope (OIRT) has been integrated into the EXIST concept design for the determination GRB redshifts on orbit and to preform follow up source identification and studies following the generation of a trigger from the EXIST high energy telescope (HET). The base OIRT main design has been inherited from the NextView OIRT has been operating in low earth orbit since September of 2007 and is currently being used for the acquisition of geospatial data. After reconfiguration of the instrumentation for astrophysical observations the OIRT will have an angular resolution of 0.15" and a 5'×5' field of view and be sensitive to emission in the range of 0.4 $\\mu$m - 2.2 $\\mu$m. Passive cooling of the tertiary, secondary, and primary mirrors will enable observation into the Ks$ band.

  2. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported......The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms...

  3. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing ...

  4. The Role of the Judicial Branch in the Effectiveness of Health Public Policies in the State of Espírito Santo: (NON Existence of Dialogue Between the Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Aguiar Junquilho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental right to health, especially from the 1988 Constitution on, is inserted in the list of social rights that have been going through the process of judicialization. In this context, the present study had as its goal to analyze the (nonexistence of dialogue between the parties involved in the judicialization of health in the state of Espirito Santo. The research was made by the evaluation of the mechanisms currently available to the fulfillment of health public policies set by the constitution. After that, the participation of the Center of Technical Support with the judges in the State of Espirito Santo was also evaluated. A case analysis was  also  conducted  on  the  entered  decision  on  the  Court Injunction  nº  0025675-15.2013.8.08.0000 (100130043811, looking to evaluate how the process of granting the medication took place. Lastly, some instruments that could effectively help in the concretion of the fundamental right to health were suggested. Through these analysis, it was perceived that with the lack of Technical Support and especially in sight of the disability of communication between the Public and the Judicial Branches, many times premature and onerous judgments are made to one of the parties. However, the mechanisms on the New Code of Civil Procedures and the Center of Technical Support for Judges are important instruments that seek to promote cooperation between social actors and that must be used to materialize the fundamental dialogue between the parties.

  5. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  6. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  7. Transnational Communication and Domestic Environmental Policy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Liefferink, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not

  8. Stability, instability and complex behavior in macrodynamic models with policy lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct simple macrodynamic models with policy lag by means of mixed difference and differential equations, and study how lags in policy response affect the macroeconomic (instability. Local dynamics of the prototype model are studied analytically, and the global dynamics of the prototype and the extended models are studied by means of numerical simulations. We show that the government can stabilize the intrinsically unstable economy if the policy lag is sufficiently short, but the system becomes locally unstable when the policy lag is too long. We also show the existence of cycles and complex behavior in some range of the policy lag.

  9. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.

  10. A call for policy action in sub-Saharan Africa to rethink diagnostics for pregnancy affected by sickle cell disease: differential views of medical doctors, parents and adult patients predict value conflicts in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Hurst, Samia

    2014-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only "…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy." The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy.

  11. Background Studies for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  12. Transnational communication and domestic environmental policy learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sietske VEENMAN; Duncan LIEFFERINK

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnatio...

  13. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  14. Do multiquark hadrons exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.; Isgur, N.

    1982-03-08

    The qqq-barq-bar system has been examined by solving the four-particle Schroedinger equation variationally. The main findings are that: (1) qqq-barq-bar bound states normally do not exist, (2) the cryptoexotic 0/sup + +/ sector of this system with KK-bar quantum numbers is probably the only exception to (1) and its bound states can be identified with the S* and delta just below KK-bar threshold, (3) qqq-barq-bar bound states provide a model for the weak binding and color-singlet clustering observed in nuclei, and (4) there is no indication that this system has strong resonances.

  15. Repowering existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steazel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Increased competition among power generation companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performances of older electric generation units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including; environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g.; increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy to use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant option. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the US, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Defeasible Policy Language for Online Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahdi Rohaninezhad; Shahrul Azman Mohd Noah; Shereena Mohd Arif

    2017-01-01

    .... These characteristics of OSNs policies fit to defeasible logic formalism. Thus, we contextualized a defeasible policy language and proposed corresponding ontologies to extend an existing ontology framework on policy control called open digital right language...

  17. A VAR Analysis of Kenya’s Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism; How Does the Central Bank’s REPO Rate Affect the Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C Cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a monetary policy shock on output, prices, and the nominal effective exchange rate for Kenya using data during 1997–2005. Based on techniques commonly used in the vector autoregression literature, the main results suggest that an exogenous increase in the short-term interest rate tends to be followed by a decline in prices and appreciation in the nominal exchange rate, but has insignificant impact on output. Moreover, the paper finds that variations in the sh...

  18. Advocating for schools to provide effective HIV and sexuality education: a case study in how social service organizations working in coalition can (and should) affect sustained policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusky, Jeremy; Tenner, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Advocates believed that to slow an expanding HIV/ AIDS epidemic in Washington, D.C., a local effort could ensure that HIV prevention was brought to scale. Schools were chosen as the focus and a new coalition advocated for the city government to pass new academic standards for health education. HIV and sex education policies had not been revised in more than 12 years and HIV education in D.C. public schools varied greatly in quality. Metro TeenAIDS (MTA), a traditional social service organization with no real history of advocacy work, reached only 10% of D.C. adolescents with critical HIV/AIDS prevention information. Clearly, to make a sustained impact, system change was necessary. After deciding to pursue a campaign focused on updating health education policy and creating standards, MTA convened a variety of reproductive health, adolescent medicine, and other organizations to establish the DC Healthy Youth Coalition. The Coalition used three complementary strategies to achieve campaign goals: mobilizing grassroots community support, involving parents in the discussion, and educating city leaders. By building an alliance of social service organizations and influencing critical public policy, the coalition ensured that new educational standards were passed.

  19. Existence of Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks present Minkowski space as an almost pure mathematical construct, without any explicit restriction on a domain where it is applicable in physics. Meanwhile, its physical meaning cannot but follow the same premises as those which underlies the special relativity theory: motion of free point particles and propagation of electromagnetic waves. However, the common formalism of coordinate transformations between any two inertial frames appears too ponderous to infer the existence of Minkowski space. For this reason, the time dilation and retardation, the contraction of the length along and the spatial invariance across the direction of relative motion of two frames are presented in a coordinate-free manner. This results in the transformation between two frames in the form of relationships between the time moments and the components of the position vector of a given event, along and across the directions of the frames' motion. The obtained transformation rules for the components of the position ve...

  20. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  1. A comparison of policies and guidelines related to multimorbidity in the UK, Australia and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraratne, Nadeeka K; Pathirathna, Kgrv; Harrison, Christopher; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2018-01-01

    Increased rates of multimorbidity, evident in developed and developing countries, should be addressed by health policy. The aim of this study was to compare policies and guidelines related to multimorbidity in primary healthcare in countries with different health systems, to identify initiatives, gaps and opportunities for further improvement. We conducted a content analysis of UK, Australian and Sri Lankan policy documents and guidelines published between 2006 and 2017, in electronic databases, references and government repositories, tabulating data extracted for content, implementation plans, gaps and opportunities for development. Overall, 38 of the 56 identified documents explicitly or implicitly addressed multimorbidity or its prevention. The UK had four policy documents and guidelines specifically on multimorbidity. Australia and Sri Lanka lacked specific policies on multimorbidity, but policies did address chronic conditions and non-communicable diseases. Important differences exist in how national policies seek to address multimorbidity. Policy implementation, how this affects quality of care and outcomes, and the role of primary care should be examined.

  2. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  3. Patching vs Packaging in Policy Formulation: Assessing Policy Portfolio Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about policy mixes is at the forefront of current research work in the policy sciences and raises many significant questions with respect to policy tools and instruments, processes of policy formulation, and the evolution of tool choices over time. Not least among these is how to assess the potential for multiple policy tools to achieve policy goals in an efficient and effective way. Previous conceptual work on policy mixes has highlighted evaluative criteria such as "consistency" (the ability of multiple policy tools to reinforce rather than undermine each other in the pursuit of individual policy goals, "coherence" (or the ability of multiple policy goals to co-exist with each other in a logical fashion, and "congruence" (or the ability of multiple goals and instruments to work together in a uni-directional or mutually supportive fashion as important design principles and measures of optimality in policy mixes. And previous empirical work on the evolution of existing policy mixes has highlighted how these three criteria are often lacking in mixes which have evolved over time as well as those which have otherwise been consciously designed. This article revisits this early design work in order to more clearly assess the reasons why many existing policy mixes are sub-optimal and the consequences this has for thinking about policy formulation processes and the practices of policy design.

  4. Mauriac syndrome still exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Joana; Martins, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Marques, Olinda; Antunes, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Mauriac syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). It is related to low insulin concentrations and is less common since longer-acting insulins became available. It is characterized by hepatomegaly, growth and puberty delay, and the presence of elevated transaminases and serum lipids. The aim of this study was to describe the patients from a pediatric diabetic population that fulfill the criteria of MS. A retrospective analysis of the pediatric diabetic population with diagnostic criteria of MS currently followed at Hospital de Braga, was performed. From a population of 91 patients with DM1 18 years, 6 patients with the criteria for MS were identified: 5 girls, and 1 boy. The age at presentation was 13-17 years, with a minimum interval between DM1 diagnosis and MS criteria of 4 years. All the patients were prescribed intensive insulin therapy (median daily insulin dose: 0.88 U/kg). All had a previous history of poor glycemic control before the diagnosis of MS with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 8.8 and 12.9%. Increase of hepatic enzymes was present in all the patients; 4 of them had associated hepatomegaly. All the girls presented puberty delay and cushingoid features. None of the patients presented short stature and 5 of them presented mixed dyslipidemia. Although MS is an ancient entity described in DM1, it still exists, particularly in adolescent females. Being aware of MS is of extreme importance since most of the clinical features are reversible with better glycemic control. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  6. Navy Shipbuilding: Opportunities Exist to Improve Practices Affecting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Organization for Standardization’s ISO 9001 (quality), 14001 (environmental), and 18001 (occupational health and safety) series of management systems...10In particular, ISO 9001 certification is... ISO 9000 quality management standards. Page 52 GAO-14-122 Navy Shipbuilding commercial shipbuilders we visited did not report having

  7. "Welfare queens" and "teen moms": how the social construction of fertile women impacts unintended pregnancy prevention policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, E Angel; Rashid, Moira

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, unintended pregnancy is a serious health, social, and economic concern. However, the existing prevention policies have proven ineffective at decreasing the rate of unintended pregnancy at a national level. This lack of effective national prevention policy is better understood when viewed through the lens of a policy theory that incorporates an understanding of social construction and its effects on policy development. Through the application of one such policy theory, this article explores how the social construction of fertile women in the United States affects previous and recently enacted unintended pregnancy prevention policies.

  8. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  9. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  10. Social Policy Report, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Lonnie, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    This document is comprised of the four 2002 issues of a publication providing a forum for scholarly reviews and discussion of developmental research and implications for social policies affecting children. The topics featured in each of the issues are: (1) "The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Children" (Pamela A. Morris); (2) "At What Age…

  11. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  12. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret; Diderichsen, Finn; Dahl, Espen; Barr, Ben; Nylén, Lotta; Chen, Wen-Hao; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Clayton, Stephen; Uppal, Sharanjit

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II.

  13. Climate Policy Tracker for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Vieweg, M.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The Climate Policy Tracker for the EU is a comprehensive review of policies of EU Member States that affect greenhouse gas emissions. It provides an overview of the policy situation of each Member State broken down by sector and policy area. In addition, it provides a rating to measure the impact of these climate policies via 83 indicators. The indicators measure whether policies directed at emission reduction are in place, and if counterproductive policies and barriers for emission reduction are adequately removed.

  14. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings...

  15. The innovation effects of environmental policies. Linking policies, companies and innovations in the Nordic pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivimaa, P.

    2008-07-01

    rarer. Recently, internationalisation and consolidation of companies, globalising paper markets, and decreasing R and D investments have transformed the innovation context in this sector. The findings of the thesis show that the ways in which environmental policies influence innovations can be divided into six categories: responsive effect, anticipatory effect, two-way effect, indirect effect, negative effect and no influence. Variations in how environmental policies affect innovations are explained by the heterogeneity of public policy, the variety of ways in which organisations respond to environmental policies, and changes and inertia in market conditions and technological systems. Thus, factors related to policies, organisations, markets and technological systems have conditioned the innovation effects of environmental policies in the Nordic pulp and paper industry. Environmental policies alert companies to the environmental improvements required. The study emphasises the importance of acknowledging organisational variation in policy studies. Environmental policies have two important roles from an innovation perspective: to facilitate innovation within dominant technological systems, and also to keep options open for other innovations to emerge outside the boundaries of the existing systems. Evaluations of current policies and policy system are needed to identify inconsistent policies and potential barriers to innovation. From an innovation perspective, for example, policies specifying particular technologies to be used, not allowing testing of innovations and having too lax requirements may create innovation barriers. Thus new and revised environmental policies should incorporate flexibility to alternative solutions and should be foreseeable, consistent with other policies and to a degree binding to best support innovation by enhancing markets for environmentally improved products and technologies

  16. Existence and Detection of Fireballs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An attempt is made to analyze critically the experimental proofs indicating the existence of fireballs. Some ideas are presented on methods of the...properties of fireballs if their existence will be checked by other methods. (Author)

  17. Values in Health Policy - A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Lida; Akbari Sari, Ali; Yazdani, Shahram

    2016-08-17

    Despite the significant role "values" play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of "values" and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of "value in health policy-making" were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. We identified eight major attributes of "value in health policy-making": ideological origin, affect one's choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one's interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra theoretical support to decision-makers in their policy-making process, to help

  18. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  19. Kierkegaardovo pojetí existence

    OpenAIRE

    Janatová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Kierkegaard's conception of existence". There are both the life of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and his philosophy discussed. The issue of human existence is analysed with its main three stages which are focused on aesthetics, ethics and religion. These stages of existence are at first described and afterwards compared with each other. The aesthetic represents the first stage of life and the religious stage is considered to be the highest aim o...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1157 - Emission standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1157 Emission standards for existing sources. (a... percent. (b) Hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (1) No owner or operator of an existing affected plant shall cause or allow to be discharged into the atmosphere from the affected plant any gases that contain...

  1. Rehabilitation of Existing Structures Subjected to Extreme Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of existing structures under extreme actions, general and specific rehabilitation solutions detailed for reinforced concrete and masonry structures. Rehabilitation of different types of existing structures are described: a reinforced concrete framed structure presenting major detailing vulnerabilities at seismic actions; an apartment house affected by an explosion; two masonry buildings affected by a recent earthquake.

  2. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  3. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  4. Against all policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungusia, Eliezeri; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    landscapes are unknown. This case illustrates how existing forest and land policies and practices of implementation discourage landscape level forest conservation and how a current rush for ‘unused’ village land areas for conservation, agribusiness or forest plantations implies an incentive for villages...

  5. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  6. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  7. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  8. Compromising Composition: Articulating Quality and Practice in Distance Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Teena A. M.

    Policies exist in every aspect of people's lives from the landlord's policy on pets to the government's policy on literacy. As such, policy becomes the ideal place to begin to examine the articulation of distance education because policy inevitably marks the site where different kinds of political discourses and social practices intersect. By…

  9. ROLE OF DEPOSIT POLICY FOR UKRAINIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides

  10. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  11. Existence of mesons after deconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Brau (Fabian); F. Buisseret

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the possibility for a quark-antiquark pair to form a bound state at temperatures higher than the critical one ($T>T_c$), thus after deconfinement. Our main goal is to find analytical criteria constraining the existence of such mesons. Our formalism relies on a Schrödinger

  12. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  13. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  14. The life cycle of the policy for preventing road accidents: an empirical example of the policy for reducing drunk driving crashes in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variation of the effect of preventive policy on reducing traffic accidents. The life cycle theory was introduced to describe the safety effect of the intervening policy over time. Poisson regression models with dummy-based and time-based specifications were used to evaluate the effect of an intervening policy over an observation period following its implementation. The policy of "Criminal sanction for drunk driving (CSFDD)" in Taipei city was evaluated as an empirical example to determine whether the temporal variation of safety effect happened to the CSFDD policy. The study results showed that alcohol consumption, arresting the drunk driving offenders, and the implementation of the CSFDD were the significant factors affecting the rate of occurrence of fatal accidents involving drunk driving. The effect of the CSFDD policy appeared to be a rapid initial response followed by a lower rate of decay. The existence of the life cycle implies that employing different observation periods following the implementation of a specific policy to evaluate its performance may obtain different effects. The results of this study are crucial for policy evaluation. The effects of safety policy should be carefully interpreted in order to avoid misleading the relevant authorities in coming to the wrong conclusions and as such make the wrong decisions. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures...... on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating......Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  16. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  17. The Market for Policy Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Jo; Squicciarini, Mara; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of policy communication by aid agencies, NGOs and intergovernmental organizations and we show how the need for fundraising affects the policy communication strategy of these organizations. To attract more funds, organizations may bias their communication. The bias depends on the ex ante beliefs of donors and on mass media reporting.

  18. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  19. State-level immigration and immigrant-focused policies as drivers of Latino health disparities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Flake, Morgan; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-04-07

    There has been a great deal of state-level legislative activity focused on immigration and immigrants over the past decade in the United States. Some policies aim to improve access to education, transportation, benefits, and additional services while others constrain such access. From a social determinants of health perspective, social and economic policies are intrinsically health policies, but research on the relationship between state-level immigration-related policies and Latino health remains scarce. This paper summarizes the existing evidence about the range of state-level immigration policies that affect Latino health, indicates conceptually plausible but under-explored relationships between policy domains and Latino health, traces the mechanisms through which immigration policies might shape Latino health, and points to key areas for future research. We examined peer-reviewed publications from 1986 to 2016 and assessed 838 based on inclusion criteria; 40 were included for final review. These 40 articles identified four pathways through which state-level immigration policies may influence Latino health: through stress related to structural racism; by affecting access to beneficial social institutions, particularly education; by affecting access to healthcare and related services; and through constraining access to material conditions such as food, wages, working conditions, and housing. Our review demonstrates that the field of immigration policy and health is currently dominated by a "one-policy, one-level, one-outcome" approach. We argue that pursuing multi-sectoral, multi-level, and multi-outcome research will strengthen and advance the existing evidence base on immigration policy and Latino health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  1. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  2. Human Rights Being and Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Etexeberria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontological perspective in the approach to human rights is subject to different traps,against which measures must be taken. But it also faces us to the challenge of precisely specifying what they are and how are they to be based. In this paper we try to face this challenge, paying attention to avoid the traps above mentioned. The first part of it is focused on being-existence of human rights,trying to specify critically their «places»: social reality, laws and, in a founding sense, human dignity.The second part takes the category being-essence as reference, asking about the kind of being of humanrights in their different types. This «kind» will show itself densely mediated by cultural diversity andtemporality-historicity. What is really pretended with this reflection is to contribute to the cause of thesocial existence of human rights.

  3. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  4. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  5. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  6. Smoking Policies of Secondary Schools in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashak, Nancy E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Smoking policies and programs of accredited secondary schools in Arizona were analyzed to discover the existence of written smoking policies, how students, faculty, and visitors were informed of the policy, the extent to which smoking was permitted on school grounds, availability of smoking cessation programs and the inclusion of health education…

  7. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about

  8. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  9. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  10. Climate adaptation approaches and key policy characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vij, Sumit; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Uzzaman, Arfan; Bhadwal, Suruchi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Gioli, Giovanna; Groot, Annemarie; Mallick, Dwijen; Regmi, Bimal; Saeed, Basharat Ahmed; Ishaq, Sultan; Thapa, Bhuwan; Werners, Saskia E.; Wester, Philippus

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses and assesses how existing policies and approaches in South Asia consider long-term climate change adaptation. Presently, it is unclear what approaches are used in the existing policies to cope with the future climatic changes. Our research framework consists of two components.

  11. Food environment and policies in private schools in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    School food policies and services have the potential to influence the food practices and eating behaviours of adolescents which in turn may affect their lifestyles and health in adulthood. The aim of this qualitative investigation was to describe the opinions of adolescents, their parents, nutrition educators and school principals about the prevailing food environment and canteen policies in Indian schools. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private schools in Kolkata, India participated in semi-structured interviews. The interview questions were primarily based on the existing literature related to school food environments and policies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and assessed thematically. Throughout the 52 interviews, a number of inadequacies of the school food environment and policies were revealed. These included the absence of written food policies, the widespread supply of unhealthy foods, inadequate provision of healthy foods, misleading messages about food communicated by school authorities, lack of cleanliness in the school canteen and the high cost of canteen food. Current school food environments do not appear to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Therefore, it is important to upgrade the quality of food services in Indian schools through adoption of healthy eating policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Turbulence: does energy cascade exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Josserand, Christophe; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber $k_{1}$ to $k_{2}$ than from $k_{1}$ to $k'_{2}$ larger than $k_{2}$.

  13. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  14. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  15. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  16. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  17. Rethinking Anticircumvention's Interoperability Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Perzanowski, Aaron K.

    2008-01-01

    Interoperability is widely touted for its ability to spur incremental innovation, increase competition and consumer choice, and decrease barriers to accessibility. In light of these attributes, intellectual property law generally permits follow-on innovators to create products that interoperate with existing systems, even without permission. The anticircumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) represent a troubling departure from this policy, resulting in patent-lik...

  18. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected environme......Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected...... environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  19. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  20. EXIST OIRT Camera and Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Woodgate, B.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST mission includes a 1.1m infrared and visible telescope which provides the capability to locate, identify, and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. To allow rapid identification and spectroscopic follow up, the instruments will provide wide band imaging, covering the full error circle of the Gamma Ray Telescope (GRT), low spectral resolution slitless spectroscopy, and high resolution integral field spectroscopy. The integral field unit will have a small field of view of 2" x 2" to study diffuse objects, e.g. GRB host galaxies. The instrumentation capabilities will allow this telescope quickly identify the afterglow, measure its brightness curves, redshift, measure spectral characteristics of the GRBs, and measure absorption spectra of the intervening intergalactic medium. With this instrument, high redshift GRBs become important tools for observing the processes through which the universe is ionized.

  1. Why do interstellar grains exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seab, C. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included.

  2. Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

  3. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  4. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  5. Does the mental lexicon exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the central and mostintriguing components of language processing to researchers is the mentallexicon. The term was used for the first time by Ann Triesman in 1961 and westill do not have clear answers on how it is structured and how muchinformation it contains, or even if there is something to be called a mentallexicon. For some time, mental lexicon has been compared to a mental dictionaryboth storing and organizing word knowledge; however, they are surely differentin structure and quantity/quality of information. Neuroimaging studies havealso tried to bring contributions to these questions. Some researchers believethat there are many lexicons, one for each level of stored information (ULLMAN,2007: orthographic, phonological, semantic and syntactic lexicons. Another group of researchers (MCCLELLAND;ROGERS, 2003; SEIDENBERG, 1997, etc. postulates the existence of only onelexicon where all information levels are integrated. Recently, a new audaciousproposal has been done by Elman (2009, the inexistence of a mental lexicon. Inthis paper, we discuss the different views of mental lexicon structure andcontent. We try to proceed on the discussion of Elman’s new proposal andconfront it to data obtained by behavioral, neuroimaging and computationalstudies.

  6. Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer in Comparative Welfare State Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    witnessing a growing interest in questions about interdependencies and policy diffusion between countries. In this article, we provide a structured overview of the state of the art in the policy diffusion and transfer literature that deals specifically with social policy. We present and critically evaluate...... existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...... pioneering studies to the latest findings. Against this background we point out what we believe to be promising avenues for future research. We focus on five areas: theoretical work on the mechanisms underlying diffusion and transfer; methodological approaches; the impact of domestic institutions and policy...

  7. Feeding policy protects patients' rights, decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, D

    1985-06-01

    In adopting a policy to guide patients and care givers in treatment decisions, the Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm, Davenport, IA, have taken an important step toward resolving issues related to force-feeding. The policy enables residents of Kahl Home for the Aged and Infirm to discuss their future health care with relatives and physicians while they are competent. It also establishes guidelines concerning the insertion of feeding tubes and provides for periodic evaluation of residents' feeding needs. Formulating such a policy, of course, requires consideration of the ethical assumptions underlying decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining therapy. It requires an understanding of the difference between a diminished capacity to pursue life's ends and the complete inability to do so when a person is permanently comatose. this difference affects the decision as to whether it is time to allow one to die--a decision that should precede the medical decision to withhold or withdraw treatment. For example, to present as an option the removal of feeding tubes and intravenous equipment when a patient is brain dead is poor medicine and bad ethics. The patient is dead; thus no choice exists whether to end treatment. Despite objections to decision making based on quality-of-life criteria, this concept--when related to a person's ability to pursue life's temporal goals--is critical to good decision making and allows decision makers to avoid arbitrary judgments in determining when it is time to let a person die.

  8. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Shams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the significant role “values” play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of “values” and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of “value in health policy-making” were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results We identified eight major attributes of “value in health policy-making”: ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra

  9. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Lida; Akbari Sari, Ali; Yazdani, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the significant role "values" play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of "values" and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods: An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of "value in health policy-making" were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results: We identified eight major attributes of "value in health policy-making": ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion: Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra theoretical support to decision

  10. Energy Efficiency in the North American Existing Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a new assessment of the techno-economic and policy-related efficiency improvement potential in the North American building stock conducted as part of a wider appraisal of existing buildings in member states of the International Energy Agency. It summarizes results and provides insights into the lessons learned through a broader global review of best practice to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings. At this time, the report is limited to the USA because of the large size of its buildings market. At a later date, a more complete review may include some details about policies and programs in Canada. If resources are available an additional comprehensive review of Canada and Mexico may be performed in the future.

  11. Education policy and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  12. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  13. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  14. Impacts of energy policies on housing and metropolitan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, M.C.

    1979-03-01

    To examine the impact of Federal energy policies on the structure and growth of urban areas, a comprehensive evaluation instrument consisting of a set of urban analysis models is needed. Existing and proposed Federal policies will affect the distribution and marketing of energy, the production and distribution of energy within urban areas, the introduction of new technologies, conservation, and the price of energy. Such changes are already affecting housing, transportation, the urban tax base, and the cost of urban services. This research proposal constructs a comprehensive evaluation instrument from existing models. An Energyflows model calculates production, employment, and income change. Housing and Transport models use various forms of regression analysis to study the impact of energy policies on these segments of the economy. Inputs from the Energyflows and Housing models are used to evaluate changes in the fiscal conditions of urban governments through a Government model. These changes, along with the ones produced by Housing and Transport, are brought together in the Landuse model. The source of each model, modifications necessary for its use in the comprehensive evaluation, and the costs of these modifications are all discussed. The proposal contains tables, mathematical discussions, technical notes, a literature review, a bibliography, and appendices.

  15. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  16. New Approaches for Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ADAM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the economic turmoil started in 2007, there is a dispute if the monetary policy implies radical changes or just a rethinking of details regarding the main framework of the monetary policy strategy. Therefore, the actual debates that I have analyzed in the article take into account, among others, the relationship of monetary policy with the one of financial stability, the analyze if the monetary policy should lean against credit bubbles or just clean after their explosion (Lean vs. Clean debate, the presence of nonlinearities in economy. Thus, monetary economy becomes more interesting and the economists need to think about a wider range of monetary policy problems than existed before.

  17. What relation exists between CSR and longevity of firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Michel SAHUT; Boulerne, Sandrine; MILI, MEDHI; Teulon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The relation between company longevity and its performance is undeniable; however the relationship between sustainability and performance remains the subject of multiple studies which seem to confirm a positive link. But what type of relationship exists between a firm’s longevity and sustainability management? In this paper, we demonstrate that the adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles explains this link. Therefore, sustainable development policies can create a rampart ...

  18. Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demaree

    2006-01-01

    This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

  19. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  20. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend...

  1. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  2. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.

  3. Review and Prospect of BIM Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingsheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yutao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Anmin

    2017-10-01

    In the process of architectural design, construction, operation and maintenance, the problem of inefficiency and inaccuracy in information application and exchange has caused substantial waste of resources and risk in construction industry. Building Information Management provides an opportunity to address the issue. Building information modelling (BIM) has been increasingly applied in design, construction and other information management in China as its important role in reducing engineering changes, improving engineering quality, shortening project duration, saving project cost, enhancing information sharing among the participants many others. As an integration of process and product, its development and implementation need government regulation to enhance its applications effect and standardize its adoption and implementation. Especially, the government guidance affects the application and development of new technology to a great extent in China. However, relevant policy development falls behind the rapid development of its application in practice in China, which has led to many problems in construction practice. In order to develop effective BIM policy for China, this paper conducted a comprehensive review about existing BIM policy in China by analysing its status and problems, comparing it with the corresponding policy in developed countries such as the USA and UK. The expected policy development direction is also discussed and proposed.

  4. Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With earthshaking and heartbreaking trends in African capital flight provided by a new database, this paper complements existing literature by answering some key policy questions on the feasibility of and timeframe for policy harmonization in the battle against the economic scourge. The goal of the paper is to study beta-convergence of capital flight across a set of 37 African countries in the period 1980-2010 and to discuss the policy implications. Three main findings are established. (1 African countries with low capital flight rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates, implying the feasibility ofpolicy harmonization towards fighting capital flight. (2 Petroleum-exporting and conflict-affected countries significantly play out in absolute and conditional convergences respectively. (3 Regardless of fundamental characteristics, a genuine timeframe for harmonizing policies is within a horizon of 6 to 13 years. Inother words, full (100% convergence within the specifiedhorizon is an indication that policies and regulations can be enforced without distinction of nationality or locality.

  5. Individual, social, and environmental factors associated with support for smoke-free housing policies among subsidized multiunit housing tenants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Ferketich, Amy K; Klein, Elizabeth G; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Pirie, Phyllis

    2013-06-01

    Mandatory smoke-free policies in subsidized, multiunit housing (MUH) may decrease secondhand smoke exposure in households with the highest rates of exposure. Ideally, policies should be based on a strong understanding of factors affecting support for smoke-free policies in the target population to maximize effectiveness. A face-to-face survey was conducted from August to October 2011 using a stratified random sample of private subsidized housing units in Columbus, OH, without an existing smoke-free policy (n = 301, 64% response rate). Lease holders were asked to report individual, social, and environmental factors hypothesized to be related to support for smoke-free policies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with policy support. Most tenants supported smoke-free policies in common areas (82.7%), half supported policies inside units (54.5%), and one third supported a ban outside the building (36.3%). Support for smoke-free policies in units and outdoors was more common among nonsmokers than smokers (71.5% vs. 35.7%, p social, but no environmental, factors were independently associated with policy support. Smokers who intended to quit within 6 months or less were more likely than other smokers to support in-unit policies (45.3% vs. 21.1%; p = .003). More than half of subsidized MUH tenants supported smoke-free policies inside their units. Strategies to address individual- and social-level barriers to behavior change should be implemented in parallel with smoke-free policies. Policies should be evaluated with objective measures to determine their effectiveness.

  6. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, August 1-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1979-11-01

    The NCSL geothermal policy project continued with initiating geothermal studies in new project states and furthering policy development in existing states. Activities of the project staff are reviewed. (MHR)

  7. Meet the local policy workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB

    2017-01-01

    Reporting on an interview and observation based study in Danish municipalities, this article deals with local policy workers, and takes departure in the great variation we observed in implementation of centrally issued health promotion guidelines. We present five types of local policy workers, each...... of whom we found typified a specific way of reasoning and implementing the guidelines. This typology illustrates the diversity found within a group of local policy workers, and helps explain the variability reported in most studies on policy/guideline implementation. On the level of individuals, variation...... in the same positions receiving the same set of guidelines implement them differently, and suggest that local policy workers’ professionally related experiences affect the frames in which they translate the guidelines and decide upon the strategies of implementation. As such, this article illustrates...

  8. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy ñ expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.  

  9. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  10. Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social Justice: A Policy Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung

    2011-01-01

    Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social…

  11. Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A. Radin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of policy analysis that exists in the 21st century is quite different from that found earlier phases. The world of the 1960s that gave rise to this field in the US often seems unrelated to the world we experience today. These shifts have occurred as a result of a range of developments – technological changes, changes in the structure and processes of government both internally and globally, new expectations about accountability and transparency, economic and fiscal problems, and increased political and ideological conflict.It is clear globalization has had a significant impact on the field. Shifts in the type of decisionmaking also have created challenges for policy analysts since analysts are now clearly in every nook and cranny in the decisionmaking world. Thus it is relevant to look at the work that they do, the skills that they require, and the background experience that is relevant to them.

  12. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...... affects and assemblages produce subjective feelings and emotions (Pile 2009) Recently, urban experience designs and events aim at evoking affects through affects and assemblages. A Danish example is the Carlsberg city in Copenhagen another is The High line in Chelsea, New York (Samson 2011). Thus...

  13. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and Departments to formulate and/or reformulate their policies. One such policy is the Wildlife Policy, formulated by the Wildlife Division in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Some policies affect community-based wildlife management (CWM) ...

  14. Children and the Industrial Revolution: Changes in Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents four lessons focusing on the laws, institutions, programs, and policies affecting students as minors, the shifts in the policies toward children in industrial societies, examining the changing policies using primary and secondary sources, and forming arguments on the policies using historical evidence. Describes an additional comparative…

  15. The Principle(s) of Co-existence in the Market for GMOs in Europe: Social, Economic and Legal Avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    The European policy of co-existence for GMOs follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of co-existence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at

  16. Evolving research misconduct policies and their significance for physical scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James J.; Kerch, Helen M.

    2000-03-01

    Scientific misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts, data or ideas; some institutions in the United States have expanded this concept to include "other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice." It is the absence of this OSD clause that distinguishes scientific misconduct policies of the past from the "research misconduct" policies that should be the basis of future federal policy in this area. This paper introduces a standard for judging whether an action should be considered research misconduct as distinguished from scientific misconduct: by this standard, research misconduct must involve activities unique to the practice of science and must have the potential to negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of scientific misconduct is uncertain (only the NIH and the NSF keep formal records), the costs are high in terms of the integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Existing scientific misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at all. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of scientific misconduct. As a consequence, such allegations have been adjudicated in federal courts, rather than judged by scientific peers. The federal government is now establishing a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of which agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject of scientific misconduct allegations, must none! theless become active in the

  17. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  18. Control Structures and Payout Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the payout policies of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.It complements the existing literature by analyzing the trends in both dividends and total payouts (including share repurchases).In a dynamic panel data regression setting, we relate target

  19. Agricultural intensification and policy interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Traore, Bouba; Bayoko, Arouna; Giller, Ken E.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing how livelihoods in rural sub-Saharan Africa might change given future trends in socio-economic and biophysical conditions helps to identify and direct effective efforts towards poverty reduction. Based on existing literature, hypothetical changes in farmer practices and policy

  20. Philippines Urbanization Review Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality,...

  1. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  2. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language...

  3. Household Credit and Saving: Does Policy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys the existing literature on the determinants of household savings and credit in developing countries and examines the ways in which macro-level policies might impact on household financial behaviour.

  4. On the concept of migration policy

    OpenAIRE

    DZHANSARAYEVA RIMA YERENATOVNA; MALIKOVA SHOLPAN BALTABEKOVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes existing in the different sources of non-fiction variety of interpretations of the term “migration policy”. The variety of approaches to the concept of “politics” and “the migration process” gives rise to different points of view on the vision of migration policy. Contradictions are clearly seen in the difference in definitions of migration policy. Migration policy a purposeful activity of political institutions, aimed at streamlining and regulation of migration processes...

  5. The international dimension of drug policy reform in Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Hoffmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    .... A growing body of research addresses drug policy reform in Uruguay. However, existing studies have almost completely elided its international dimension, treating the process as exclusively domestic phenomenon...

  6. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Macias, José Brambila

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating and a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Within...

  7. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  8. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...... to binational marriages, from coming-of-age to healing and religious rituals, the book also registers the tremendous impact of state officials, laws, and policies on migrant experience. Together these essays paint an especially vivid portrait of new forms of kinship at a time of both intense mobility and ever...

  9. The Development of a Multisource and a Systematized Database for Economic and Policy Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ec. Filippo Oropallo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ISTAT is involved in various EU projects with the objective of "supporting the Lisbon objectives, EU governance and the process of national policy coverage with the best EU-wide and national policy impact and evaluation analyses". Existing knowledge on policy impact analyses is approximate. The "facts" on the impact of policies are charted only at the aggregate level and with a high degree of approximation. Macro indicators have well-known pitfalls and drawbacks. Understanding how policies affect economic performance and developing better indicators to gauge their effects is central to endow the EU with a set of efficient and fair policies. The gap in European knowledge and capacity for Policy Impact Analysis is patent. The DIECOFIS EU-FP5 project has taken up the challenge of reducing this gap in the field of taxation. Results have been quite encouraging and have open new vistas for future work. Particularly notable has been the development of a system of micro-founded indicators, based on factuals and counterfactuals, estimated through micro-simulation models. This has led to the current utilization of such a tool in the ex-ante microsimulation of the effects of several reforms of corporate taxation

  10. Advertisement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  11. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Mélanie Bourassa; Simoens, Steven; Giuffrida, Antonio

    2004-07-16

    BACKGROUND: In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. METHODS: Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. RESULTS: OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. CONCLUSIONS: Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians. As this is likely to

  12. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  13. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  14. Can social inclusion policies reduce health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa?--A rapid policy appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G

    2009-08-01

    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating

  15. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition......Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration...

  16. How College Affects Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.; Sina, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how college affects student athletes. Research cited includes studies using theories of student development and results from the National Study on Student Learning that describe the desired outcomes of college for student athletes. Discusses implications for policies and practices that address the critical needs of student athletes.…

  17. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  18. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  19. National health policy: back to the future. Ad Hoc Committee on National Health Policy American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    After an extensive review of the literature and discussion of both national and state proposed health plans, the committee arrived at the following conclusions: 1. The issues that prompted development of the 1971 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA) Position Statement on National Health Care have not been resolved or altered. 2. Few significant national health plans or policies are being supported by the Bush Administration other than managed-care plans. 3. A national health policy will be driven by the development of state health policies and plans. 4. Implementation of national or state health plans will affect both professions at all service provision sites, including public schools. 5. Five general models apply to all existing or proposed national and state health policies or plans: single payer (e.g., a Canadian-style plan) minimum basic benefits ("play or pay") expanded Medicare or Medicaid benefits rationed healthcare (e.g., Oregon plan) managed care (e.g., health maintenance organizations) 6. There will be continued efforts to eliminate Medicaid mandates. 7. ASHA needs to advocate for the inclusion of rehabilitative services as basic rather than optional services in all health plans. 8. ASHA must advocate for adequate access to quality care regardless of healthcare or education provider setting.

  20. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.3 Investment policies. A Federal credit union's board of directors must establish...

  1. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  2. [Some complementary observations on Portuguese emigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H

    1990-01-01

    This is a review of factors affecting Portuguese emigration policy. Factors limiting emigration are identified as the policies of countries of destination, travel costs, illiteracy, and military service obligations in Portugal. The author also examines the extent of illegal migration from Portugal to the United States and Brazil.

  3. Substance Abuse Policy. ERIC Digest, Number 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    Substance abuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse. A districtwide substance abuse policy makes a public statement that…

  4. Natalist Policies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopoo, Leonard M.; Raissian, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective reviews the policies that affect the fertility of American women, both policies designed to alter fertility intentionally as well as those that change childbearing unintentionally. Becker's seminal work on the economics of fertility serves as the theoretical foundation for this literature. After describing Becker's economic…

  5. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are mainly transmitted through the banking system, any policy that lacks the necessary ingredients that affect ... monetary policy on economic development of Nigeria between the pre-deregulated and post-deregulated ... macroeconomic variables such as domestic prices, employment, balance of payment equilibrium and ...

  6. Are changes in Australian national primary healthcare policy likely to promote or impede equity of access? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Fran; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2017-07-01

    Significant changes have occurred in Australia's national primary healthcare (PHC) policy over the last decade, but little assessment has been made of implications for equity. This research aimed to identify key recent changes in national PHC policy and assess implications for equity of access to PHC. Academic literature was reviewed to identify issues affecting equity of access in national PHC policy, and grey literature was also reviewed to identify significant policy changes during 2005-16 with implications for equitable access. Equity implications of four areas of policy change, set against the existing Medicare system, were assessed. It was found that Medicare supports equitable access to general practice, but there is a risk of reduced equity under current policy settings. Four changes in PHC policy were selected as having particular implications for equity of access and these were assessed as follows: increased involvement of private health insurance presents risks for equity; equity implications of new models of coordinated care are unclear; and regional primary health organisations and current policy on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health have potential equity benefits, but these will depend on further implementation.

  7. The shame of existing: an extreme form of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents 'the shame of existing' as a form of shame that is deeper and more extensive than those customarily encountered. 'The shame of existing' is defined as shame about existing as we are and especially at the fact that we are. It is accompanied by merciless and total rejection of the subject's self and by feelings of extreme worthlessness and inferiority coupled with the all-pervasive conviction that it would be better not to exist. On the basis of clinical material, consideration is given to the specific transference and countertransference aspects of analyses in which the shame of existing constitutes an important part of the patient's pathology. Disturbance of handling and holding by the primary objects right from birth is suggested as the earliest developmental basis of the shame of existing. This disturbance is attributed to hate and rejection of the infant by the primary objects and to the infant's not being touched emotionally and physically and not having its right to exist acknowledged. The paper begins with an introduction to shame as an affect and as a concept in psychoanalytic theory. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. What is Policy, Social Policy and Social Policy Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, Jose; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza; Farhad Nezhad Haj Ali, Irani

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Today we are experiencing good improvements in policy, social policy and policy making. A lot of good researches have been done on these issues and helped for the development of policy. The contributions of university professors, politicians and elites cannot be considered low. And the academic papers are deployed to offer from the major theoretical and methodological approaches and empirical research. To put in their proper context the important contributions of the p...

  9. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  10. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  11. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  12. Factors that Affect Farmers’ Behaviors on Participating in Policy-Oriented Agricultural Insurance in the Pilot Area - A Case of Insurance on Apple in Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-qiao

    2011-01-01

    Taking Luochuan County of Shaanxi Province as an example ,the factors that affect farmers’ behaviors on participating in insurance is analyzed and evaluated according to the questionnaires and by selecting the indexes covering household features, agricultural production risks, the attitudes of rural households towards risks and the transaction cost of participating insurance and by using Logistic regression model. The results show that comparing with insurance company, the government has la...

  13. Stabilization Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the least stable Canadian industries with respect to product prices, the volume of production of many products, and the net incomes received by farmers. Each of these aspects of instability has negative impacts on the income and financial security of farmers as well as on the rest of the economy. Price instability irritates many consumers. Variation in volume of output affects employment levels and unit costs in those industries handling agricultural products. Variation ...

  14. Assessing Segregation under a New Generation of Controlled Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Student assignment policies (SAPs) in K-12 schools can either reproduce or help ameliorate existing inequality. Some districts are trying to maintain voluntarily adopted integration policies despite the Supreme Court's recent 2007 decision in "Parents Involved," which prohibited most race-conscious school choice policies that were…

  15. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  16. Interest Rate Policy, Inflation and Economic Growth: A Policy Evaluation of Indonesia, 1969-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswardono Sardjono Permono

    2004-09-01

    Basically, either PAKJUN or PAKTO was not policies in which urgently implemented in Indonesia. Those financial deregulations were not supported by the existence of deregulation on real sectors, so that the financial deregulations were not effective to achieve their goals.

  17. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  18. Implementation of pro-poor exemption policy in Tanzania: policy versus reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idd, Aisha; Yohana, Odongo; Maluka, Stephen Oswald

    2013-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Tanzania has been implementing user fee policy in its health sector since the early 1990s. Accompanying user fee, mechanisms were designed that exempted the poor and vulnerable groups of the society from paying user charges. Although studies on the implementation of exemption policies in Tanzania exist, very few have documented the actual process of translating exemption policies into actions-the process of implementation. Drawing from policy analysis and implementation theories, this paper documents the implementation of the waiver (need-based exemptions) policy in Tanzania. The findings indicate that waiver systems, while potentially effective in principle, were ineffective in implementation. Lack of specification of criteria by which the poor could be identified made policy implementers at different levels to implement the policy in their own style. Low level of public awareness about the existence of waiver mechanisms hindered the poor to demand exemptions. Furthermore, fear of loss of revenue at the health facilities and ineffective enforcement mechanisms provided little incentives for local government leaders and health workers to communicate the policy to beneficiaries. It is concluded from this study that to better achieve the objectives of the pro-poor exemption policy, it is important to engage policy implementers more actively in the management and implementation of policies. Additionally, it is imperative to understand the behaviour and practices of policy implementers, especially district health managers, health workers and village and ward leaders, who may react negatively to new policies and implement the policies in ways contrary to what policy makers had intended. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Think tanks and strategic policy-making : the contribution of think tanks to policy advisory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraussen, B.; Halpin, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    Think tanks have proliferated in most Western democracies over the past three decades and are often considered to be increasingly important actors in public policy. Still, their precise contribution to public policy remains contested. This paper takes the existing literature in a new direction by

  20. Evropejskaja ideja v Central'noj Evrope i Skandinavii kak chast' politiki bezopasnosti i mirnogo sosushhestvovanija v ramkah poslevoennogo planirovanija [The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  1. Federal Reserve policy since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. HAMBERG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the change in the federal reserve instruments that occurred since October 1979. Before then, the FED used bank reserves to establish an interest rate that would result in the desired level of the money stock. After 1979 the FED replaced the federal funds rate as its control variable with the volume of bank reserves. In principal, provided the will to adjust interest rates when the money stock is off target exists, two policies show little difference. Critics of the Fed’s policy prior to 1979 often confuse principal with practice. Then, Fed policy was closer to pegging the federal funds rate than to using it as a control over the quantity of money.  

  2. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52... AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52 Existing mortgages. Nothing contained in this subpart amends, invalidates, terminates or rescinds any...

  3. Structural reliability of existing city bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrandt, L.; Steenbergen, R.; Vrouwenvelder, T.; Blom, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full probabilistic reliability analysis may be valuable for assessing existing structures. Measures for increasing the safety level are quite costly for existing structures and may be unnecessary when such a decision is grounded on a conservative analysis for determining the structural reliability.

  4. Existence of solutions of functional differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions of a functional differential inclusion. By using the variation of parameters formula we convert the functional differential inclusion into an integral inclusion and prove the existence of a fixed point of the set-valued mapping with the help of the Kakutani-Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem.

  5. On determining if a specular point exists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W; Sørensen, O

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the existence of a specular point on a convex surface of revolution can be determined without actually finding it. Only the evaluation of two simple algebraic expressions is involved. Should a specular point be found not to exist, a search procedure has been thereby...

  6. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  7. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  8. Neuromyths: Why Do They Exist and Persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Neuroeducation--a recent approach to educational policy--claims that a bridge should be established between education and mind-brain sciences, with the double aim of devising educational methods that work and of understanding why they work. The success of this encounter depends, among other conditions, on getting the science "right"; otherwise,…

  9. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based...

  10. EXIST's Gamma-Ray Burst Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J.; Fishman, G.; Hartmann, D. H.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Skinner, G.

    2008-02-01

    We use semianalytic techniques to evaluate the burst sensitivity of designs for the EXIST hard X-ray survey mission. Applying these techniques to the mission design proposed for the Beyond Einstein program, we find that with its very large field of view and faint gamma-ray burst detection threshold, EXIST will detect and localize approximately two bursts per day, a large fraction of which may be at high redshift. We estimate that EXIST's maximum sensitivity will be ~4 times greater than that of Swift's Burst Alert Telescope. Bursts will be localized to better than 40'' at threshold, with a burst position as good as a few arcseconds for strong bursts. EXIST's combination of three different detector systems will provide spectra from 3 keV to more than 10 MeV. Thus, EXIST will enable a major leap in the understanding of bursts, their evolution, environment, and utility as cosmological probes.

  11. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  12. Does a causal relation between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Nielsen, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and much attention has been paid to the possible association between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease affecting up to 50% of the adult...... population, and during the past two decades much research has focused on a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the existing literature on the association between the two diseases....

  13. Wykrzyknik - istnienie - zmiana (Exclamation - Existence - Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Karpiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It, what exists, so to say, demands for the addressee – the thing exists in the face of (for something (or somebody. In other words, the existence is the relation. The competitive conception of the existence outside the relation (existence isolated leads to the contradiction. The existential proposition ‘Some A exists’, understoodliterally, is the pleonasm. It tends to treat the existential proposition as the conventional figure, expressing the simple act of an A affirmation (the exclamation ‘A!’. The existence’s relation should not be narrowed down only to the relation of perception(esse est percipi. It is needed to be understood widely, as every relation, in which something influences on whatever (that is, some change occurs. This influence (change can take place both inside or outside the consciousness. The existing thing, the influence exerted by it, and the change, occurred as the result of this influence, are identical. Thanks to it, we can eliminate difficulties connected withfinding ‘the point of contact’ between modules of the existence’s relation (that is, ‘the place’ where existing thing and its addressee are connected. The existence, as the relation of influence-change, is modal and gradual (as regards both intensity and extensiveness: the thing, in different aspects, can exist more or less. Theoretically, discussed relation can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical. The concept of error should be redefined. The error concerning the existence (resp. the nonexistence of specified thing, must not mean the incompatibility between this thing and the perception (widely: between this thing and the change causedby this thing in its addressee. The existence is the unity of the thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change. That is why the incompatibility can occur only between the state of thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change and the related state of duty. The conception of the existence as the relation

  14. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  15. Policies on assisted suicide in Dutch psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, I; van der Wal, G

    1998-01-01

    Recent jurisprudence in the Netherlands challenges psychiatric hospitals to formulate policies on how to approach requests for assisted suicide. This study examined whether such policies exist in Dutch psychiatric hospitals and general hospitals with psychiatric wards. The directors of patient care in 38 of the country's 52 psychiatric hospitals and 42 of the 59 general hospitals with psychiatric wards responded to a mail survey. Five psychiatric hospitals and six general hospitals had written policies. Almost half of the psychiatric hospitals had a verbal policy only. The majority of the hospitals with policies had a tolerant or permissive policy toward assisted suicide.

  16. Relations between Balance Sheet Policy and Accounting Policy in the Context of Different Accounting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grabowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Polish professional literature the terms balance sheet policy (in German: bilanzpolitik and accounting policy are commonly used. The problem raised by the author is defined by the fact that there exist at least a few perspectives of their meaning and their relations with each other. In some opinions balance sheet policy and accounting policy represent the same issues. In other opinions there appear differences between the two, however, there is no consensus as to the nature of the differences. The lack of clarity with regard to the explanation methods of balance sheet policy and accounting policy and their relations represents a research problem for theory and practice. The theory is required to codify the academic debate and systematize the terminology while in practice it is the management board that holds responsibility for a financial statement which is determined by accounting policy adopted by the entity. In this working paper the author has tried to point out the substance of balance sheet policy and accounting policy as well as to provide explanation of existing differences between them. Although the topic has already been discussed in professional literature, there have been no attempts to explain the substance of the two policies and their relations by making reference to their origin, ie. accounting approaches from which they evolved.

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  18. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  19. EXIST: The Next Large GRB Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have begun on the EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) Mission as a Black Hole Survey 'Einstein Probe', a major element in the new NASA Beyond Einstein Program in the Office of Space Science. This program was approved by the US Congress, in February 2003 as part of the NASA FY2004 NASA budget. EXIST is planned as a very wide-field coded aperture telescope and a positional accuracy for GRBs better than one arc-minute. The baseline detectors are Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), with a total sensitive area of approximately 8 m2. EXIST will use SWIFT as a pathfinder mission; the findings of SWIFT will refine the scientific objectives of EXIST and will help to determine many of its design parameters. EXIST will study early star and galaxy formation at high redshifts through observations of thousands of GRBs, their afterglows and host galaxies. It is intended that the international GRB community will play a large role in EXIST through direct participation as well as with complementary observational programs, both space-based and ground-based. Some preliminary design features and capabilities of the EXIST Mission will be presented.

  20. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  1. Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-22

    Jul 22, 2005 ... Lindert (1991) defines agricultural policy as “all agricultural initiatives affecting the real income of persons in the agricultural sector, including policies not explicitly intended for agriculture.” The policy process continuously involves different stakeholders who exert influence in different forms to change the.

  2. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  3. The Implications of State Fiscal Policies for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Shieh, Linda Taing

    2014-01-01

    A variety of policies and practices, including those developed by local boards and administrations, as well as those mandated by state and federal governments, affect budgets and finances at community colleges. Examples include tuition policies, fee structures, performance-based funding, and personnel policies. This chapter explores some of the…

  4. Adjusting Inequality: Education and Structural Adjustment Policies in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, Frances

    2005-01-01

    International economic forces increasingly affect policy at multiple levels and in multiple domains. The interplay of three levels--international, national, and local--are underresearched in the social and educational policy fields, which includes educational policy studies. In this article, Frances Vavrus employs ethnography to investigate how…

  5. American Telemedicine Association: Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit, Washington DC - Hyatt Regency on Capitol Hill June 27, 2013 at 1:00 pm and June 28, 2013 at 12:00 pm The ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit is an opportunity to hear and interact with leaders from Congress, key federal agencies and influential policy thinkers about the latest developments affecting telemedicine. The Summit will include participation of key stakeholders including healthcare providers, business interests, medical societies, consumer groups and more. Join the conversation and hear the latest, inside information about the swift changes underway in healthcare delivery, public policy and the opportunities these provide for those involved in telemedicine. The Summit has an exciting line-up of speakers, representing the nation’s top policy leaders in healthcare. For information: http://www.americantelemed.org/ata-federal-telemedicine-policy-summit/summit-overview

  6. EXISTENCE OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE

    OpenAIRE

    Aksakallı, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that restricts the universe because of the metric expansion of space, and to determine whether there may be a new universe or existence  in the case of extinction of all the universe by way of mathematical and physical functions.This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that res...

  7. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  8. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  9. LANDFIRE (90m) Existing Vegetation Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map depicts the distribution of existing vegetation types contained in the LANDFIRE dataset. All 30-meter EVT grids were resampled to 90-meter grids and merged...

  10. Influencing holistic health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica

    2007-09-17

    Beliefs that health policy-making is an inherently 'ideological' or 'irrational' process appear to have worked to prevent researchers from developing better understandings of the kind of evidence that does work to influence policy. Without a model of policy-making that positions policy decision-makers as capable of being informed by specific forms of evidence that speak to policy contexts, it is difficult for research to begin to shape health policy. Recent years have seen the development of a research industry that focuses on developing and describing research approaches for shaping health and social services policy. This analysis paper offers a highly selective overview of generic features of policy-relevant research for holistic health. It aims to support efforts to develop better evidence for health policy by exploring elements of the genre of policy-relevant research, particularly as it applies to the challenges of holistic health policy-making. First, it offers a conceptual definition of holistic health policy-making, as well as research evidence for this kind of policy making, identifying some of the generic features of policy-relevant research. Second, it outlines some of the key practices for delivering sound evidence for health policy, in ways that highlight the salient differences between doing research for holistic health policy, and doing academic research in health. The paper concludes with directions for developing better evidence for holistic health policy-making that question the assumptions of quality which often inform elite funding agencies, calling for their diversification.

  11. Functional interpretation and the existence property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two.......It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two....

  12. Optimality and existence for Lipschitz equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of certain boundary value problems are shown to exist for the nth order differential equation y(n=f(t,y,y′,…,y(n−1, where f is continuous on a slab (a,b×Rn and f satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the slab. Optimal length subintervals of (a,b are determined, in terms of the Lipschitz coefficients, on which there exist unique solutions.

  13. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  14. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  15. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Adam B. [Department of Economics, Brandeis University and National Bureau of Economic Research, Waltham, MA (United States); Newell, Richard G. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Stavins, Robert N. [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University and Resources for the Future, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research.

  16. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  17. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  18. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  19. Education Policy Outlook: Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Gillian; Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Giovinazzo, Manon; Crosby, Shiana; Horvathova, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Belgium is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  20. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  1. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available to the label of any given instance, it can choose to act through a process of policy reuse from a library in contrast to policy learning. In policy reuse, the agent has prior experience from the class of tasks in the form of a library of policies that were...

  2. Evaluation of Taiwan's National Health Insurance policy: an importance-satisfaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that policy performance affects citizens' satisfaction with public policies could be considered a well-worn topic. However, this paper shows that the extant literature has not adequately conceptualized nor addressed the relationship, which could exist between citizens' satisfaction and importance of the evaluation's indicators. The findings of most previous studies reflect elite perspectives on Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) policy evaluation, and the importance of the evaluation's indicators may not be recognized by the public. In addition, previous satisfaction studies have not provided information on the level of evaluative indicator importance. This study utilized importance-satisfaction analysis to examine public preferences of the NHI policy and assigned weights for NHI policy evaluation indicators by administering a national phone survey in October 2009. A total of 1103 telephone interviews were conducted with people aged 20 years and older, comprising a sample that was representative of the Taiwanese population according to age, gender, and area of residence. Furthermore, to explore the difference between expected importance and perceived satisfaction, this study calculated a reconceptualized performance gap. To obtain the gap value for an indicator, the mean value for importance was subtracted from the mean value for satisfaction. The findings imply that public recognition and support constitute the premise for the successful operation and reform of the NHI policy. The study concludes that policy adjustment is needed in several areas where importance outweighed satisfaction, including access to medical care services and NHI efficiency. The results suggest public recognition of and satisfaction with the evaluation indicators in use and the need for policy adjustment in areas where importance outweighs satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Competing Desires and Realities: Language Policies in the French-Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language

  4. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  5. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...... government, civil society, timber industry and local communities and thus provides important contributions to the existing logic within the field of tropical forest governance....

  6. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    . As the competences related to energy–smart water utilities are shared between the EU and its Member States, and as the relevant EU legislation is of a minimum harmonising nature, the Member States have an important role to play in the design of the legal conditions for the utilities in the EU. The importance......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  7. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability

    2016-01-21

    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  8. [Summary of the existing knowledge about electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Pénzes, Melinda

    2016-06-19

    The decreasing proportion of smokers due to smoking restrictions have led producers to invent and disseminate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) worldwide as a new form of nicotine enjoyment. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about e-cigarettes based on publications of PubMed, and on reviews and research data published by national and international scientific institutions. Present knowledge about the composition of e-cigarettes confirms that they are harmful products since their vapor is equally detrimental to the health of users and bystanders. Their benefits in smoking cessation still have not been justified by adequate scientific evidence, however, it has been proven that e-cigarettes uphold nicotine addiction and may increase the risk of starting conventional cigarette use by youth. In order to ensure the results of tobacco control policy and to assist smoking cessation, the same regulations are to be applied to e-cigarettes as to conventional tobacco products.

  9. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew......The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...

  10. Transcendental Self and the Feeling of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I investigate one aspect of Kant’s larger theory of the transcendental self. In the Prolegomena, Kant says that the transcendental self can be represented as a feeling of existence. In contrast to the view that Kant errs in describing the transcendental self in this fashion, I show that there exists a strand in Kant’s philosophy that permits us to interpret the representation of the transcendental self as a feeling of existence—as the obscurely conscious and temporally inaccessible modification of the state of the discursive subject, which is built into all the representations of such a subject. I also provide an account of how the transcendental self can be legitimately understood both as an epistemic condition for the possibility of experience as well as the representation of a non-naturalistic feeling of existence.

  11. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  12. Existing bridge evaluation using deficiency point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transforming EU countries, transportation infrastructure has a prominent position in advancing industry and society. Recent developments show, that attention should be moved from the design of new structures towards the repair and reconstruction of existing ones to ensure and increase their satisfactory structural reliability and durability. The problem is very urgent because many construction projects, especially transport infrastructure, in most European countries are more than 50-60 years old and require rehabilitations based on objective evaluations. Therefore, the paper presents methodology of existing bridge evaluation based on reliability concept using Deficiency Point Method. The methodology was prepared from the viewpoint to determine the priority order for existing bridge rehabilitation.

  13. From policy implementation to business process management : Principles for creating flexibility and agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are required to comply with changes in legislation and policy. Yet the implementation of new legislation is often expensive, can have long lead times and is prone to failure. The existing situation significantly constrains policy-making. To improve this, policy makers and policy

  14. An Analysis of States' Policies Regarding Social Media Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janette K.

    2016-01-01

    This policy analysis project focused on states' policies regarding social media use in education. Currently, policies, practices and laws are not keeping pace with the rapidly changing nature of technology. As a result of the quick advancement of social media practices, the need exists for organic policies and practices within the educational…

  15. Food Safety - The Primary Objective of Human Society Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Cornelia Adamov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Food has played, plays and will play a decisive role in the existence and development of human society. The level of food quality, causes physical, social and moral society health. In this sense food security is an essential goal of economic and social development, being an essential component of security of life and national security. Evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, in terms of food security, was due not only changes in agriculture, but also came in response to the demands of society in general. Amoung these is growing concerns about hygiene and food safety and animal welfare. European consumers want safe and wholesome food and the EU wants to ensure that all its citizens consume food with high quality standards. Food safety policy has undergone an extensive refurbishment. The objective of this reform was to ensure that EU legislation on food safety is as complete as possible, and consumers benefit as much information about potential risks and measures to be taken to minimize them. The goal of a modern economy, is the correlation of quantitative and qualitative food production with consumer demand. It thus requires knowledge of the physiological needs of consumers, leading to demand for agricultural products.

  16. Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diesbach, Pablo Brice

    This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.

  17. Policy entrepreneurs: catalysts for policy innovation

    OpenAIRE

    King, Paula J.; Roberts, Nancy C.

    1987-01-01

    In Minnesota, Gov. Rudy Perpich and an ad hoc group of eight policy entrepreneurs - advocates of innovation policy ideas - altered the contours of the educational policy debate. Policymakers in others states responses to the alarm bells sounded by the National Commission on Excellence in Education's 1983 report A Nation at Risk with curriculum reform (42 states), stiffer high school graduation requirements (44 states), statewide testing (35 states), tougher teaching certification standards (...

  18. Robustness and health monitoring of existing bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Rius, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows how the robustness concept, mainly developed and thought for the design of new structures, and the monitoring by suitable sensors based on fiber optics can also play a relevant role in the safety and management of existing bridges. A new approach of robustness more related to the long-term and service life of bridges is presented and its advantages in the decision-making process during the management of existing bridges are highlighted and afterwards applied on a real brid...

  19. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  20. Maintenance Program for Existing Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada: Assessing windows of opportunity for policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Adriana V; Al Kindi, Said Y; Randall, Glen E

    2017-11-01

    As the ease of obtaining genetic information for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases has become increasingly common, so have concerns about the misuse of such information. The obstacles Canada faces in adopting genetic non-discrimination legislation have left health leaders with a lack of clear direction. Using the Kingdon agenda-setting framework, this article will identify lost opportunities for policy change and will analyze the potential for the adoption of a genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada. Windows of opportunity for policy change have existed in the past, but these windows have closed prior to a policy being adopted. More recently, the alignment of problem, policy, and politics streams in the agenda-setting process has resulted in a new window of opportunity. The adoption of a clear and coherent policy will provide the public with protection and health leaders with greater direction around genetic information.

  2. Overview of salient economic features of the modes of freight transport for use in the formulation of national transport policy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J Pienaar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining the economic role of the various modes of freight transport should be one of the basic ingredients of both an economically rational transport policy and the effective functioning of the existing free freight transport market in South Africa. In the interest of the national economy and in the commercial interest of freight carriers, national policy on freight transport should take cognisance of (1 why governments involve themselves in transport, (2 the policy instruments of governments that affect the performance of the freight transport sector, and (3 the salient economic features of the freight transport market that should be considered in the formulation of transport policy. The goal of the research was to compile an overview of these three aspects. The research approach and methodology combine (1 a literature survey; (2 an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport modes; and (3 interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry

  3. Threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America: An analysis of existing literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris Poff; Karen A. Koestner; Dan Neary; Victoria Henderson

    2011-01-01

    A total of 453 journal articles, reports, books, and book chapters addressing threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America were analyzed to identify, quantify, and qualify the major threats to these ecosystems as represented in the existing literature. Publications were identified either as research, policy, literature review, historical comparison, or...

  4. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  5. Proof That Chronic Lyme Disease Exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence continues to mount that Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD exists and must be addressed by the medical community if solutions are to be found. Four National Institutes of Health (NIH trials validated the existence and severity of CLD. Despite the evidence, there are physicians who continue to deny the existence and severity of CLD, which can hinder efforts to find a solution. Recognizing CLD could facilitate efforts to avoid diagnostic delays of two years and durations of illness of 4.7 to 9 years described in the NIH trials. The risk to society of emerging antibiotic-resistant organisms should be weighed against the societal risks associated with failing to treat an emerging population saddled with CLD. The mixed long-term outcome in children could also be examined. Once we accept the evidence that CLD exists, the medical community should be able to find solutions. Medical professionals should be encouraged to examine whether: (1 innovative treatments for early LD might prevent CLD, (2 early diagnosis of CLD might result in better treatment outcomes, and (3 more effective treatment regimens can be developed for CLD patients who have had prolonged illness and an associated poor quality of life.

  6. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  7. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. ... Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... Abstract. Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are ...

  8. 36 CFR 9.33 - Existing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing operations. 9.33 Section 9.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... permit may be continued for the term of that permit, exclusive of any renewal period whether mandatory or...

  9. Factorial Structure of the Existence Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Tomic, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Existential meaning in life is becoming an increasingly important measure of personal assessment. In search of a suitable instrument to measure existential meaning, the authors reviewed several measures. Eventually, they selected the Existence Scale (ES), doing so on theoretical grounds. The ES is a

  10. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  11. 7 CFR 15b.18 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... access to otherwise inaccessible areas or features of historic properties; (ii) Using audio-visual... visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of exiting facilities and... significant alteration in its existing facilities, the recipient may, as an alternative, refer the handicapped...

  12. Implementation of ventilation in existing schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    ; they evaluate both scientific and practical implementation The analyses lead to a list of criteria associated with the implementation of ventilation in existing schools. Generic retrofitting scenarios which prioritize energy savings, indoor climate and building/facade integration are assembled and illustrated...

  13. Human organisms begin to exist at fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calum; Pruss, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Eugene Mills has recently argued that human organisms cannot begin to exist at fertilization because the evidence suggests that egg cells persist through fertilization and simply turn into zygotes. He offers two main arguments for this conclusion: that 'fertilized egg' commits no conceptual fallacy, and that on the face of it, it looks as though egg cells survive fertilization when the process is watched through a microscope. We refute these arguments and offer several reasons of our own to think that egg cells do not survive fertilization, appealing to various forms of essentialism regarding persons, fission cases, and a detailed discussion of the biological facts relevant to fertilization and genetics. We conclude that it is plausible, therefore, that human organisms begin to exist at fertilization - or, at the very least, that there are grounds for thinking that they existed as zygotes which do not apply to the prior egg cells. While this does not entail that human persons begin to exist at this point, it nevertheless has considerable significance for this latter question. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. "Giftedness Science": Does It Exist at All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author finds that the target article, "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Culture-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness", has three substantial failures: (1) an unproven, even incorrect assumption about the existence of bias in the "science of giftedness" due to…

  15. Occupational health policy and immigrant workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Wiggins, Melinda F; Fraser, Clermont; Levin, Jeffrey; Sidebottom, Jill; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies and practices in the Southeastern US. Worker protection in the AgFF sector is limited. Regulatory protections are generally weaker than other industrial sectors and enforcement of existing regulations is woefully inadequate. The vulnerability of the AgFF workforce is magnified by worker immigration status. Agricultural workers in particular are affected by a long history of "exceptionalism" under the law as many regulatory protections specifically exclude this workforce. A vulnerable workforce and high-hazard industries require regulatory protections that, at a minimum, are provided to workers in other industries. A systematic policy approach to strengthen occupational safety and health in the AgFF sector must address both immigration policy and worker protection regulations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  17. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. The Quest for Gender-Sensitive and Inclusive Transport Policies in Growing Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thynell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities all over the world, growing numbers of women are working or studying further away from home than ever before. This article presents policies by the World Bank and recommendations by the United Nations to improve conditions for women’s mobility in cities. Although these stress different factors affecting women’s experiences of traffic and transport, they all agree about the importance of enabling women’s mobility. However, gender-sensitive policies have been largely unsuccessful. This article presents examples of conditions for women in New Delhi and other rapidly growing Asian cities that illustrate how gender norms operate. This study uses the perspectives of development research and gender studies to examine economic and political initiatives and the way women act and interact with transport in local contexts. It facilitates critical reflection upon existing transport policies and suggests ‘how’ women’s needs may be effectively addressed. More in-depth knowledge about women’s needs and the problems they face when travelling will be useful for designing of policies that address more than simply the harassments of women. More inclusive urban access would enhance conditions for women and enable them to make choices according to their needs. In this way, social science and policy will cross-pollinate one another.

  19. Water rights in the context of pluralism and policy changes in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.

    The decade of the 1990s saw a surge in the development of new policies and legislation that were meant to align them to the new political and economic dispensation in Africa. The overarching goal then was to loosen the states’ grip on power and resources from centrally controlled structures into decentralized systems with greater participation of the stakeholders. Although states have gone very far in this direction, such fundamental changes have largely remained beautiful blueprints generating mixed reactions on their effect on the ground. This paper examines the impact of policy changes on water rights in Malawi. It argues that, in Malawi, as elsewhere in Africa, policy reforms have not necessarily resulted in increasing access to water rights by the poor and other marginalized groups. Yet increasing the participation of and widening access to water rights by the poor was one of the strongest arguments in the drive for policy change. The study underscores the fact that if not clearly considered policy changes can have a significant impact on the lives of millions of people who depend on water and other environmental resources for the livelihoods. To explain the manner in which water rights are affected, the paper used the framework of legal pluralism which provides a useful way of understanding water resources governance where multiple uses and users co-exist.

  20. Economic policy uncertainty, equity premium and dependence between their quantiles: Evidence from quantile-on-quantile approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ali; Zaighum, Isma; Shah, Nida

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and equity premium in G7 countries over a period of the monthly data from January 1989 to December 2015 using a novel technique namely QQ regression proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Based on QQ approach, we estimate how the quantiles of the economic policy uncertainty affect the quantiles of the equity premium. Thus, it provides a comprehensive insight into the overall dependence structure between the equity premium and economic policy uncertainty as compared to traditional techniques like OLS or quantile regression. Overall, our empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative association between equity premium and EPU predominately in all G7 countries, especially in the extreme low and extreme high tails. However, differences exist among countries and across different quantiles of EPU and the equity premium within each country. The existence of this heterogeneity among countries is due to the differences in terms of dependency on economic policy, other stock markets, and the linkages with other country's equity market.

  1. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  2. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  3. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  4. The impact of the 'Better Care Better Value' prescribing policy on the utilisation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers for treating hypertension in the UK primary care setting: longitudinal quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanj; Chen, Li-Chia; Elliott, Rachel A; Godman, Brian

    2015-09-10

    In April/2009, the UK National Health Service initiated four Better Care Better Value (BCBV) prescribing indicators, one of which encouraged the prescribing of cheaper angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) instead of expensive angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), with 80 % ACEIs/20 % ARBs as a proposed, and achievable target. The policy was intended to save costs without affecting patient outcomes. However, little is known about the actual impact of the BCBV indicator on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of BCBV policy on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings, including exploration of regional variations of the policy's impact. This cross-sectional study used data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Segmented time-series analysis was applied to monthly ACEIs prescription proportion, adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions and costs. Overall, the proportion of ACEIs prescription decreased during the study period from 71.2% in April/2006 to 70.7% in March/2012, with a small but a statistically significant pre-policy reduction in its monthly trend of 0.02% (p < 0.001). Instantly after its initiation, the policy was associated with a sudden reduction in the proportion of ACEIs prescription; however, it resulted in a statistically significant increase in the post-policy monthly trend of ACEIs prescription proportion of 0.013% (p < 0.001), resulting in an overall post-policy slope of -0.007%. Despite this post-policy induced increment, the policy failed to achieve the 80% target, which resulted in missing a potential cost-saving opportunity. The pre-policy trend of the adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions was increasing; however, their trends declined after the policy implementation. The policy affected neither total ACEIs/ARBs cost nor individual ACEIs or ARBs costs. ACEIs/ARBs utilisation was not affected by the BCBV policy. The small increase in post-policy ACEIs

  5. Adaptive and compliant policy implementation : Creating administrative processes using semantic web services and business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Adapting to and complying with frequently changing policy against low costs requires flexible business processes. Yet, existing systems are unrelated, consist of operating silos, involve many human translation tasks and policies are hardcoded in business processes. From a technology perspective,

  6. The need for a national cancer policy in Malawi | Mlombe | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based cancer prevention, early diagnosis, curative and palliative therapy. A national cancer policy is crucial to ensure a priotised, clear, coordinated and sustained fight against cancer. When no policy exists, events are likely to be random, ...

  7. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  8. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific economic policy or a ...

  9. Preferences for distributional impacts of climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Lea Skræp; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    What role do people think distributional aspects should play in design of climate policy? The literature assessing climate policies has shown that assumptions regarding peoples’ distributional preferences for climate change policy impacts are central for policy assessment, but empirical evidence...... for such preferences is lacking. We design a discrete choice experiment that varies how climate policies affect the income of people living in the future in three geographical regions. The experiment is implemented on a representative sample of the Danish population and preferences are modelled in a latent class model...... expresses some form of distributional preferences, but shows positive preferences for costs, suggesting that responses could be influenced by strategic behaviour and over-signalling of commitment. Our results provide support for the inclusion of social preferences regarding distributional effects of climate...

  10. Factors affecting Child Labour in India

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari Mridul; Singh, Manjari

    2008-01-01

    Child labour in India is a critical socio-economic problem that needs special attention of policy makers. In order to make effective policies to reduce child labour it is important to understand the specific factors that affect it in different situations. The paper empirically examines these factors across 35 Indian states and union territories at three levels of aggregation: total population, rural/urban, and male/female. The results showed that education, fertility, and workforce participat...

  11. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  12. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-11-01

    Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health and economic and social outcomes. Novel approaches to routine collection of biomarkers, behavioural data, spatial data, social network information, migration events and mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education and welfare service records, researchers can substantially broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes when delivered through public sector health systems and at scale. As the HIV treatment scaleup in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as noncommunicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children's educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda.

  13. Gambling on the existence of other universes

    CERN Document Server

    Sangalli, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Speculations and theories about the existence of other worlds have a long history. In recent times, the arguments have shifted away from their typical philosophical and theological character to supposedly become more objective thanks to their scientific underpinnings. A prime example of this is the current parallel universes or multiverse theory, which has the support of a number of famous cosmologists. In this article, we contend that the claim for the existence of those parallel universes, as presented in Max Tegmark's book "Our Mathematical Universe", rests crucially on some questionable probability arguments involving infinity. As a result, a doubt is cast over the multiverse hypothesis: Is it more credible than the counterarguments based on philosophical and metaphysical considerations?

  14. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    environment to evaluate their biofilm formation capability. It was found that multispecies consortia could lead to increased biofilm formation compared to mono species growth. This shows how co-localized isolates are able to influence biofilm production in a community with high relevance for food safety...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...... generally lead to enhanced biofilm formation in complex communities. We showed that bacteria, expected to have co-existed for a long time, generated more biofilm biomass in co-culture. This was further tested against random co-cultures of bacteria, which supported the conclusion. Discovering that some...

  15. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  16. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    sustainable building. In other words: the question is if it sensible to talk about a ‘sustainable building’ without taking the activities in the building into account? In many contexts, maintenance of the existing building stock is not a hot political topic. Facilities management can, however, be a vehicle......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities......, QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most...

  17. LOVE’S SYMPHONY: MULTIPLICITY OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINE McNEILL-MATTESON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Love, although universal in thought, is explicitly complex and articulately multi-defined in almost every idea and expression. Love written is timeless from the molecules we possess within us, to the cosmos we study and explore. We can only exist and continue to exist in harmony with creation. Harmony reaches far beyond galaxies and universes, flowing backinto the most separate of the smallest molecules. Within all common denominators of harmony there is love: the very catalyst of harmony itself. This paper will look at harmony from a poetic point of view and examine how it is expressed always in the context of the mystery of sentience and conscience from human biology to the divine cosmos

  18. Does H4SO5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Fernando; Vargas-Caamal, Alba; Pan, Sudip; Cabellos, José Luis; Mora-Fonz, Miguel J; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Restrepo, Albeiro; Merino, Gabriel

    2017-07-14

    The possible existence of H4SO5 in aqueous sulfuric acid is analyzed in detail. For bare H4SO5, the computed free energy barrier for the exergonic transformation of H4SO5 into the H2SO4H2O complex is only 3.8 kcal mol-1. The presence of water or sulfuric acid catalyzes the dehydration to such an extent that it becomes almost a barrierless process. In the gas phase, dehydration of H4SO5 is an autocatalytic reaction as the water molecule produced by the decomposition of one H4SO5 molecule induces further dissociation. Thus, in solution, the surrounding water molecules make the para-sulfuric acid a very vulnerable species to exist. The simulated Raman spectra also corroborate the absence of H4SO5 in solution.

  19. The Italian contribution to the EXIST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalucci, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Caraveo, P.; Pareschi, G.; Ubertini, P.; Villa, G.

    The EXIST Mission is a proposed multi-wavelength observatory to carry out the most sensitive hard X-ray survey and census of SMBH as well as the most powerful follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This mission will carry a large area (4.5m2) CdZnTe modular detector with an angular resolution of ˜2arcmin, sensitive in the energy range 5-600 keV, and a near infrared telescope with cooled mirror with outstanding sensitivity and capability of measuring onboard the redshift of many GRBs. Italy will contribute to EXIST with the provision of a soft X-ray telescope sensitive in the energy range 0.1-10 keV with an effective area approximately equivalent to one mirror module of XMM-Newton. We will describe hereafter the characteristics and performance of this instrument together with its capability of performing serendipitous surveys.

  20. Influencing Holistic Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs that health policy-making is an inherently ‘ideological’ or ‘irrational’ process appear to have worked to prevent researchers from developing better understandings of the kind of evidence that does work to influence policy. Without a model of policy-making that positions policy decision-makers as capable of being informed by specific forms of evidence that speak to policy contexts, it is difficult for research to begin to shape health policy. Recent years have seen the development of a research industry that focuses on developing and describing research approaches for shaping health and social services policy. This analysis paper offers a highly selective overview of generic features of policy-relevant research for holistic health. It aims to support efforts to develop better evidence for health policy by exploring elements of the genre of policy-relevant research, particularly as it applies to the challenges of holistic health policy-making. First, it offers a conceptual definition of holistic health policy-making, as well as research evidence for this kind of policy making, identifying some of the generic features of policy-relevant research. Second, it outlines some of the key practices for delivering sound evidence for health policy, in ways that highlight the salient differences between doing research for holistic health policy, and doing academic research in health. The paper concludes with directions for developing better evidence for holistic health policy-making that question the assumptions of quality which often inform elite funding agencies, calling for their diversification.

  1. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  2. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  3. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  4. A General Existence Thorem of Zero Points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Koshevoy, G.A.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2002-01-01

    Let X be a non-empty, compact, convex set in Rn and ° an upper semi-continuous mapping from X to the collection of non-empty, compact, convex subsets of Rn.It is well known that such a mapping has a stationary point on X, i.e. there exists a point in X satisfying that its image under ° has a

  5. Maximising the value of existing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Graham McCorkindale, who heads the Health and Wellbeing strand at multi-disciplinary architecture, town planning, interior design, and landscape architecture practice, Keppie Design, examines how architects can best support the NHS at a time of major change by refocusing design skills hitherto focused on creating new healthcare facilities on the need to work within the existing estate--'maximising utilisation and getting best value from any available spend'.

  6. Business Plan for Existing Venture: Papu Cafe

    OpenAIRE

    Truc, Nha

    2017-01-01

    Finland is considered as one of the potential markets for specialty coffee industry with the high amount of coffee consumption. The aim of this research is developing a business plan for existing business – Papu Cafe in the center of Helsinki, Finland. In this research, the author focuses on investigating the entrepreneurship and coffee industry in Finland, the characteristics of coffee drinking trends. Besides, it is essential to understand the purpose of conducting a business plan for ...

  7. On the existence of persistently outperforming firms

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, M.; Cefis, E.; Frenken, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses persistence in growth rates for a data set of manufacturing firms of all sizes. Previous quantile autoregressions of firm growth rates show that extreme growth events are likely to be negatively correlated over time, thus questioning the existence of persistent outperformers. By supplementing the quantile regression analyses with transition probability matrices, our study shows that "bouncing" firms coexist with persistent outperformers. This result is shown to be robust f...

  8. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  9. The slowdown in existing home sales

    OpenAIRE

    Krainer, John

    2014-01-01

    Sales of existing homes slowed noticeably over the second half of 2013, reflecting a more drawn-out recovery than expected for housing markets. A main reason for the slowdown is higher mortgage rates that have made financing more costly nationwide. Sales appear to be slowing even more in distressed markets, where real estate investors had bought up single-family homes to convert into rental properties following the housing bust. Evidence suggests that investors may be retreating from these ma...

  10. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  11. Overview of EXIST mission science and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, Al.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Fishman, G.; Ramsey, B.; Della Ceca, R.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P., III

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is designed to i) use the birth of stellar mass black holes, as revealed by cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), as probes of the very first stars and galaxies to exist in the Universe. Both their extreme luminosity (~104 times larger than the most luminous quasars) and their hard X-ray detectability over the full sky with wide-field imaging make them ideal "back-lights" to measure cosmic structure with X-ray, optical and near-IR (nIR) spectra over many sight lines to high redshift. The full-sky imaging detection and rapid followup narrowfield imaging and spectroscopy allow two additional primary science objectives: ii) novel surveys of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) accreting as very luminous but rare quasars, which can trace the birth and growth of the first SMBHs as well as quiescent SMBHs (non-accreting) which reveal their presence by X-ray flares from the tidal disruption of passing field stars; and iii) a multiwavelength Time Domain Astrophysics (TDA) survey to measure the temporal variability and physics of a wide range of objects, from birth to death of stars and from the thermal to non-thermal Universe. These science objectives are achieved with the telescopes and mission as proposed for EXIST described here.

  12. Do retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumours exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Nahid; Winquist, Eric; Power, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCTs) have been described arising in midline structures. Although primary retroperitoneal extragonadal GCTs (RPGCTs) comprise 30% to 40% of these, their existence as a genuine disease has been questioned. Our study evaluated clinicopathological findings to examine this question in RPGCT patients at our centre. Data from 414 men between 1980 and 2014 treated at London Health Sciences Centre with chemotherapy for testicular GCTs were reviewed retrospectively. Primary RPGCT was defined as pathologically diagnosed GCT with no evidence of GCT in the testes by physical exam or ultrasound. Patients thought to have primary RPGCT at the time of initial diagnosis were identified from an electronic database and data were extracted. In total, 18 men with a diagnosis of metastatic RPGCT were identified. Four were excluded due to ultrasound reports that were incomplete or suggested malignancy. The remaining 14 patients had negative or non-specific ultrasounds, and all received platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Ten patients (71%) underwent post-chemotherapy RP lymph node dissections; of those 8 (57%) who underwent orchiectomy, none had corresponding pathologically normal testicular tissue. RPGCT patients present with more advanced disease stage. Our study sample size is limited, but the findings are consistent with existing literature suggesting that primary RPGCTs may not exist as a unique disease, but instead may represent metastatic disease from a clinically occult testicular primary. By corollary, viable malignant germ cells may be present in testes of patients with presumed primary RPGCT, and may persist as a site of residual malignant disease after chemotherapy.

  13. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.

  14. Making healthy public policy; developing the science by learning the art: an ecological framework for policy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1987-01-01

    During the 1980s increasing attention has been given to the view that a vast array of public policies have great potential for health promotion and that this potential ought to be developed. After briefly discussing the basis for this concept and its policy implications, this article turns to a major corequisite for making healthy public policy a political reality: learning how to do it. Where healthy public policy exists, how did it happen? This is a question that calls for a new generation of policy studies, one that is relevant to advocates of healthy public policy within and outside governments. An ecological framework of policy-making is proposed for such studies, delineating the social climate, key players, and strategic action. From it, operational indicators and study methods are suggested, in order to learn some general principles, within a real-world context, of how to develop public policies that are healthful.

  15. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  16. Local Authority Compensatory Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.M. Turkenburg

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Gemeentelijke onderwijsachterstandenbeleid. The introduction in the Netherlands of the Municipal Compensatory Policy (Education) Act on 1 August 1998 made the former educational priority policy a responsibility of local authorities. The intention is that the educational

  17. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  18. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  19. Dialogues on migration policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Passy, Florence

    2006-01-01

    Dialogues on Migration Policy brings together leading American and European scholars of immigration politics to address migration policy. Editors Marco Giugni and Florence Passy's aim to present a number of informed "dialogues" addressing three main theoretical concerns in this field: the role of the national state in a globalizing world, the determinants of policy change, and the role of collective interests in migration policy. Adopting an unconventional format, the novelty of Dialogues on ...

  20. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  1. Family Language Policy as a Form of Coping or Defence Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Family language policy (FLP), like language policies in general, includes aspects of practice, management and ideology. But FLP is often affected by and affects emotional issues and psychological dimensions that are seldom acknowledged as central in the analysis of such policies. Relying on a psychoanalytic theoretical framework, this article…

  2. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  3. how research can affect policy and programme advocacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-02-01

    Feb 1, 2004 ... and doctor attitudes and knowledge about abortion and family planning-related issues. ... selected based on time and budgetary constraints, and these ... into a large reference document " Monograph on Complications.

  4. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  5. Do Economic Policy Decisions affect Stock Market Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agenor (2000) highlights that high inflation, large fiscal deficits and real exchange rate over-valuation constraint private sector .... that macroeconomic variables including inflation, money supply and exchange rate determine stock prices. However, Gan et al. ..... Past US Stock Market Booms. National Bureau of Economic ...

  6. How Changes in Immigration Policy Might Affect the Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Security, Office of Immigration Statistics , May 2014), http://go.usa.gov/eDeA (PDF, 267 KB). For a discussion of undercounts of the noncitizen population...States: January 2011 (Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics , March 2012), http://go.usa.gov/Zs9J. The number of LPRs...for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program—a lottery -based system for people from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States

  7. How research can affect policy and programme advocacy: example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Nurses and physicians providing care to women with complications of abortion in participating hospitals were interviewed as well as hospital administrators. ... Conclusions: These data represent the situation as it was in the region some years ago and the paper describes important implications of the findings for ...

  8. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  9. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2014-01-01

    of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings...

  10. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  11. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  12. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    ? Have the policy tools (services, transfers, funding or models of provision changed? To what extent have these policies been successful in coping with social and economic problems? To what extent a social demand in favour of these changes exist? What are the main political and social actors intervening as stakeholders in these policies? Finally, what are the major similarities and differences existing between the two countries? To what extent are there policy proposals that might easily travel between them? Could they foster mutually enriching exchanges of information? - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1809#sthash.g3KArOrW.dpuf

  13. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  14. Conditions for the existence of clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagylaki, T

    1975-07-01

    A very general partial differential equation in space and time satisfied by the gene frequency in a monoecious population distributed continuously over an arbitrary habitat is derived. The treatment is restricted to a single diallelic locus in the absence of mutation and random drift, and it is supposed that time is continuous, births and deaths occur at random, and migration is independent of genotype. With the further assumptions that migration is isotropic and homogeneous, the population density is constant and uniform (as permitted by the population regulation mechanism included in the formulation), and Hardy-Weinberg proportions obtain locally, this partial differential equation reduces to the simplest multidimensional generalization of the classical Fisher-Haldane cline model. The efficacy of migration and selection in maintaining genetic variability at equilibrium in this model is investigated by deducing conditions for the existence of clines under various circumstances. The effects of the degree of dominance, a neutral belt between the regions where a particular allele is advantageous and deleterious, finiteness of the habitat, and habitat dimensionality are evaluated. Provided at least one of the alleles is favored only in a finite region, excluding the special case in which its total effective selective coefficient is zero, if conditions for supporting a cline are too unfavorable because migration is too strong, selection is too weak, or both, a cline cannot exist at all. Thus, unless there is overdominance, the population must be monomorphic. It is possible for a cline which can barely exist under the prevailing ecological circumstances to show a large amount of variation in gene frequency.

  15. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy.......A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...

  16. The politics of public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.

  17. Climate policy uncertainty and investment risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    Our climate is changing. This is certain. Less certain, however, is the timing and magnitude of climate change, and the cost of transition to a low-carbon world. Therefore, many policies and programmes are still at a formative stage, and policy uncertainty is very high. This book identifies how climate change policy uncertainty may affect investment behaviour in the power sector. For power companies, where capital stock is intensive and long-lived, those risks rank among the biggest and can create an incentive to delay investment. Our analysis results show that the risk premiums of climate change uncertainty can add 40% of construction costs of the plant for power investors, and 10% of price surcharges for the electricity end-users. This publication tells what can be done in policy design to reduce these costs. Incorporating the results of quantitative analysis, this publication also shows the sensitivity of different power sector investment decisions to different risks. It compares the effects of climate policy uncertainty with energy market uncertainty, showing the relative importance of these sources of risk for different technologies in different market types. Drawing on extensive consultation with power companies and financial investors, it also assesses the implications for policy makers, allowing the key messages to be transferred into policy designs. This book is a useful tool for governments to improve climate policy mechanisms and create more certainty for power investors.

  18. Existence of collateral Equilibrium without survival assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a collateral equilibrium without assuming any hypotheses on the strict positivity, be they individual initial endowments, including the ex post initial endowments, or aggregated initial endowments. Because of dropping the strict positivity of social initial endowment we fail to get an equilibrium. Instead, we get a quasi-equilibrium. Then, appealing to the concept of irreducibility (introduced by McKenzie in 1959 which is adapted to the collateral model, we show that the quasi-equilibrium is indeed a legitime equilibrium.

  19. Existing cometary data and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    To assist scientists studying comets and their interaction with the interplanetary medium, compilations of existing cometary observations and data plans for additional publication are reported. The works cited include updates and/or supplements to: (1) the Catalogue of Cometary Orbits, (2) Physical Characteristics of Comets, (3) the Atlas of Representative Cometary Spectra, (4) the Atlas Cometas-Viento Solar, (5) the Isophotometrischer Atlas der Kometen, and (6) the Atlas of Cometary Forms. An Atlas of Cometary Spectra and an Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 (II) photographs and spectra are in preparation.

  20. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    , sadness, and hunger/neutral conditions with equivalent stimuli. For each film sequence, the participant was asked: to rate the valence of the depicted person’s emotion; to rate how aroused the person appeared to be; and to identify the type of emotion that the person was feeling. The participant’s eye...... movements were recorded throughout the experiment using a remote eye-tracker (SMI iView X RED). A preliminary analysis of the results suggests that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For the different emotional conditions, the participants tended to choose the appropriate emotion more...

  1. Does the Kuleshov Effect Really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Rédei, Anna Cabak; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2016-01-01

    to replicate Kuleshov’s original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion...... of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants’ eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than...... between the emotional conditions....

  2. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter...... by arguing that it is incorrect to talk about African universities as a certain type of university due to the different colonial heritage. However, universities in Africa are facing a number of similar challenges related to the European heritage of the university for instance what counts as legitimate...

  3. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  4. Weighing Supermassive Black Holes with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo S.; Pappadakis, I.; ScienceTeam, EXIST

    2009-12-01

    The EXIST mission concept features a wide field of view telescope that scans the full sky every two orbits at hard X-ray energies (5-600 keV) as well as a high resolution (R 3000) near infrared/optical spectrograph that can be quickly slewed to new targets. These two instruments will enable us to extend supermassive black hole timing studies (reverberation mapping and power spectrum break determination) from the current sample of 30 objects to well over 300, including highly obscured ones. We present examples of the direct black hole mass determinations such studies will enable.

  5. Legal Mapping Analysis of State Telehealth Reimbursement Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Kate E; Rampa, Sankeerth; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2017-10-01

    There exists rapid growth and inconsistency in the telehealth policy environment, which makes it difficult to quantitatively evaluate the impact of telehealth reimbursement and other policies without the availability of a legal mapping database. We describe the creation of a legal mapping database of state-level policies related to telehealth reimbursement of healthcare services. Trends and characteristics of these policies are presented. Information provided by the Center for Connected Health Policy was used to identify statewide laws and regulations regarding telehealth reimbursement. Other information was retrieved by using: (1) LexisNexis database, (2) Westlaw database, and (3) retrieval from legislative Web sites, historical documents, and contacting state officials. We examined policies for live video, store-and-forward, and remote patient monitoring (RPM). In the United States, there are 24 states with policies regarding reimbursement for live video transmission. Fourteen states have store-and-forward policies, and six states have RPM-related policies. Mississippi is the only state that requires reimbursement for all three types of telehealth transmission modes. Most states (47 states) have Medicaid policies regarding live video transmission, followed by 37 states for store-and-forward and 20 states for RPM. Only 13 states require that live video will be reimbursed "consistent with" or at the "same rate" as in-person services in their Medicaid program. There are no widely accepted telehealth reimbursement policies across states. They contain diverse restrictions and requirements that present complexities in policy evaluation and in determining policy effectiveness across states.

  6. Patching vs Packaging in Policy Formulation: Assessing Policy Portfolio Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Howlett; Jeremy Rayner

    2013-01-01

      Thinking about policy mixes is at the forefront of current research work in the policy sciences and raises many significant questions with respect to policy tools and instruments, processes of policy...

  7. Investment Under Uncertainty and Policy Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Kort, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Existing real options literature provides relatively little insight into the impact of structural changes of the economic environment on the investment decision of the firm.We propose a method to model the impact of a policy change on investment behavior in which, contrary to the earlier models

  8. From Practice to Policy in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doing have emerged and are owned by all participants.The process involves questioning all our existing assumptions about education, science, history and, in general, the contemporary global cultural model.The paper concludes that at present environmental education policy could most usefully focus on fostering a variety ...

  9. 75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11801] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the... guarantee to support the U.S. export of aircraft tooling equipment to Mexico and the United Kingdom. The U.S.... Available information indicates that this type of supply chain structure exists because of the need for...

  10. 76 FR 54467 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... of aircraft tooling equipment to Mexico and the United Kingdom. The U.S. exports will enable the... indicates that this type of supply chain structure exists because of the need for industry participants to...

  11. 32 CFR 256.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.4 Policy. (a) General. As a first priority step, all reasonable... developed and no requirement for a fee interest in the land exists except to prevent incompatible use... with local agencies will be in accordance with OMB Circular A-95. ...

  12. "Doin' politics": linking policy and politics in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, L B; Anderson, M A; Hanson, K

    1996-01-01

    Policies affecting nursing are set within the larger environment of the health policy sector. That sector is characterized by increasing size, complexity, and goal displacement. All three characteristics have served to expand the resource base for this sector despite fiscal constraints on such growth. The environment of policy making shapes both the substance of policy change and the strategies for political adoption. Without understanding the dynamics of the policy environment, efforts by nursing leaders to enhance their growing political sophistication and to articulate nursing interests with maximum effectiveness will be compromised.

  13. Neutralino dark matter stars can not exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the recent ``Cosmos Project" observation of dark-matter concentrations with no ordinary matter in the same place, we study the question of the existence of compact objects made of pure dark matter. We assume that the dark matter is neutralino, and compare its elastic and annihilation cross sections. We find that the two cross sections are of the same order of magnitude. This result has a straightforward and important consequence that neutralinos comprising a compact object can not achieve thermal equilibrium. To substantiate our arguments, by solving Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation we constructed a model of the star made of pure neutralinos. We explicitly showed that the condition for the thermal equilibrium supported by the Fermi pressure is never fulfilled inside the star. This neutralino state can not be described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. Thus, a stable neutralino star, which is supported by the Fermi pressure, can not exist. We also estimated that a stable star can not contain more than a few percents of neutralinos, most of the mass must be in the form of the standard model particles.

  14. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  15. Repowering existing coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, E.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Increased competition among power generating companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performance of older electric generating units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including: environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g., increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, and optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy-to-use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant options. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the United States, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper. 14 figs.

  16. The existence of cords in olecranon bursae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeff; Ebert, Jay R; Taheri, Arash; Mathew, Ravi K; Chee, Derserri Y; Breidahl, William

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the existence of transverse cords in olecranon bursae in patients undergoing excision of the bursa and to describe the unique clinical presentation of patients with these cords. A retrospective study was performed on 24 patients who had surgery to excise an olecranon bursa between 2006 and 2011. The patient's history, preoperative radiographs, ultrasound images, intraoperative photographs, and findings on histologic analysis were reviewed in all cases. Nine olecranon bursae had cords (cord group) and 15 did not have cords (noncord group). All patients in the cord group were male manual laborers, and nearly all had olecranon enthesophytes (n = 8). Patients in the noncord group had associated medical conditions or an infection. A higher level of satisfaction was reported in the noncord group after surgical excision. This study documents the existence of transverse cords oriented at right angles to the long axis of the olecranon. Olecranon bursae with cords have a unique presentation and are found in male manual workers, are nearly always associated with an olecranon enthesophyte, and do not present with infections. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  18. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...... provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify...

  19. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  20. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  1. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  2. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  3. Strategy at War: A Policy Left without Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobeto, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    .... The military means are not aligned with the political object. The history of strategic military theory demonstrates that the Clausewitzian relationship between the two must exist to achieve national objectives for foreign policy to succeed...

  4. Asymmetric expectation effects of regime shifts in monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Liu; Daniel F. Waggoner; Tao Zha

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two substantive issues: (1) Does the magnitude of the expectation effect of regime switching in monetary policy depend on a particular policy regime? (2) Under which regime is the expectation effect quantitatively important? Using two canonical DSGE models, we show that there exists asymmetry in the expectation effect across regimes. The expectation effect under the dovish policy regime is quantitatively more important than that under the hawkish regime. These results sug...

  5. Social Media for Public Health: An Exploratory Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L. Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of exist...

  6. Practice-Based Discourse Analysis of InfoSec Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Goldkuhl, Göran; Hedström, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: Security Management and Human Aspects of Security; International audience; Employees’ poor compliance with information security policies is a perennial problem for many organizations. Existing research shows that about half of all breaches caused by insiders are accidental, which means that one can question the usefulness of information security policies. In order to support the formulation of practical, from the employees’ perspective, information security policies, we propose eight ...

  7. What is the policy problem? : Methodological challenges in policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanberger, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Because when a policy process starts, nobody knows what line of action will eventually be implemented, policy evaluation has to continuously examine the content of different policy components. In order to understand and explain public policy, different stakeholders’ perceptions of the policy problem need to be scrutinized. A policy evaluation should also facilitate the interpretation of policy in a broader context. What values and order does the policy or programme promote? Using an open eval...

  8. Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Transfer: Flood Risk Governance in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Evangelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to policies relating to risk governance at the regional and local levels is the interaction between the public and private sectors also referred to as networked governance. At the same time, the role of political actors in general and policy entrepreneurs in particular, in terms of policy change, has gained considerable traction in recent policy scholarship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in governance arrangements resulting in the formation of a coordination network in regional flood risk management-the first of its kind in Sweden. Our research is guided by the following questions: first, would the policy change (the establishment of the networkshave taken place if a policy entrepreneur were not part of the policy transfer process? Second, what is the role of policy entrepreneurship in the implementation of the policy after its nationwide adoption? Third, what other factors played a role in the variation of the results in the implemented policy that is, the enforced networks? We find the role of a policy entrepreneur key in the policy transfer from the regional to the national level. In order to investigate the resultant networks, we draw from B. Guy Peters (1998 and his conceptualization of factors which affect the politics of coordination. In addition to the presence of a policy entrepreneur, we compare: (i pluriformity of network members;(ii member interdependence; (iii redundancy of structures, and (iv degree of formality (in terms of meetings. Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs contribute to the variation in the functionality of the enforced river groups, though other factors play a significant role as well.Most importantly, perhaps, we did not identify entrepreneurs in any of the river groups which were not functional.

  9. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  10. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    /national/regional/local), but also by a diversification of types of actor (public/private; for-profit/not-for-profit). Multi-level governance has been particularly marked – and has taken specific forms – in the European context, but it is by no means limited to the EU. The policy trail method aims to capture the increased influence...... of transnational organisations and public-private networks in policymaking. The concept of policy trails sought to theorise how this widened policy space – including new and variously-sited actors – is negotiated and how power is distributed across sites (Holford & McKenzie, 2013). Cort (2014) developed the notion...... of the method. We argue that policy trails enable us to generate a broader and refined picture of policy in operation, and of the effectiveness and adequacy of national policies. In particular, they enable us to pinpoint in what circumstances and among which groups of workers public policy and funding...

  11. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  12. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  13. Semantic Usage Policies for Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Sebastian

    Web Services provide standardized interfaces for accessing software systems and data sources over the Internet. Semantic descriptions of Web Services help to automate the discovery and invocation of new services and their integration into existing applications. However not all services are freely available for every purpose and not all data is in the public domain. Usage policies describe the terms and conditions under which services and data can be used. Current approaches to semantic Web Service description are mostly focused on functional properties and quality attributes, and do not cover usage policies. We plan to develop a formal language for usage policies with clearly defined semantics that relies on ontologies for representing domain specific terms. We will also extend service discovery and ranking algorithms to incorporate usage policies.

  14. Educational Computing: Ethical Issues for School Administrators and Policy Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Nancy P.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    The amount of knowledge that site and central office administrators possess about the ethical use of computer software in schools is assessed in this report. Specific questions addressed included the existence of related policies, administrators' knowledge of policies, and degree of site compliance. Four district and 10 site administrators were…

  15. Strategic HR Policy and Planning Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent is responsible for developing new policy or revising existing policies for the full range of human resources areas in the Centre, as well as the management of related projects in line with Centre's priorities and Strategic HR Plan. The incumbent is responsible for liaising and supporting members of the HR team ...

  16. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  17. Policies and Procedures for the Management of Electronic Records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on policies and procedures for the management of electronic records in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Using the data collected in 2003 and 2004 as part of the author's doctoral research, the article reports that policies and procedures for the management of electronic records were non-existent in ...

  18. Revising Swiss Policies: The Influence of Efficiency Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Kathrin; Widmer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based policy-making and other recent reforms in public steering emphasize the role systematic evidence can play in improving decision making and public policies. Increasing deficits heighten the pressure on public authorities to legitimate public spending and to find savings. Existing studies show that the influence of research-based…

  19. Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

  20. Towards the implementation of the Nigerian cultural policy for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is among one of the African countries that took a cue from Ghana to formulate its national cultural policy at the insistence of the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). Since 1976 when Nigerian formulated her cultural policy till date (2009), gaping loopholes exist which hinder the ...