WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing multi-residential buildings

  1. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  2. Statistical assessment of fire safety in multi-residential buildings in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a third of residential units in Slovenia are located in multi-residential buildings. The majority of such buildings were built after WW2, when the need for suitable accommodation buildings was at its peak. They were built using the construction possibilities and requirements of the time. Every year there are over 200 fires in these buildings, resulting in fatalities and vast material damage. Due to the great efforts over the past centuries, which were all mainly aimed at replacing combustible construction materials with non-combustible ones, and with advancements in fire service equipment and techniques, the number of fires and their scope has decreased significantly but they were not entirely put out. New and greater advances in the field of fire safety of multi-residential buildings became obvious within the last few years, when stricter regulations regarding the construction of such objects came into force. Developments in science and within the industry itself brought about several new solutions in improving the situation in this field, which has been confirmed by experiences from abroad. Unfortunately in Slovenia, the establishment of safety principles still depends mainly on an occupants’ perception, financial means, and at the same time, certain implementation procedures that are much more complicated due to new property ownership. With the aid of the statistical results from the 2002 Census and contemporary fire safety requirements, this article attempts to show the present-day situation of the problem at both the state and municipality level and will propose solutions to improve this situation. The authors established that not even one single older, multi-residential building meets complies with modern requirements. Fortunately, the situation is improved by the fact that most buildings in Slovenia are built from non-combustible materials (concrete, brick, which limit the spread of fire.

  3. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  4. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  5. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  6. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  7. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities...... management is a concept relevant to others than large companies. Managing the flows of energy and other resources is a part of facilities management, and an increased professionalism could lead to the reduction of the use of energy and water and the generation of waste and wastewater. This is, however...

  8. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  9. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  10. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method

  11. A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasl, T.

    1999-05-11

    Although this guide focuses on the retrocommissioning process and its advantages, all three types of commissioning--retrocommissioning, commissioning, and recommissioning--play an equally important role in ensuring that buildings perform efficiently and provide comfortable, safe, and productive work environments for owners and occupants. For new construction and retrofit projects, commissioning should be incorporated early, during design, and last throughout the length of the project. For buildings that were never commissioned, the retrocommissioning process can yield a wealth of cost-saving opportunities while enhancing a building's environment. Finally, once a building is commissioned or retrocommissioned, incorporating recommissioning into the organization's O and M program (by periodically reapplying the original diagnostic testing and checklist procedures) helps ensure that cost savings and other benefits gained from the original process persist over time.

  12. A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasl, T.; Sharp, T.

    1999-04-01

    Although this guide focuses on the retrocommissioning process and its advantages, all three types of commissioning--retrocommissioning, commissioning, and recommissioning--play an equally important role in ensuring that buildings perform efficiently and provide comfortable, safe, and productive work environments for owners and occupants. For new construction and retrofit projects, commissioning should be incorporated early, during design, and last throughout the length of the project. For buildings that were never commissioned, the retrocommissioning process can yield a wealth of cost-saving opportunities while enhancing a building's environment. Finally, once a building is commissioned or retrocommissioned, incorporating recommissioning into the organization's O and M program (by periodically reapplying the original diagnostic testing and checklist procedures) helps ensure that cost savings and other benefits gained from the original process persist over time.

  13. The quest for sustainability in existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Michaelsen, Lisbet; Jensen, Per Anker

    2014-01-01

    to sustainability at societal level. Due to lack of professional skills, decisions about operation and renovation of buildings are made every day in Denmark and beyond, without adequate knowledge about e.g. energy management and the potential ways of integrating sustainability (social, environmental and economic...

  14. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  15. Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Nura

    The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.

  16. Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. El-Betar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.

  17. Energy and architecture: improvement of energy performance in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Matthias; Wycmans, Annemie; Solbraa, Anne; Grytli, Eir

    2011-07-01

    This book aims to give an overview of different aspects of retrofitting existing buildings. The target group is students of architecture and building engineering as well as building professionals. Eight out of ten buildings which we will inhabit in 2050 already exist. This means that a great potential for reducing our carbon footprint lies in the existing building stock. Students from NTNU have used the renovation of a 1950s school building at Linesoeya in Soer-Trondelag as a case to increase their awareness and knowledge about the challenges building professionals need to overcome to unite technical details and high user quality into good environmental performance. The students were invited by the building owners and initiators of LIPA Eco Project to contribute to its development: By retrofitting an existing building to passive house standards and combining this with energy generated on site, LIPA Eco Project aims to provide a hands-on example with regard to energy efficiency, architectural design and craftsmanship for a low carbon society. The overall goal for this project is to raise awareness regarding resource efficiency measures in architecture and particularly in existing building mass.(au)

  18. The application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting the existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Muhammad; Jaapar, Aini; Yahya, Zaharah

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development has been the main topic of debate for years in some countries such as United Kingdom, United State of America and Malaysia. Depletion of natural resources, global warming, economics uncertainty and health issues are some of the reasons behind sustainable development movements, it is not just a political debate in the parliament but more towards collective works among sectors in order to minimizing the negative impact of development to the environment and other living organism. Retrofit an existing building is one of the solutions to reduce the dependency on constructing new buildings. There are huge numbers of existing building stocks that suitable to be retrofitted such as historical buildings, offices, residential, warehouse, factories, vacant buildings and other historical buildings. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide information on the application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting an existing building. Two buildings were chosen as case studies following by site visits and observation to the buildings. The data were then compared in a table form. Primary and secondary sources were also used for this research. The application of retrofit should be promoted across the construction and conservation industries since it has significant tangible and intangible benefits. It is one of the most environmentally friendly and efficient solutions to optimize the energy performance and could also helps to extend the life of the existing building or historical buildings while ensuring optimum thermal comfort for the occupants which leads to higher productivity.

  19. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  20. Greening Existing Buildings in Contemporary Iraqi Urban Reality/ Virtual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.

  1. Multi-Residential Activity Labelling in Smart Homes with Wearable Tags Using BLE Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Zhang, Qing; Karunanithi, Mohanraj

    2018-03-19

    Smart home platforms show promising outcomes to provide a better quality of life for residents in their homes. One of the main challenges that exists with these platforms in multi-residential houses is activity labeling. As most of the activity sensors do not provide any information regarding the identity of the person who triggers them, it is difficult to label the sensor events in multi-residential smart homes. To deal with this challenge, individual localization in different areas can be a promising solution. The localization information can be used to automatically label the activity sensor data to individuals. Bluetooth low energy (BLE) is a promising technology for this application due to how easy it is to implement and its low energy footprint. In this approach, individuals wear a tag that broadcasts its unique identity (ID) in certain time intervals, while fixed scanners listen to the broadcasting packet to localize the tag and the individual. However, the localization accuracy of this method depends greatly on different settings of broadcasting signal strength, and the time interval of BLE tags. To achieve the best localization accuracy, this paper studies the impacts of different advertising time intervals and power levels, and proposes an efficient and applicable algorithm to select optimal value settings of BLE sensors. Moreover, it proposes an automatic activity labeling method, through integrating BLE localization information and ambient sensor data. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed structure is also demonstrated in a real multi-resident smart home scenario.

  2. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  3. A strategic approach for existing buildings to withstand climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Buildings play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. This paper suggests a strategic approach for existing buildings to withstand climate change. It emphasises the most likely climate impacts, including the change in mean year values as well as the exte...... based on the results of a vulnerability analysis. In addition, this paper describes some issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change.......Buildings play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. This paper suggests a strategic approach for existing buildings to withstand climate change. It emphasises the most likely climate impacts, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent......, the uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that will grow far more serious, if not addressed and taken into account in building design and into a strategy for the adaptation of existing buildings. An outline of the actions needed for developing a broad strategic approach to the adaptation to climate...

  4. Energy Efficiency in the North American Existing Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a new assessment of the techno-economic and policy-related efficiency improvement potential in the North American building stock conducted as part of a wider appraisal of existing buildings in member states of the International Energy Agency. It summarizes results and provides insights into the lessons learned through a broader global review of best practice to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings. At this time, the report is limited to the USA because of the large size of its buildings market. At a later date, a more complete review may include some details about policies and programs in Canada. If resources are available an additional comprehensive review of Canada and Mexico may be performed in the future.

  5. Potential Retrofit of Existing Sultan Ismail Parliament Building, Johor to Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Mohd Norazam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of retrofitting an existing building towards green building was introduced to move towards greener development. This paper investigates the benefits of retrofitting an existing building to green building. The potential retrofit of the existing Sultan Ismail Parliament building was also determined and later the elements of the building to be retrofitted were proposed. The Sultan Ismail Parliament building is one of the newest development that serves as the Johor state administrative center under Iskandar Malaysia. Therefore, this paper focuses on whether the existing building has fulfilled all of the green building elements. A set of questionnaire was distributed to the targeted respondents who were the engineers, architects, technicians, staffs and those who were involved in the development of the Sultan Ismail Parliament building. A total of 60 respondents was involved. Based on the analyzed data, it shows that the existing building has fulfilled only one of the green building elements which is the Indoor Environmental Quality. The items that scored 3.5 and above mean index under this element include the daylight glare is not bothering, the ventilation in the building is adequate, inspections are done regularly, smoking regulation is implemented and the number of openings of windows and doors is sufficient. While it shows that other elements were only partially fulfilled. The criteria that achieved below 3.5 mean index values is considered to be the potential elements that could be used for future retrofitting initiative.

  6. Structural Identification And Seismic Analysis Of An Existing Masonry Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, Emanuele; Galano, Luciano; Ortolani, Barbara; Vignoli, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the diagnostic investigation and the seismic analysis performed on an ancient masonry building in Florence. The building has historical interest and is subjected to conservative restrictions. The investigation involves a preliminary phase concerning the research of the historic documents and a second phase of execution of in situ and laboratory tests to detect the mechanical characteristics of the masonry. This investigation was conceived in order to obtain the 'LC2 Knowledge Level' and to perform the non-linear pushover analysis according to the new Italian Standards for seismic upgrading of existing masonry buildings

  7. Building OOC layers on top of existing courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2016-01-01

    prefer the term "Open Online Courses", MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) without the M. This paper will present our approach to building OOCs on top of existing campusbased courses at Aarhus University, Denmark. Consequently, participants of an 'OOC track' will engage in collaboration and discussions...

  8. Low energy house in existing buildings; Niedrigenergiehaus im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahner, G. [BDA, Stuttgart/Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Presented is an energetic sanitation of residential units in the frame of a German pilot program (''low energy houses in the existing building sector'') initiated by the ministry of traffic, civil engineering and city development. (GL)

  9. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability

    2016-01-21

    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  10. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    1999-01-01

    of heat- and moistureflow is insufficiently documented for large insulation thicknesses. Thermal bridges, for instance, plays a larger role for the overall heat loss in these constructions, and moisture in insulation materials will decrease the overall performance of the construction.Due to these facts...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  11. Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings: Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-11

    In 2006, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) signed the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), along with 21 other agencies. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exceeding this requirement and, currently, about 25 percent of its buildings are High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The pages that follow document the Guiding Principles conformance effort for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at PNNL. The RPL effort is part of continued progress toward a building inventory that is 100 percent compliant with the Guiding Principles.

  12. Performance evaluation of existing building structure with pushover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handana, MAP; Karolina, R.; Steven

    2018-02-01

    In the management of the infrastructure of the building, during the period of buildings common building damage as a result of several reasons, earthquakes are common. The building is planned to work for a certain service life. But during the certain service life, the building vulnerable to damage due to various things. Any damage to cultivate can be detected as early as possible, because the damage could spread, triggering and exacerbating the latest. The newest concept to earthquake engineering is Performance Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE). PBEE divided into two, namely Performance Based Seismic Design (PBSD) and Performance Based Seismic Evaluation (PBSE). Evaluation on PBSE one of which is the analysis of nonlinear pushover. Pushover analysis is a static analysis of nonlinear where the influence of the earthquake plan on building structure is considered as burdens static catch at the center of mass of each floor, which it was increased gradually until the loading causing the melting (plastic hinge) first within the building structure, then the load increases further changes the shapes of post-elastic large it reached the condition of elastic. Then followed melting (plastic hinge) in the location of the other structured.

  13. Experimental modal identification of an existent earthen residential building

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Rafael; Ramos, Luís F.; Torrealva, D.; Chácara, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary round of in-situ experimental tests carried out at “Hotel Comercio”, a historical construction located at the historical centre of Lima (capital of Peru). The building is a three story republican-type construction built at 19th Century with composite structure of Adobe and “Quincha”. The experimental works consisted on Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) tests aiming at identifying the dynamic characteristics of the building using the environmental noise as sou...

  14. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  15. Solar potential in existing urban layouts—Critical overview of the existing building stock in Slovenian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Košir, Mitja; Capeluto, Isaac Guedi; Krainer, Aleš; Kristl, Živa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years implementation of sustainable building design in the EU has become one of the key issues in reducing energy dependence. In this context efficient use of solar potential incident on building envelope is essential. The goal of the study is to evaluate the influence of interventions required by the new Slovenian legislation and to propose general site planning guidelines. Special emphasis is devoted to the existing building stock, which is due for refurbishment. The study is carried out on the basis of seven typical urban layouts, which are assessed according to the shape of layout, density, building orientation and design. The calculations are carried out with the program SHADING. The study showed that the existing layouts are not as problematic as had been expected and that form and orientation of buildings present a major challenge. Nevertheless, the quality and the duration of insolation are highly dependent on the specifics of each case. The study showed that by respecting the basic rules of good practice in conjunction with the existing requirements no major changes in the existing design principles are needed. - Highlights: • New Slovenian legislation regarding minimum insolation of building envelope. • Seven typical urban layouts were analysed. • Requirements and rules of good practice result in adequate insolation. • Duration of insolation is highly dependent on the specifics of each case

  16. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  17. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    For this project with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Home Innovation Research Labs, the retrofit insulated panels relied on an enhanced expanded polystyrene (EPS) for thermal resistance of R-4.5/inch, which is an improvement of 10% over conventional (white-colored) EPS. EPS, measured by its life cycle, is an alternative to commonly used extruded polystyrene and spray polyurethane foam. It is a closed-cell product made up of 90% air, and it requires about 85% fewer petroleum products for processing than other rigid foams.

  18. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  19. Multi-criteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision is an element in the risk management process. In this paper the way how science can help in decision making and implementation for retrofitting buildings in earthquake prone urban areas is investigated. In such interventions actors from various spheres are involved. Their interests range among minimising the intervention for maximal preservation or increasing it for seismic safety. Research was conducted to see how to facilitate collaboration between these actors. A particular attention was given to the role of time in actors' preferences. For this reason, on decision level, both the processural and the personal dimension of risk management, the later seen as a task, were considered. A systematic approach was employed to determine the functional structure of a participative decision model. Three layers on which actors implied in this multi-criteria decision problem interact were identified: town, building and element. So-called 'retrofit elements' are characteristic bearers in the architectural survey, engineering simulations, costs estimation and define the realms perceived by the inhabitants. This way they represent an interaction basis for the interest groups considered in a deeper study. Such orientation means for actors' interaction were designed on other levels of intervention as well. Finally, an 'experiment' for the implementation of the decision model is presented: a strategic plan for an urban intervention towards reduction of earthquake hazard impact through retrofitting. A systematic approach proves thus to be a very good communication basis among the participants in the seismic risk management process. Nevertheless, it can only be applied in later phases (decision, implementation, control only, since it serves verifying and improving solution and not developing the concept. The 'retrofit elements' are a typical example of the detailing degree reached in the retrofit design plans in these phases.

  20. Multi-criteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M. D.

    2004-08-01

    Decision is an element in the risk management process. In this paper the way how science can help in decision making and implementation for retrofitting buildings in earthquake prone urban areas is investigated. In such interventions actors from various spheres are involved. Their interests range among minimising the intervention for maximal preservation or increasing it for seismic safety. Research was conducted to see how to facilitate collaboration between these actors. A particular attention was given to the role of time in actors' preferences. For this reason, on decision level, both the processural and the personal dimension of risk management, the later seen as a task, were considered. A systematic approach was employed to determine the functional structure of a participative decision model. Three layers on which actors implied in this multi-criteria decision problem interact were identified: town, building and element. So-called 'retrofit elements' are characteristic bearers in the architectural survey, engineering simulations, costs estimation and define the realms perceived by the inhabitants. This way they represent an interaction basis for the interest groups considered in a deeper study. Such orientation means for actors' interaction were designed on other levels of intervention as well. Finally, an 'experiment' for the implementation of the decision model is presented: a strategic plan for an urban intervention towards reduction of earthquake hazard impact through retrofitting. A systematic approach proves thus to be a very good communication basis among the participants in the seismic risk management process. Nevertheless, it can only be applied in later phases (decision, implementation, control) only, since it serves verifying and improving solution and not developing the concept. The 'retrofit elements' are a typical example of the detailing degree reached in the retrofit design plans in these phases.

  1. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  2. Building on existing institutions to perpetuate knowledge of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzberg, A.

    1982-08-01

    Purpose of this report is to examine the function of several existing institutions and to show how they could be effectively used to transmit information about waste repositories for long times into the future. Scope of this report is limited to a discussion of four institutional approaches to the dissemination and retention of information: Widely distributed maps, the marker system of the National Geodetic Survey, the archiving of documents, and one-call systems designed to protect underground utility installations from inadvertent damage by the public. Each of these approaches is discussed in an independent section that describes the background of the institutional approach, discusses methods for applying it to waste repositories, and assesses its potential value. The sole intent of this report is to present supporting data for future decisions about the kinds of communication measures that should be implemented to advise future generations about the locations and hazards of waste repositories

  3. A Method to Estimate Energy Demand in Existing Buildings Based on the Danish Building and Dwellings Register (BBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    an energy label. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be used to estimate the energy demand in buildings specially dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR) and information on building regulations at construction year......The Energy Performance Directive requires energy certifications for buildings. This is implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold must have an energy performance label based on an evaluation from a visit to the building. The result is that only a small part of the existing houses has...... for the house. The result is an estimate for energy demand in each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. Then it is possible to find houses in need for thermal improvements. This method is tested for single family houses and flats. The paper...

  4. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...

  5. 13 CFR 120.131 - Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. 120.131 Section 120.131 Business Credit and Assistance... § 120.131 Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. (a) If the SBA...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  8. Best Practices for HPSB Guiding Principles Implementation in Existing DOE Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W.

    2014-05-06

    The intent of this paper is to document an approach to screening existing buildings at DOE sites for High-Performance and Sustainable Buildings (HPSB) Guiding Principles (GPs) potential, developing policies and programs to address a majority of the HPSB GPs, and how to prioritize buildings with the greatest potential. This paper will also include example strategies for HPSB inventory and projection schedules and best practices on approaching and interpreting select criteria that have been troublesome to sites.

  9. Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2009-04-03

    This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

  10. A proposal for seismic evaluation index of mid-rise existing RC buildings in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Ahmad; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    Mid-rise RC buildings gradually rise in Kabul and entire Afghanistan since 2001 due to rapid increase of population. To protect the safety of resident, Afghan Structure Code was issued in 2012. But the building constructed before 2012 failed to conform the code requirements. In Japan, new sets of rules and law for seismic design of buildings had been issued in 1981 and severe earthquake damage was disclosed for the buildings designed before 1981. Hence, the Standard for Seismic Evaluation of RC Building published in 1977 has been widely used in Japan to evaluate the seismic capacity of existing buildings designed before 1981. Currently similar problem existed in Afghanistan, therefore, this research examined the seismic capacity of six RC buildings which were built before 2012 in Kabul by applying the seismic screening procedure presented by Japanese standard. Among three screening procedures with different capability, the less detailed screening procedure, the first level of screening, is applied. The study founds an average seismic index (IS-average=0.21) of target buildings. Then, the results were compared with those of more accurate seismic evaluation procedures of Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) and Time History Analysis (THA). The results for CSM and THA show poor seismic performance of target buildings not able to satisfy the safety design limit (1/100) of the maximum story drift. The target buildings are then improved by installing RC shear walls. The seismic indices of these retrofitted buildings were recalculated and the maximum story drifts were analyzed by CSM and THA. The seismic indices and CSM and THA results are compared and found that building with seismic index larger than (IS-average =0.4) are able to satisfy the safety design limit. Finally, to screen and minimize the earthquake damage over the existing buildings, the judgement seismic index (IS-Judgment=0.5) for the first level of screening is proposed.

  11. State of the stock-What do we know about existing buildings and their future prospects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravetz, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The UK building stock has seen major changes in the last 50 years, in its form, fabric and function. The context is the expansion of the building stock and built infrastructure, which takes place in most areas at 1-2% per year, with the implication that up to 75% of the dwellings of the year 2050 already exist now. This is a major challenge. The energy performance of much of this stock is generally low, while its economic, social and cultural values are often high. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief outline of the state of knowledge of the existing building stock, and of potential advances in that knowledge. We follow a knowledge mapping approach, set out on several axes. The first is an axis from buildings as physical forms, to buildings as containers of socio-economic activity. Another axis spans between existing buildings, renovations and adaptations, and new buildings. A third axis is that of scale, from building components to large-scale settlements. There are many possible combinations of these parameters. Here we focus on those that are most relevant to the SEMBE goals of sustainable energy management across the whole building stock

  12. The potential to supply low temperature district heating to existing building area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating (LTDH) has the advantages as reduced network heat loss, improved quality match between energy supply and energy demand, and increased utilization of low-grade waste heat and renewable energy. The LTDH represents the next generation district heating (DH) system...... to supply existing building areas which are characterized with high heating demand needs to be examined. In this paper, the DH network deliverable capacity to supply LTDH to an existing building area is studied based on building thermal performance and DH network hydraulic performance simulation....

  13. Federal Existing Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy buildings to existing buildings in the federal sector. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  14. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  15. Issues to Be Solved for Energy Simulation of An Existing Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Uhn Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing focus on low energy buildings and the need to develop sustainable built environments, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS tools have been widely used. However, many issues remain when applying BEPS tools to existing buildings. This paper presents the issues that need to be solved for the application of BEPS tools to an existing office building. The selected building is an office building with 33 stories above ground, six underground levels, and a total floor area of 91,898 m2. The issues to be discussed in this paper are as follows: (1 grey data not ready for simulation; (2 subjective assumptions and judgments on energy modeling; (3 stochastic characteristics of building performance and occupants behavior; (4 verification of model fidelity-comparison of aggregated energy; (5 verification of model fidelity-calibration by trial and error; and (6 use of simulation model for real-time energy management. This study investigates the aforementioned issues and explains the factors that should be considered to address these issues when developing a dynamic simulation model for existing buildings.

  16. Computer aided seismic and fire retrofitting analysis of existing high rise reinforced concrete buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Raja Rizwan; Hasan, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This book details the analysis and design of high rise buildings for gravity and seismic analysis. It provides the knowledge structural engineers need to retrofit existing structures in order to meet safety requirements and better prevent potential damage from such disasters as earthquakes and fires. Coverage includes actual case studies of existing buildings, reviews of current knowledge for damages and their mitigation, protective design technologies, and analytical and computational techniques. This monograph also provides an experimental investigation on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete that consists of natural fibres like coconut coir and also steel fibres that are used for comparison in both Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Strength Concrete (HSC). In addition, the authors examine the use of various repair techniques for damaged high rise buildings. The book will help upcoming structural design engineers learn the computer aided analysis and design of real existing high rise buildings ...

  17. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  18. Efficient Solutions and Cost-Optimal Analysis for Existing School Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recast of the energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD describes a comparative methodological framework to promote energy efficiency and establish minimum energy performance requirements in buildings at the lowest costs. The aim of the cost-optimal methodology is to foster the achievement of nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs, the new target for all new buildings by 2020, characterized by a high performance with a low energy requirement almost covered by renewable sources. The paper presents the results of the application of the cost-optimal methodology in two existing buildings located in the Mediterranean area. These buildings are a kindergarten and a nursery school that differ in construction period, materials and systems. Several combinations of measures have been applied to derive cost-effective efficient solutions for retrofitting. The cost-optimal level has been identified for each building and the best performing solutions have been selected considering both a financial and a macroeconomic analysis. The results illustrate the suitability of the methodology to assess cost-optimality and energy efficiency in school building refurbishment. The research shows the variants providing the most cost-effective balance between costs and energy saving. The cost-optimal solution reduces primary energy consumption by 85% and gas emissions by 82%–83% in each reference building.

  19. Stiff Columns as Liquefaction Mitigation Measure for Retrofit of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ground reinforcement with jet grouted columns under shallow foundations of existing buildings was analysed using numerical modelling. This study is related with ground reinforcement by installing stiff jet grouted columns around the shallow foundations of existing building when the foundation soil is liquefied during an earthquake. The isolated shallow square footing pad supporting a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the reinforced ground with stiff jet grouted column rows at the shallow depth from the ground surface. This soil-structure system was modelled and analyzed as plane-strain using the FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua 2D dynamic modelling and analysis software. The results showed that liquefaction-induced large settlement of shallow foundation of existing building can be reduced to tolerable limits by applying ground reinforcement with continuous rows vertical jet grouted columns adjacent to footing pad.

  20. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  1. From Point Clouds to Building Information Models: 3D Semi-Automatic Reconstruction of Indoors of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Macher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The creation of as-built Building Information Models requires the acquisition of the as-is state of existing buildings. Laser scanners are widely used to achieve this goal since they permit to collect information about object geometry in form of point clouds and provide a large amount of accurate data in a very fast way and with a high level of details. Unfortunately, the scan-to-BIM (Building Information Model process remains currently largely a manual process which is time consuming and error-prone. In this paper, a semi-automatic approach is presented for the 3D reconstruction of indoors of existing buildings from point clouds. Several segmentations are performed so that point clouds corresponding to grounds, ceilings and walls are extracted. Based on these point clouds, walls and slabs of buildings are reconstructed and described in the IFC format in order to be integrated into BIM software. The assessment of the approach is proposed thanks to two datasets. The evaluation items are the degree of automation, the transferability of the approach and the geometric quality of results of the 3D reconstruction. Additionally, quality indexes are introduced to inspect the results in order to be able to detect potential errors of reconstruction.

  2. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  3. Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Making to Renovation of Multi-Residential Historic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Flourentzou, Flourentzos; Thalmann, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    project, which fulfills simultaneously and optimally all three pillars of sustainability. Multiple criteria decision making methodologies can help to improve the decision environment and handle the whole space of constraints. It therefore leads the stakeholders to find consensual solutions. In this paper...

  4. Predicted carbonation of existing concrete building based on the Indonesian tropical micro-climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmy, M.; Prabowo, H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is aimed to predict the carbonation progress based on the previous mathematical model. It shortly explains the nature of carbonation including the processes and effects. Environmental humidity and temperature of the existing concrete building are measured and compared to data from local Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency. The data gained are expressed in the form of annual hygrothermal values which will use as the input parameter in carbonation model. The physical properties of the observed building such as its location, dimensions, and structural material used are quantified. These data then utilized as an important input parameter for carbonation coefficients. The relationships between relative humidity and the rate of carbonation established. The results can provide a basis for repair and maintenance of existing concrete buildings and the sake of service life analysis of them.

  5. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    . The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area.......This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low...

  6. Improvement of energy performances of existing buildings by application of solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić-Furundžić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of energy performances of the existing buildings in the suburban settlement Konjarnik in Belgrade, by the application of solar thermal systems is the topic presented in this paper. Hypothetical models of building improvements are created to allow the benefits of applying solar thermal collectors to residential buildings in Belgrade climate conditions to be estimated. This case study presents different design variants of solar thermal collectors integrated into a multifamily building envelope. The following aspects of solar thermal systems integration are analyzed in the paper: energy, architectural, ecological and economic. The results show that in Belgrade climatic conditions significant energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions can be obtained with the application of solar thermal collectors.

  7. A study on building performance analysis for energy retrofit of existing industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlis, Georgios; Kovacic, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal simulation of a historical industrial hall with limited data availability. • Considering waste heat from machinery after measuring production fluctuations. • Test of retrofit alternatives for roof and skylights. • Results indicate a significant reduction in heating energy demand up to 52%. • After retrofit naturally ventilated hall can achieve thermal comfort in summer. - Abstract: Due to the strengthening of regulations and codes on building energy performance, as well as with the application of national legislations regarding energy management and efficiency, existing industrial facilities are using thermal refurbishment and renovation as impetus for increasing their overall energy efficiency. This paper analyzes a building envelope refurbishment for a case study of an existing historical industrial facility. Critical parameters affecting energy performance of industrial buildings were identified by reviewing relevant literate. Two retrofit scenarios were developed and dynamic thermal simulation using EnergyPlus was implemented to evaluate the potential for improvement. Thereby the impact of interior loads was considered, determined by measurements conducted on factory machines, occupancy and lighting operation patterns. However, information regarding constructions of the existing facility and installed technical building services is limited. There is also uncertainty in the quantification of natural ventilation air change rate for such buildings. To overcome these limitations a study of various material databases was carried out, in order to assess data for building envelope composition. Input values for missing data were provided based on literature, allowing a fair comparison between refurbishment alternatives. Simulation results showed that the heating demand of the facility could be reduced up to 52%, indicating a significant potential for energy savings. Beyond that, thermal performance against summer overheating also

  8. Energy saving in existing buildings by an intelligent use of interoperable ICTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osello, A.; Acquaviva, A.; Aghemo, C.; Blaso, L.; Dalmasso, D.; Erba, D.; Fracastoro, G.; Macii, E.; Patti, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Piumatti, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Gondre, D.; Savoyat, J.; Virgone, J. [University Lyon, Lyon (France); Jahn, M.; Pramudianto, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Spirito, M.; Tomasi, R. [Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB), Torino (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we report a methodology, developed in the context of Smart Energy Efficient Middleware for Public Spaces European Project, aimed at exploiting ICT monitoring and control services to reduce energy usage and CO2 footprint in existing buildings. The approach does not require significant construction work as it is based on commercial-off-the-shelf devices and, where present, it exploits and integrates existing building management systems with new sensors and actuator networks. To make this possible, the proposed approach leverages upon the following main contributions: (a) to develop an integrated building automation and control system, (b) to implement a middleware for the energy-efficient buildings domain, (c) to provide a multi-dimensional building information modelling-based visualisation, and (d) to raise people's awareness about energy efficiency. The research approach adopted in the project started with the selection, as case studies, of representative test and reference rooms in modern and historical buildings chosen for having different requirements and constraints in term of sensing and control technologies. Then, according to the features of the selected rooms, the strategies to reduce the energy consumptions were defined, taking into account the potential savings related to lighting, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and other device loads (PC, printers, etc.). The strategies include both the control of building services and devices and the monitoring of environmental conditions and energy consumption. In the paper, the energy savings estimated through simulation, for both HVAC and lighting, are presented to highlight the potential of the designed system. After the implementation of the system in the demonstrator, results will be compared with the monitored data.

  9. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, S.; Zlateva, M.; Gechkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is for the technical possibilities for reducing the energy consumption in existing buildings by means of the heat control and measurement. The basic performances of the heat capacity control methods, of the hierarchy structure of the control and of the heat measurement technologies are presented. This paper also presents the results from the long-term investigation of energy consumption for heating. The results area consist of three typical and uniform buildings in the city of Kazanlak (Bulgaria). The outcome of the investigation provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results to be transferred. (Authors)

  10. Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.C.; Hodgson, R.D.; Sabin, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft 2 of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft 2 while new construction will cost about $50 per ft 2 . Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities

  11. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, A.; ElSherbini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  12. Estimation of the behavior factor of existing RC-MRF buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, Marco; Mastroberti, Monica

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, several research groups have studied a new generation of analysis methods for seismic response assessment of existing buildings. Nevertheless, many important developments are still needed in order to define more reliable and effective assessment procedures. Moreover, regarding existing buildings, it should be highlighted that due to the low knowledge level, the linear elastic analysis is the only analysis method allowed. The same codes (such as NTC2008, EC8) consider the linear dynamic analysis with behavior factor as the reference method for the evaluation of seismic demand. This type of analysis is based on a linear-elastic structural model subject to a design spectrum, obtained by reducing the elastic spectrum through a behavior factor. The behavior factor (reduction factor or q factor in some codes) is used to reduce the elastic spectrum ordinate or the forces obtained from a linear analysis in order to take into account the non-linear structural capacities. The behavior factors should be defined based on several parameters that influence the seismic nonlinear capacity, such as mechanical materials characteristics, structural system, irregularity and design procedures. In practical applications, there is still an evident lack of detailed rules and accurate behavior factor values adequate for existing buildings. In this work, some investigations of the seismic capacity of the main existing RC-MRF building types have been carried out. In order to make a correct evaluation of the seismic force demand, actual behavior factor values coherent with force based seismic safety assessment procedure have been proposed and compared with the values reported in the Italian seismic code, NTC08.

  13. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  14. The Application of Buckling Reinforced Bracing and Shear Wall in Retrofitting of Existing Concrete Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Izadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained different rehabilitation systems. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. Several retrofitting techniques such as addition masonry infill wall, application of buckling restrained braces and local modification of components has been studied in order to improve the overall seismic performance of such buildings. In response to many of the practical issues and economic considerations, engineers use often convergent unbuckling steel bracing frames as the lateral load resisting system during an earthquake.This kind of bracings increases the hardness and strength of concrete structures.The aim of the present study is the evaluation and comparison of seismic performance and retrofitting of an existing 7-storeys concrete structure with buckling restrained bracings and shear walls by nonlinear static procedure (NSP and accordance with cod-361. The results show that the buckling restrained bracing, decreased drift to acceptable levels and Structure behaves on the life safety of performance level.

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Seismic Retrofit Strategies Applied to Existing Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Vitiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the renovation and refurbishment of existing buildings have become the main activities of the construction industry. In particular, many studies have recently focused on the mechanical and energy performances of existing retrofitted/refurbished facilities, while some research has addressed the environmental effects of such operations. The present study aims to assess the environmental impact of some retrofit interventions on an existing reinforced concrete (RC building. Once the structural requirements have been satisfied and the environmental effects of these retrofit solutions defined, the final purpose of this study is to identify the most environmentally sustainable retrofit strategy. The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed using a life-cycle assessment (LCA. This paper sets out a systematic approach that can be adopted when choosing the best structural retrofit option in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of the study is to also provide a tool for researchers and practitioners that reflects a deep understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations and can be used for future researches or practical activities.

  16. A brief comparison of existing regional green building design standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Ren, J.; Cho, S.

    2017-03-01

    A large country with a variety of regional natural, cultural and economic conditions, China has established a number of green building design (GBD) standards both at national and regional (provincial and municipal) levels. Some researches have been conducted to review and compare such standards. The main aim was to provide valuable references for the establishment of new regionally specific GBD standards in different regions of the country. This paper introduces the preliminary results of the researches. The distribution, frameworks and content of the existing regional GBD standards are introduced and compared in relating to the regionally specific climate, resource, economic and cultural conditions. Conclusions are provided and further researches are recommended.

  17. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  18. Alternative for Summer Use of Solar Air Heaters in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. González-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among solar thermal technologies for indoor heating, solar air heaters (SAH are appealing for implementation on existing buildings due to their simplicity, fewer risks related to the working fluid, and possible independence from the building structure. However, existing research work mainly focuses on winter use and still fails in providing effective solutions for yearly operation, which would enhance their interest. With the aim of analysing an alternative summer use, this work firstly characterises a double channel-single pass solar air collector through experimentation. From the obtained results, modelling and simulation tasks have been conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using hot air, provided by the SAH, while operating under summer conditions within a closed loop, to feed an air-to-water heat exchanger for domestic hot water (DHW production. The system is studied through simulation under two different configurations for a case study in Valladolid (Spain, during the period from May to September for different airflows in the closed loop. Results show that daily savings can vary from 27% to 85% among the different operating conditions; a configuration where make-up water is fed to the heat exchanger being preferable, with a dedicated water tank for the solar heated water storage of the minimum possible volume. The more favourable results for the harshest months highlight the interest of extending the use of the solar air heaters to the summer period.

  19. Rapid energy modeling for existing buildings: Testing the business and environmental potential through an experiment at Autodesk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deodhar, Aniruddha; Stewart, Emma; Young, Rahul; Khan, Haider

    2010-09-15

    Retrofits of existing buildings represent a huge, growing market and an opportunity to achieve some of the most sizable and cost-effective carbon reductions in any sector of the economy. More 'zero energy' and 'carbon neutral' buildings are being conceived daily by combining energy efficiency measures with renewable energy technologies. However, for all the progress, the building industry faces technical and cost challenges in identifying the highest potential retrofit candidates. This presentation investigates one potential solution, a technology driven workflow called rapid energy modeling, to accelerate and scale the process of analyzing performance for existing buildings in prioritizing improvements.

  20. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  1. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  2. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  3. How to simulate pedestrian behaviors in seismic evacuation for vulnerability reduction of existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and representing how individuals behave in earthquake emergencies would be essentially to assess the impact of vulnerability reduction strategies on existing buildings in seismic areas. In fact, interactions between individuals and the scenario (modified by the earthquake occurrence) are really important in order to understand the possible additional risks for people, especially during the evacuation phase. The current approach is based on "qualitative" aspects, in order to define best practice guidelines for Civil Protection and populations. On the contrary, a "quantitative" description of human response and evacuation motion in similar conditions is urgently needed. Hence, this work defines the rules for pedestrians' earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios, by taking advantages of previous results of real-world evacuation analyses. In particular, motion laws for pedestrians is defined by modifying the Social Force model equation. The proposed model could be used for evaluating individuals' evacuation process and so for defining operative strategies for interferences reduction in critical urban fabric parts (e.g.: interventions on particular buildings, evacuation strategies definition, city parts projects).

  4. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  5. Study on post occupancy evaluation after remodeling in accordance with the `green remodeling certification standards of existing non-residential buildings'- Focusing on the case of H building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyungjoo; Cho, Dongwoo; Yoon, Yosun

    2018-06-01

    South Korea has adopted the Paris Convention and promised to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 37% from business-as-usual (BAU) levels in the `First Basic Plan to Respond to Climate Change'. The reduction goal of greenhouse gas cannot be achieved considering only new buildings; the analysis results shows that the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from existing buildings is essential. `The Green Remodeling Certification Standards', established in South Korea in 2016, is in line with the above plan. The post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of remodeled buildings after applying the `Green Remodeling Certification Standards of Existing Buildings' must be studied for expansion of this scheme. The study results are expected to be used as foundational data for the promotion of remodeling existing buildings.

  6. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Appendices to report, Phase I, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A blank form of Questionnaire No. 1 is first presented, followed by data compiled from that questionnaire. Then data are presented on the analyses of the 436 buildings, statistical validation for selection of the 44 building sample, and some examples of the matching buildings for the 44 building sample. Questionnaire No. 2 is then given, followed by additional data collected from the study concerning energy consumption and building characteristics. To complete the appendices, a simulation of a typical building and a hypothetical building is included. (MCW)

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media - An Idea Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Stacy [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with remodelers and retrofit projects to improve energy efficiency and deliver research results from the Building America program to remodelers.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, S.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with remodelers and retrofit projects to improve energy efficiency and deliver research results from the Building America program to remodelers.

  9. Use of building typologies for energy performance assessment of national building stocks. Existent experiences in European Countries and common approach. First TABULA synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    The present study examines the experiences with building typologies in the European countries. The objective is to learn how to structure the variety of energy-related features of existing build-ings. As a result of the enquiry it can be stated that there are a lot of different activities which are based on typological criteria. Some of them are concentrating on providing information material and conducting energy advice. On the other hand, building types are used for a better understand-ing of the energy performance of building portfolios on different levels: from the strategic planning of housing companies up to the evaluation of national policies and measures in the building sector. On the basis of these experiences a common approach for building typologies has been devel-oped. The core elements of this harmonised approach are a classification systematic, a structure for building and supply system data and a coherent energy balance method. Furthermore a uni-form classification of statistical data enables a concerted approach for designing national building stock models. Finally, a concise itinerary is described which allows experts to develop step by step a national or regional building typology which are compatible with the common TABULA approach. (orig.)

  10. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  11. Assessment of Seismic Damage on The Exist Buildings Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, USTA; Nihat, MOROVA; EVCİ, Ahmet; ERGÜN, Serap

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake as a natural disaster could damage the lives of many people and buildings all over the world. These is micvulnerability of the buildings needs to be evaluated. Accurate evaluation of damage sustained by buildings during natural disaster events is critical to determine the buildings safety and their suitability for future occupancy. The earthquake is one of the disasters that structures face the most. There fore, there is a need to evaluate seismic damage and vulnerability of the buildings to protect them. These days fuzzy systems have been widely used in different fields of science because of its simpli city and efficiency. Fuzzy logic provides a suitable framework for reasoning, deduction, and decision making in fuzzy conditions. In this paper, studies on earthquake hazard evaluation of buildings by fuzzy logic modeling concepts in the literature have been investigated and evaluated, as a whole.

  12. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  13. Façade system for existing office buildings in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates solutions for facade renovation of general office buildings built between 1960 and 1980 in the Copenhagen Municipality. 44 buildings are used for the study. They share common structural and construction principles like the use of beams and columns and prefabricated elements...

  14. Mobilisation of the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings; Mobilisierung der energetischen Erneuerungspotenziale im Wohnbaubestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Kaufmann, Y. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Ott, A. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of an energy-policy project that looked into the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings. The report presents an analysis of the situation as far as buildings, their ownership and the development of renovation work is concerned. Also, the results of a survey made under the owners of buildings and managers of real estate with respect to building renovation aspects are presented and discussed. Further, an analysis of problems arising from deficits in the renewal of energy-relevant components is provided and background and motivation for the renewal of buildings are looked at. Also, economic aspects and sustainability issues are considered. A further chapter covers strategies and measures that can be used to mobilise the renewal potential, including legislature and labelling systems.

  15. ENERGY DEMANDS OF THE EXISTING COLLECTIVE BUILDINGS WITH BEARING STRUCTURE OF LARGE PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FROM TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescari S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the targets of EU Directives on the energy performance of buildings is to reduce the energy consumption of the existing buildings by finding efficient solutions for thermal rehabilitation. In order to find the adequate solutions, the first step is to establish the current state of the buildings and to determine their actual energy consumption. The current paper aims to present the energy demands of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in the city of Timisoara. Timisoara is one of the most important cities in the west side of Romania, being on the third place in terms of size and economic development. The Census of Population and Housing of 2011 states that Timisoara has about 127841 private dwellings and 60 percent of them are collective buildings. Energy demand values of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in Timisoara, in their current condition, are higher than the accepted values provided in the Romanian normative, C107. The difference between these two values can reach up to 300 percent.

  16. Low-energy office buildings using existing technology. Simulations with low internal heat gains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodberg, Kajsa; Blomsterberg, Aake; Dubois, Marie-Claude [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Building Design

    2012-11-01

    Although low-energy and nearly zero-energy residential houses have been built in Sweden in the past decade, there are very few examples of low-energy office buildings. This paper investigates the design features affecting energy use in office buildings and suggests the optimal low-energy design from a Swedish perspective. Dynamic simulations have been carried out with IDA ICE 4 on a typical narrow office building with perimeter cell rooms. The results from the parametric study reveal that the most important design features for energy saving are demand-controlled ventilation as well as limited glazing on the facade. Further energy-saving features are efficient lighting and office equipment which strongly reduce user-related electricity and cooling energy. Together, the simulation results suggest that about 48% energy can be saved compared to a new office building built according to the Swedish building code. Thus, it is possible, using a combination of simple and well-known building technologies and configurations, to have very low energy use in new office buildings. If renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and wind power, are added, there is a potential for the annual energy production to exceed the annual energy consumption and a net zero-energy building can be reached. One aspect of the results concerns user-related electricity, which becomes a major energy post in very low-energy offices and which is rarely regulated in building codes today. This results not only in high electricity use, but also in large internal heat gains and unnecessary high cooling loads given the high latitude and cold climate. (orig.)

  17. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Bianchi, Marcus [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the initial Phase 1 test process for testing the reliability of software models that predict retrofit energy savings of existing homes, including their associated calibration methods.

  18. Distributed demand-side management optimisation for multi-residential users with energy production and storage strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chifuel Manasseh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considers load control in a multi-residential setup where energy scheduler (ES devices installed in smart meters are employed for demand-side management (DSM. Several residential end-users share the same energy source and each residential user has non-adjustable loads and adjustable loads. In addition, residential users may have storage devices and renewable energy sources such as wind turbines or solar as well as dispatchable generators. The ES devices exchange information automatically by executing an iterative distributed algorithm to locate the optimal energy schedule for each end-user. This will reduce the total energy cost and the peak-to-average ratio (PAR in energy demand in the electric power distribution. Users possessing storage devices and dispatchable generators strategically utilise their resources to minimise the total energy cost together with the PAR. Simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed game theoretic-based distributed DSM technique.

  19. Seismic assessment of existing RC buildings under alternative ground motion ensembles compatible to EC8 and NTC 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanganelli, Marco; Viti, Stefania; Mariani, V.; Pianigiani, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of the choice of different ensembles of ground motions on the seismic assessment of existing RC buildings through nonlinear dynamic analysis. Nowadays indeed, all the main International Seismic Codes provide a soil classification which is based on the shear wave

  20. On the effectiveness of smart technologies in the seismic protection of existing buildings Part I: Masonry structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandara, A.; Ramundo, F.; Spina, G.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of a study concerning innovative intervention techniques for dissipate a share of the input seismic energy compatible with the preservation of existing buildings, including historical and monumental constructions, is presented in this paper. The case of a typical scheme of a long-bay box-like masonry building fitted with a dissipative floating roof is analyzed. In the examined building a wide simulation analysis has shown the achievement of a very satisfying performance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the system can be maximized by means of active or semi-active devices implemented in the floating roof and a significant reduction of the seismic impact on the building can be obtained compared with non-controlled or simply passively controlled structure. The results prove the remarkable increase of the energy dissipation capability of the system, as well as the reduction of structural damage, independently of any specific strengthening intervention

  1. Modeling Boston: A workflow for the efficient generation and maintenance of urban building energy models from existing geospatial datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezo Davila, Carlos; Reinhart, Christoph F.; Bemis, Jamie L.

    2016-01-01

    City governments and energy utilities are increasingly focusing on the development of energy efficiency strategies for buildings as a key component in emission reduction plans and energy supply strategies. To support these diverse needs, a new generation of Urban Building Energy Models (UBEM) is currently being developed and validated to estimate citywide hourly energy demands at the building level. However, in order for cities to rely on UBEMs, effective model generation and maintenance workflows are needed based on existing urban data structures. Within this context, the authors collaborated with the Boston Redevelopment Authority to develop a citywide UBEM based on official GIS datasets and a custom building archetype library. Energy models for 83,541 buildings were generated and assigned one of 52 use/age archetypes, within the CAD modelling environment Rhinoceros3D. The buildings were then simulated using the US DOE EnergyPlus simulation program, and results for buildings of the same archetype were crosschecked against data from the US national energy consumption surveys. A district-level intervention combining photovoltaics with demand side management is presented to demonstrate the ability of UBEM to provide actionable information. Lack of widely available archetype templates and metered energy data, were identified as key barriers within existing workflows that may impede cities from effectively applying UBEM to guide energy policy. - Highlights: • Data requirements for Urban Building Energy Models are reviewed. • A workflow for UBEM generation from available GIS datasets is developed. • A citywide demand simulation model for Boston is generated and tested. • Limitations for UBEM in current urban data systems are identified and discussed. • Model application for energy management policy is shown in an urban PV scenario.

  2. Transforming the existing building stock to high performed energy efficient and experienced architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    The project Sustainable Renovation examines the challenge of the current and future architectural renovation of Danish suburbs which were designed in the period from 1945 to 1973. The research project takes its starting point in the perspectives of energy optimization and the fact that the building...

  3. Utilizing 3D building and 3D cadastre geometries for better valuation of existing real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isikdag, U.; Horhammer, M.; Zlatanova, S.; Kathmann, R.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of the properties is known as real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation and is a process which focuses on determining the value of a building or a land lot. The valuation of each real estate is required prior to any transaction as every property is unique in terms of

  4. 55% Tax Deductions for the Energy Requalification of existing buildings in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, G.

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Italian budget law set 55% tax allowances till the end of 2010 for works aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of buildings for winter heating. This article examines the results obtained in the 2007 outreach campaign both in terms of energy and environmental benefits and of service offered to technicians and professionals. [it

  5. Knowledge inventory for resource efficiency measures in existing buildings; Kunskapsinventering avseende resurseffektiviserande aatgaerder inom befintlig bebyggelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnehammar, Anna; Kildsgaard, Ivana; Prejer, Erik

    2011-07-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge for various renovation measures of apartment buildings built between 1941-1980. The renovation potential is estimated to give half the energy use for heating and hot water. This efficiency improvement is considered possible, but not likely. There are many case studies of individual projects with theoretical calculations of renovation potential for different measures. There are relatively many general studies of the housing stock in general where the potential for various measures have been calculated for the whole of Sweden, but few studies of actual projects completed. Binding minimum requirements related to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) for buildings for renovation has been introduced in several other countries in the EU which is also found to contribute to more energy-efficient measures introduced in major renovation projects. The key measures that we have found is the introduction of FTX system, renovation of the building envelope as well as individual metering and billing of heating and hot water.

  6. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  7. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  8. Development of weightage for criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in Higher Learning Institution with clean energy initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izie Adiana Abidin, Nur; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Siti; Sahamir, Shaza Rina; Shahzaib, Jam; Nafis Abas, Darul

    2018-04-01

    Campus university building is the Higher Learning Institution (HLI) involves complex activities and operations, conserving the energy has become paramount important. There are several efforts taken by universities to improve its current energy use such as policy development, education, and adaption of energy conservation solution through retrofitting. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing buildings with clean energy in order to achieve zero energy balance in buildings. The focus is given to the development of criteria for solar photovoltaic (solar PV), wind turbines and small-scale hydropower. A questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the green building expert practitioner. Factor Analysis, Factor Score, and Weightage Factor were adapted as a method of analysis in order to produce the final result with weightage output for prioritization and ranking of the relevant criteria. The result performed assists to provide the stakeholders an overview of the important criteria that should be considered especially during the decision making to retrofit the existing buildings with clean energy resources. The criteria developed are also to establish a structured decision-making process and to ensure the selection of the decision or alternatives achieve the desired outcome.

  9. Use Of Snow And Ice Melting Heating Cables On Roofs Of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin ONAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roofs are construction elements which form the upper part of a building and protect it from the all kinds of fall wind and sun lights. They are made as inclined or terrace shaped according to the climatic characteristics of the area they are located and their intended use. Inclined type roofs are preferred for aesthetic and or functionality. It is in interest of mechanical engineering that falling snow on long and effective regions of winter conditions accumulate on the roof surfaces with low inclination due to adhesion force between snowflakes and the roof covering. The mass of snow that turns into ice due to cold weather and wind creates stalactites in the eaves due to gravity. This snow mass leavesbreaks off from inclined surfaces due to the effect of the sun or any vibration and can damage to people or other objects around the building. Falling snow and ice masses from rooftops in urban areas where winter months are intense are also a matter for engineering applications of landscape architecture. In order to prevent snow and icing on the roofs of the buildings located especially in busy human and vehicle traffic routes the use of heating cables is a practical method. The icing can be prevented by means of the heating cables selected according to the installed power to be calculated based on the type of roof and the current country. The purpose of this study is to introduce heating systems to be mounted on the roofs with a lesser workmanship in a short period instead of difficulties and costs that would occur by increasing the roof inclination in present buildings as well as explaining their working principles.

  10. Factors Influencing the Usage of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Existing Residential Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olugbemileke Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as a developing nation is facing increasing demand for electricity especially in the residential areas. The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs is one of the several measures towards reducing the demand. However, in Nigeria, the use of CFLs is low. The present study was designed to investigate some factors responsible for the low usage of CFLs in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered by hand on 984 households, selected through systematic random sampling techniques from 5 local government areas in Lagos State. The first building along the major street in each of the local government was selected randomly and every tenth building constituted the sample. A household head was surveyed in each of the building selected, and was asked to rate some factors that might have influenced the usage of CFLs. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using ranking method. The findings show that inability to measure the saving benefits of CFLs on electricity bills, lack of affordability and high initial cost of acquisition and installation were the most important factors which influence the use of the CFLs. The study concludes by providing some recommendations on how to achieve sustainable energy management in the Lagos and beyond through more efficient residential house lighting.

  11. Transforming the existing building stock to high performed energy efficient and experienced architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    architectural heritage to energy efficiency and from architectural quality to sustainability. The first, second and third renovations are discussed from financial and sustainable view points. The role of housing related to the public energy supply system and the relation between the levels of renovation......The project Sustainable Renovation examines the challenge of the current and future architectural renovation of Danish suburbs which were designed in the period from 1945 to 1973. The research project takes its starting point in the perspectives of energy optimization and the fact that the building...

  12. Technological retrofit of existing buildings: dwelling quality, environmental sustainability, economic rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bellomo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Redevelopment can stand as an effective response to the converging ecological, energy and economic crises if the energy efficiency of the built heritage can be enhanced using renewable energy and innovative technologies with a low environmental impact. To this end, the Research Unit Technology and Environment, University of Naples Federico II, is undertaking a structured set of studies addressing the issue of retrofit technology of buildings in Campania put up in the second half of the 20th century to help in defining best practices for planning, design and production.

  13. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m 2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  14. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  15. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  16. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is aiming for a fossil-free heating sector for buildings by 2035. Judging by the national heating plan, this will be achieved mainly by a further spread of DH (district heating) based on the renewable heat sources. To make the most cost-effective use of these sources, the DH supply...... and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...... temperature should be as low as possible. We used IDA–ICE software to simulate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1970s connected to DH at three different stages of envelope and space heating system refurbishment. We wanted to investigate how low the DH supply temperature can be without reducing...

  17. Existence and control of Legionella bacteria in building water systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, John P; Yocavitch, Liana

    2017-02-01

    Legionellae are waterborne bacteria which are capable of causing potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease (LD), as well as Pontiac Fever. Public concern about Legionella exploded following the 1976 outbreak at the American Legion conference in Philadelphia, where 221 attendees contracted pneumonia and 34 died. Since that time, a variety of different control methods and strategies have been developed and implemented in an effort to eradicate Legionella from building water systems. Despite these efforts, the incidence of LD has been steadily increasing in the U.S. for more than a decade. Public health and occupational hygiene professionals have maintained an active debate regarding best practices for management and control of Legionella. Professional opinion remains divided with respect to the relative merits of performing routine sampling for Legionella, vs. the passive, reactive approach that has been largely embraced by public health officials and facility owners. Given the potential risks and ramifications associated with waiting to assess systems for Legionella until after disease has been identified and confirmed, a proactive approach of periodic testing for Legionella, along with proper water treatment, is the best approach to avoiding large-scale disease outbreaks.

  18. Social Housing in Urban Regeneration. Regeneration Heritage Existing Building: Methods and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Giannino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theme of urban regeneration has played a strategic role during the last two decades in European and national urban building policies. Current addresses, also defined in Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities in 2007, indentify the necessity to invest in requalification of degraded residential assets and not in new developments, individuating in urban regeneration the main tool for development of contemporary city. Public neighborhoods have developed, historically, a wide set of common problems. They are not only due to wrong planning but also to the concept of “housing for masses”.  The original ambition of modern settlment, developed from GermanSiedlung, was to be an autonomous part, on the point of view of morphology, in urban expansion. Joined by new developments, a lot of neighborhoods became benchmarks for suburban areas and now we can define themas “new urban centralities”. So theirrole in urbandynamics has changed and they can be individuate dasprecious reserves of public spaces and potential incubators for regeneration of larger areas. Analyzing some Italian and European case studies, themostinnovative relate to the densification of open spaces, inserting new services in a general redesign of green areas; concentration of built surfaces, in order to reduce land consumption and introduction of different residential types in order to improve mischbebauung. The reasons for an active recovery are motivated by the criteria of environmental sustainability and saving land, have relaunched compact projects with medium to highdensity.

  19. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  20. Numerical analysis of passive strategies for energy retrofit of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate: thermal mass and natural ventilation combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcerano Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of coupling natural ventilation and thermal storage systems to improve hygrothermal comfort and reduce energy consumption during summer season in an existing building in the Mediterranean. It aims at bridging the knowledge gap between designers, researchers and building scientists, fostering a multidisciplinary approach and promoting numerical simulation of the energy performance of buildings within architectural professional practice. The study analyses the interaction between six natural ventilation systems (single sided ventilation through facade openings; cross ventilation through facade openings, inlet wind tower, thermal chimney, evaporative cool tower, earth pipes and with two thermal storage typology (heavy and medium-light within four strategic Italian location (Rome, Naples, Messina and Catania. For each interaction we perform a numerical dynamic simulation of indoor comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption during the summer period, on a reference building model corresponding to the most common Italian typology. Results show that the use of the chosen systems ensures significant reductions of discomfort hours and energy consumption in all configurations. The study also highlights the high efficiency of non invasive systems (single-sided and cross ventilation with automatic control present discomfort hours reduction and energy consumption reduction above 68% for all combinations and the significant influence of the daily thermal range value on the performance of systems without air pre-treatment.

  1. Study on the Application of Cool Paintings for the Passive Cooling of Existing Buildings in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building roofs play a very important role in the energy balance of buildings, especially in summer, when they are hit by a rather high solar irradiance. Depending on the type of finishing layer, roofs can absorb a great amount of heat and reach quite high temperatures on their outermost surface, which determines significant room overheating. However, the use of highly reflectivecool materials can help to maintain low outer surface temperatures; this practice may improve indoor thermal comfort and reduce the cooling energy need during the hot season. This technology is currently well known and widely used in the USA, whilereceiving increasing attention in Europe. In order to investigate the effectiveness of cool roofs as a passive strategy for passive cooling in moderately hot climates, this paper presents the numerical results of a case study based on the dynamic thermal analysis of an existing office building in Catania (southern Italy, Mediterranean area. The results show how the application of a cool paint on the roof can enhance the thermal comfort of the occupants by reducing the operative temperatures of the rooms and to reduce the overall energy needs of the building for space heating and cooling.

  2. Pattern analysis and suggestion of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Shilei; Wu Yong; Sun Jinying

    2009-01-01

    In China, Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings (EERFERB) is faced with a fast development status. The Central Government decided to prompt the retrofit of 1.5x10 8 m 2 existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region during the '11th Five-Years Plan'. But, at present, the relative incentive policies and measurements are very insufficient. Especially, on the aspect of the retrofit pattern about the organization, retrofit content, investing and financing mode, the policy and management and other factors, no existing successful one can be spreaded into the whole northern heating region. This research not only analyzed the foreign advanced methods, drew lessons from their retrofit in Germany and Poland, but contrasted and analyzed energy efficiency retrofit demonstrations from Harbin, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baotou in China to get our domestic successful patterns and experience. Finally, some recommended retrofit patterns are presented, which can be applied for the instruction and decision-making for the Chinese local governments.

  3. Energy efficiency in existing buildings: investment gap, incentives and supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varenio, Celine

    2012-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on energy efficiency policies in housing. It aims at evaluating the effectiveness of public incentives designed to increase household's investment in energy efficiency of their dwelling. To reach this objective this research combines the two key dimensions of ex-post evaluation, i.e. summary and formative dimensions. The first one aims at knowing the effectiveness of public policies whereas the other one targets to understand what the public policies' consequences are and to identify ways for improvement. To reach this purpose, the research follows four steps. Firstly, it requires a detailed analysis to understand the origins of the energy efficiency gap. This gap can be explained by markets failures, consequences of bounded rationality and coordination problem between stakeholders, especially in multi-family dwellings. Secondly, the argument progresses by drawing a parallel between results from normative analysis and from observations of actual level of investments in thermal retrofit actions. It aims at identifying investment households' criteria and then at understanding how barriers to energy efficiency raise. Thirdly, thanks to the inventory of these various energy efficiency barriers it becomes possible to examine if the incentives currently implemented in France can remove them all. It appears that the national policy does not significantly reduce the energy efficiency gap. On the one hand, some barriers remain because no tool has been proposed to overcome them. On the other hand, some barriers are only partially eliminated because the practical use of tools differs from their theoretical design. Finally, using the analysis of retrofitting programs implemented on the Grenoble area this research assesses the effectiveness of additional incentives. The objective is to know to what extent these 'reinforced' policies remove barriers still existing after national tools implementation. From these four

  4. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  5. Proposal of new seismic assessment and retrofit technology for existing buildings; Hyogoken nanbu jishin higai wo kyokun to shita kison kozobutsu no taishin shindan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Seki, M.; Tanida, M.; Akiyama, T.; Hashimoto, Y. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    A devastating earthquake measuring 7.2 on the JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) magnitude hit the southern Hyogo Prefecture on January 17, 1995. This earthquake, the worst in Japan since the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, brought great disaster and destruction to the Hanshin area and Awajishima Island. Most of the damage to concrete and steel structures occurred in buildings designed according to former building codes. Fewer collapses occurred in buildings designed under current building code that have more severe seismic requirements. Existing buildings should be assessed by their seismic potentiality, and retrofitted to escape damage in severe earthquakes such as the Great Hanshin Earthquake. New technology for assessing and retrofitting existing buildings was developed to improve resisting performance in response to severe earthquakes. Earthquake Load or motion exceeding current requirements can be supplied to assess and retrofit existing buildings if a client wants their buildings to exhibit much stronger seismic resistance. The retrofit technologies, such as a base isolation system for whole building, vibration control bracing system with steel damper, and base isolation floor system for computer equipments, can be applied to existing buildings. 11 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The importance of building downwash in assessing the need to heighten stacks of existing small and medium sized industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais, ISQ - Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal); Duarte, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Inst. Politecnico de Setubal (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This extended abstract intends to share the authors experience on the modelling of atmospheric pollutant dispersal and on the importance of building downwash considerations when assessing the need to heighten stacks of small and medium sized industrial enterprises (SME's). In order to understand the reasons that make industrial companies, especially SME's, consider stack heightening, in section 2 the existing Portuguese legislation on air quality and the stack heightening rules are briefly commented. New legislation that ought to appear soon (new Portuguese Air Act) is also commented and compared critically with the existing one. Then, section 3 characterizes Portuguese industry in terms of the ambient quality problems related to stack height. The adequacy of the stack heightening legislation to the particularities of the Portuguese case is discussed. In section 4 the authors experience in the specific study of stack heightening is presented. The methodology considered in these studies is discussed and compared with the application of existing and soon to appear legislation on stack height calculation. Finally, section 5 presents the conclusions and the need for an increased awareness on the pollutant dispersal problem is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Fiscal and tax policy support for energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongyan

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings (EERERB) in China's northern heating region is an important component of the national energy strategy. The main content and related subject in EERERB performance is the basis of understanding and developing targeted policies. So, this paper designed the content system of EERERB. And then, provided a cost-benefit analysis on related subjects, assessed the government's function in EERERB, and come to the conclusion that the Chinese government should increase fiscal fund investment and implement more fiscal and tax incentive policies. Moreover, in view of China's current policy, which lacks long-term mechanism and flexibility, this paper proposed specific policy recommendations, including clarifying the government's corresponding responsibilities at all levels and increasing the intensity of the central government's transfer payments. It further proposed targeted financial and tax policies for supporting and encouraging heating enterprises and owners, as well as policies to cultivate energy-saving service markets and to support the ESCO.

  8. Recommendations for enforcing and administering lighting-efficiency standards in existing public buildings in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-30

    To determine the most efficient, cost-effective means of enforcing lighting standards in existing public buildings, various enforcement procedures were investigated. A summary of conclusions and recommendations are presented. In Chapter 1, the adoption of a modified version of the sections of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards that relate to lighting is recommended. The basic features of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards are described and compared with those of other types of standards, and the modifications recommended to facilitate implementation are then presented. In Chapter 2, the structure is outlined and the details are provided of the enforcement strategy devised based on self-certification and penalties for noncompliance. Chapter 3 is intended to guide the state in implementing that strategy; it is suggested that the State Energy Office begin to conduct inspections of buildings selected first randomly and then according to a specific discriminant-analysis scheme. The timetable that should be followed and the management responsibilities that should be assigned if the state is to meet its 1980 goals related to saving energy through the implementation of lighting-efficiency standards are delineated in Chapter 4. The appendixes provide additional information and data supporting the specific conclusions and recommendations presented throughout the text. (MCW)

  9. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ding; Zhe Tian; Yong Wu; Neng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m 2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  10. Economic and Thermal Evaluation of Different Uses of an Existing Structure in a Warm Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for nearly 40% of final energy consumption, buildings are central to European energy policy. The Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings establishes a benchmarking system known as cost-optimality to set minimum energy performance requirements in new and existing buildings. This paper applies the cost-optimal methodology to an existing structure located in the Mediterranean area (Southern Italy. The building is composed of two units that have been considered for different uses: hotel and multi-residential. Several energy efficiency and renewable measures have been implemented both individually and as part of packages of measures. The cost-optimal solution has been identified as able to optimize energy consumption and costs from financial and macroeconomic perspectives. The first reference building (hotel use shows a maximum reduction of primary energy and CO2 emission of about 42%, falling within the CasaClima energy class D, while the second reference building (residential use achieves a value of 88% for primary energy and 85% for CO2 emissions, falling into class B. Thermal dispersions through the envelope can be limited using a suitable combination of insulating materials while a variety of technical variants are selected, such as VRF (variant refrigerant flow systems, heat pumps with fan coils associated with controlled mechanical ventilation, solar thermal and photovoltaic. This paper illustrates the development of energy retrofit projects, in order to reach a balance between efficiency measures and costs for a building having two different uses, providing guidance to similar case studies related to a warm climate.

  11. Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights. In the context of climate change it is a priority to reduce the energy demand and make a shift towards renewable sources of energy. In Flanders almost half of the existing residential building stock was built before 1970 with low levels of insulation and inefficient installations. The vast majority of Fle...

  12. Proposed Assessment of Dynamic Resistance of the Existing Industrial Portal Frame Building Structures to the Impact of Mining Tremors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusek, Janusz; Kocot, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the method for assessing dynamic resistance of the existing industrial portal frame building structures subjected to mining tremors. The study was performed on two industrial halls of a reinforced concrete structure and a steel structure. In order to determine the dynamic resistances of these objects, static and dynamic numerical analysis in the FEA environment was carried out. The scope of numerical calculations was adapted to the guidelines contained in the former and current design standards. This allowed to formulate the criteria, on the basis of which the maximum permissible value of the horizontal ground acceleration was obtained, constituting resistance of the analyzed objects. The permissible range of structural behaviour was determined by comparing the effects of load combinations adopted at the design stage with a seismic combination recognized in Eurocode 8. The response spectrum method was used in the field of dynamic analysis, taking into account the guidelines contained in Eurocode 8 and the guidelines of National. Finally, in accordance with the established procedure, calculations were carried out and the results for the two model portal frame buildings of reinforced concrete and steel structures were presented. The results allowed for the comparison of the dynamic resistance of two different types of material and design, and a sensitivity analysis with respect to their constituent bearing elements. The conclusions drawn from these analyses helped to formulate the thesis for the next stage of the research, in which it is expected to analyze a greater number of objects using a parametric approach, in relation to the geometry and material properties.

  13. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  14. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions. PMID:29292781

  15. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-12-08

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  16. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Echarri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100, air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  17. NASA's Indigenous Capacity Building Initiative: Balancing Traditional Knowledge and Existing Remote Sensing Training to Inform Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Ly, V.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Indigenous Capacity Building Initiative is aimed to provide remote sensing training, mentoring, and research opportunities to the indigenous community. A key programmatic goal is the co-production of place-based trainings where participants have the opportunity to address specific natural resource research and management issues facing their tribal lands. Three primary strategies have been adopted to engage with our tribal partners, these include: (1) the use of existing tribal networks and conferences such as the National Tribal GIS Conference, (2) coordination with other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and tribal liaisons at regional Climate Science Centers, and (3) connecting with tribes directly. Regional partner visits with tribes, such as meetings with the Samish Indian Nation, are integral to cultivate trusting, collaborative, and sustained partnerships and an understanding of how Earth Observations can be applied to the unique set of challenges and goals each tribe faces. As the program continues to grow, we aim to increase our incorporation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) into technical methods and to develop trainings tailored to thematic areas of interest to specific tribes. Engagement and feedback are encouraged to refine our approaches to increase capacity within the indigenous community to utilize NASA Earth Observations.

  18. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF EXISTING MID-RISE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İNEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Turkey has been hit by devastating earthquakes and remarkable number of reinforced concrete buildings has been damaged in the high seismicity regions of our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings that are major part of building stock of our earthquake-prone country, according to recent Turkish Earthquake Code. 4- and 7-story buildings were selected to represent mid-rise building stock. After determining the structural parameters, each building was subjected to pushover analysis and the capacity curves were obtained. Earthquake performance of each building was determined in the light of their capacity curves according to the recent Turkish Earthquake Code.

  19. The experience of strengthening subsidence of the soil under the existing building in the city of Rostov-on-Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopov Albert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Described problem for multi-storey residential development in the city of Rostov-on-Don on collapsible soils. The analysis of the technical and technological peculiarities of solidification under conditions of maintained buildings. Examples of projects of consolidation subsidence of foundation soils of buildings in operation 50–70 years.

  20. Baseline analysis of the existing capacities and needs for capacity building for Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation in the Celtic Seas sub-region.

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Sarah; O'Mahony, Cathal

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the existing situation in the Celtic Seas sub-region and determines the current state of preparedness for transboundary management of marine ecosystems and MSFD implementation. Recommendations for capacity building are provided through the analysis of the existing conflicts and potential synergies between relevant policies, institutions and information resources for MSFD implementation across the region. This report strives to empower stakeholders through the provision o...

  1. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  2. Legal concepts to eliminate the bottleneck in energy-saving modernisations for existing buildings; Rechtskonzepte zur Beseitigung des Staus energetischer Sanierungen im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The research project looked at the following: 1. Whether and to what extent the German tenancy law creates, on the one hand, adequate incentives for energy-saving modernisations of existing buildings, on the one hand, and, on the other, whether it creates legal obstacles. 2. How these obstacles could be eliminated i.e. by changing existing tenancy law and instead creating stimuli for energy-saving modernization of existing rental buildings. The report contents a number of specific recommendations for an energy-related reform of the German tenancy law. Major recommendations are: - to eliminate the current toleration duty for modernisation measures if changes are made to the building that conflict with the duties arising from the energy saving provisions of public law, - to consider energy-saving characteristics in the reference rent customary in the locality, - to create a possibility for imposing a flat-rate surcharge which is linked to the savings in heating costs for energy-saving improvement. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (2). Evaluation for applicability of existing atmospheric dispersion models to building wake dispersion by using wind tunnel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ryo; Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Watada, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    dispersion effect exists behind a building. Regarding the degree of meandering effect with dispersion by a building, however, the further investigation would still be necessary for a conclusion. At an additional experiment with a model of a higher release point similar to BWR LOCA showed no significant dispersion effect behind a building. The prediction of both of past and recent prediction models did not show an enough good agreement with this experimental data. The configuration coefficient by Gifford model, only predicting the experiment with PWR LOCA, was widely ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 on the roof of the building. (author)

  4. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  5. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  6. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilei, Lv; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5x10 8 m 2 of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested.

  7. Investigation of the effectiveness of structural measures for reducing the radiation exposure of the population in aeras with enhanced natural radioactivity. A measuring campaign in existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Urban, M.

    1986-01-01

    For this measuring campaign, buildings of different structural design located close to each other have been selected in an area with enhanced natural radioactivity in order to find out any differences in indoor radioactivity levels that can be attributed to structural design features. The measuring results show that the structural condition of the cellar is the decisive factor determining the radon concentration in a house for the case that the surrounding earth is the main radon source. In houses with an unimpaired concrete cellar flooring, radon concentrations in the ground floor have been found to be lower by a factor of 5-10 than in houses with a natural rock basement. Building materials have been found to have an effect at only comparably low radon concentrations. Expected impacts of structural measures, as e.g. thermal insulation windows, could not be proven (except for some half-timber buildings). The results of this measuring campaign that allow a direct house-to-house comparison do not confirm the relation between gamma dose rate and radon concentration postulated by results of a data collection campaign made in various administrative districts. The effectiveness of given structural variations cannot be proven by measurements in existing houses. This would rather require pin-pointed structural modifications for assessment, which can be done in a building chosen for this purpose. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Heat Pump with Air-Conditioning System for the Existing Hospital Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complete evaluation procedure of energy-saving and efficiency improvement for a large-scale hospital retrofit project has been established and successfully validated in Taiwan. The retrofit scheme, in integrating the alternative hot water system, namely, a water source heat pump (WSHP, with the existing HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning system, enables the capability to meet the cooling and hot water demand simultaneously with a larger safety margin as well as saving energy. In addition, it has been found that the integrated system provides a new source for cooling which can be utilized as a system redundancy in avoiding system shutdown. This is very useful when considering in specific areas in the hospital, such as intensive care unit, or operation rooms, where cooling should not be interrupted on any occasion. In this study, it is validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of the newly added WSHP system, under heating and cooling mode, is 3.62 and 2.62, respectively. The recorded annual cost reduction by this integrated system is $102,564, with a payback of 1.2 years. The hospital after retrofit has been operating safer, with more redundancy, and more energy-efficient which warrants tremendous potential for implementation in the industry.

  9. Use of error-detection and diagnosis methods in existing buildings - Final report; Einsatz von Fehlerdetektions- und Diagnosemethoden in realen Gebaeuden (IEA Annex 34) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, P.

    2000-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of tests made with two expert systems used for error-detection and diagnosis in existing buildings. These expert systems were developed within the framework of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Annex 25 Project entitled 'Real Time Simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) Systems for Building Optimisation, Fault Detection and Diagnosis'. The aim of using these tools was to help detect planning, installation and commissioning errors. These cannot only affect system performance but also can cause increased energy consumption and a reduction of the working life of the system's components. The tests of the tools took place within the framework of the IEA's Annex 34 'Computer-aided Evaluation of HVAC System Performance: the Practical Application of Fault Detection and Diagnosis Techniques in Real Buildings'. Experience gained with the two tools is presented and discussed. The quality of the results and the use of the systems in practice are discussed and commented on. They strongly differ from one tool to the other.

  10. Thermal environmental case study of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a high-rise building in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Y. H.; Poh, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    The performance of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a renowned high-rise office tower in Malaysia was studied to identify the root cause issues behind the poor indoor air quality. Occupants are the best thermal sensor. The building was detected with the sick building syndrome (SBS) that causes runny noses, flu-like symptoms, irritated skin, and etc. Long period of exposure to indoor air pollutants may increase the occupant's health risk. The parameters such as the space temperature, relative humidity, air movement, air change, fresh air flow rate, chilled water supply and return are evaluated at three stories that consist of five open offices. A full traverse study was carried out at one of the fresh air duct. A simplified duct flow measurement method using pitot-tubes was developed. The results showed that the diffusers were not effective in creating the swirl effect to the space. Internal heat gain from human and office electrical equipment were not drawn out effectively. Besides, relative humidity has exceeded the recommended level. These issues were caused by the poor maintenance of the building. The energy efficiency strategy of the UFAD system comes from the higher supply air temperature. It may leads to insufficient cooling load for the latent heat gained under improper system performance. Special care and considerations in design, construction and maintenance are needed to ensure the indoor air quality to be maintained. Several improvements were recommended to tackle the existing indoor air quality issues. Solar system was studied as one of the innovative method for retrofitting.

  11. Improving benefit-cost analysis to overcome financing difficulties in promoting energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaotong; Lu, Meijun; Mao, Wei; Ouyang, Jinlong; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Yunkai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financing difficulties hinder energy retrofit of aging residential buildings in China. • New indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome barriers. • New indices can be applied to rank energy measures and propose optimum plans. • Improved benefit-cost analysis will attract the government and residents to co-invest. • A “win–win” model means the governments and residents can co-invest and co-benefit. - Abstract: Energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings is an important energy policy in China, but financing difficulties seriously hinder the promotion of the policy. In this article, novel indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome the barriers. Firstly, benefit-cost analysis is expanded to include the ratio of energy-saving benefit to investment cost (EnIR), the ratio of environmental benefit to investment cost (EvIR), and the ratio of economic benefit to investment cost (EcIR). The above ratios are applied to determine the optimum plans with the highest cost-effectiveness for the buildings to be renovated. Secondly, according to the actual situation regarding both the government and residents, EnIR is modified to the ratio of energy-saving benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EnIgR), EvIR to the ratio of environmental benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EvIgR), and EcIR to the ratio of economic benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by residents (EcIrR). The modified ratios can increase awareness of residents in respect of their individual benefits from the adoption of the optimum plans, and can attract them to co-invest. Through these two steps, financing difficulties could be eased or even no longer considered as obstacles to some extent. The ratios are applied to a case study building in Hangzhou. Based on the results

  12. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  13. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Research on the evaluation system for heat metering and existing residential building retrofits in northern regions of China for the 12th five-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Liu; Yan, Ding; Yujia, Tong; Neng, Zhu; Zhe, Tian

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of ERBR (existing residential building retrofit) work in the 11th five-year period, energy efficiency retrofits for old residential buildings have been further promoted in northern regions of China during the 12th five-year period. ERBR projects are capable of not only achieving energy conservation and emissions reductions but also providing warmer rooms for residents during cold winters. Therefore, this project should be continued in northern regions of China following a long-term management mode. With the aim of exploring methods and mechanisms for the evaluation of the retrofit effect, an evaluation method was established with the application of the multi-level expert evaluation method. The evaluation indexes cover the aspects of policy mechanisms, financing modes and technical measures. A rewards and punishment mechanism according to the evaluation system was also suggested. Such an evaluation system can be used as a valuable reference for future implementation of energy efficiency retrofit work. - Highlights: • With the AHPD method, the evaluation system of the ERBR was set up to complete. • There are 29 indicators, including policies, financings and technologies. • Rewards and punishment mechanisms are offered to the ERBR. • For weight value more than 0.06, long-term practice and accumulation are needed

  15. Review of existing instrumentation and evaluation of possibilities for research and development of instrumentation to determine future levels of radon at a proposed building site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The rate at which radon enters houses from the soil depends on the pressure differential between the house and the soil, the resistance of the soil to gas movement, and the radon release rate of the soil near the house. The pressure differential between house and soil is caused by wind forces and temperature differences, which depend on the size of the building and the season, and are therefore almost independent of the site location. The soil resistance (permeability) and radon release rate are site specific, and a computer study of radon movement through the soil suggested that these parameters could be combined to give a Radon Index Number (RIN) for a site that would be proportional to the radon entry rate into a typical house. Regional RIN estimates would be produced using existing airborne gamma survey maps to estimate average soil radon release rate, plus agricultural soil classification maps to estimate permeability. Area RIN estimates would be produced using portable gamma spectroscopy equipment to estimate soil radon release rates over an area, plus simple soil grain size analysis techniques to estimate permeability. Site RIN estimates would be produced using laboratory techniques to measure both the radon release rate and the permeability of several undisturbed soil core samples taken at depths over the site. These would provide the most accurate value of RIN possible for a given site

  16. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Program; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1: baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2: installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season and energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades to be implemented in Phase 3.

  17. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  18. Structural affection of the integration of the solar panels in existing buildings; Afeccion estructural de la integracion de los paneles solares en edificios existentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencias, D. C.; Arroba, M. F.

    2008-07-01

    For a short time, is obligatory to install solar and/or photovoltaic panels, not only in new buildings, even those who are subjected to a important reform or rehabilitation. The installation of these panels, involves a series of structural impacts on the structure of the buildings where they are installed, which originally had not been planned or considered in loads evaluation. These new actions are originated both in the weight of the solar elements as a resistance that oppose the wind force and the consequent counterweights. This communication proposes the analysis of the reduction that these new loads cause in safety factors considered in the initial calculation. Permanent loads influence direct their own panels and the accumulation of deposits and derivative, such as caused by the counterweights installed for the wind, are analyzed in Ultimated State Limits. (Author)

  19. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  20. Analysis and proposal of implementation effects of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lingling; Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng

    2012-01-01

    In China, northern heating region contains approximately 6.5 billion m 2 residential building areas accounting for 15% of the total residential living areas of urban and rural. About 70% of the urban residential buildings in north China are high energy consumption buildings. The task of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of 0.15 billion m 2 existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period was proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development (MOHURD) in 2007 and completed in 2010. This paper introduced both central and local governments' efforts on organization, implementation and finance, etc. Then several retrofitting effects involving improving the people's livelihood, mobilizing the enthusiasm of residents for the retrofit and driving the development of relevant industries were presented. Finally, on the basis of analyzing the issues encountered in the progress of the retrofit in the past 4 years, the paper gave some policy proposals on organization system, financing models, reward mechanism, and heating system reformation to help to promote the energy efficiency retrofit in “the 12th Five-Year Plan” period. - Highlights: ► Specific approaches of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit (HMEER) at central and local level are introduced. ► Main HMEER effects are presented. ► Analyzing several issues encountered in the progress of the HMEER. ► Corresponding proposals are provided.

  1. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  2. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  3. Constructing in the monument. Respecting the Old and mark the New. Cost-reliable planning during building upon existing structures; Bauen im Denkmal. Altes achten und Neues kenntlich machen. Kostensicher planen beim Bauen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider-Sorger, Roswitha [ORCA Software GmbH, Rosenheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The revitalization of historically protected real estate is a passion of the owners - the family Werndl (Rosenheim, Federal Republic of Germany). In the case of the Old spinning mill in the Kolbenmotor near Rosenheim a whole district was arranged new. The highest premise of the planning team Quest Architekten GBR (Rosenheim, Federal Republic of Germany) was to respect and receive the rough charm of the building stock. This also becomes clear considering the two-storey Batteur building of 1862 being a component of the energy centre of the spinning mill. Once cotton was cleaned, now shops and gastronomy are in the ground floor as well as practices and office units in the upper floor.

  4. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  5. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  6. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive......Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...

  7. 什邡市某已建住宅楼工程墙体裂缝控制%Crack Control for Walls in an Existing Residential Building in Shifang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴福

    2014-01-01

    什邡市某6层砖混结构住宅楼,主体完工4个月后底层局部墙体出现裂缝。经分析,该建筑局部地基为软土,其含水量大、渗透性差,原设计采用的振冲法处理效果差,从而导致局部地基承载力不足、地基沉降量大且不均匀。针对墙体裂缝原因,采用灰土桩加固软土地基,同时采用钢筋混凝土梁加固基础,加固效果良好。%Cracks were emerged from partial ground-floor walls of a six-floor residential building with a masonry-concrete structure in Shifang, 4 months after the main body had completed. According to analysis, it was soft soil in the local foundation of this building, with large water content and poor permeability, the vibroflotation reinforcement effect was poor from the original design, resulted in insufficient carrying capacity of local foundation, and large and uneven of the foundation settlement amount . Based on these reasons, favourable effects of foundation stabilization are arisen from consolidated soft soil with lime-soil piles and reinforced foundation by applying reinforced concrete beams.

  8. State-of-the-art study on standards for the restoration of existing buildings; State of the Art Studie 'Standards fuer Sanierungen von Bestandsgebaeuden'. Vorbereitende Studie zum 'Energy and GHG Optimised Building Renovation' new annex proposal - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cypra, S.

    2009-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of a preliminary study on energy and greenhouse-gas optimised building renovation. The proposals are based on the building standards proposed under the '2000-Watt Society' and 'One-Tonne CO{sub 2} Society' proposals. Comparisons are made with Swiss official building standards as well as Swiss and international standards for zero-energy and passive housing. These standards and requirements are discussed in detail and examples of buildings built to meet them are described. Building standards based on sustainability standards are also discussed and compared. The methodology to be used with respect to single-family homes and apartment blocks is discussed. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified and appropriate literature is listed.

  9. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  10. Building America Case Study: Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home, Westport, Connecticut; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    ??National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made. Confirmation of successfully achieving 30% source energy savings over the pre-existing conditions was confirmed through energy modeling and comparison of the utility bills pre- and post- retrofit.

  11. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for existing residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-05-31

    As part of the research and development of the solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for existing residential buildings, the following efforts are made: (1) system analysis, (2) studies on devices and materials, and (3) installation and operation of the facilities in test buildings, and collection of the data. For the item (1), the sensible heat type heat-accumulating tank is replaced by the latent heat type to reduce heat losses and auxiliary power requirements by improving heat-accumulating tank efficiency and revising the control procedure. For the item (2), the devices installed in the test buildings are tested to improve their performance and reliability, in which, e.g., results of operation, under commercial conditions, of the Rankine cycle refrigerator installed in the test building are taken into consideration. The empirical correlation {eta} 0.66 - 1.7{delta}T/I is obtained for instantaneous heat-collecting efficiency of a vacuum collector, made on a trial basis. Its heat loss is sufficiently small, which is in agreement with the results of the nighttime heat release tests. For the latent heat type heat-accumulating tank, stability of the materials therefor are investigated. For the Rankine cycle refrigerator, development of its parts is continued. For the item (3), the facilities are tested for around 7 months, and problems involved in each device are clarified. (NEDO)

  12. Radon: the building industry view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, K.G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Guidance on radon preventive measures in new dwellings is covered by the Building Regulations, and adequate guidance has been published by the Building Research Establishment. This is a satisfactory state of affairs which, unfortunately, is not the case for remedial work in existing buildings. Work in existing buildings should be incorporated in Regulations and adequate funding should be provided by government for the training of builders. (Author)

  13. Commissioning for Humidified Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deal, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... Although proper commissioning procedures have been noted to reduce the potential for approximately 70 percent of these claims, no standards exist for the control of moisture migration in building...

  14. Study of structural reliability of existing concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druķis, P.; Gaile, L.; Valtere, K.; Pakrastiņš, L.; Goremikins, V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural reliability of buildings has become an important issue after the collapse of a shopping center in Riga 21.11.2013, caused the death of 54 people. The reliability of a building is the practice of designing, constructing, operating, maintaining and removing buildings in ways that ensure maintained health, ward suffered injuries or death due to use of the building. Evaluation and improvement of existing buildings is becoming more and more important. For a large part of existing buildings, the design life has been reached or will be reached in the near future. The structures of these buildings need to be reassessed in order to find out whether the safety requirements are met. The safety requirements provided by the Eurocodes are a starting point for the assessment of safety. However, it would be uneconomical to require all existing buildings and structures to comply fully with these new codes and corresponding safety levels, therefore the assessment of existing buildings differs with each design situation. This case study describes the simple and practical procedure of determination of minimal reliability index β of existing concrete structures designed by different codes than Eurocodes and allows to reassess the actual reliability level of different structural elements of existing buildings under design load.

  15. Facilities improvement for sustainability of existing public office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the building design features of a cosmopolitan public office building in Abuja. The features were classified into Spatial Plan, Structure and Facilities, to determine which of the 3 variables requires urgent sustainable improvement from end-users' perspective in existing public office buildings in developing ...

  16. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  17. Seismic performance evaluation of existing RC buildings designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zone (by accounting for the confinement provided by the stirrups using a .... loss due to damage and cost of repair, major revisions are taking place in .... The acceptance criteria for performance with in the damage control performance range.

  18. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  20. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  1. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  2. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    scanning mode, interrupted for several orbits per day by GRB follow-ups, followed by a combined pointing-scanning mission phase for optical/IR spectroscopy and redshifts for the large AGN sample found in the survey as well as GRBs and LSST transients. A Team of university, NASA, and industry investigators will conduct the study to determine the full sensitivity and capabilities of this new configuration for EXIST. It will build on the extensive studies of the prior design for the mission and the HET and will incorporate the optical/IR telescope (hereafter IRT) now fully developed by our ITT partner for the NextView Commercial Remote Sensing mission (early 2008 launch) with a focal plane to be developed at GSFC based in part on JWST/NIRSPEC designs. No new technology is needed for either the IRT or HET instruments. The study will pay close attention to full mission cost and present a design for the Decadal Survey Workshop to ensure this even more capable EXIST mission is once again part of the next Decadal Survey.

  3. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  4. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  5. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  6. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  7. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  9. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  10. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  11. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  12. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  13. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  14. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  15. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  16. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  17. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  18. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  19. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase...

  20. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Chip

    2002-01-01

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  1. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  3. Expert Meeting Report. Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyck, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carmody, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Haglund, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011, at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  4. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  5. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  6. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Wei; Garmston, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  7. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  8. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  9. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  10. Building Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  11. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  12. Lietaus vandens panaudojimo tyrimas ir projektavimas

    OpenAIRE

    Rybinas, Artūras

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis is about multi-residential building, located in Kaunas, designed for collecting rainwater, wastewater disposal and water supply systems. The building has 9 floors and basement. There is a pantry, water metering unit and heating station in the basement. The aim of thesis – to investigate the most effective method of collecting rainwater, to find out how much rainwater can be collected from the roof and from the vertical facades, in accordance with existing normative documents d...

  13. Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Existence theory in optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olech, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)

  15. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  16. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  17. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  18. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  19. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system......‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...

  20. INTEGRATING HEALTH INTO BUILDINGS OF THE FUTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Leila; Younger, Margalit; Chandler, George; Gooch, James; Schramm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The health and wellbeing of building occupants should be a key priority in the design, building, and operation of new and existing buildings. Buildings can be designed, renovated, and constructed to promote healthy environments and behaviors and mitigate adverse health outcomes. This paper highlights health in terms of the relationship between occupants and buildings, as well as the relationship of buildings to the community. In the context of larger systems, smart buildings and green infrastructure strategies serve to support public health goals. At the level of the individual building, interventions that promote health can also enhance indoor environmental quality and provide opportunities for physical activity. Navigating the various programs that use metrics to measure a building's health impacts reveals that there are multiple co-benefits of a "healthy building," including those related to the economy, environment, society, transportation, planning, and energy efficiency.

  1. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  2. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  3. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  4. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  5. Measures taken by the building authorities in order to reduce radiation risks in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, Wilhelm

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish radon commission has recommended that the risk of radiation and radon emission from the ground be considered when planning for new settlements, building materials with high radioactivity not be allowed for new buildings, and existing buildings with high levels of radioactivity be traced and improved. Maps of gamma radiation from the ground are being worked out showing areas with levels higher than 30 μR/h. Within such areas buildings should be planned taking the ultimate limits for new buildings into account. Building permits are granted for construction of new structures or extensive renovations if it can be shown that radiation levels within the buildings will be within legal limits: 70 Bq/m 3 for new buildings and 200 Bq/m 3 for existing ones. The radon commission has suggested that buildings with a radon daughter concentration exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 should be found and levels reduced to 200 Bq/m 3

  6. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  7. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  8. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  9. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  10. Diverse interpretations of confidence building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the variety of operational understandings associated with the term 'confidence building'. Collectively, these understandings constitute what should be thought of as a 'family' of confidence building approaches. This unacknowledged and generally unappreciated proliferation of operational understandings that function under the rubric of confidence building appears to be an impediment to effective policy. The paper's objective is to analyze these different understandings, stressing the important differences in their underlying assumptions. In the process, the paper underlines the need for the international community to clarify its collective thinking about what it means when it speaks of 'confidence building'. Without enhanced clarity, it will be unnecessarily difficult to employ the confidence building approach effectively due to the lack of consistent objectives and common operating assumptions. Although it is not the intention of this paper to promote a particular account of confidence building, dissecting existing operational understandings should help to identify whether there are fundamental elements that define what might be termed 'authentic' confidence building. Implicit here is the view that some operational understandings of confidence building may diverge too far from consensus models to count as meaningful members of the confidence building family. (author)

  11. Sustainable development of the today accommodation; Developpement durable de l'habitat existant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)

  12. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  13. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  14. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  15. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  16. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  17. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  19. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  20. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  1. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  2. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA

  3. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  4. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  5. Europe - space for transcultural existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamcke, Martin; Janny, de Jong; Klein, Lars; Waal, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Europe - Space for Transcultural Existence? is the first volume of the new series, Studies in Euroculture, published by Göttingen University Press. The series derives its name from the Erasmus Mundus Master of Excellence Euroculture: Europe in the Wider World, a two year programme offered by a consortium of eight European universities in collaboration with four partner universities outside Europe. This master highlights regional, national and supranational dimensions of the European democrati...

  6. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. UNCITRAL: Changes to existing law

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods [wholly or partly] by Sea has an ambition of replacing current maritime regimes and expands the application of the Convention to include also multimodal transport. This thesis questions what changes to existing law, in certain areas, the new Convention will bring compared to the current regimes. In the initial part, the thesis provides for a brief background and history of international maritime regulations and focus...

  8. Existence Results for Incompressible Magnetoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 2615-2623 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetoelasticity * magnetostrictive solids * incompressibility * existence of minimizers * quasistatic evolution * energetic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/kruzik-0443017.pdf

  9. Whole building energy performance anomaly detection at TU/e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Bynum, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Existing buildings account for the majority of energy consumption in the building sector. Surveys of existing buildings have found an estimated 10-20% reduction in energy consumption may be feasible. Research at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) is seeking to realize this potential in

  10. Energy-efficient houses. Scenarios, efforts and means of action with an emphasis on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. Main Report of the KLIMATEK project 'The energy systems of the future in existing and new buildings - a higher level analysis emphasising status and scenarios'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjaerde, Anne Cathrine; Livik, Klaus; Stene, Joern; Grinden, Bjoern; Tokle, Trude; Thyholt, Marit; Groenli, Morten

    1999-04-01

    The project referred to in the heading concentrated on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions relating to heating of houses in Norway. There are many ways of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions, but the measures taken are often unprofitable because of high investment costs and relatively moderate energy prices. The development of society, environmental policy and technology strongly affects the development and management of the buildings, and this project could only elucidate a limited number of approaches of current interest. About 60% of the energy needed for heating houses comes from electricity, and the use of electricity for general purposes is increasing. Norway will probably become a major net importer of electric power within a few years unless strong measures are taken. Most of the carbon dioxide emission from buildings are due to oil fuel firing

  11. Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art survey concerning acoustic conditions in dwellings has been carried out in 1994. A review of existing investigations related to subjective and/or objective evaluation of dwellings was done, and several countries were contacted to get up-to-date information about the legal acous...

  12. Building integration of PCM for natural cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Servando; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Ruiz-Pardo, Alvaro; Castell, Albert; Tenorio, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A brief overview of PCM solutions for buildings is provided. ► Some weaknesses of existing PCM solutions for buildings were identified. ► New solutions for PCM integration in buildings are proposed. ► Proposed solutions overcome identified weaknesses of existing solutions. - Abstract: The use of night cooling ventilation in addition of phase change materials (PCMs) is a very powerful strategy for reducing the cooling demand of buildings. Nevertheless, there are inherent drawbacks in the way things have been doing so far: (a) The limited area of contact between PCM and the air; (b) the very low convective heat transfer coefficients which prevents the use of significant amounts of PCM and (c) the very low utilization factor of the cool stored due to the large phase shift between the time when cool is stored and time when it is required by the building. In this paper, we present innovative solutions using PCM to overcome the above situation. Compared with existing solutions, innovative solutions proposed, increase the contact area between PCM and air by a factor of approximately 3.6, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient significantly, and improve the utilization factor due to the inclusion of active control systems which allow the cold stored be actually used when required

  13. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  14. Building technologies program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Building Technology Program. The report is divided into four categories: windows and daylighting, lighting systems, building energy simulation, and advanced building systems. The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building-sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. Past efforts have focused on windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. Current research is based on an integrated systems and life-cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy-efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. Sixteen subprograms are described in the report.

  15. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the

  16. Sick building syndrome: in public buildings and workplaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A

    2011-01-01

    ... are health and pleasant to live in. The chapters of this book have elaborated in a clear style, yet scientifically solid, the causes, diagnostic tools, health impacts and mitigation approaches that may be applied to existing and planned buildings. I would like to congratulate the authors and the editor for this excellent effort. We at SQU are proud ...

  17. Method to investigate and plan the application of low temperature district heating to existing hydraulic radiator systems in existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunzi, Michele; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    cost reduction in the end users' energy bills of 1% for each 1 °C reduction of return and average supply and return temperatures. The results showed possible discounts of 14% and 16% respectively, due to more efficient operation of the radiators. These were achieved without any intervention...

  18. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...... hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...... the scene, it starts out by briefly examining ideas on this issue presented in existing research literature. Hereafter, it introduces three basic forms in which design work can lead to theory that is referred to as extending theories, scaffolding theories and blending theories. Finally, it is discussed how...

  19. Open string model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)

  20. Refurbishment and school buildings management in a smart building environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuda, Giuseppe Martino; Villa, Valentina; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Giana, Paolo Ettore; Rinaldi, Stefano; Ciribini, Angelo Luigi Camillo

    2018-05-01

    Building Information Modelling is a methodology, which is able to take into account many data, both geometrical and non-geometrical, in order to evaluate at the actual condition of the asset. The project has the scope of evaluating the conditions of different school buildings, in order to develop a way to choose the best-tailored management solution to the owner. A further step is the management and planning of design solutions during the life cycle customized on monitored buildings' conditions. The research work focuses on providing a support decisions concerning the gap between the present building state laws and the current state of the existing buildings. The process will be developed in an expanded BIM environment, using sensors, which will give back the state of the consistency of the actual conditions to enable the buildings to adapt themselves in the best way into their specific constraints and boundaries. The results of the study are (i) a complete workflow to make decision and the possibility to shape the decision process on an objective through a scientific approach, (ii) evaluate the current state of the asset and (iii) manage maintenance in the lifespan. Further development will take in consideration all the aspects related to management of big data environment generated by a smart buildings system.

  1. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  3. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  4. Public building retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report demonstrates the economic viability of cost effective, energy efficient retrofitting of a public building. The Whitehorse Chamber of Commerce in conjunction with the Canada/Yukon Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Project undertook the demonstration project. The energy conservation features included increasing the insulation in the walls and ceiling, providing a 6 mm polyethylene air-vapour barrier and installing triple glazed windows on the north side. Also, an air-to-air heat exchanger and a combination wood/oil furnace were installed. However, neither of these latter features have been used since the completion of the renovations. In total, the features cost approximately $26,300. The energy conservation measures yielded less energy savings than expected. Although the T.C. Richard building is now consuming less heating oil (33% less); the amount of electricity used has increased by 146.6%. Overall the building achieved a 23% reduction in heating consumption (this figure takes into account the heat energy generated from the lighting system). Reasons for the low yield in energy savings can be attributed to the improper installation of the air-vapour barrier and not using the existing wood boiler. 1 fig. 5 tabs.

  5. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  6. Sustainable Building Life Cycle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current building life cycle management system in the Russian Federation is a family of discrete subsystems that exist independently for different building life cycle stages. In this situation building reliability and sustainable functioning are out of the question. The implementation of a united information model (BIM-model intended to describe building entire life cycle will allow to raise the sustainability, but this will happen only if goals and concerns of all participants of the project process are properly coordinated. An important figure of process sustainability is the organizational and technological reliability (OTR that describes the possibility of a system to reach a goal. In case of building life cycle design, the economical efficiency of a building can be considered as the goal. The required technical, ecological, organizational, and other parameters form a complex of constraints that determine the area of allowable values for building functioning. In its broad meaning, OTR may be understood as the probability of receiving an economical effect based on the value of organizational and economical reliability (OER.

  7. How many N = 4 strings exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Possible ways of constructing extended fermionic strings with N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are reviewed. String theory constraints form, in general, a non-linear quasi(super)conformal algebra, and can have conformal dimensions ≥1. When N=4, the most general N=4 quasi-superconformal algebra to consider for string theory building is D(1, 2; α), whose linearisation is the so-called ''large'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The D(1, 2; α) algebra has su(2)sub(κ + )+su(2)sub(κ - )+u(1) Kac-Moody component, and α=κ - /κ + . We check the Jacobi identities and construct a BRST charge for the D(1, 2; α) algebra. The quantum BRST operator can be made nilpotent only when κ + =κ - =-2. The D(1, 2; 1) algebra is actually isomorphic to the SO(4)-based Bershadsky-Knizhnik non-linear quasi-superconformal algebra. We argue about the existence of a string theory associated with the latter, and propose the (non-covariant) hamiltonian action for this new N=4 string theory. Our results imply the existence of two different N=4 fermionic string theories: the old one based on the ''small'' linear N=4 superconformal algebra and having the total ghost central charge c gh =+12, and the new one with non-linearly realised N=4 supersymmetry, based on the SO(4) quasi-superconformal algebra and having c gh =+6. Both critical string theories have negative ''critical dimensions'' and do not admit unitary matter representations. (orig.)

  8. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  9. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  10. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  11. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  12. Generating and exploring good building layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan; Yan, Dongming; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Good building layouts are required to conform to regulatory guidelines, while meeting certain quality measures. While different methods can sample the space of such good layouts, there exists little support for a user to understand

  13. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  14. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  15. Hanford site post-NPH building inspection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenblast, G.R. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This plan establishes consistent post-NPH building inspection procedures and defines a procedure for prioritization of buildings for inspection to ensure the safety of facilities prior to reentry. Qualification of systems for restart of operation is not included. This plan takes advantage, where possible, of existing national procedures for post-NPH inspection of buildings, of existing structural design and evaluation documentation of Hanford facilities, and current and proposed seismic instrumentation located throughout the Hanford site. A list of buildings, prioritized according to current building safety function and building vulnerability (without regard for or information about a damaging natural forces event) is provided

  16. Wind/seismic comparison for upgrading existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper depicts the analysis procedures and methods used to evaluate three existing building structures for extreme wind loads. The three structures involved in this evaluation are located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This site is characterized by open flat grassland with few surrounding obstructions and has extreme winds in lieu of tornados as a design basis accident condition. This group of buildings represents a variety of construction types, including a concrete stack, a concrete load-bearing wall structure, and a rigid steel-frame building. The three structures included in this group have recently been evaluated for response to the design basis earthquake that included non-linear time history effects. The resulting loads and stresses from the wind analyses were compared to the loads and stresses resulting from seismic analyses. This approach eliminated the need to prepare additional capacity calculations that were already contained in the seismic evaluations

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: BetterBuildings Lowell Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslin, Thomas

    2014-01-31

    Historic Board, which has jurisdiction in the NHP. The Historic Board was cooperative with any exterior renovations as long as they were not changing the existing aesthetics of the property. If we were replacing a rooftop condenser it needed to be placed where the existing rooftop condenser was located. Receiving proper approval from the Historic Board for any external energy conservation measures was known by all the participating contractors. One area of the retrofits that was contentious regarded venting of the new HVAC equipment. Installing external stacks was not allowed so the contractors had to negotiate with the Historic Board regarding the proper way to vent the equipment that met the needs mechanically and aesthetically. Overall BetterBuildings Lowell was successful at implementing energy and cost saving measures into 31 commercial properties located within the NHP. The 31 retrofits had 1,554,768 square feet of commercial and multifamily housing and a total predicted energy savings exceeding 22,869 a year. Overall the City of Lowell achieved its target goals and is satisfied with the accomplishments of the BetterBuildings program. The City will continue to pursue energy efficient programs and projects.

  18. Excavation-caused extra deformation of existing masonry residence in soft soil region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Franceschelli, S.

    2017-04-01

    Growing need for construction of infrastructures and buildings in fast urbanization process creates challenges of interaction between buildings under construction and adjacent existing buildings. This paper presents the mitigation of contradiction between two parties who are involved the interaction using civil engineering techniques. Through the in-depth analysis of the results of monitoring surveys and enhanced accuracy and reliability of surveys, a better understanding of the behavior of deformable buildings is achieved. Combination with the original construction documents, the two parties agree that both of them are responsible for building damages and a better understanding for the rehabilitation of the existing buildings is focused on. Two cases studies are used to demonstrate and describe the importance of better understanding of the behavior of existing buildings and their rehabilitations. The objective of this study is to insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations, which can result in a damage in existing masonry residence, and to take the optimized measures to make deep excavations safety and economic and adjacent buildings keep good serviceability in urban areas with soft soil conditions.

  19. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  20. Upgrade Opportunities for Buildings in City Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This proposal focus on the potential of the existing buildings upgrade process in achieving the 20-20-20 goals, as these are the biggest energy consumers, the most significant built area and the better placed buildings within our cities. These buildings frequently lack basic maintenance and need intervention, but include within themselves a vast amount of incorporated energy and centuries of construction knowledge. Beyond the advantages that may result from re-attracting people back into the city centre, upgrading these existing buildings can also have positive bounce-back effect on the reduction of the energy needs related to transportation, as demonstrated in studies that alert to the impact of the building sprawl in the total energy use. As “buildings account for 40 % of total energy consumption in the Union”, the better performance of this sector has a significant role, remembering that “these requirements shall take account of general indoor climate conditions, in order to avoid possible negative effects such as inadequate ventilation, as well as local conditions and the designated function and the age of the building” [1]. The importance of “upgrading” the existing buildings resides on the fact that new buildings represent only approximately 1 or 2% of the total usable area, an estimate that is bound to decrease due to the current construction crisis. While the recent buildings tend to be more efficient, the numerous existing buildings are important stakeholders due to their massive consumptions and incorporated energy. The ongoing Annex 56 on “Energy & Greenhouse Gas Optimized Building Renovation” assumes that “Current standards do not respond effectively to the numerous constraints imposed by existing buildings and in many cases, the requirements result in very expensive measures and complex procedures, seldom accepted by occupants, owners or developers. It is then urgent for the new standards to respond to these

  1. Integrated sustainable urban infrastructures in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies in urban planning and development merely promote standardized building solutions, while failing to prioritize innovative approaches of integration between building projects and sustainable urban infrastructures. As a result of this, urban infrastructures – the urban veins...... – are outdated from a sustainability perspective. This paper looks into more holistic ways of approaching building projects and discuss whether this provide a basis for an increased integration of urban infrastructures within building projects. In our study, we especially emphasise how conventional ways...... of approaching building projects are influenced by lock-in of existing infrastructural systems and compare this with two examples of more holistic ways of approaching building projects, developed by two architecture firms. The paper points out that such holistic perspective in building projects provide...

  2. Toward a virtual building laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M.

    1999-03-01

    In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research.

  3. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  4. Building technolgies program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. We have focused our past efforts on two major building systems, windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed by researchers and designers to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. In addition, we are now taking more of an integrated systems and life cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity-factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout every space in a building, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Window and lighting systems are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program.

  5. Summary of existing uncertainty methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Horst

    2013-01-01

    A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions

  6. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  7. Structural behaviour characterization of existing adobe constructions in Aveiro

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, H.; Costa, A.; Martins, T.; Pereira, H.; Almeida, J.; Rodrigues, H.; Silveira, D.

    2007-01-01

    Adobe was a widely used construction material in Aveiro, Portugal, till the middle of the 20th century. Nowadays, adobe can still be found in varied types of constructions, many of which are of cultural, historical, and also architectural recognized value. The existing adobe buildings present an important level of structural damage and, in many cases, are even near to ruin, having the majority a high vulnerability to seismic actions. To face the lack of information concerning the mechanica...

  8. Building integrated photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Reinders, Angèle; Verlinden, Pierre; Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations can be realized in different situations and on different scales, such as at a building level. PV installations at the building level can either be added to the building envelope, which is called building added PV (BAPV), or they can be integrated into the building

  9. BOA: Framework for Automated Builds

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnikova, N

    2003-01-01

    Managing large-scale software products is a complex software engineering task. The automation of the software development, release and distribution process is most beneficial in the large collaborations, where the big number of developers, multiple platforms and distributed environment are typical factors. This paper describes Build and Output Analyzer framework and its components that have been developed in CMS to facilitate software maintenance and improve software quality. The system allows to generate, control and analyze various types of automated software builds and tests, such as regular rebuilds of the development code, software integration for releases and installation of the existing versions.

  10. BOA: Framework for automated builds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikova, N.

    2003-01-01

    Managing large-scale software products is a complex software engineering task. The automation of the software development, release and distribution process is most beneficial in the large collaborations, where the big number of developers, multiple platforms and distributed environment are typical factors. This paper describes Build and Output Analyzer framework and its components that have been developed in CMS to facilitate software maintenance and improve software quality. The system allows to generate, control and analyze various types of automated software builds and tests, such as regular rebuilds of the development code, software integration for releases and installation of the existing versions

  11. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  13. Technology for Building Systems Integration and Optimization – Landscape Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goetzler, Matt Guernsey, Youssef Bargach

    2018-01-31

    BTO's Commercial Building Integration (CBI) program helps advance a range of innovative building integration and optimization technologies and solutions, paving the way for high-performing buildings that could use 50-70% less energy than typical buildings. CBI’s work focuses on early stage technology innovation, with an emphasis on how components and systems work together and how whole buildings are integrated and optimized. This landscape study outlines the current body of knowledge, capabilities, and the broader array of solutions supporting integration and optimization in commercial buildings. CBI seeks to support solutions for both existing buildings and new construction, which often present very different challenges.

  14. Building performance simulation for sustainable buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  15. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  16. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  17. Building certification schemes and the quality of indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria

    Building certification schemes create a new standard for the built environment reflecting the growing environmental consciousness and the need for “green buildings”. They are expected to signify an outstanding quality and excellence. Buildings, which receive a high degree of certification......, providing information on the performance of building certification schemes in relation to IEQ and ratings of building occupants. Then, information was collected on IEQ in existing office buildings certified as green buildings with particular focus on the work performance indicators, acute health symptoms......, and perceptions and comfort. Information on IEQ in the existing buildings was collected through field campaigns. They comprised measurements in 6 office buildings in Singapore certified using the Green Mark (GM) Certification Scheme. The measurements were additionally carried out in 6 office buildings...

  18. Target Pilots Energy Efficiency Measures for Broad Rollout in Existing Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  19. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  20. Refurbishment of industrial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a building is subject for refurbishment, there is a golden opportunity to change its behavior as an energy system. This paper shows the importance of careful investigations of the processes, the climate shield and the heating systems already present in the building before measures are implemented in reality. A case study is presented dealing with a carpentry factory. The building is poorly insulated according to standards today, and initially it was assumed that a better thermal shield would be of vital importance in order to reach optimal conditions. Instead, it is shown that the main problem is the ordinary heating system. This uses steam from a wood chips boiler and the wood chips come from the manufacturing processes. These wood chips are, therefore, a very cheap fuel. The boiler had, during decades of use, slowly degraded into a poor state. Hence, aero-tempers using expensive electricity have been installed to remedy the situation. These use not only expensive kWh but also very expensive kW due to the electricity tariff. It is shown that electricity for heating purposes must be abandoned and further, that this could be achieved at a surprisingly small cost. By stopping a large waste of steam, it was possible to find resources, in the form of unspent money, for further mending the existing heating system. Not only economy but also environmental hazards in the form of CO 2 emissions urges us to abandon electricity and instead use heat from cheap biomass fired boilers. Such equipment saves environment at the same time it saves money

  1. 10 CFR 4.127 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 4.127 Section 4.127 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.127 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... make each of its existing facilities or every part of an existing facility accessible to and usable by...

  2. Assessing sustainability of building materials in developing countries: the sustainable building materials index (SBMI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available performance. This paper reviews a selection of sustainability assessment and reporting methodologies in order understand the applicability of existing systems as a means of measuring sustainability of building materials in developing countries. The review...

  3. Modern frame structure buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Першаков

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings and buildings of agricultural aviation. Structures are prefabricated frame buildings and have such advantages as large space inside the structure and lower cost compared with other facilities with same purpose

  4. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed. T...

  5. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  6. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  7. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  8. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  9. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, W. N. F. W. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed.

  10. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  11. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basir, W N F W A; Setan, H; Majid, Z; Chong, A

    2014-01-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed

  12. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    -oriented building energy simulator, ROBESim, that natively supports building retrofits. ROBESim extends existing building energy simulators by providing a platform for the analysis of novel retrofits, in addition to simulating existing retrofits. Using ROBESim, retrofits can be automatically applied to buildings, obviating the need for users to manually update building characteristics for comparisons between different building retrofits. ROBESim also includes several ease-of-use enhancements to support users of all experience levels.

  13. Building Inventory Database on the Urban Scale Using GIS for Earthquake Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, O.; Avdan, U.; Guney, Y.; Helvaci, C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of the existing buildings are not safe against earthquakes in most of the developing countries. Before a devastating earthquake, existing buildings need to be assessed and the vulnerable ones must be determined. Determining the seismic performance of existing buildings which is usually made with collecting the attributes of existing buildings, making the analysis and the necessary queries, and producing the result maps is very hard and complicated procedure that can be simplified with Geographic Information System (GIS). The aim of this study is to produce a building inventory database using GIS for assessing the earthquake risk of existing buildings. In this paper, a building inventory database for 310 buildings, located in Eskisehir, Turkey, was produced in order to assess the earthquake risk of the buildings. The results from this study show that 26% of the buildings have high earthquake risk, 33% of the buildings have medium earthquake risk and the 41% of the buildings have low earthquake risk. The produced building inventory database can be very useful especially for governments in dealing with the problem of determining seismically vulnerable buildings in the large existing building stocks. With the help of this kind of methods, determination of the buildings, which may collapse and cause life and property loss during a possible future earthquake, will be very quick, cheap and reliable.

  14. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  15. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  16. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  17. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy tasked NREL to develop a process for testing the reliability of models that predict retrofit energy savings, including their associated calibration methods. DOE asked NREL to conduct the work in phases so that a test procedure would be ready should DOE need it to meet legislative requirements related to residential retrofits in FY 2010. This report documents the initial 'Phase 1' test procedure.

  18. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  19. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  20. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...

  1. Challenges in Commercial Buildings | Buildings | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems Assessing the energy and economic impacts of various technologies, giving priority to those that standardized language for commercial building energy audit data that can be used by software developers to exchange data between audit tools, and can be required by building owners and audit program managers to

  2. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Vendel, J.; Gelain, T. [IRSN/DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models

  3. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M.; Vendel, J.; Gelain, T.

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models revealed a

  4. Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenson, Bilha

    2007-01-01

    The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...

  5. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...

  6. 45 CFR 1170.32 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1170.32 Section 1170.32... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.32 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and...

  7. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...

  8. 14 CFR 1251.301 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1251.301 Section 1251... HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.301 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. (b...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...

  10. 10 CFR 611.206 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 611.206 Section 611.206 Energy... PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.206 Existing facilities. The Secretary shall, in making awards to those manufacturers that have existing facilities, give priority to those facilities that are oldest or...

  11. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  12. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  13. Synthetic building materials for transport buildings and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The most effective building materials account for the highest growth not only in construction of residential and public buildings, but also other capital projects including roadways, bridges, drainage, communications and other engineering projects. Advancement in the technology of more efficient and ecologically responsible insulation materials have been a priority for safety, minimal maintenance and longevity of finished construction projects. The practical use of modern building materials such as insulation, sound reduction and low energy consumption are a benefit in cost and application compared to the use of outdated heavier and labor-intensive materials. The most efficient way for maximizing insolation and sound proofing should be done during the design stages of the project according to existing codes and regulations that are required by Western Government. All methods and materials that are used need to be optimized in order to reach a high durability and low operational and maintenance cost exceeding more than 50 years of the life of the building, whether it is for public, industrial or residential use. Western construction techniques and technologies need to be applied and adapted by the Russian Federation to insure the most productive successful methods are being implemented. The issues of efficient insulation materials are outlined in this article.

  14. Energy requirements for new buildings in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M., Email: miimu.airaksinen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Buildings account for circa 40% of the total energy use in Europe [1] and for about 36% of the EU's total CO{sub 2} emissions [2], including the existing energy conservation in buildings [3]. Key features of the Finnish energy policy are improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources. To achieve a sustainable shift in the energy system, a target set by the authorities, both energy savings and increased use of low-pollution energy sources are therefore priority areas. Building low-energy buildings is in accordance with the declared national aim of reducing energy use and thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The main motivation in renewing building codes for new buildings was to build more energy efficiently, encourage the use the most efficient energy sources and to enhance the use of renewable energy sources. In addition the aim was to give more freedom to fi nd the real optimal solutions for energy efficiency by optimising all aspects including the building architecture and different systems with demand controls. However, in order to ensure the good quality of buildings certain minimum requirements for structure U-values are given. (orig.)

  15. Urban Renewable Building And Neighborhood Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-07

    URBANopt is a user interface for creating and running district and city scale building energy simulations. The framework is built around the OpenStudio Urban Measures which are part of the OpenStudio project. Building footprints, building height, building type, and other data can be imported from public records or other sources. Footprints and locations for new buildings and district systems can also be specified. OpenStudio Measures are used to create starting point energy models and to model energy design features and efficiency measures for each building. URBANopt allows a user to pose several scenarios such as “what if 30% of the commercial retail buildings added roof top solar” or “what if all elementary schools converted to ground source heat pumps” and then visualize the impacts at a district or city scale. URBANopt is capable of modeling existing buildings, new construction, and district energy systems. URBANopt can be used to explore options for achieving Zero Energy across a collection of buildings (e.g., Zero Energy Districts).

  16. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Jacqueline; Dainty, Andrew R.J.; Gibb, Alistair G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  17. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  18. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  19. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  20. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  1. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    with BIM is studied. Based on findings from both parts, ideas and recommendations are put forward for the Icelandic building industry about feasible ways of implementing BIM. Findings – Among the results are that the use of BIM is very limited in the Icelandic companies compared to the other Nordic...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...... countries. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the Nordic countries in Europe, but many recommendations could be relevant to other countries. Practical implications – It is recommended to the Icelandic building authorities to get into cooperation with their Nordic counterparts...

  2. User Driven Innovation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Rødtness, Mette

    2008-01-01

    During the late years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving du...... building design. A general methodological framework and meta ontology for Virtual Innovation in Construction is presented as well as findings from implementation of the method....... to introduction of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). The paper focuses on creative changes of the building process powered by user driven innovation activities. An overview of existing user driven innovation methodologies is given as well experiences from the ongoing Virtual Innovation...

  3. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  4. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  5. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  6. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  7. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  8. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  9. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  10. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  11. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  12. Healthy Buildings and Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Healthy buildings are to a great extent a question of indoor air quality. The processes involved in air quality can be looked upon as a number of links in a chain. Typical links will be emission from building materials, convection and diffusion in the room, local airflow around a person, personal...... exposure and at last the effect of the air quality on the occupant. The best results will obviously be obtained by using building materials with low emission. However, there will always exist some emission and the ventilation will consequently be an important link....

  13. Simplified Assessment of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Broşteanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the assessment of the performance level of a building for a given seismic hazard level. Building performance level describes the expected seismic performance given by the computation of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings and Monumental Buildings according to the Romanian Norm P100:1992 [1], modified on 1996 with the chapters 11 and 12, until the Part 3 of P100-1:2006 [2], will be performed for the Assessment and Strengthening Structural Design of the Seismic Vulnerable, Existing Buildings, in the frame of SR EN 1998-1:2004 EC8 [3]. The framing of damages into the potential risk degrees has a social and economic impact. Assessment and retrofitting of the existing buildings have represented a huge engineering challenge as a distinct problem versus a new building design. The performance level of a vulnerable existing building shows us the expected seismic performance level due to the classified damages, the pattern of cracks, the interruption of function, the economic losses and the needed interventions, all in function of the importance class of building on next life span of use. On recommends the computation of R (R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Vulnerable Dwellings for the assessing and strengthening design, in comparison to both norms because of the bearing conventional seismic load computed by [1], will result less than the value which will be computed by the Part 3 of P100-1:2006, i.e. the norm P100:1992 is more severe. In the case of the breakable fracture probability of the existing structural masonry members, one recommends a bigger value of ? – reduction factor unless the given values by [1] for a new structure with a high ductility, especially for the deflections calibration on the same limit state.

  14. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  15. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  16. Earthquake risk assessment of building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, probabilistic risk analysis tools have been applied to assess the performance of new and existing building structural systems. Structural design and evaluation of buildings and other facilities with regard to their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes requires special considerations that are not normally a part of such evaluations for other occupancy, service and environmental loads. This paper reviews some of these special considerations, specifically as they pertain to probability-based codified design and reliability-based condition assessment of existing buildings. Difficulties experienced in implementing probability-based limit states design criteria for earthquake are summarized. Comparisons of predicted and observed building damage highlight the limitations of using current deterministic approaches for post-earthquake building condition assessment. The importance of inherent randomness and modeling uncertainty in forecasting building performance is examined through a building fragility assessment of a steel frame with welded connections that was damaged during the Northridge Earthquake of 1994. The prospects for future improvements in earthquake-resistant design procedures based on a more rational probability-based treatment of uncertainty are examined

  17. BUILDING DESIGN INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Ligia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient design is a high priority in the national energy strategy of European countries considering the latest requirements of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. The residential sector is responsible for a significant quantity of energy consumptions from the total amount of consumptions on a worldwide level. In residential building most of the energy consumptions are given mainly by heating, domestic hot water and lighting. Retrofitting the existing building stock offers great opportunities for reducing global energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. The first part of the paper will address the need of thermal and energy retrofit of existing buildings. The second part will provide an overview on how various variables can influence the energy performance of a building that is placed in all four climatic zones from Romania. The paper is useful for specialist and designers from the construction field in understanding that buildings behave differently from the energy point of view in different climatic regions, even if the building characteristic remain the same.

  18. Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    On the 1 October 1992 a change in the Dutch building legislation took effect: the revised Housing Act, the Building Decree and the technical documents related to this legislation came into force. This publication contains an English translation of the Building Decree. In order to give an idea of the

  19. Building founding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Seiya; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1996-01-01

    The lower portion of a reactor building is buried at a level of a base rock. In the step of building construction, the base rock around the building is dug of keeping a construction space. The base rock present between the digging line and the building is replaced with an artificial base rock comprising aggregates and cement having a building constraining force substantially equal with that of the lower supporting base rock to obtain constraining force for the side portion of the building. The building itself is made of concrete steels. As the material for replacing the base rock between the digging line and the building, non-reinforced concrete having no steels may provide sufficient function. The burying depth is determined so as to align the surface of the base rock with the level of the base floor of the building. With such procedures, since it is not necessary to increase the area of the lower portion of the building, the amount of the materials for the building can be reduced. In addition, the earthquakes stability can be ensured without changing the shape of the building. (I.N.)

  20. Management Of Building Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko Majdandzic; Tadija Lovric; Vido Peric

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have shown the concept of logistic support in management in building production and in building of objects, which is realised in Enterprise resource Planning – ERP system ERPINSG, developed in Informatic firm Informatic engineering – ININ in Slavonski Brod, and in cooperation with scientists of catedra for informatics of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and users from building firms.

  1. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  2. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  3. Improving building performance using smart building concept: Benefit cost ratio comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Sayuti, Mustika Sari; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy

    2017-11-01

    Smart building concept is an implementation of technology developed in the construction industry throughout the world. However, the implementation of this concept is still below expectations due to various obstacles such as higher initial cost than a conventional concept and existing regulation siding with the lowest cost in the tender process. This research aims to develop intelligent building concept using value engineering approach to obtain added value regarding quality, efficiency, and innovation. The research combined quantitative and qualitative approach using questionnaire survey and value engineering method to achieve the research objectives. The research output will show additional functions regarding technology innovation that may increase the value of a building. This study shows that smart building concept requires higher initial cost, but produces lower operational and maintenance costs. Furthermore, it also confirms that benefit-cost ratio on the smart building was much higher than a conventional building, that is 1.99 to 0.88.

  4. LEVERAGING EXISTING HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION FOR ANIMATIONS: SENATE VIRTUAL TOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dhanda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.

  5. Leveraging Existing Heritage Documentation for Animations: Senate Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, A.; Fai, S.; Graham, K.; Walczak, G.

    2017-08-01

    The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs) made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.

  6. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Burinskienė, Marija; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    2013-12-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized - mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings - the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  7. Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.

  8. Rehabilitation of existing building structure in expansive soils: A case study in Laghouat, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ouai Aissa

    2017-01-01

    This work presents results obtained from a case study conducted on M’kam neighborhood (600 housing social city) in Laghouat, Algeria. The bloc (J) in this location, suffering from damages that are attributed to the expansive clayey soil interaction with sewage disposal under foundations was the subject of rehabilitation in this study. The principal causes of observed structural damages were studied through diagnostic expertise (inspection-evaluation process) of the cracks and sewage dispo...

  9. When stuff gets covered in fluff in order to build up a paradoxical existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra Marinescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Living immaterially in an over-materialized world seems to have become one of today’s paradoxes. More and more often what can’t be touched looks like getting greater “weight” than palpable things, commonly known as stuff. It seems that we are living in a “fluff-made world” as Richard Lanham, author of “The Economics of Attention” (2006 underlined in his study; a world he perceives as being mainly made up of information and visual representation. Even if we are dealing with everyday realities, talking about the surrounding fluff tends to receive a science fictional connotation. Various authors have fantasized over this topic, but getting inspired by a true story, Emma Donoghue succeeded into masterly depicting the ways in which a desperate mom got the power to deliberately mix fluff and stuff in a spectacular way. “Room” (2010 is a fascinating story of a young woman kidnapped, raped and locked up for years in a room together with her son.

  10. Financial Management: Existence of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buildings and Other Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Pusey, Ryan W; Ventimiglia, Crmelo G; Zeh, William H; Bryant, Leon D; King, Calvin O; Kntor, Scott C; Kasseler, Trisha L

    2005-01-01

    ...) cost and the associated accumulated depreciation of the assets. As of September 30, 2003, USACE had about 40,000 structures located at about 1,273 field sites in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii.

  11. Reforming The U.S. Security Assistance Export Process To Build Existing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    the USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise (ASAE), as well as cases associated with Foreign Military Sales (FMS) (Turner 2012, 5). The...reforms, excess defense articles, U.S. Army Security Assistance Command, Foreign Military Sales 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 16. PRICE CODE 17...Contract Audit Agency DCMA Defense Contract Management Agency DCS Direct Commercial Sales DELG Defense Export Loan Guarantee DISAM Defense

  12. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  13. Importance of the Design Basis Knowledge Management for New Builds and Existing NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Japan reminds us that sustaining a high level of nuclear safety over the life of a plant is of paramount importance to us all. This and previous major accidents have shaken the confidence of the public and even some governments in the safety of nuclear energy. However, a key message from the St. Petersburg Ministerial Conference this past June was that nuclear power will continue to play an important role in energy security and sustainable development. The IAEA will obviously need to continue to assist Member States in strengthening the safety of NPPs. We will also continue to give technical support to both newcomer countries and to countries with established nuclear energy programmes

  14. Post-Insulation of Existing Buildings Constructed Between 1850 and 1920

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    as a result of post-insulation measures. Besides lower heating costs and reduced CO2 emissions, improvement of the insulation standard could contribute to the elimination of other aspects of discomfort, such as draught originating from cold surfaces inside. This paper considers post-insulation of a simulated...

  15. Research trends in existing technologies that are building blocks to the internet of things

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available systems, interoperability, security, communications and protocols, wireless broadband networks, cloud computing integration and mobile technologies. Section II is on the problem statement. Section III is on sensors and embedded systems. Section IV... in an orderly manner, e.g. start-stop session. The transport layer is responsible for the validity and integrity of transmission, that is, it ensures the delivery of the entire file or message. The transport layer is like a door. Data has port numbers...

  16. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  17. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  18. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  19. Assessment of existing local houses condition as analysis tools for shore housing improvement program in Weriagar district, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, F.; Fernando, A.; Allo, I. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    The housing assessment is a part of the pre-feasibility study inThe Shore Housing Improvement Program in Weriagar District, West Papua. The housing assessment was conducted to identify the physical condition of existing houses. The parameters of assessment formulated from local references, practices and also national building regulation that covers each building system components, such as building structure/frame, building floor, building cover, and building roof. This study aims to explains lessons from local practices and references, used as the formula to generate assessment parameter, elaborate with Indonesia building regulation. The result of housing assessment were used as a basis to develop the house improvement strategy, the design alternative for housing improvement and further planning recommendations. The local knowledges involved in housing improvement program expected that the local-based approach could respect to the local build culture, respect the local environment, and the most important can offer best suitable solutions for functional utility and livability.

  20. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  1. Smart buildings: Energy efficient conditioning of building occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Houten, van M.A.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    To further optimize energy performance of buildings, intelligent building control offers new possibilities. Intelligent Software Agents (ISA) can be implemented at different levels of building automation. Individual agents for individual climate control for each user of the building in combination

  2. 47 CFR 17.17 - Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing structures. 17.17 Section 17.17... STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.17 Existing structures. (a) The requirements found in § 17.23 relating to painting and lighting of antenna structures shall not apply to those...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.72 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1040.72 Section 1040.72 Energy... § 1040.72 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate any program or activity to... facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and useable by handicapped persons. (b) Methods. A...

  4. 45 CFR 84.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 84.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity so that when each part is..., welfare, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and...

  5. Financial gap calculations for existing cogeneration 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, S.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    The Dutch SDE (abbreviation for the renewable energy incentive) subsidy scheme promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions which results from the use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. This report calculates the profitability of operation of existing CHP plants. This information can be used for decision making on the SDE subsidy for existing CHP plants in 2008 [nl

  6. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  7. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  8. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings. (paper)

  9. Building the Realtime User Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Roden, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Web is increasingly happening in realtime. With websites such as Facebook and Twitter leading the way, users are coming to expect that all sites should serve content as it occurs -- on smartphones as well as computers. This book shows you how to build realtime user experiences by adding chat, streaming content, and including more features on your site one piece at a time, without making big changes to the existing infrastructure. You'll also learn how to serve realtime content beyond the browser. Throughout the book are many practical JavaScript and Python examples that you can use on yo

  10. The landscape of existing models for high-throughput exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.

    2017-01-01

    and ability to easily handle large datasets. For building materials a series of diffusion-based models have been developed to predict the chemicals emissions from building materials to indoor air, but existing models require complex analytical or numerical solutions, which are not suitable for LCA or HTS...... applications. Thus, existing model solutions needed to be simplified for application in LCA and HTS, and a parsimonious model has been developed by Huang et al. (2017) to address this need. For SVOCs, simplified solutions do exist, assuming constant SVOC concentrations in building materials and steadystate...... for skin permeation and volatilization as competing processes and that requires a limited number of readily available physiochemical properties would be suitable for LCA and HTS purposes. Thus, the multi-pathway exposure model for chemicals in cosmetics developed by Ernstoff et al.constitutes a suitable...

  11. Acoustic classification schemes in Europe – Applicability for new, existing and renovated housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    The first acoustic classification schemes for dwellings were published in the 1990’es as national standards with the main purpose to introduce the possibility of specifying easily stricter acoustic criteria for new-build than the minimum requirements found in building regulations. Since then, more...... countries have introduced acoustic classification schemes, the first countries updated more times and some countries introduced acoustic classification also for other building categories. However, the classification schemes continued to focus on new buildings and have in general limited applicability...... for existing buildings from before implementation of acoustic regulations, typically in the 1950’es or later. The paper will summarize main characteristics, differences and similarities of the current national quality classes for housing in ten countries in Europe. In addition, the status and challenges...

  12. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  13. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  14. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  15. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  16. Building-integrated PV -- Analysis and US market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Friedman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Arthur D Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin, and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US

  17. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  18. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Which come first, the supermassive black holes that frantically devour matter or the enormous galaxies where they reside? A brand new scenario has emerged from a recent set of outstanding observations of a black hole without a home: black holes may be "building" their own host galaxy. This could be the long-sought missing link to understanding why the masses of black holes are larger in galaxies that contain more stars. "The 'chicken and egg' question of whether a galaxy or its black hole comes first is one of the most debated subjects in astrophysics today," says lead author David Elbaz. "Our study suggests that supermassive black holes can trigger the formation of stars, thus 'building' their own host galaxies. This link could also explain why galaxies hosting larger black holes have more stars." To reach such an extraordinary conclusion, the team of astronomers conducted extensive observations of a peculiar object, the nearby quasar HE0450-2958 (see eso0523 for a previous study of this object), which is the only one for which a host galaxy has not yet been detected [1]. HE0450-2958 is located some 5 billion light-years away. Until now, it was speculated that the quasar's host galaxy was hidden behind large amounts of dust, and so the astronomers used a mid-infrared instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope for the observations [2]. At such wavelengths, dust clouds shine very brightly, and are readily detected. "Observing at these wavelengths would allow us to trace dust that might hide the host galaxy," says Knud Jahnke, who led the observations performed at the VLT. "However, we did not find any. Instead we discovered that an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate." These observations have provided a surprising new take on the system. While no trace of stars is revealed around the black hole, its companion galaxy is extremely rich in bright and very young stars. It is forming stars at a rate

  19. Assessment and Rehabilitation Issues Concerning Existing 70’s Structural Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabareanu, E.

    2017-06-01

    The last 30 years were very demanding in terms of norms and standards change concerning the structural calculus for buildings, leaving a large stock of structures erected during 70-90 decades in a weak position concerning seismic loads and loads level for live loads, wind and snow. In the same time, taking into account that a large amount of buildings are in service all over the country, they cannot be demolished, but suitable rehabilitation methods should be proposed, structural durability being achieved. The paper proposes some rehabilitation methods suitable in terms of structural safety and cost optimization for diaphragm reinforced concrete structures, with an example on an existing multi storey building.

  20. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  1. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  2. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  3. Building materials. Stichwort Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, W

    1981-01-01

    To handle building materials properly, one must know about their characteristics. This pocket book will be of help: structured like a glossary, it gives brief descriptions of the most common building materials. It is small and handy enough to be a constant companion to resident engineers, foremen, gangers, building tradesmen, and construction workers and an aid in their training. The following groups of building materials are discussed: Natural stone; units for brick walls, floors, and roofs; mortar and concrete (definitions, binders, aggregates, additives, admixtures, mixing water); special types of plaster and rendering; light-weight building boards and wood wool basis; multilayer light-weight building boards; gypsum plasterboards; chimney construction; sewers; thermal insulation and sound section; structural steels; plastics.

  4. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , steel and composites research. Analysis of the building materials market situation in South Africa identified the major building material cost drivers as cement and concrete and steel. For South Africa, research and development focus has been... in South Africa be cement and concrete, light-weight steel construction, smart tiles and composite materials. Nanotechnology materials should be used for property enhancement. The building materials developed should be modularised and/or panelised...

  5. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  6. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  7. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  8. The existence of trajectories joining critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuxiang.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)

  9. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  10. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haves, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, S. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Torcellini, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, D. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Holmberg, D. R. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Roth, K. W. [TIAX, LLC, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  11. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  12. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  13. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  14. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  15. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  16. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  17. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  18. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  19. Re-conceiving building design quality: A review of building users in their social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kelly J; Evans, James; Karvonen, Andrew; Whitley, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Considerable overlap exists between post-occupancy research evaluating building design quality and the concept of 'social value', popularised by its recent application to issues of the public realm. To outline this potential research agenda, the paper reviews design quality research on buildings in relation to users and their social context where the term 'social context' refers to building user group dynamics, a combination of organisational cultures, management strategies, and social norms and practices. The review is conducted across five key building types, namely housing, workplaces, healthcare, education, and the retail/service sector. Research commonalities and gaps are identified in order to build a more comprehensive picture of the design quality literature and its handling of users in their social context. The key findings concerning each building type are presented visually. It is concluded that the design quality field comprises a patchwork of relatively isolated studies of various building types, with significant potential for theoretical and empirical development through interdisciplinary collaboration. Users tend to be conceived as anonymous and autonomous individuals with little analysis of user identity or interaction. Further, the contextual impact of user group dynamics on the relationship between building design and building user is rarely addressed in the literature. Producing a more nuanced understanding of users in situ is proposed as an important area for future design quality research.

  20. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  1. Concrete structures. Contribution to the safety assessment of existing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COUTO

    Full Text Available The safety evaluation of an existing concrete structure differs from the design of new structures. The partial safety factors for actions and resistances adopted in the design phase consider uncertainties and inaccuracies related to the building processes of structures, variability of materials strength and numerical approximations of the calculation and design processes. However, when analyzing a finished structure, a large number of unknown factors during the design stage are already defined and can be measured, which justifies a change in the increasing factors of the actions or reduction factors of resistances. Therefore, it is understood that safety assessment in existing structures is more complex than introducing security when designing a new structure, because it requires inspection, testing, analysis and careful diagnose. Strong knowledge and security concepts in structural engineering are needed, as well as knowledge about the materials of construction employed, in order to identify, control and properly consider the variability of actions and resistances in the structure. With the intention of discussing this topic considered complex and diffuse, this paper presents an introduction to the safety of concrete structures, a synthesis of the recommended procedures by Brazilian standards and another codes, associated with the topic, as well a realistic example of the safety assessment of an existing structure.

  2. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    of NILM that make them attractive for certain building environments and different classes of end-users. The intent of this report is to raise awareness of trending NILM approaches. Additionally, three existing technologies were acquired and evaluated using the Residential Building Stock Assessment (RBSA) owner-occupied test bed operated by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) to understand performance accuracy of current NILM products under realistic conditions. Based on this field study experience, the characteristics exhibited by the NILM products included in the assessment are also discussed in this report in terms of ease of use, ease of installation, ability to inform decisions and actions. Results of the analysis performed to investigate the accuracy of the participating NILM products in estimating energy use of individual appliances are also presented.

  3. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  4. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  5. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    high energy performance. It is important to stress the need for MS to introduce a national or regional definition of very low energy buildings in their building regulation and to develop a national strategy towards this level of energy performance to become the standard. This market transformation...... the ambition in the EU Action plan - to develop an EU strategy towards very low energy houses. The current recast of the EPBD is an opportunity, which must not be missed to introduce the requirement to MS to define very low energy buildings and a national strategy towards this level of energy performance....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...

  6. Building waste management in Bulgaria: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjieva-Zaharieva, R.; Dimitrova, E.; Buyle-Bodin, Francois

    2003-01-01

    Building waste recycling as aggregates is a modern approach for preventing environmental pollution through both reducing the stocks of waste and decreasing the use of natural aggregates. The reuse of building waste is a relatively new issue for Bulgaria despite the existing considerable quantity of building waste and the significant changes in the environmental rules applied. The paper discusses generated and potential waste streams in Bulgaria in the context of the social and economic restructuring and recent urban development undergone by the country. The main preliminary conditions for developing the recycling activity such as: streams of building waste, experience in recycling, technical and environmental standardization, appropriate technologies, etc. are examined. The authors analyze current practice and research activities with regard to the implementation of advanced EU building-waste recycling methods. Conclusions are drawn about existing opportunities and the priorities of the needed building waste management strategy in the country

  7. Investigating the presence of hazardous materials in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustitus, D.A.; Blaisdell, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental hazards in buildings can be found in the air, on exposed surfaces, or hidden in roofs, walls, and systems. They can exist in buildings in solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A sound methodology for investigating the presence of environmental hazards in buildings should include several components. The first step in planning an investigation of environmental hazards in buildings is to ascertain why the investigation is to be performed. Research should be performed to review available documentation on the building. Next, a visual inspection of the building should be performed to identify and document existing conditions, and all suspect materials containing environmental hazards. Lastly, samples of suspect materials should be collected for testing. It is important to sample appropriate materials, based on the information obtained during the previous steps of the investigation. It is also important to collect the samples using standard procedures. Pollutants of concern include asbestos, lead, PCBs, and radon

  8. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  9. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Augmented Reality to Improve Investigation of Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chionna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental system to support investigation of historical buildings using Building Information Modeling (BIM and Augmented Reality (AR. The system requires the use of an off-line software to build the BIM representation and defines a method to integrate diagnostic data into BIM. The system offers access to such information during site investigation using AR glasses supported by marker and marker-less technologies. The main innovation is the possibility to contextualize through AR not only existing BIM properties but also results from non-invasive tools. User evaluations show how the use of the system may enhance the perception of engineers during the investigation process.

  10. Modules in historic building construction according to the Copenhagen Building Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Anders; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of building works from Copenhagen, Denmark in the period 1850 to 1950. In the study we investigate, based on the theory of product architecture and product modularization, if examples of the use of well-defined interfaces can be found. Furthermore, the aim...... is to study how the use of such interfaces has influenced former building processes and how they were implemented and kept stable over decades. The result of the study is that at that time a number of standardized interfaces between the individual parts of the building work existed, and that these interfaces...

  11. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  12. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  13. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  14. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  15. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  16. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  17. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  18. Building information modelling (BIM)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a Building Information Model (BIM) also known as a Building Product Model (BPM) is nothing new. A short article on BIM will never cover the entire filed, because it is a particularly complex filed that is recently beginning to receive...

  19. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  20. SUSY GUT Model Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E 8 xE 8 heterotic string.

  1. Building Maintenance Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph; Messier, Joseph

    Building maintenance is a basic two-year trade education course requiring 2 1/2 hours of study on each of 160 teaching days per year. Student abilities should range from those capable of the simplest custodial work to those who may eventually be superintendents of building complexes. The syllabus is organized in sections by traditional skills…

  2. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  3. 2009 Capacity Building For Library and Information Centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discussed the features of digitized/virtual library and information centre and the need for capacity building especially in .... electronic library, virtual reality, digital library, community library .... architecture of the existing information system and ...

  4. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice

  5. Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Governance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to fill an important knowledge gap. ... The research will take place in three countries: Liberia, Mozambique, and Uganda. ... The project will build on their existing close partnership with researchers based in developed ...

  6. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... developed using a ``top-down'' approach, based on a logical understanding of building performance... were developed using a ``bottom-up'' approach, by compiling and editing lists of fields from existing...

  7. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  8. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes; Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented. The goal of existing home high performing remodeling quality management systems (HPR-QMS) is to establish practices and processes that can be used throughout any remodeling project. The research presented in this document provides a comparison of a selected retrofit activity as typically done versus that same retrofit activity approached from an integrated high performance remodeling and quality management perspective. It highlights some key quality management tools and approaches that can be adopted incrementally by a high performance remodeler for this or any high performance retrofit. This example is intended as a template and establishes a methodology that can be used to develop a portfolio of high performance remodeling strategies.

  9. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports......Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...

  10. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    , and they indicate the importance of this story to be preserved. The professionals, who cooperate on the preservation efforts for the cultural environments today, all emphasizes the communication of the story, but using different approaches towards the processes of reading, interpreting and communicating. The role...... planning? In this paper I will focus on the communication of the architects working with building preservation and planning, how they communicate the building, the interventions and the storytelling in practice. The methods used by the architects are based on a practice, where some skills are learned...... through education, such as documentation of buildings and the restoration as a way of communicating the architect's intervention on the building, meanwhile the communication of the buildings history is seen as a "natural" skill and the methods are not questioned in the practice. The storytelling has today...

  11. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  12. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  13. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  14. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  15. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  16. Greening Public Buildings: ESCO-Contracting in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Rohr Hansen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents current research on Danish municipalities’ use of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) as a way to improve the standard of public buildings and to increase energy efficiency. In recent years more and more municipalities have used ESCO-contracts to retrofit existing public buildings...

  17. Performance of office buildings from a user's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Maarleveld, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of environmental psychology a long tradition exists in Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) or building-in-use studies. Nowadays facility managers and real estate managers seem to show a growing interest in ex post evaluation of buildings, too, particularly in connection to ex ante

  18. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  19. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  20. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  1. Segmentation of Shadowed Buildings in Dense Urban Areas from Aerial Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Susaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of buildings in urban areas, especially dense urban areas, by using remotely sensed images is highly desirable. However, segmentation results obtained by using existing algorithms are unsatisfactory because of the unclear boundaries between buildings and the shadows cast by neighboring buildings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed that successfully segments buildings from aerial photographs, including shadowed buildings in dense urban areas. To handle roofs having rough text...

  2. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    OpenAIRE

    Yang , Yingying; Sempey , Alain; Vogt Wu , Tingting; Sommier , Alain; Dumoulin , Jean; Batsale , Jean ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used f...

  3. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database

  4. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    are energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher......A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components...

  5. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  6. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  7. How to prove the existence of metabolons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Sequential enzymes in biosynthetic pathways are organized in metabolons. It is challenging to provide experimental evidence for the existence of metabolons as biosynthetic pathways are composed of highly dynamic protein–protein interactions. Many different methods are being applied, each with str...

  8. Conditions for the Existence of Market Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that most graduate-level economics textbooks rarely mention the need for consumers to be above their minimum wealth position as a condition for market equilibrium. Argues that this omission leaves students with a mistaken sense about the range of circumstances under which market equilibria can exist. (MJP)

  9. 22 CFR 142.16 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.16 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this part applies so that when each...., telecommunication device for the deaf) redesign of equipment, reassignment of classes or other services to...

  10. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  12. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  13. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    with a doll, a dead woman in a coffin, and a bowl of soup; the viewers of the three sequences were reported to have perceived Mozhukin’s face as expressing happiness, sadness, and hunger/thoughtfulness respectively. It is not clear, however, whether or not the socalled “Kuleshov effect” really exists...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  15. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter subseq...

  16. Do Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiations Exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    The claim that radiations, e.g, in spas, can have biopositive actions on humans is unproven and unplausible. It also conflicts with the contents of the standard handbooks and with national legislation everywhere. Further, stimulation of plants by radiation is badly reproducible. But even if existing it need not be beneficial to the plant itself ("selfpositive"). (author)

  17. Repurposing Existing Material for Performance Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Francis A.; Nelson, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of performance support systems (PSS), describes their role in promoting productivity in agile organizations, and discusses issues related to developing effective performance support using existing orientation, training, or procedural manuals. Topics include strategic principles of agility, and adding value when incorporating…

  18. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudynski, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L 1 and in L loc 1 are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L 1 . The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions

  19. 38 CFR 18.422 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Accessibility § 18.422 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this... visits, delivery of health, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of...

  20. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  1. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52...

  2. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  3. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Adding Semantic Support to Existing UDDI Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jim; Montrose, Bruce; Kang, Myong

    2005-01-01

    .... The advantage is that it is completely backward compatible. The add-on modules only need to be installed on the clients of users who wish to take advantage of semantic markups. They can be integrated seamlessly into existing systems and operations without any modification of the infrastructure.

  5. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  6. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  7. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Activities of the Private Sector of the Building Community and Its Perceived Needs Relative to Increased Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Solar Energy in the Heating and Cooling of Buildings.

    This report is essentially a collection of information gathered from a broad cross-section of the building community that provides a description of the state of affairs existing mid-1974 through mid-1975 in the private sector of the building community with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings. The report additionally contains…

  8. Uncertainty in Seismic Capacity of Masonry Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Augenti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a significant influence of modeling parameters on seismic vulnerability. However, confidence in mechanical properties of existing masonry buildings is much lower than in the case of reinforcing steel and concrete. This paper is aimed at assessing whether and how uncertainty propagates from material properties to seismic capacity of an entire masonry structure. A typical two-story unreinforced masonry building is analyzed. Based on previous statistical characterization of mechanical properties of existing masonry types, the following random variables have been considered in this study: unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength at zero confining stress, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and available ductility in shear. Probability density functions were implemented to generate a significant number of realizations and static pushover analysis of the case-study building was performed for each vector of realizations, load combination and lateral load pattern. Analysis results show a large dispersion in displacement capacity and lower dispersion in spectral acceleration capacity. This can directly affect decision-making because both design and retrofit solutions depend on seismic capacity predictions. Therefore, engineering judgment should always be used when assessing structural safety of existing masonry constructions against design earthquakes, based on a series of seismic analyses under uncertain parameters.

  9. Seismic isolation for existing masonry houses in Groningen/ NL combined with thermal upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Rijk; Teuffel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Induced earthquakes, caused by the winning of natural Gas in the North of the Netherlands (Groningen province), are causing significant damage to the existing, often relatively weak, masonry buildings. This seismic hazard and seismic rehabilitation problem in the Groningen area involves much more

  10. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  11. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires......, (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses...

  12. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  13. Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belo, Catarina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037 and Averroes (d. 1198, whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna’s metaphysical works in the 12th century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes’ criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.

    El presente artículo explora las percepciones sobre la existencia de los filósofos medievales musulmanes Avicena (m. 1037 y Averroes (m. 1198, cuyas obras se encuentran muy próximas a la filosofía de Aristóteles. Además de la influencia aristotélica, que caló en toda la filosofía islámica medieval, Avicena y Averroes estuvieron inspirados por la teología islámica, conocida en árabe como Kalām. La distinción entre esencia y existencia es uno de los más fundamentales y controvertidos aspectos de la filosofía de Avicena junto a su aseveración de que la existencia es un accidente. Averroes, en cambio, concibe de forma radicalmente diferente la existencia, identificándola con los seres existentes más que considerarla como algo en

  14. Innovation in the U.S. building sector: An assessment of patent citations in building energy control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altwies, Joy E.; Nemet, Gregory F.

    2013-01-01

    Buildings are crucial to addressing energy problems because they are large consumers of end-use energy, and potential exists to dramatically improve their efficiencies. However, the pace of innovation in buildings is generally characterized as inadequate, despite the implementation of an array of policy instruments aimed at promoting efficiency. The literature on innovation in the building industry provides several explanations including: fragmented decision-making, principal agent problems, inadequate information, and limited learning across heterogeneous projects. We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. with a case study of patenting in energy management control systems (EMCS) for commercial buildings and programmable thermostats (PT) for residential buildings. Using U.S. patent data, we find that: (1) patenting activity peaked around 1980, subsequently declined, and then increased considerably in the past decade; (2) commercial, rather than residential, buildings account for the recent increase; and (3) building control technologies have benefitted from inventions originating outside the industry, notably from electronics and computers, with a shift toward the latter in recent years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. using patents. ► We use commercial and residential building controls technology as a case study. ► Patenting peaked around 1980, declined, and then increased in the past decade. ► Commercial building control patents account for most of the recent increase. ► Inventions in electronics and computers have led to innovation in building controls.

  15. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  16. Guidelines for Using Building Information Modeling for Energy Analysis of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reeves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy modeling (BEM, a subset of building information modeling (BIM, integrates energy analysis into the design, construction, and operation and maintenance of buildings. As there are various existing BEM tools available, there is a need to evaluate the utility of these tools in various phases of the building lifecycle. The goal of this research was to develop guidelines for evaluation and selection of BEM tools to be used in particular building lifecycle phases. The objectives of this research were to: (1 Evaluate existing BEM tools; (2 Illustrate the application of the three BEM tools; (3 Re-evaluate the three BEM tools; and (4 Develop guidelines for evaluation, selection and application of BEM tools in the design, construction and operation/maintenance phases of buildings. Twelve BEM tools were initially evaluated using four criteria: interoperability, usability, available inputs, and available outputs. Each of the top three BEM tools selected based on this initial evaluation was used in a case study to simulate and evaluate energy usage, daylighting performance, and natural ventilation for two academic buildings (LEED-certified and non-LEED-certified. The results of the case study were used to re-evaluate the three BEM tools using the initial criteria with addition of the two new criteria (speed and accuracy, and to develop guidelines for evaluating and selecting BEM tools to analyze building energy performance. The major contribution of this research is the development of these guidelines that can help potential BEM users to identify the most appropriate BEM tool for application in particular building lifecycle phases.

  17. An obstacle to building a time machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.M.; Farhi, E.; Guth, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Gott has shown that a spacetime with two infinite parallel cosmic strings passing each other with sufficient velocity contains closed timelike curves. We discuss an attempt to build such a time machine. Using the energy-momentum conservation laws in the equivalent (2+1)-dimensional theory, we explicitly construct the spacetime representing the decay of one gravitating particle into two. We find that there is never enough mass in an open universe to build the time machine from the products of decays of stationary particles. More generally, the Gott time machine cannot exist in any open (2+1)-dimensional universe for which the total momentum is timelike

  18. Whole-building Hygrothermal Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2003-01-01

    An existing integrated simulation tool for dynamic thermal simulation of building was extended with a transient model for moisture release and uptake in building materials. Validation of the new model was begun with comparison against measurements in an outdoor test cell furnished with single...... materials. Almost quasi-steady, cyclic experiments were used to compare the indoor humidity variation and the numerical results of the integrated simulation tool with the new moisture model. Except for the case with chipboard as furnishing, the predictions of indoor humidity with the detailed model were...

  19. Confidence building in implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Long-term safety of the disposal system should be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the stakeholders. Convincing arguments are therefore required that instil in the stakeholders confidence in the safety of a particular concept for the siting and design of a geological disposal, given the uncertainties that inevitably exist in its a priori description and in its evolution. The step-wise approach associated with making safety case at each stage is a key to building confidence in the repository development programme. This paper discusses aspects and issues on confidence building in the implementation of HLW disposal in Japan. (author)

  20. Global climate-oriented building energy use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which global fuel use in buildings could be reduced, and the growth in global electricity use in buildings limited, by applying stringent (factor of 3–4) improvements to recent building codes for new buildings worldwide and large (factor of 2–3) reductions in the energy use of existing buildings through renovations. The analysis is carried out for 10 different socio-economic regions of the world, taking into account existing building stock and energy intensities in each region and projected changes in population and income, which in most parts of the world will drive large increases in building floor area. A stock turnover model is applied to project changes in heating, cooling, service hot water (SHW) and non-thermal electricity demand with various rates of improvement in standards for new and renovated buildings, and various rates of renovation and demolition of existing buildings. For a scenario in which population peaks at about 9 billion and global average per capita GDP increases to twice the 2010 value by 2100, the global fuel demand could be reduced by a factor of four while limiting maximum annual electricity demand to twice the 2010 value. - Highlights: • A detailed model for generating global scenarios of building energy use is presented. • Drivers of increasing energy use are population and per capita GDP in 10 regions. • Heating, cooling and ventilation energy uses are projected using a stock turnover model. • Global building fuel demand could decrease by 60–80% by 2100 relative to 2010. • Global building electricity demand could be limited to a 100–200% increase