International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PanjehShahi, M.H.; Nouzari, M.M.
2002-01-01
A new retrofit targeting procedure, based on pinch technology has been developed. The procedure considers existing structure and hydrodynamic system of a given network as two main constraint during targeting. The procedure uses a linear programming model to consider existing structure. The model finds a network structure that has maximum compatibility with existing structure. Furthermore, the procedure using the pressure drop equations, can consider decreasing the film coefficients of streams due to increasing network area. Good compatibility between old and new networks and non replacement of hydrodynamic equipment cause to the best use of capital in retrofit projects. The procedure has been checked by doing two case studies, in which the results compared to the established methods, and realized significant improvement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Seung-Ie [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: yangsione@dreamwiz.com; Frangopol, Dan M. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: dan.frangopol@colorado.edu; Kawakami, Yoriko [Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Kobe Maintenance Department, 16-1 Shinko-cho Chuo-ku Kobe City, Hyogo, 650-0041 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoriko-kawakami@hepc.go.jp; Neves, Luis C. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: lneves@civil.uminho.pt
2006-06-15
In the last decade, it became clear that life-cycle cost analysis of existing civil infrastructure must be used to optimally manage the growing number of aging and deteriorating structures. The uncertainties associated with deteriorating structures require the use of probabilistic methods to properly evaluate their lifetime performance. In this paper, the deterioration and the effect of maintenance actions are analyzed considering the performance of existing structures characterized by lifetime functions. These functions allow, in a simple manner, the consideration of the effect of aging on the decrease of the probability of survival of a structure, as well as the effect of maintenance actions. Models for the effects of proactive and reactive preventive maintenance, and essential maintenance actions are presented. Since the probability of failure is different from zero during the entire service life of a deteriorating structure and depends strongly on the maintenance strategy, the cost of failure is included in this analysis. The failure of one component in a structure does not usually lead to failure of the structure and, as a result, the safety of existing structures must be analyzed using a system reliability framework. The optimization consists of minimizing the sum of the cumulative maintenance and expected failure cost during the prescribed time horizon. Two examples of application of the proposed methodology are presented. In the first example, the sum of the maintenance and failure costs of a bridge in Colorado is minimized considering essential maintenance only and a fixed minimum acceptable probability of failure. In the second example, the expected lifetime cost, including maintenance and expected failure costs, of a multi-girder bridge is minimized considering reactive preventive maintenance actions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Seung-Ie; Frangopol, Dan M.; Kawakami, Yoriko; Neves, Luis C.
2006-01-01
In the last decade, it became clear that life-cycle cost analysis of existing civil infrastructure must be used to optimally manage the growing number of aging and deteriorating structures. The uncertainties associated with deteriorating structures require the use of probabilistic methods to properly evaluate their lifetime performance. In this paper, the deterioration and the effect of maintenance actions are analyzed considering the performance of existing structures characterized by lifetime functions. These functions allow, in a simple manner, the consideration of the effect of aging on the decrease of the probability of survival of a structure, as well as the effect of maintenance actions. Models for the effects of proactive and reactive preventive maintenance, and essential maintenance actions are presented. Since the probability of failure is different from zero during the entire service life of a deteriorating structure and depends strongly on the maintenance strategy, the cost of failure is included in this analysis. The failure of one component in a structure does not usually lead to failure of the structure and, as a result, the safety of existing structures must be analyzed using a system reliability framework. The optimization consists of minimizing the sum of the cumulative maintenance and expected failure cost during the prescribed time horizon. Two examples of application of the proposed methodology are presented. In the first example, the sum of the maintenance and failure costs of a bridge in Colorado is minimized considering essential maintenance only and a fixed minimum acceptable probability of failure. In the second example, the expected lifetime cost, including maintenance and expected failure costs, of a multi-girder bridge is minimized considering reactive preventive maintenance actions
Summary of existing uncertainty methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glaeser, Horst
2013-01-01
A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions
A New Wavelet Threshold Determination Method Considering Interscale Correlation in Signal Denoising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Can He
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to simple calculation and good denoising effect, wavelet threshold denoising method has been widely used in signal denoising. In this method, the threshold is an important parameter that affects the denoising effect. In order to improve the denoising effect of the existing methods, a new threshold considering interscale correlation is presented. Firstly, a new correlation index is proposed based on the propagation characteristics of the wavelet coefficients. Then, a threshold determination strategy is obtained using the new index. At the end of the paper, a simulation experiment is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the experiment, four benchmark signals are used as test signals. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve a good denoising effect under various signal types, noise intensities, and thresholding functions.
Evaluation of Different Methods for Considering Bar-Concrete ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
theory, but the perfect bond assumption has been removed. The precision of the proposed method in considering the real nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete frames has been compared to the precision of two other suggested methods for considering bond-slip effect in layer model. Among the capabilities of this ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongliang Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrofracturing technology of perforated horizontal well has been widely used to stimulate the tight hydrocarbon reservoirs for gas production. To predict the hydraulic fracture propagation, the microseismicity can be used to infer hydraulic fractures state; by the effective numerical methods, microseismic events can be addressed from changes of the computed stresses. In numerical models, due to the challenges in accurately representing the complex structure of naturally fractured reservoir, the interaction between hydraulic and pre-existing fractures has not yet been considered and handled satisfactorily. To overcome these challenges, the adaptive finite element-discrete element method is used to refine mesh, effectively identify the fractures propagation, and investigate microseismic modelling. Numerical models are composed of hydraulic fractures, pre-existing fractures, and microscale pores, and the seepage analysis based on the Darcy’s law is used to determine fluid flow; then moment tensors in microseismicity are computed based on the computed stresses. Unfractured and naturally fractured models are compared to assess the influences of pre-existing fractures on hydrofracturing. The damaged and contact slip events were detected by the magnitudes, B-values, Hudson source type plots, and focal spheres.
Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukue, Yoshinori
This paper proposes a Retrospective Computerized System Validation (RCSV) method for Drug Manufacturing Software (DMSW) that relates to drug production considering software modification. Because DMSW that is used for quality management and facility control affects big impact to quality of drugs, regulatory agency required proofs of adequacy for DMSW's functions and performance based on developed documents and test results. Especially, the work that explains adequacy for previously developed DMSW based on existing documents and operational records is called RCSV. When modifying RCSV conducted DMSW, it was difficult to secure consistency between developed documents and test results for modified DMSW parts and existing documents and operational records for non-modified DMSW parts. This made conducting RCSV difficult. In this paper, we proposed (a) definition of documents architecture, (b) definition of descriptive items and levels in the documents, (c) management of design information using database, (d) exhaustive testing, and (e) integrated RCSV procedure. As a result, we could conduct adequate RCSV securing consistency.
An adaptive reentry guidance method considering the influence of blackout zone
Wu, Yu; Yao, Jianyao; Qu, Xiangju
2018-01-01
Reentry guidance has been researched as a popular topic because it is critical for a successful flight. In view that the existing guidance methods do not take into account the accumulated navigation error of Inertial Navigation System (INS) in the blackout zone, in this paper, an adaptive reentry guidance method is proposed to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory quickly with the target of minimum aerodynamic heating rate. The terminal error in position and attitude can be also reduced with the proposed method. In this method, the whole reentry guidance task is divided into two phases, i.e., the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phase. In the first phase, the idea of model predictive control (MPC) is used, and the receding optimization procedure ensures the optimal trajectory in the next few seconds. In the trajectory planning phase, after the vehicle has flown out of the blackout zone, the optimal reentry trajectory is obtained by online planning to adapt to the navigation information. An effective swarm intelligence algorithm, i.e. pigeon inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm, is applied to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory in both of the two phases. Compared to the trajectory updating method, the proposed method can reduce the terminal error by about 30% considering both the position and attitude, especially, the terminal error of height has almost been eliminated. Besides, the PIO algorithm performs better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm both in the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phases.
Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Soofiabadi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.
Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopko, W.L.
1991-01-01
This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant
Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuexia Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow (PPF method considering continuous and discrete variables (continuous and discrete power flow, CDPF for power systems. The proposed method—based on the cumulant method (CM and multiple deterministic power flow (MDPF calculations—can deal with continuous variables such as wind power generation (WPG and loads, and discrete variables such as fuel cell generation (FCG. In this paper, continuous variables follow a normal distribution (loads or a non-normal distribution (WPG, and discrete variables follow a binomial distribution (FCG. Through testing on IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus power systems, the proposed method (CDPF has better accuracy compared with the CM, and higher efficiency compared with the Monte Carlo simulation method (MCSM.
Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Box, Michael A.; Qin Yi
2006-01-01
This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation
Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Box, Michael A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: m.box@unsw.edu.au; Qin Yi [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: yi.qin@csiro.au
2006-01-15
This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation.
A lifetime prediction method for LEDs considering mission profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai; Zhan, Xiaoqing
2016-01-01
and to benchmark the cost-competitiveness of different lighting technologies. The existing lifetime data released by LED manufacturers or standard organizations are usually applicable only for specific temperature and current levels. Significant lifetime discrepancies may be observed in field operations due...... to the varying operational and environmental conditions during the entire service time (i.e., mission profiles). To overcome the challenge, this paper proposes an advanced lifetime prediction method, which takes into account the field operation mission profiles and the statistical properties of the life data...
Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Xiao Fang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.
Considering induction factor using BEM method in wind farm layout optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghadirian, Amin; Dehghan, M.; Torabi, F.
2014-01-01
For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which...... was considered to be 0.324 almost in all the previous studies. However, it is obviously evident that this factor is a strong function of turbine blade geometry and operational conditions. In the present study, a new method is introduced by which the induction factor for wind turbines can be calculated based...... on the method of Blade Element Momentum theory. By this method, the effect of blade profile, wind speed and angular velocity of wind turbine on the induction factor can be easily taken into account. The results show that for different blade profiles and operational conditions, the induction factor differs from...
Local existence of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in four Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbar, Fiki T. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Gunara, Bobby E.; Zen, Freddy P.; Triyanta [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesian Center of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP) (Indonesia)
2015-04-16
In this paper, we shall prove the local existence of N=1 supersymmetry gauge theory in 4 dimension. We start from the Lagrangian for coupling chiral and vector multiplets with constant gauge kinetic function and only considering a bosonic part by setting all fermionic field to be zero at level equation of motion. We consider a U(n) model as isometry for scalar field internal geometry. And we use a nonlinear semigroup method to prove the local existence.
Improved Genetic Algorithm-Based Unit Commitment Considering Uncertainty Integration Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyu-Hyung Jo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In light of the dissemination of renewable energy connected to the power grid, it has become necessary to consider the uncertainty in the generation of renewable energy as a unit commitment (UC problem. A methodology for solving the UC problem is presented by considering various uncertainties, which are assumed to have a normal distribution, by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the constructed scenarios for load, wind, solar, and generator outages, a combination of scenarios is found that meets the reserve requirement to secure the power balance of the power grid. In those scenarios, the uncertainty integration method (UIM identifies the best combination by minimizing the additional reserve requirements caused by the uncertainty of power sources. An integration process for uncertainties is formulated for stochastic unit commitment (SUC problems and optimized by the improved genetic algorithm (IGA. The IGA is composed of five procedures and finds the optimal combination of unit status at the scheduled time, based on the determined source data. According to the number of unit systems, the IGA demonstrates better performance than the other optimization methods by applying reserve repairing and an approximation process. To account for the result of the proposed method, various UC strategies are tested with a modified 24-h UC test system and compared.
A method of network topology optimization design considering application process characteristic
Wang, Chunlin; Huang, Ning; Bai, Yanan; Zhang, Shuo
2018-03-01
Communication networks are designed to meet the usage requirements of users for various network applications. The current studies of network topology optimization design mainly considered network traffic, which is the result of network application operation, but not a design element of communication networks. A network application is a procedure of the usage of services by users with some demanded performance requirements, and has obvious process characteristic. In this paper, we first propose a method to optimize the design of communication network topology considering the application process characteristic. Taking the minimum network delay as objective, and the cost of network design and network connective reliability as constraints, an optimization model of network topology design is formulated, and the optimal solution of network topology design is searched by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Furthermore, we investigate the influence of network topology parameter on network delay under the background of multiple process-oriented applications, which can guide the generation of initial population and then improve the efficiency of GA. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness and validity of our proposed method. Network topology optimization design considering applications can improve the reliability of applications, and provide guidance for network builders in the early stage of network design, which is of great significance in engineering practices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyanagi, Ryoichi
1984-01-01
Many piping systems are supported by flexible structures or attached to thin shell walls so it is very important to consider the dynamic coupling effects between these systems in dynamic analysis. This paper presents a practical method of dynamic analysis of an individual system considering the dynamic coupling effects of coupled equipment-piping systems. In this method, dynamic responses are calculated by using the modal information which is obtained from the other analysis for associative structure. Analytical results for the complete model and of this method for an individual system are presented in the piping-supporting structure system and a piping-shell system. From the comparison of these results, it shows that this method is accurate, useful and economically applicable to the dynamic analysis of large model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, T.; Uto, N.
1988-01-01
Several methods to determine cell-averaged group cross sections and anisotropic diffusion coefficients which consider the interaction effect between core fuel cells and control rods or control rod followers have been compared to discuss the physical meaning included in cell homogenization. As the cell homogenization methods considered are the commonly used flux-weighting method, the reaction rate preservation method and the reactivity preservation method. These homogenization methods have been applied to control rod worth calculations in 1-D slab cores to investigate their applicability. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs
Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong
2010-01-01
Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.
3D RECONSTRUCTION FROM MULTI-VIEW MEDICAL X-RAY IMAGES – REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF EXISTING METHODS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Hosseinian
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The 3D concept is extremely important in clinical studies of human body. Accurate 3D models of bony structures are currently required in clinical routine for diagnosis, patient follow-up, surgical planning, computer assisted surgery and biomechanical applications. However, 3D conventional medical imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have serious limitations such as using in non-weight-bearing positions, costs and high radiation dose(for CT. Therefore, 3D reconstruction methods from biplanar X-ray images have been taken into consideration as reliable alternative methods in order to achieve accurate 3D models with low dose radiation in weight-bearing positions. Different methods have been offered for 3D reconstruction from X-ray images using photogrammetry which should be assessed. In this paper, after demonstrating the principles of 3D reconstruction from X-ray images, different existing methods of 3D reconstruction of bony structures from radiographs are classified and evaluated with various metrics and their advantages and disadvantages are mentioned. Finally, a comparison has been done on the presented methods with respect to several metrics such as accuracy, reconstruction time and their applications. With regards to the research, each method has several advantages and disadvantages which should be considered for a specific application.
Considering play : From method to analysis
van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447
2017-01-01
This paper deals with play as an important methodological issue when studying games as texts and is intended as a practical methodological guide. After considering text as both the structuring object as well as its plural processual activations, we argue that different methodological considerations
Existing and new techniques in uranium exploration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowie, S.H.U.; Cameron, J.
1976-01-01
The demands on uranium exploration over the next 25 years will be very great indeed and will call for every possible means of improvement in exploration capability. The first essential is to increase geological knowledge of the mode of occurrence of uranium ore deposits. The second is to improve existing exploration techniques and instrumentation while, at the same time, promoting research and development on new methods to discover uranium ore bodies on the earth's surface and at depth. The present symposium is an effort to increase co-operation and the exchange of information in the critical field of uranium exploration techniques and instrumentation. As an introduction to the symposium a brief review is presented, firstly of what can be considered as existing techniques and, secondly, of techniques which have not yet been used on an appreciable scale. Some fourteen techniques used over the last 30 years are identified and their appropriate application, advantages and limitations are briefly summarized and the possibilities of their further development considered. The aim of future research on new techniques, in addition to finding new ways and means of identifying surface deposits, should be mainly directed to devising methods and instrumentation capable of detecting buried ore bodies that do not give a gamma signal at the surface. To achieve this aim, two contributory factors are essential: adequate financial support for research and development and increased specialized training in uranium exploration and instrumentation design. The papers in this symposium describe developments in the existing techniques, proposals for future research and development and case histories of exploration programmes
Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar
2018-03-01
In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.
Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.
Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han
2016-04-15
Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A maintenance time prediction method considering ergonomics through virtual reality simulation.
Zhou, Dong; Zhou, Xin-Xin; Guo, Zi-Yue; Lv, Chuan
2016-01-01
Maintenance time is a critical quantitative index in maintainability prediction. An efficient maintenance time measurement methodology plays an important role in early stage of the maintainability design. While traditional way to measure the maintenance time ignores the differences between line production and maintenance action. This paper proposes a corrective MOD method considering several important ergonomics factors to predict the maintenance time. With the help of the DELMIA analysis tools, the influence coefficient of several factors are discussed to correct the MOD value and the designers can measure maintenance time by calculating the sum of the corrective MOD time of each maintenance therbligs. Finally a case study is introduced, by maintaining the virtual prototype of APU motor starter in DELMIA, designer obtains the actual maintenance time by the proposed method, and the result verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.
On the existence of perturbed Robertson-Walker universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Eath, P.D.
1976-01-01
Solutions of the full nonlinear field equations of general relativity near the Robertson-Walker universes are examined, together with their relation to linearized perturbations. A method due to Choquet-Bruhat and Deser is used to prove existence theorems for solutions near Robertson-Walker constraint data of the constraint equations on a spacelike hypersurface. These theorems allow one to regard the matter fluctuations as independent quantities, ranging over certain function spaces. In the k=-1 case the existence theory describes perturbations which may vary within uniform bounds throughout space. When k=+1 a modification of the method leads to a theorem which clarifies some unusual features of these constraint perturbations. The k=0 existence theorem refers only to perturbations which die away at large distances. The connection between linearized constraint solutions and solutions of the full constraints is discussed. For k= +- 1 backgrounds, solutions of the linearized constraints are analyzed using transverse-traceless decompositions of symmetric tensors. Finally the time-evolution of perturbed constraint data and the validity of linearized perturbation theory for Robertson-Walker universes are considered
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING INTENSIVE METHODS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Mytnyk
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the study and analysis of comparable existing intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. This work is carried out to identify the positive and negative aspects of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages. The author traces the idea of rational organization and intensification of teaching foreign languages from their inception to the moment of their preparation in an integrated system. advantages and disadvantages of the most popular methods of intensive training also analyzed the characteristic of different historical periods, namely cugestopedichny method G. Lozanov method activation of reserve possibilities of students G. Kitaygorodskoy, emotional-semantic method I. Schechter, an intensive course of learning a foreign language L. Gegechkori , sugestokibernetichny integral method of accelerated learning a foreign language B. Petrusinskogo, a crash course in the study of spoken language by immersion A. Plesnevich. Analyzed the principles of learning and the role of each method in the development of methods of intensive foreign language training. The author identified a number of advantages and disadvantages of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages: 1 the assimilation of a large number of linguistic, lexical and grammatical units; 2 active use of acquired knowledge, skills and abilities in the practice of oral speech communication in a foreign language; 3 the ability to use language material resulting not only in his speech, but also in understanding the interlocutor; 4 overcoming psychological barriers, including fear of the possibility of making a mistake; 5 high efficiency and fast learning; 6 too much new language material that is presented; 7 training of oral forms of communication; 8 decline of grammatical units and models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helbo Skaarup, Søren; Løkke, Anders; Laursen, Christian
2017-01-01
Introduction: Diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle. Movement can be evaluated with ultrasound. Currently two different methods are used, M-mode and B-mode. However, diaphragm movement is complex.Aim: We hypothesized that the two existing methods are imprecise as they only measure...... film clips independently to assess inter-rater variability.Results: We found a linear correlation between FVC and diaphragmatic movement. M-mode had Pearson r=0.84 (95%CI 0.76-0.89), B-mode had r=0.68 (95%CI 0.55-0.79) and Area-measurement had r=0.84 (95%CI 0.77-0.90). Inter-rater agreement was r=0...
On existence and stability of solutions for higher order semilinear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To be precise, we consider a primal action functional for which the Dirichlet problem is an Euler–Lagrange equation, later we define a suitable dual action functional and by introducing a duality theory we investigate relations between both action function- als. Our method is based on investigating the existence of a minimum ...
Extending existing structural identifiability analysis methods to mixed-effects models.
Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D
2018-01-01
The concept of structural identifiability for state-space models is expanded to cover mixed-effects state-space models. Two methods applicable for the analytical study of the structural identifiability of mixed-effects models are presented. The two methods are based on previously established techniques for non-mixed-effects models; namely the Taylor series expansion and the input-output form approach. By generating an exhaustive summary, and by assuming an infinite number of subjects, functions of random variables can be derived which in turn determine the distribution of the system's observation function(s). By considering the uniqueness of the analytical statistical moments of the derived functions of the random variables, the structural identifiability of the corresponding mixed-effects model can be determined. The two methods are applied to a set of examples of mixed-effects models to illustrate how they work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jiangbo; Liu, Junhui; Li, Tiantian; Yin, Shuo; He, Xinhui
2018-01-01
The monthly electricity sales forecasting is a basic work to ensure the safety of the power system. This paper presented a monthly electricity sales forecasting method which comprehensively considers the coupled multi-factors of temperature, economic growth, electric power replacement and business expansion. The mathematical model is constructed by using regression method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is accurate and effective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As an important content in fuzzy mathematics, similarity measure is used to measure the similarity degree between two fuzzy sets. Considering the existing similarity measures, most of them do not consider the hesitancy degree and some methods considering the hesitancy degree are based on the intuitionistic fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy values. It may cause some counterintuitive results in some cases. In order to make up for the drawback, we present a new approach to construct the similarity measure between two interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets using the entropy measure and considering the hesitancy degree. In particular, the proposed measure was demonstrated to yield a similarity measure. Besides, some examples are given to prove the practicality and effectiveness of the new measure. We also apply the similarity measure to expert system to solve the problems on pattern recognition and the multicriteria group decision making. In these examples, we also compare it with existing methods such as other similarity measures and the ideal point method.
Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment
Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji
In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.
Feehan, Paul M. N.
2017-09-01
We prove existence of solutions to boundary value problems and obstacle problems for degenerate-elliptic, linear, second-order partial differential operators with partial Dirichlet boundary conditions using a new version of the Perron method. The elliptic operators considered have a degeneracy along a portion of the domain boundary which is similar to the degeneracy of a model linear operator identified by Daskalopoulos and Hamilton [9] in their study of the porous medium equation or the degeneracy of the Heston operator [21] in mathematical finance. Existence of a solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on a half-ball, where the operator becomes degenerate on the flat boundary and a Dirichlet condition is only imposed on the spherical boundary, provides the key additional ingredient required for our Perron method. Surprisingly, proving existence of a solution to this partial Dirichlet problem with ;mixed; boundary conditions on a half-ball is more challenging than one might expect. Due to the difficulty in developing a global Schauder estimate and due to compatibility conditions arising where the ;degenerate; and ;non-degenerate boundaries; touch, one cannot directly apply the continuity or approximate solution methods. However, in dimension two, there is a holomorphic map from the half-disk onto the infinite strip in the complex plane and one can extend this definition to higher dimensions to give a diffeomorphism from the half-ball onto the infinite ;slab;. The solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on the half-ball can thus be converted to a partial Dirichlet problem on the slab, albeit for an operator which now has exponentially growing coefficients. The required Schauder regularity theory and existence of a solution to the partial Dirichlet problem on the slab can nevertheless be obtained using previous work of the author and C. Pop [16]. Our Perron method relies on weak and strong maximum principles for degenerate-elliptic operators, concepts of
A Network Reconfiguration Method Considering Data Uncertainties in Smart Distribution Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ke-yan Liu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This work presents a method for distribution network reconfiguration with the simultaneous consideration of distributed generation (DG allocation. The uncertainties of load fluctuation before the network reconfiguration are also considered. Three optimal objectives, including minimal line loss cost, minimum Expected Energy Not Supplied, and minimum switch operation cost, are investigated. The multi-objective optimization problem is further transformed into a single-objective optimization problem by utilizing weighting factors. The proposed network reconfiguration method includes two periods. The first period is to create a feasible topology network by using binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Then the DG allocation problem is solved by utilizing sensitivity analysis and a Harmony Search algorithm (HSA. In the meanwhile, interval analysis is applied to deal with the uncertainties of load and devices parameters. Test cases are studied using the standard IEEE 33-bus and PG&E 69-bus systems. Different scenarios and comparisons are analyzed in the experiments. The results show the applicability of the proposed method. The performance analysis of the proposed method is also investigated. The computational results indicate that the proposed network reconfiguration algorithm is feasible.
Method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain to a hybrid powertrain system
Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.
2001-12-25
A method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain including a manual transmission to a hybrid powertrain system with an automated powertrain transmission. The first step in the method of attaching a gear train housing to a housing of said manual transmission, said gear train housing receiving as end of drive shaft of said transmission and rotatably supporting a gear train assembly. Secondly, mounting an electric motor/generator to said gear train housing and attaching a motor/generator drive shaft of said electric motor/generator to said gear train assembly. Lastly, connecting an electro-mechanical clutch actuator to a friction clutch mechanism of said manual transmission.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Young Sik
2008-02-01
A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided
Method for investigating the applicability of thorium-based fuels in existing BWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe
2009-01-01
In this paper, a methodology for investigating the applicability of thorium based fuels in existing Boiling Water Reactors is described. The same tools and methods as those used in this study are also used for design of new fuel batches for existing reactors. As an illustration of the proposed methodology and for the purpose of comparing different fissile components for thorium-based fuel, three different thorium-based fuel designs were developed, and a low enriched uranium fuel design was created in parallel as a reference. The different fuel assemblies, which are based on the mechanical fuel design GE14, were analyzed with the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4E code. The linear reactivity model was used to decide a suitable initial fissile content for meeting the burnup goal of 55 MWd/kgHM and the designs were optimized for attaining an even power distribution and for keeping boiling transition factors low. Such optimizations facilitate core designs that would meet prevalent demands on Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR) and Critical Power Ratio (CPR). The hence created fuel designs were then analyzed with regards to thermal performance, reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions and control rod worths. An equilibrium core loading pattern was also developed with each one of the thus created fuel designs and analyzed with the three dimensional reactor analysis code SIMULATE-3, also developed by Studsvik Scandpower. The results of the two simulations were compared and found to be coherent, and no major obstacles were met using the given tools and methods. The analysis of the performances of the fuel assemblies and the corresponding loaded cores is reported in a companion paper (K. Insulander Bjoerk, V. Fhager, and C. Demaziere, 'Comparison of Thorium-Based Fuels with Different Fissile Components in Existing BWRs'). (author)
Reliability Analysis and Test Planning using CAPO-Test for Existing Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro
2000-01-01
Evaluation of the reliability of existing concrete structures often requires that the compressive strength of the concrete is estimated on the basis of tests performed with concrete samples from the structure considered. In this paper the CAPO-test method is considered. The different sources...... of uncertainty related to this method are described. It is shown how the uncertainty in the transformation from the CAPO-test results to estimates of the concrete strength can be modeled. Further, the statistical uncertainty is modeled using Bayesian statistics. Finally, it is shown how reliability-based optimal...... planning of CAPO-tests can be performed taking into account the expected costs due to the CAPO-tests and possible repair or failure of the structure considered. An illustrative example is presented where the CAPO-test is compared with conventional concrete cylinder compression tests performed on cores...
Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan
2015-01-01
We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator
Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibrahim, Rabha W. [Multimedia unit, Department of Computer System and Technology Faculty of Computer Science & IT, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator.
CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilda Oquendo Ferrer
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.
Using existing case-mix methods to fund trauma cases.
Monakova, Julia; Blais, Irene; Botz, Charles; Chechulin, Yuriy; Picciano, Gino; Basinski, Antoni
2010-01-01
Policymakers frequently face the need to increase funding in isolated and frequently heterogeneous (clinically and in terms of resource consumption) patient subpopulations. This article presents a methodologic solution for testing the appropriateness of using existing grouping and weighting methodologies for funding subsets of patients in the scenario where a case-mix approach is preferable to a flat-rate based payment system. Using as an example the subpopulation of trauma cases of Ontario lead trauma hospitals, the statistical techniques of linear and nonlinear regression models, regression trees, and spline models were applied to examine the fit of the existing case-mix groups and reference weights for the trauma cases. The analyses demonstrated that for funding Ontario trauma cases, the existing case-mix systems can form the basis for rational and equitable hospital funding, decreasing the need to develop a different grouper for this subset of patients. This study confirmed that Injury Severity Score is a poor predictor of costs for trauma patients. Although our analysis used the Canadian case-mix classification system and cost weights, the demonstrated concept of using existing case-mix systems to develop funding rates for specific subsets of patient populations may be applicable internationally.
Methods for optimizing solutions when considering group arguments by team of experts
Chernyi, Sergei; Budnik, Vlad
2017-11-01
The article is devoted to methods of expert evaluation. The technology of expert evaluation is presented from the standpoint of precedent structures. In this paper, an aspect of the mathematical basis for constructing a component of decision analysis is considered. In fact, this approach leaves out any identification of their knowledge and skills of simulating organizational and manufacturing situations and taking efficient managerial decisions; it doesn't enable any identification and assessment of their knowledge on the basis of multi-informational and least loss-making methods and information technologies. Hence the problem is to research and develop a methodology for systemic identification of professional problem-focused knowledge acquired by employees operating adaptive automated systems of training management (AASTM operators), which shall also further the theory and practice of the intelligence-related aspects thereof.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiqiang Yang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to increase the total captured wind energy, the existing aerodynamic design for VSWT blades, which only focuses on performance improvement at a single TSR, needs to be improved to a multi-point design. In this paper, based on a closed-loop system of VSWTs, including turbulent wind, rotor, drive train and MPPT controller, the distribution of operational TSR and its description based on inflow wind energy are investigated. Moreover, a multi-point method considering the MPPT dynamic process for the aerodynamic optimization of VSWT blades is proposed. In the proposed method, the distribution of operational TSR is obtained through a dynamic simulation of the closed-loop system under a specific turbulent wind, and accordingly the multiple design TSRs and the corresponding weighting coefficients in the objective function are determined. Finally, using the blade of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 1.5 MW wind turbine as the baseline, the proposed method is compared with the conventional single-point optimization method using the commercial software Bladed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhan-ping Song
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To study the tunnel stability at various static water pressures and determine the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of surrounding rock, a modified effective stress formula was introduced into a numerical integration algorithm of elastic-plastic constitutive equation, that is, closest point projection method (CPPM. Taking the effects of water pressure and seepage into account, a CPPM-based formula was derived and a CPPM algorithm based on Drucker-Prager yield criterion considering the effect of pore water pressure was provided. On this basis, a CPPM-based elastic-plastic numerical analysis program considering pore water pressure was developed, which can be applied in the engineering of tunnels and other underground structures. The algorithm can accurately take the effects of groundwater on stability of surrounding rock mass into account and it can show the more pronounced effect of pore water pressure on stress, deformation, and the plastic zone in a tunnel. The stability of water flooding in Fusong tunnel was systematically analyzed using the developed program. The analysis results showed that the existence of groundwater seepage under tunnel construction will give rise to stress redistribution in the surrounding rock mass. Pore water pressure has a significant effect on the surrounding rock mass.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2012-09-01
The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.
Said-Houari, Belkacem; Nascimento, Flá vio A Falcã o
2012-01-01
The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.
Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt
2000-06-01
In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is
Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2000-06-01
In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is
Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings
Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.
2007-04-01
The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.
Existence of solution for a general fractional advection-dispersion equation
Torres Ledesma, César E.
2018-05-01
In this work, we consider the existence of solution to the following fractional advection-dispersion equation -d/dt ( p {_{-∞}}It^{β }(u'(t)) + q {t}I_{∞}^{β }(u'(t))) + b(t)u = f(t, u(t)),t\\in R where β \\in (0,1) , _{-∞}It^{β } and tI_{∞}^{β } denote left and right Liouville-Weyl fractional integrals of order β respectively, 0continuous functions. Due to the general assumption on the constant p and q, the problem (0.1) does not have a variational structure. Despite that, here we study it performing variational methods, combining with an iterative technique, and give an existence criteria of solution for the problem (0.1) under suitable assumptions.
Existence and exponential stability of traveling waves for delayed reaction-diffusion systems
Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng; Yu, Zhixian
2018-03-01
The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence and exponential stability of traveling wave solutions for general delayed multi-component reaction-diffusion systems. Following the monotone iteration scheme via an explicit construction of a pair of upper and lower solutions, we first obtain the existence of monostable traveling wave solutions connecting two different equilibria. Then, applying the techniques of weighted energy method and comparison principle, we show that all solutions of the Cauchy problem for the considered systems converge exponentially to traveling wave solutions provided that the initial perturbations around the traveling wave fronts belong to a suitable weighted Sobolev space.
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Patrizi, Stefania; Voskanyan, Vardan
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-04-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A DATA FIELD METHOD FOR URBAN REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY CLASSIFICATION CONSIDERING SPATIAL CORRELATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Zhang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Spatial correlation between pixels is important information for remotely sensed imagery classification. Data field method and spatial autocorrelation statistics have been utilized to describe and model spatial information of local pixels. The original data field method can represent the spatial interactions of neighbourhood pixels effectively. However, its focus on measuring the grey level change between the central pixel and the neighbourhood pixels results in exaggerating the contribution of the central pixel to the whole local window. Besides, Geary’s C has also been proven to well characterise and qualify the spatial correlation between each pixel and its neighbourhood pixels. But the extracted object is badly delineated with the distracting salt-and-pepper effect of isolated misclassified pixels. To correct this defect, we introduce the data field method for filtering and noise limitation. Moreover, the original data field method is enhanced by considering each pixel in the window as the central pixel to compute statistical characteristics between it and its neighbourhood pixels. The last step employs a support vector machine (SVM for the classification of multi-features (e.g. the spectral feature and spatial correlation feature. In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed method, experiments are conducted on different remotely sensed images containing multiple complex object classes inside. The results show that the developed method outperforms the traditional method in terms of classification accuracies.
Reserves in load capacity assessment of existing bridges
Žitný, Jan; Ryjáček, Pavel
2017-09-01
High percentage of all railway bridges in the Czech Republic is made of structural steel. Majority of these bridges is designed according to historical codes and according to the deterioration, they have to be assessed if they satisfy the needs of modern railway traffic. The load capacity assessment of existing bridges according to Eurocodes is however often too conservative and especially, braking and acceleration forces cause huge problems to structural elements of the bridge superstructure. The aim of this paper is to review the different approaches for the determination of braking and acceleration forces. Both, current and historical theoretical models and in-situ measurements are considered. The research of several local European state norms superior to Eurocode for assessment of existing railway bridges shows the big diversity of used local approaches and the conservativeness of Eurocode. This paper should also work as an overview for designers dealing with load capacity assessment, revealing the reserves for existing bridges. Based on these different approaches, theoretical models and data obtained from the measurements, the method for determination of braking and acceleration forces on the basis of real traffic data should be proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.
2016-01-01
This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...
Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation
Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter
2016-12-01
The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.
Modular head assembly and method of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malandra, L.J.; Ledue, R.J.; Hankinson, M.F.; Kowalski, E.F.
1987-01-01
A method is described of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities so as to form a modular closure head assembly for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, where the existing nuclear reactor facilities comprise control rod drive mechanism cooling systems which include vertically extending elbow air ducts inter-connecting vertically spaced upper and lower air manifolds. The elbow air ducts extend radially beyond the peripheral envelope of the closure head, comprising the steps of: removing the upper air manifold; removing the vertically extending elbow air ducts; capping the air ports of the lower air manifold which ports were previously fluidically connecting the lower air manifold to the vertically extending elbow air ducts; disposing vertically upwardly extending air exhaust ducts above the lower air manifold in such an manner that the air exhaust ducts are disposed within the peripheral envelope of the closure head; fluidically connecting exhaust fans to the upper regions of the air exhaust ducts; fluidically connecting the lower regions of the air exhaust ducts the lower air manifold; permanently securing lift rods to the closure head at positions disposed radially outwardly of the lower air manifold; attaching a seismic support platform to the lift rods; proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the seismic support platform; attaching a missile shield plate to the lift rods; and proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the missile shield plate
Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahidan Shahiron
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.
Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein
2016-04-01
This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)
Application of Three Existing Stope Boundary Optimisation Methods in an Operating Underground Mine
Erdogan, Gamze; Yavuz, Mahmut
2017-12-01
The underground mine planning and design optimisation process have received little attention because of complexity and variability of problems in underground mines. Although a number of optimisation studies and software tools are available and some of them, in special, have been implemented effectively to determine the ultimate-pit limits in an open pit mine, there is still a lack of studies for optimisation of ultimate stope boundaries in underground mines. The proposed approaches for this purpose aim at maximizing the economic profit by selecting the best possible layout under operational, technical and physical constraints. In this paper, the existing three heuristic techniques including Floating Stope Algorithm, Maximum Value Algorithm and Mineable Shape Optimiser (MSO) are examined for optimisation of stope layout in a case study. Each technique is assessed in terms of applicability, algorithm capabilities and limitations considering the underground mine planning challenges. Finally, the results are evaluated and compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saber Azami-Aghdash
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to assess the infrastructures and barriers of effective accreditation in East Azerbaijan hospitals. Material and Methods : In this triangulation (qualitative-quantitative study, all the managers of 43 hospitals in East Azerbaijan were selected. The authors developed an 8-item questionnaire for quantitative section of the study which its validity was improved by experts’ comments and its reliability was assessed by half-structure methods (9. =α. In addition, two open-ended questions were used in qualitative section of the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA test using SPSS version 20 statistical software packages. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the responses to the two open-ended questions. Results : Seventy-six percent of the managers agreed to implementation of accreditation in hospitals and believed that accreditation could improve the health services and increase the patient and staff satisfaction. Fifty percent of the participants had lack of required knowledge about the accreditation and they declared that the hospitals managed by them were not prepared to implement accreditation with respect to resources, manager’s commitment, staff skills and knowledge. In Tabriz hospitals, resources and infrastructures were mentioned to exist in a significantly higher proportion than other cities (P Conclusion : Considering the barriers and lack of infrastructures in the hospitals of East Azerbaijan to achieve an effective accreditation, it is essential to eliminate the existing barriers and provide appropriate infrastructures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dongwook; Bang, Sungsik; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo
2013-01-01
In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Branchings effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Branchings effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with Fea. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dongwook; Bang, Sungsik; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Branchings effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Branchings effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with Fea. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments.
Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-11-15
Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.
Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng
2013-01-01
Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve
Global Existence Analysis of Cross-Diffusion Population Systems for Multiple Species
Chen, Xiuqing; Daus, Esther S.; Jüngel, Ansgar
2018-02-01
The existence of global-in-time weak solutions to reaction-cross-diffusion systems for an arbitrary number of competing population species is proved. The equations can be derived from an on-lattice random-walk model with general transition rates. In the case of linear transition rates, it extends the two-species population model of Shigesada, Kawasaki, and Teramoto. The equations are considered in a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. The existence proof is based on a refined entropy method and a new approximation scheme. Global existence follows under a detailed balance or weak cross-diffusion condition. The detailed balance condition is related to the symmetry of the mobility matrix, which mirrors Onsager's principle in thermodynamics. Under detailed balance (and without reaction) the entropy is nonincreasing in time, but counter-examples show that the entropy may increase initially if detailed balance does not hold.
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander
2011-01-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo
2011-09-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Estimation of the behavior factor of existing RC-MRF buildings
Vona, Marco; Mastroberti, Monica
2018-01-01
In recent years, several research groups have studied a new generation of analysis methods for seismic response assessment of existing buildings. Nevertheless, many important developments are still needed in order to define more reliable and effective assessment procedures. Moreover, regarding existing buildings, it should be highlighted that due to the low knowledge level, the linear elastic analysis is the only analysis method allowed. The same codes (such as NTC2008, EC8) consider the linear dynamic analysis with behavior factor as the reference method for the evaluation of seismic demand. This type of analysis is based on a linear-elastic structural model subject to a design spectrum, obtained by reducing the elastic spectrum through a behavior factor. The behavior factor (reduction factor or q factor in some codes) is used to reduce the elastic spectrum ordinate or the forces obtained from a linear analysis in order to take into account the non-linear structural capacities. The behavior factors should be defined based on several parameters that influence the seismic nonlinear capacity, such as mechanical materials characteristics, structural system, irregularity and design procedures. In practical applications, there is still an evident lack of detailed rules and accurate behavior factor values adequate for existing buildings. In this work, some investigations of the seismic capacity of the main existing RC-MRF building types have been carried out. In order to make a correct evaluation of the seismic force demand, actual behavior factor values coherent with force based seismic safety assessment procedure have been proposed and compared with the values reported in the Italian seismic code, NTC08.
Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vičan Josef
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Hongyong; Ding Nan
2006-01-01
In this paper, Lotka-Volterra competition-predator system with variable delays is considered. Some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global attractivity of periodic solution for this system are obtained by using coincidence degree theory and Lyapunov functional method. An example is also worked out to demonstrate the advantages of our results
A Novel Quasi-3D Method for Cascade Flow Considering Axial Velocity Density Ratio
Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong; Huang, Xudong
2018-03-01
A novel quasi-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method of mid-span flow simulation for compressor cascades is proposed. Two dimension (2D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is shown facing challenge in predicting mid-span flow with a unity Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR). Three dimension (3D) RANS solution also shows distinct discrepancies if the AVDR is not predicted correctly. In this paper, 2D and 3D CFD results discrepancies are analyzed and a novel quasi-3D CFD method is proposed. The new quasi-3D model is derived by reducing 3D RANS Finite Volume Method (FVM) discretization over a one-spanwise-layer structured mesh cell. The sidewall effect is considered by two parts. The first part is explicit interface fluxes of mass, momentum and energy as well as turbulence. The second part is a cell boundary scaling factor representing sidewall boundary layer contraction. The performance of the novel quasi-3D method is validated on mid-span pressure distribution, pressure loss and shock prediction of two typical cascades. The results show good agreement with the experiment data on cascade SJ301-20 and cascade AC6-10 at all test condition. The proposed quasi-3D method shows superior accuracy over traditional 2D RANS method and 3D RANS method in performance prediction of compressor cascade.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans
%), with only one study rated as ‘good’. The reliability domain was most often investigated. Fewof the assessment methods in the included studies that had ‘fair’ or ‘good’ measurement properties demonstrated acceptable results for both reliability and validity.ConclusionWe found a substantially larger number......ABSTRACT OARSI Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Lund H1,2, Søgaard K11University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics2Institute...... assessment methods have measured the degree of scapular dyskinesis, subjectively by visual evaluation and objectively by measurements of static and dynamic scapular positioning, by either a 3-dimensional electromagnetic device or 2-dimensional clinically applicable methods. Since advanced equipment (i.e. 3D...
LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.
1997-01-01
The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method
LUO, Jianchun; WANG, Yunyu; YANG, Jun; RAN, hong; PENG, Xiaodong; HUANG, Ming; FENG, Hao; LIU, Meijun
2018-03-01
The vulnerability assessment of power grid is of great significance in the current research. Power system faces many kinds of uncertainty factors, and the disturbance caused by them has become one of the main factors which restrict the safe operation of power grid. To solve this problem, considering the anti-interference ability of the system when the system is disturbed and the effect of the system when the node is out of operation, a set of index to reflect the anti-interference ability and the influence of nodes are set up. On this basis, a new comprehensive vulnerability assessment method of nodes is put forward by using super efficiency data envelopment analysis to scientific integration. Finally, the simulative results of IEEE30-bus system indicated that the proposed model is rational and valid.
Stochastic Unit Commitment Based on Multi-Scenario Tree Method Considering Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyu-Hyung Jo
2018-03-01
Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of renewable energy, it is difficult to schedule unit commitment (UC in a power system because of the uncertainty associated with various factors. In this paper, a new solution procedure based on a multi-scenario tree method (MSTM is presented and applied to the proposed stochastic UC problem. In this process, the initial input data of load and wind power are modeled as different levels using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE. The load and wind scenarios are generated using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS that considers forecasting errors. These multiple scenarios are applied in the MSTM for solving the stochastic UC problem, including not only the load and wind power uncertainties, but also sudden outages of the thermal unit. When the UC problem has been formulated, the simulation is conducted for 24-h period by using the short-term UC model, and the operating costs and additional reserve requirements are thus obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approach is demonstrated through a case study based on a modified IEEE-118 bus test system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Jurová
2010-01-01
Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 employers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of evaluation. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.
The global existence problem in general relativity
Andersson, L
2000-01-01
We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.
A Method of Vector Map Multi-scale Representation Considering User Interest on Subdivision Gird
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YU Tong
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Compared with the traditional spatial data model and method, global subdivision grid show a great advantage in the organization and expression of massive spatial data. In view of this, a method of vector map multi-scale representation considering user interest on subdivision gird is proposed. First, the spatial interest field is built using a large number POI data to describe the spatial distribution of the user interest in geographic information. Second, spatial factor is classified and graded, and its representation scale range can be determined. Finally, different levels of subdivision surfaces are divided based on GeoSOT subdivision theory, and the corresponding relation of subdivision level and scale is established. According to the user interest of subdivision surfaces, the spatial feature can be expressed in different degree of detail. It can realize multi-scale representation of spatial data based on user interest. The experimental results show that this method can not only satisfy general-to-detail and important-to-secondary space cognitive demands of users, but also achieve better multi-scale representation effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Kiani Mavi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is used to evaluate the performance of decision making units (DMUs with multiple inputs and outputs in a homogeneous group. In this way, the acquired relative efficiency score for each decision making unit lies between zero and one where a number of them may have an equal efficiency score of one. DEA successfully divides them into two categories of efficient DMUs and inefficient DMUs. A ranking for inefficient DMUs is given but DEA does not provide further information about the efficient DMUs. One of the popular methods for evaluating and ranking DMUs is the common set of weights (CSW method. We generate a CSW model with considering nondiscretionary inputs that are beyond the control of DMUs and using ideal point method. The main idea of this approach is to minimize the distance between the evaluated decision making unit and the ideal decision making unit (ideal point. Using an empirical example we put our proposed model to test by applying it to the data of some 20 bank branches and rank their efficient units.
Turner, L
2009-12-01
Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.
Incorporation of fractional-order dynamics into an existing PI/PID DC motor control loop.
Tepljakov, Aleksei; Gonzalez, Emmanuel A; Petlenkov, Eduard; Belikov, Juri; Monje, Concepción A; Petráš, Ivo
2016-01-01
The problem of changing the dynamics of an existing DC motor control system without the need of making internal changes is considered in the paper. In particular, this paper presents a method for incorporating fractional-order dynamics in an existing DC motor control system with internal PI or PID controller, through the addition of an external controller into the system and by tapping its original input and output signals. Experimental results based on the control of a real test plant from MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented, indicating the validity of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Yuqing; Zhu, A.-xing; Zhao, Hui; Liao, Lixia
2018-05-01
Facade features represent segmentations of building surfaces and can serve as a building framework. Extracting facade features from three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data (3D PCD) is an efficient method for 3D building modeling. By combining the advantages of 3D PCD and two-dimensional optical images, this study describes the creation of a highly accurate building facade feature extraction method from 3D PCD with a focus on structural information. The new extraction method involves three major steps: image feature extraction, exploration of the mapping method between the image features and 3D PCD, and optimization of the initial 3D PCD facade features considering structural information. Results show that the new method can extract the 3D PCD facade features of buildings more accurately and continuously. The new method is validated using a case study. In addition, the effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated by comparing it with the range image-extraction method and the optical image-extraction method in the absence of structural information. The 3D PCD facade features extracted by the new method can be applied in many fields, such as 3D building modeling and building information modeling.
On the existence of hot positronium reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzarini, E.
1984-01-01
The existence of hot Ps reactions is nowadays questioned; the controversy arises from the two models (the Ore gap and the spur theories) advanced in order to explain the mechanism of the positronium formation and of its inhibition in liquids by dissolution of certain compounds. The hypothesis of the hot Ps reactions was initially advanced as an additional statement for explaining the inhibition phenomenon within the framework of the Ore gap theory, but it is not considered necessary for the spur theory. The present paper is chiefly intended as a presentation of this particular aspect of Ps chemistry to hot atom chemists unspecialized in the field. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basic physics and experimental methods used in positronium chemistry. Contents: positrons and positronium formation; inhibition and enhancement of Ps formation in solutions; positronium reactions in gases. (Auth.)
Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine
2016-02-01
Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shakib, H.; Dehghani Ashkezari, G.
2002-01-01
In this study, based on the equivalent static analysis method of the Iranian seismic code, an algorithm is presented to consider the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. Modifications of free field motion and structural properties like period and damping due to soil situation are considered in the proposed algorithm. An increase for fundamental period of structure and a modification (usually increase) for it's effective damping are observed. The increase of period is due to the flexibility of the soil foundation and modification of damping is due to the dissipating energy in soil. In order to propose the relative expressions in the presented algorithm, the soil-structure analyses of 8, 10, 13 and 16 stories frames are carried out. By considering the NEHRP soil-structure interaction algorithm and findings of soil-structure interaction analyses carried out in this study, the algorithm based on the equivalent static analysis method of the Iranian seismic building code to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction
Observability-Enhanced PMU Placement Considering Conventional Measurements and Contingencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Esmaili
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs are in growing attention in recent power systems because of their paramount abilities in state estimation. PMUs are placed in existing power systems where there are already installed conventional measurements, which can be helpful if they are considered in PMU optimal placement. In this paper, a method is proposed for optimal placement of PMUs incorporating conventional measurements of zero injection buses and branch flow measurements using a permutation matrix. Furthermore, the effect of single branch outage and single PMU failure is included in the proposed method. When a branch with a flow measurement goes out, the network loses one observability path (the branch and one conventional measurement (the flow measurement. The permutation matrix proposed here is able to model the outage of a branch equipped with a flow measurement or connected to a zero injection bus. Also, measurement redundancy, and consequently measurement reliability, is enhanced without increasing the number of PMUs this implies a more efficient usage of PMUs than previous methods. The PMU placement problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming that results in the global optimal solution. Results obtained from testing the proposed method on four well-known test systems in diverse situations confirm its efficiency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanhui Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Detecting and extracting the change types of spatial area objects can track area objects’ spatiotemporal change pattern and provide the change backtracking mechanism for incrementally updating spatial datasets. To respond to the problems of high complexity of detection methods, high redundancy rate of detection factors, and the low automation degree during incrementally update process, we take into account the change process of area objects in an integrated way and propose a hierarchical matching method to detect the nine types of changes of area objects, while minimizing the complexity of the algorithm and the redundancy rate of detection factors. We illustrate in details the identification, extraction, and database entry of change types, and how we achieve a close connection and organic coupling of incremental information extraction and object type-of-change detection so as to characterize the whole change process. The experimental results show that this method can successfully detect incremental information about area objects in practical applications, with the overall accuracy reaching above 90%, which is much higher than the existing weighted matching method, making it quite feasible and applicable. It helps establish the corresponding relation between new-version and old-version objects, and facilitate the linked update processing and quality control of spatial data.
2010-07-01
... with the nature and purpose of the duties of the employee requiring such travel.” (b) Travel by common carrier (air, rail, bus) is considered the most advantageous method to perform official travel. Other methods of transportation may be authorized as advantageous only when the use of common carrier...
Combining Neural Networks with Existing Methods to Estimate 1 in 100-Year Flood Event Magnitudes
Newson, A.; See, L.
2005-12-01
Over the last fifteen years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been shown to be advantageous for the solution of many hydrological modelling problems. The use of ANNs for flood magnitude estimation in ungauged catchments, however, is a relatively new and under researched area. In this paper ANNs are used to make estimates of the magnitude of the 100-year flood event (Q100) for a number of ungauged catchments. The data used in this study were provided by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), which contains information on catchments across the UK. Sixteen catchment descriptors for 719 catchments were used to train an ANN, which was split into a training, validation and test data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics on the test data set indicated good model performance, with an r-squared value of 0.8 and a coefficient of efficiency of 79 percent. Data for twelve ungauged catchments were then put through the trained ANN to produce estimates of Q100. Two other accepted methodologies were also employed: the FEH statistical method and the FSR (Flood Studies Report) design storm technique, both of which are used to produce flood frequency estimates. The advantage of developing an ANN model is that it provides a third figure to aid a hydrologist in making an accurate estimate. For six of the twelve catchments, there was a relatively low spread between estimates. In these instances, an estimate of Q100 could be made with a fair degree of certainty. Of the remaining six catchments, three had areas greater than 1000km2, which means the FSR design storm estimate cannot be used. Armed with the ANN model and the FEH statistical method the hydrologist still has two possible estimates to consider. For these three catchments, the estimates were also fairly similar, providing additional confidence to the estimation. In summary, the findings of this study have shown that an accurate estimation of Q100 can be made using the catchment descriptors of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menabdishvili, Papuna; Eremadze, Nelly
2008-01-01
There is elaborated the calculation model of slope deformation mode stability and the methodic of calculation considering the interference of structures to be built on it using the method of finite elements. There is examined the task of slope stability using the soil physically nonlinear finite element considering the seismicity 8. The deformation mode and field of coefficients of stability are obtained and slope supposed sliding curve is determined. The elaborated calculation methodic allows to determine the slope deformation mode, stability and select the optimum version of structure foundation at any slant and composition of slope layers
Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz S. Zabawa
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The Dirichlet problem for an infinite weakly coupled system of semilinear differential-functional equations of elliptic type is considered. It is shown the existence of solutions to this problem. The result is based on Chaplygin's method of lower and upper functions.
The design value method and adjusted partial factor approach for existing structures
Caspeele, R.; Sykora, M.; Allaix, D.L.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.
2013-01-01
In contrast to the design of new structures, the assessment of existing structures often relies on the subjective judgement of the investigating engineer. An objective verification format for existing structures based on alternative partial factors is however feasible, enabling a rather simple and
The log mean heat transfer rate method of heat exchanger considering the influence of heat radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-L.; Ke, M.-T.; Ku, S.-S.
2009-01-01
The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method is conventionally used to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers. Because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations, thus LMTD method neglects the influence of heat radiation. From the recent investigation of a circular duct in some practical situations, it is found that even in the situation of the temperature difference between outer duct surface and surrounding is low to 1 deg. C, the heat radiation effect can not be ignored in the situations of lower ambient convective heat coefficient and greater surface emissivities. In this investigation, the log mean heat transfer rate (LMHTR) method which considering the influence of heat radiation, is developed to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didierlaurent, David; Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier; Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen; Batatia, Hadj; Courbon, Frédéric
2014-01-01
Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more
Wu, Yuhua; Wang, Yulei; Li, Jun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang
2014-01-01
The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) is a commonly used target for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). There are currently 24 reported detection methods, targeting different regions of the P35S promoter. Initial assessment revealed that due to the absence of primer binding sites in the P35S sequence, 19 of the 24 reported methods failed to detect P35S in MON88913 cotton, and the other two methods could only be applied to certain GMOs. The rest three reported methods were not suitable for measurement of P35S in some testing events, because SNPs in binding sites of the primer/probe would result in abnormal amplification plots and poor linear regression parameters. In this study, we discovered a conserved region in the P35S sequence through sequencing of P35S promoters from multiple transgenic events, and developed new qualitative and quantitative detection systems targeting this conserved region. The qualitative PCR could detect the P35S promoter in 23 unique GMO events with high specificity and sensitivity. The quantitative method was suitable for measurement of P35S promoter, exhibiting good agreement between the amount of template and Ct values for each testing event. This study provides a general P35S screening method, with greater coverage than existing methods. PMID:25483893
Jin, Meihua; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun
2016-10-12
With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO) and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA) power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency.
10 CFR 1040.72 - Existing facilities.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1040.72 Section 1040.72 Energy... § 1040.72 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate any program or activity to... facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and useable by handicapped persons. (b) Methods. A...
Existence and non-existence of solutions for a p(x-biharmonic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghasem A. Afrouzi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the following problem with Navier boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\Delta (|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u+|u|^{p(x-2}u =\\lambda |u|^{q(x-2}u +\\mu|u|^{\\gamma(x-2}u\\quad \\text{in } \\Omega,\\cr u=\\Delta u=0 \\quad \\text{on } \\partial\\Omega. }$$ where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with smooth boundary $\\partial \\Omega$, $N\\geq1$. $p(x,q(x$ and $\\gamma(x$ are continuous functions on $\\overline{\\Omega}$, $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ are parameters. Using variational methods, we establish some existence and non-existence results of solutions for this problem.
Lake and Reservoir Evaporation Estimation: Sensitivity Analysis and Ranking Existing Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
maysam majidi
2016-02-01
were acquired from the Doosti Dam weather station. Relative humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure and precipitation were acquired from the Pol−Khatoon weather station. Dew point temperature and sunshine data were collected from the Sarakhs weather station. Lake area was estimated from hypsometric curve in relation to lake level data. Temperature measurements were often performed in 16−day periods or biweekly from September 2011 to September 2012. Temperature profile of the lake (required for lake evaporation estimation was measured at different points of the reservoir using a portable multi−meter. The eighteen existing methods were compared and ranked based on Bowen ratio energy balance method (BREB. Results and Discussion: The estimated annual evaporation values by all of the applied methods in this study, ranged from 21 to 113mcm (million cubic meters. BREB annual evaporation obtained value was equal to 69.86mcm and evaporation rate averaged 5.47mm d-1 during the study period. According to the results, there is a relatively large difference between the obtained evaporation values from the adopted methods. The sensitivity analysis of evaporation methods for some input parameters indicated that the Hamon method (Eq. 16 was the most sensitive to the input parameters followed by the Brutsaert−Stricker and BREB, and radiation−temperature methods (Makkink, Jensen−Haise and Stephen−Stewart had the least sensitivity to input data. Besides, the air temperature, solar radiation (sunshine data, water surface temperature and wind speed data had the most effect on lake evaporation estimations, respectively. Finally, all evaporation estimation methods in this study have been ranked based on RMSD values. On a daily basis, the Jensen−Haise and the Makkink (solar radiation, temperature group, Penman (Combination group and Hamon (temperature, day length group methods had a relatively reasonable performance. As the results on a monthly scale, the Jensen−Haise and
Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required
Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per Printz
1995-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....
A new method to consider human actions in the framework of a dynamic PSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloos, M.; Peschke, J.
2006-01-01
The variety of accident sequences to be considered in the framework of a PSA derives from mutual dependencies between the physical process, the behaviour of the technical system, human actions and stochastic influences along the time axis. Because the conventional PSA approach is not able to adequately account for these interactions, so-called probabilistic dynamics methods have been developed. They generally achieve a more realistic modelling of accident scenarios and a more realistic safety assessment. At GRS, the method MCDET - a combination of Monte Carlo Simulation und the Discrete Dynamic Event Tree method - was developed. The implementation of MCDET was supplemented by a so called Crew-Module which allows - together with a deterministic dynamics code - to simulate human actions as a dynamic process evolving over time in interaction with the system and process dynamics. The Crew-Module accounts for communications between crew members and for performance shaping factors like stress, knowledge or ergonomics. This paper presents the Crew- Module and gives an overview of the results which may be obtained from its combination with MCDET and a deterministic dynamics code. The emergency operating procedure 'Secondary Side Bleed and Feed' in a German PWR is selected as an illustrative application. (authors)
Hanford Site background: Evaluation of existing soil radionuclide data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-07-01
This report is an evaluation of the existing data on radiological background for soils in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The primary purpose of this report is to assess the adequacy of the existing data to serve as a radiological background baseline for use in environmental restoration and remediation activities at the Hanford Site. The soil background data compiled and evaluated in this report were collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Washington State Department of Health (DOH) radiation surveillance programs in southeastern Washington. These two programs provide the largest well-documented, quantitative data sets available to evaluate background conditions at the Hanford Site. The data quality objectives (DQOs) considered in this evaluation include the amount of data, number of sampling localities, spatial coverage, number and types of radionuclides reported, frequency of reporting, documentation and traceability of sampling and laboratory methods used, and comparability between sets of data. Although other data on soil radionuclide abundances around the Hanford Site exist, they are generally limited in scope and lack the DQOs necessary for consideration with the PNL and DOH data sets. Collectively, these two sources provide data on the activities of 25 radionuclides and four other parameters (gross alpha, gross beta, total uranium, and total thorium). These measurements were made on samples from the upper 2.5 cm of soil at over 70 localities within the region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon Hyun; Oh, Jae Guen
1989-01-01
Ten methods of the total two-phase pressure drop prediction based on five existing models and correlations have been examined for their accuracy and applicability to pressurized water reactor conditions. These methods were tested against 209 experimental data of local and bulk boiling conditions: Each correlations were evaluated for different ranges of pressure, mass velocity and quality, and best performing models were identified for each data subsets. A computer code entitled 'K-TWOPD' has been developed to calculate the total two phase pressure drop using the best performing existing correlations for a specific property range and a correction factor to compensate for the predicted error of the selected correlations. Assessment of this code shows that the present method fits all the available data within ±11% at a 95% confidence level compared with ± 25% for the existing correlations. (Author)
Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error
Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji
Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.
A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengqi Cheng
2016-09-01
Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KULANTHAISAMY, A.
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Multi- objective Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units (MOPP method in large electric transmission systems. It is proposed for minimizing the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs for complete system observability and maximizing the measurement redundancy of the system, simultaneously. The measurement redundancy means that number of times a bus is able to monitor more than once by PMUs set. A higher level of measurement redundancy can maximize the total system observability and it is desirable for a reliable power system state estimation. Therefore, simultaneous optimization of the two conflicting objectives are performed using a binary coded Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm. The complete observability of the power system is first prepared and then, single line loss contingency condition is considered to the main model. The efficiency of the proposed method is validated on IEEE 14, 30, 57 and 118 bus test systems. The valuable approach of ABC algorithm is demonstrated in finding the optimal number of PMUs and their locations by comparing the performance with earlier works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anezaki, S.
1998-03-01
Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs
The Improvement of the Ventilation System in the Existing Terraced Houses in Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arab Yasser
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to find a sustainable solution in order to reduce the indoor temperature in hot and humid climate such as Malaysia. The focus of this study is to create a new device (Air Tube which is considered to be a remedial device for the indoor spaces, and can be installed for the existed houses. The method of this study is to design the Air Tube device and install is in the rooms of second floor in semi-detached and terrace house in order to reduce the temperature few degrees. The study will depend on taking manual measurements in the site and making simulation using computer software Ecotect on 14th of February (which considered to be the hottest day in the year and trying to find the best solution to reduce the temperature in such hot and humid weather, the case study is a semi-detach house with post-modern architectural style, which is located in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The research finds that AirTubeis a good solution for the existed houses to decrease the temperature and reach the thermal comfortable atmosphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faming Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for spatiotemporal correlations extracted from historical and real-time traffic data for adjacent and target links. This method can deliver high prediction accuracy by combining simple regression trees with poor performance. It corrects the error found in existing models for improved prediction accuracy. Our spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model was verified in experiments. The training data were obtained from big data reflecting historic traffic conditions collected by probe vehicles in Wuhan from January to May 2014. Real-time data were extracted from 11 weeks of GPS records collected in Wuhan from 5 May 2014 to 20 July 2014. Based on these data, we predicted link travel time for the period from 21 July 2014 to 25 July 2014. Experiments showed that our proposed spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model obtained better results than gradient boosting, random forest, or autoregressive integrated moving average approaches. Furthermore, these results indicate the advantages of our model for urban link travel time prediction.
Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee
2013-01-01
When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation
Tian, C.; Weng, J.; Liu, Y.
2017-11-01
The convection heat transfer coefficient is one of the evaluation indexes of the brake disc performance. The method used in this paper to calculate the convection heat transfer coefficient is a fluid-solid coupling simulation method, because the calculation results through the empirical formula method have great differences. The model, including a brake disc, a car body, a bogie and flow field, was built, meshed and simulated in the software FLUENT. The calculation models were K-epsilon Standard model and Energy model. The working condition of the brake disc was considered. The coefficient of various parts can be obtained through the method in this paper. The simulation result shows that, under 160 km/h speed, the radiating ribs have the maximum convection heat transfer coefficient and the value is 129.6W/(m2·K), the average coefficient of the whole disc is 100.4W/(m2·K), the windward of ribs is positive-pressure area and the leeward of ribs is negative-pressure area, the maximum pressure is 2663.53Pa.
Some existence results for a fourth order equation involving critical exponent
Ben-Ayed, M; Hammami, M
2003-01-01
In this paper a fourth order equation involving critical growth is considered under the Navier boundary condition: DELTA sup 2 u = Ku sup p , u > 0 in OMEGA, u = DELTA u = 0 on partial deriv OMEGA, where K is a positive function, OMEGA is a bounded smooth domain in R sup n , n >= 5 and p + 1 2n/(n - 4) is the critical Sobolev exponent. We give some topological conditions on K to ensure the existence of solutions. Our methods involve the study of the critical points at infinity and their contribution to the topology of the level sets of the associated Euler Lagrange functional.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Telecommuting. Factors to consider.
D'Arruda, K A
2001-10-01
1. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees work part time or full time from their homes or smaller telework centers. They communicate with employers via computer. 2. Telecommuting can raise legal issues for companies. Can telecommuting be considered a reasonable accommodation under the Americans With Disabilities Act? When at home, is a worker injured within the course and scope of their employment for purposes of workers' compensation? 3. Occupational and environmental health nurses may need to alter existing programs to meet the distinct needs of telecommuters. Often, there are ergonomic issues and home office safety issues which are not of concern to other employees. Additionally, occupational and environmental health nurses may have to offer programs in new formats (e.g., Internet or Intranet programs) to effectively communicate with teleworkers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung
2016-01-01
STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy.
Health systems around the world - a comparison of existing health system rankings.
Schütte, Stefanie; Acevedo, Paula N Marin; Flahault, Antoine
2018-06-01
Existing health systems all over the world are different due to the different combinations of components that can be considered for their establishment. The ranking of health systems has been a focal points for many years especially the issue of performance. In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) performed a ranking to compare the Performance of the health system of the member countries. Since then other health system rankings have been performed and it became an issue of public discussion. A point of contention regarding these rankings is the methodology employed by each of them, since no gold standard exists. Therefore, this review focuses on evaluating the methodologies of each existing health system performance ranking to assess their reproducibility and transparency. A search was conducted to identify existing health system rankings, and a questionnaire was developed for the comparison of the methodologies based on the following indicators: (1) General information, (2) Statistical methods, (3) Data (4) Indicators. Overall nine rankings were identified whereas six of them focused rather on the measurement of population health without any financial component and were therefore excluded. Finally, three health system rankings were selected for this review: "Health Systems: Improving Performance" by the WHO, "Mirror, Mirror on the wall: How the Performance of the US Health Care System Compares Internationally" by the Commonwealth Fund and "the Most efficient Health Care" by Bloomberg. After the completion of the comparison of the rankings by giving them scores according to the indicators, the ranking performed the WHO was considered the most complete regarding the ability of reproducibility and transparency of the methodology. This review and comparison could help in establishing consensus in the field of health system research. This may also help giving recommendations for future health rankings and evaluating the current gap in the literature.
Propagated failure analysis for non-repairable systems considering both global and selective effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chaonan; Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory
2012-01-01
This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation events with both global and selective failure effects. A propagated failure that originates from a system component causes extensive damage to the rest of the system. Global effect happens when the propagated failure causes the entire system to fail; whereas selective effect happens when the propagated failure causes only failure of a subset of system components. In both cases, the failure propagation that originates from some system components (referred to as dependent components) can be isolated because of functional dependence between the dependent components and a component that prevents the failure propagation (trigger components) when the failure of the trigger component happens before the occurrence of the propagated failure. Most existing studies focus on the analysis of propagated failures with global effect. However, in many cases, propagated failures affect only a subset of system components not the entire system. Existing approaches for analyzing propagated failures with selective effect are limited to series-parallel systems. This paper proposes a combinatorial method for the propagated failure analysis considering both global and selective effects as well as the competition with the failure isolation in the time domain. The proposed method is not limited to series-parallel systems and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. The method is verified using the Markov-based method. An example of computer memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masure, P.; Gedefroy, P.; Imauven, C.
1983-01-01
Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons
Parshad, Rana
2013-01-01
The purpose of this manuscript is to propose a model for the biological control of invasive species, via introduction of phenotypically modified organisms into a target population. We are inspired by the earlier Trojan Y Chromosome model [J.B. Gutierrez, J.L. Teem, J. Theo. Bio., 241(22), 333-341, 2006]. However, in the current work, we remove the assumption of logisticgrowth rate, and do not consider the addition of sex-reversed supermales. Also the constant birth and death coefficients, considered earlier, are replaced by functionally dependent ones. In this case the nonlinearities present serious difficulties since they change sign, and the components of the solution are not a priori bounded, in some Lp-space for p large, to permit theapplication of the well known regularizing effect principle. Thus functional methods to deducethe global existence in time, for the system in question, are not applicable. Our techniques are based on the Lyapunov functional method. We prove global existence of solutions, as well asexistence of a finite dimensional global attractor, that supports states of extinction. Our analytical finding are in accordance with numerical simulations, which we also present. © 2013 International Press.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, L.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; An, C.J.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A robust flexible probabilistic programming method is developed for planning MES. • Multiple uncertainties with various violations and satisfaction levels are examined. • Solutions of considering peak electricity prices and electric vehicles are analyzed. • RFPP-MES can better improve energy system reliability and abate pollutant emission. - Abstract: Effective electric power systems (EPS) planning with considering electricity price of 24-h time is indispensable in terms of load shifting, pollutant mitigation and energy demand-supply reliability as well as reducing electricity expense of end-users. In this study, a robust flexible probabilistic programming (RFPP) method is developed for planning municipal energy system (MES) with considering peak electricity prices (PEPs) and electric vehicles (EVs), where multiple uncertainties regarded as intervals, probability distributions and flexibilities as well as their combinations can be effectively reflected. The RFPP-MES model is then applied to planning Qingdao’s MES, where electrical load of 24-h time is simulated based on Monte Carlo. Results reveal that: (a) different time intervals lead to changes of energy supply patterns, the energy supply patterns would tend to the transition from self-supporting dominated (i.e. in valley hours) to outsourcing-dominated (i.e. in peak hours); (b) 15.9% of total imported electricity expense would be reduced compared to that without considering PEPs; (c) with considering EVs, the CO_2 emissions of Qingdao’s transportation could be reduced directly and the reduction rate would be 2.5%. Results can help decision makers improve energy supply patterns, reduce energy system costs and abate pollutant emissions as well as adjust end-users’ consumptions.
On Limitations of Existing Methods for Location Privacy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Mads Schaarup
This paper argues that there are some limitations when applying location privacy methods developed for point-ofinterest services to newer classes of location based services. We support the argument by categorizing methods for location privacy and identifying the issues. It is hypothesized...
Bingle, Lynne; Fonseca, Felipe P; Farthing, Paula M
2017-01-01
Tissue microarrays were first constructed in the 1980s but were used by only a limited number of researchers for a considerable period of time. In the last 10 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of publications describing the successful use of tissue microarrays in studies aimed at discovering and validating biomarkers. This, along with the increased availability of both manual and automated microarray builders on the market, has encouraged even greater use of this novel and powerful tool. This chapter describes the basic techniques required to build a tissue microarray using a manual method in order that the theory behind the practical steps can be fully explained. Guidance is given to ensure potential disadvantages of the technique are fully considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Indry Septiana Novitasari; Yosaphat Sumardi; Widarto
2014-01-01
The experiment existing parameters physics for supporting of in vivo and in vitro test facility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preliminary study at the piercing radial beam port has been done. The existing experiments is needed for determining that the parameter physics is fulfill the BNCT method requirement. To realize the existing experiment have been done by design analysis, methodology, calculation method and some procedure related with radiation safety analysis and environment. Preparation for existing experiment physics such as foil detector of Gold (Au) should be irradiated for 30 minute, irradiation instrument and procedure related with the experiment for radiation safety. (author)
Existence and non-existence of solutions for a singular problem with variable potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamel Saoudi
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to prove some existence and nonexistence theorems for the inhomogeneous singular Dirichlet problem $$ - \\Delta_p u = \\frac{\\lambda k(x}{u^\\delta}\\pm h(x u^q. $$ For proving our results we use the sub and super solution method, and monotonicity arguments.
Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, M.P.; Moray, N.; Senders, J.W.; Biron, K.
1995-03-01
This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feher, M P; Moray, N; Senders, J W; Biron, K [Human Factors North Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)
1995-03-01
This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
Development of a Criticality Evaluation Method Considering the Particulate Behavior of Nuclear Fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Mikio; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Murazaki, Minoru; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
2005-01-01
In conventional criticality evaluations of nuclear powder systems, effects of particulate behavior were not considered. In other words, it is difficult to take into account the particle motion in the criticality evaluations. We have developed a novel criticality evaluation code to resolve this problem. The criticality evaluation code, coupling a discrete element method simulation code with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code, makes it possible to study the effects of the particulate dynamics on criticality. This criticality evaluation code is applied to the mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel powder agitation process. The criticality evaluations are performed while mixing the MOX fuel powder and an additive powder in a stirred vessel to investigate the effects of the powder free surface deformation and the particulate mixture state on the effective multiplication factor. The evaluation results reveal that the effective multiplication factor decreases due to the powder boundary deformation while it increases as the mixture condition of MOX powder and Zn-St powder is close to homogeneous
A method for gear fatigue life prediction considering the internal flow field of the gear pump
Shen, Haidong; Li, Zhiqiang; Qi, Lele; Qiao, Liang
2018-01-01
Gear pump is the most widely used volume type hydraulic pump, and it is the main power source of the hydraulic system. Its performance is influenced by many factors, such as working environment, maintenance, fluid pressure and so on. It is different from the gear transmission system, the internal flow field of gear pump has a greater impact on the gear life, therefore it needs to consider the internal hydraulic system when predicting the gear fatigue life. In this paper, a certain aircraft gear pump as the research object, aim at the typical failure forms, gear contact fatigue, of gear pump, proposing the prediction method based on the virtual simulation. The method use CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) software to analyze pressure distribution of internal flow field of the gear pump, and constructed the unidirectional flow-solid coupling model of gear to acquire the contact stress of tooth surface on Ansys workbench software. Finally, employing nominal stress method and Miner cumulative damage theory to calculated the gear contact fatigue life based on modified material P-S-N curve. Engineering practice show that the method is feasible and efficient.
Concrete structures. Contribution to the safety assessment of existing structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. COUTO
Full Text Available The safety evaluation of an existing concrete structure differs from the design of new structures. The partial safety factors for actions and resistances adopted in the design phase consider uncertainties and inaccuracies related to the building processes of structures, variability of materials strength and numerical approximations of the calculation and design processes. However, when analyzing a finished structure, a large number of unknown factors during the design stage are already defined and can be measured, which justifies a change in the increasing factors of the actions or reduction factors of resistances. Therefore, it is understood that safety assessment in existing structures is more complex than introducing security when designing a new structure, because it requires inspection, testing, analysis and careful diagnose. Strong knowledge and security concepts in structural engineering are needed, as well as knowledge about the materials of construction employed, in order to identify, control and properly consider the variability of actions and resistances in the structure. With the intention of discussing this topic considered complex and diffuse, this paper presents an introduction to the safety of concrete structures, a synthesis of the recommended procedures by Brazilian standards and another codes, associated with the topic, as well a realistic example of the safety assessment of an existing structure.
Track detectors in particle accelerator environment: an overview on existing and new methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathy, S.P.; Sarkar, P.K.
2011-01-01
The advent of high energy, high intensity particle accelerators, with increasing applications in various fields has lead to the involvement of more users and operators. The complex (secondary) radiation field in an accelerator environment, generated by the primary beam hitting a target, is highly directional, dynamic, pulsed and mixed in nature, which poses a unique challenge for the radiological safety aspects, specially the neutrons contributing to a significant dose even beyond the shields. Solid polymeric track detectors (SPTDs), due to their insensitivity to low LET radiations and integrating nature of signal registration, are found to be effective and convenient for neutron measurements. This paper reviews some of the existing and frequently used methods of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using SPTDs and explores new approaches as well. The paper elaborates on the extended energy response and rapid etching techniques of SPTDs along with some new results. An overview on the recently introduced microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) technique is also presented. (author)
Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
programmes at existing operating plants are plant specific or regulatory specific. This means that this report is meant to define the minimum generic requirements and may need to be supplemented on a plant specific basis to consider particular aspects of the original design basis. Among the options available, two methods are particularly appropriate for assessing the seismic safety of facilities, the seismic margin assessment (SMA) method and the seismic probabilistic safety assessment (SPSA) method. Both SMA and SPSA are discussed in this report. Current NPP design criteria and comprehensive seismic design procedures, as applied to the design of new facilities but using a re-evaluated seismic input, may be applied in the seismic evaluation programme. It is noted that these would be a conservative and usually expensive approach for evaluation of an existing operating facility and they are not discussed further in this report. Evaluation of existing NPPs may result in the identification of items of the SSSC list which have to be upgraded. Upgrading itself is not covered by this Safety Report; however, some general principles are presented in order to preserve consistency between evaluation and upgrading processes. (It should be pointed out that when an upgrading programme has to be carried out, it necessitates more engineering resources than the evaluation process does; similarly upgrading is too large and complex a matter to be covered by this Safety Report.) Section 2 presents the general philosophy of seismic evaluation; Section 3 discusses data collection and investigations; Section 4 is devoted to seismic hazard assessment; Section 5 discusses the safety analysis of the NPP; Section 6 discusses the practice of walkdown; Section 7 covers the criteria and methods used for seismic capacity assessment of SSSCs; Section 8 discusses the principle of the design of a possible seismic upgrading; Section 9 specifies some rules of quality assurance and organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masopust, R.
1999-01-01
Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants
20 CFR 220.131 - Work which exists in the national economy.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work which exists in the national economy. 220.131 Section 220.131 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.131 Work which exists in the national economy. (a) General. The Board considers...
Probabilistic approach to requalification of existing NPPs under aircraft crash loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birbraer, A.N.; Roleder, A.J.; Shulman, G.S.
1993-01-01
A probabilistic approach to the analysis of NPP safety under aircraft impact is discussed. It may be used both for requalification of existing NPPs and in the process of NPP design. NPP is considered as a system of components: structures, pipes, different kinds of equipment, soil, foundation. The exceeding of the limit probability of the radioactive products release out of containment (i.e. of the NPP safety requirements non-fulfilment) is taken as a system failure criterion. An example of an event tree representing the consequence of events causing the failure is given. Described are the methods of estimate of elementary events probabilities through which a composite probability of the failure is evaluated. (author)
Data requirements for valuing externalities: The role of existing permitting processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, A.D.; Baechler, M.C.; Callaway, J.M.
1990-08-01
While the assessment of externalities, or residual impacts, will place new demands on regulators, utilities, and developers, existing processes already require certain data and information that may fulfill some of the data needs for externality valuation. This paper examines existing siting, permitting, and other processes and highlights similarities and differences between their data requirements and the data required to value environmental externalities. It specifically considers existing requirements for siting new electricity resources in Oregon and compares them with the information and data needed to value externalities for such resources. This paper also presents several observations about how states can take advantage of data acquired through processes already in place as they move into an era when externalities are considered in utility decision-making. It presents other observations on the similarities and differences between the data requirements under existing processes and those for valuing externalities. This paper also briefly discusses the special case of cumulative impacts. And it presents recommendations on what steps to take in future efforts to value externalities. 35 refs., 2 tabs.
Global existence of small solutions to semilinear Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chihara, Hiroyuki
1996-01-01
We present global existence theorem for semilinear Schrodinger equations. In general, Schrodinger-type equations do not admit the classical energy estimates. To avoid this difficulty, we use S. Doi's method for linear Schrodinger-type equations. Combining his method and L p -L q estimates, we prove the global existence of solutions with small initial data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, H; Sakurai, K; Shimada, H [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-10-01
Spontaneous potential (SP) was measured on the known traverse line of resistivity structure crossing Hanaori fault in Ohara area, Kyoto city to observe change in SP around the fault and to examine the possibility of fault position exploration. The supposed causes of generation of SP are as follows: the existence of sulfide mineral deposit including polarized minerals, underground fluid flow, and the existence of stratum including chemical compositions from hot springs. The SP method estimates underground structures based on measured surface potential distributions using DC component under anomaly of SP. FEM modeling clarified that a fault fracture zone is one of the causes of generation of SP, by considering SP measurement and resistivity structure strongly affecting observed SP. Consequently, combination of SP measurement with resistivity structure exploration allows a reliable fault estimation method. Under the assumption that anomaly of SP is caused by polarization around fault, the horizontal dipole model based on polarization of current source dipole along fault can well explain the measured data. 2 refs., 6 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basketter, David A; Andersen, Klaus E; Liden, Carola
2005-01-01
be translated into practical thresholds and whether these could be set for both induction and elicitation. Examples are given for substances falling into various potency groups for skin sensitization relating to results from the local lymph node assay, the guinea pig maximization test, the Buehler method...... products, cosmetics, food and feeding stuffs, which are subject to specific community legislation. The main questions that are answered in this report are whether it would be possible to give detailed guidance on how to grade allergen potency based on the existing methods, whether such grading could...
Modeling of existing cooling towers in ASPEN PLUS using an equilibrium stage method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Queiroz, João A.; Rodrigues, Vitor M.S.; Matos, Henrique A.; Martins, F.G.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Simulation of cooling tower performance under different operating conditions. ► Cooling tower performance is simulated using ASPEN PLUS. ► Levenberg–Marquardt method used to adjust model parameters. ► Air and water outlet temperatures are in good accordance with experimental data. - Abstract: Simulation of cooling tower performance considering operating conditions away from design is typically based on the geometrical parameters provided by the cooling tower vendor, which are often unavailable or outdated. In this paper a different approach for cooling tower modeling based on equilibrium stages and Murphree efficiencies to describe heat and mass transfer is presented. This approach is validated with published data and with data collected from an industrial application. Cooling tower performance is simulated using ASPEN PLUS. Murphree stage efficiency values for the process simulator model were optimized by minimizing the squared difference between the experimental and calculated data using the Levenberg–Marquardt method. The minimization algorithm was implemented in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications, integrated with the process simulator (ASPEN PLUS) using Aspen Simulation Workbook. The simulated cooling tower air and water outlet temperatures are in good accordance with experimental data when applying only the outlet water temperature to calibrate the model. The methodology is accurate for simulating cooling towers at different operational conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schimmelpfennig, K.
1975-01-01
A method of analysis is presented, by which progressive fracture processes in axisymmetric prestressed concrete pressure vessels during increasing internal pressure can be evaulated by means of a continuum calculation considering a general material law. Formulations used in the analysis concerning material behaviour are derived on one hand from appropriate results of testing small concrete specimens, and are on the other hand gained by parametric studies in order to solve questions still existing by recalulating fracture tests on concrete bodies with more complex states of stress. Due attention is focussed on investigating the behaviour of construction members subjected to high shear forces (end slabs.). (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neklyudov, I.M.; Azarenkov, N.A.; Borts, B.V.; Odejchuk, N.P.; Skoromnaya, S.F.; Tkachenko, V.I.
2008-01-01
The brief review of the existing methods of the uranium isotope separation as well as for natural uranium enrichment, as for regeneration of the spent nuclear fuel, and also the description of a new intensively developed separation method is given last time - the supercritical fluid extraction in the carbonic acid medium is shown. The comparison of the basic technological indicators of the uranium enrichment by the traditional methods in the supercritical carbonic acid medium is shown. 27 refs.; 18 figs.; 16 tab
Considering Resilience: Steps Towards an Assessment Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Kallaos
2014-04-01
Full Text Available As threats from climate change related hazards increase in cities around the world, communities are faced with an urgent requirement for self-evaluation. It is essential to expose and assess potential hazards facing cities, as well as to consider potential impacts and responses. While the promotion of efficiency and promise of protection have been common approaches to hazards in the past, recent events have exposed weaknesses in existing tactics. It has also become more apparent that existing mitigation efforts will be insufficient to prevent some level of climate change, associated hazards, and impacts. Complete protection against all threats is not only impossible but potentially hazardous, as extreme or unanticipated events can exceed the capacity for defence, potentially resulting in catastrophic failures. From this realization of the fallibility of the existing paradigm, resilience has emerged as a useful concept for framing the response of cities to an expanding collection of potential threats. The aim of this article is to consider resilience as it applies to cities, their architecture and infrastructure systems, subsystems, and components, as well as their inhabitants. Resilience characteristics are identified and considered in order to inform the eventual development of a resilience framework with which to assess architecture and infrastructure resilience. This state of the art is instrumental to determine the conditions under which architecture and infrastructure resilience can be defined and measured, in order to guide the consideration of attributes and determine suitable criteria to select and elaborate indicators to help guide future actions and investments. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholamreza Norouzi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In project management context, time management is one of the most important factors affecting project success. This paper proposes a new method to solve research project scheduling problems (RPSP containing Fuzzy Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (FGERT networks. Through the deliverables of this method, a proper estimation of project completion time (PCT and success probability can be achieved. So algorithms were developed to cover all features of the problem based on three main parameters “duration, occurrence probability, and success probability.” These developed algorithms were known as PR-FGERT (Parallel and Reversible-Fuzzy GERT networks. The main provided framework includes simplifying the network of project and taking regular steps to determine PCT and success probability. Simplifications include (1 equivalent making of parallel and series branches in fuzzy network considering the concepts of probabilistic nodes, (2 equivalent making of delay or reversible-to-itself branches and impact of changing the parameters of time and probability based on removing related branches, (3 equivalent making of simple and complex loops, and (4 an algorithm that was provided to resolve no-loop fuzzy network, after equivalent making. Finally, the performance of models was compared with existing methods. The results showed proper and real performance of models in comparison with existing methods.
Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts
Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.
2012-01-01
The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining
Demand prediction model for regional railway services considering spatial effects between stations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordera Piñera, R.; Sañudo, R.; Olio, L. Dell'
2016-07-01
The railways are a priority transport mode for the European Union given their safety record and environmental sustainability. Therefore it is important to have quantitative models available which allow passenger demand for rail travel to be simulated for planning purposes and to evaluate different policies. The aim of this article is to specify and estimate trip distribution models between railway stations by considering the most influential demand variables. Two types of models were estimated: Poisson regression and gravity. The input data were the ticket sales on a regional line in Cantabria (Spain) which were provided by the Spanish railway infrastructure administrator (ADIF – RAM). The models have also considered the possible existence of spatial effects between train stations. The results show that the models have a good fit to the available data, especial the gravity models constrained by origins and destinations. Furthermore, the gravity models which considered the existence of spatial effects between stations had a significantly better fit than the Poisson models and the gravity models that did not consider this phenomenon. The proposed models have therefore been shown to be good support tools for decision making in the field of railway planning. (Author)
Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?
Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N
2016-12-01
To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2008-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
The suitability and installation of technological equipment when upgrading existing facilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ladnushkin A. A.
2016-03-01
Full Text Available to date, a large number of Russian companies in diverse and various industries, has old equipment and requires modernization of the technological process due to the growth of scientific and technological progress. In order to achieve goals when upgrading is considered such an important aspect as the readiness of the new equipment installation. Mounting hardware suitability describes the suitability and readiness of equipment for efficient Assembly at the user. Replacement of technological equipment requires large volumes of works on installation and dismantling, in the absence of the building has its own lifting mechanisms require large financial and labor costs. One of possible methods for replacement of process equipment is the technology of without crane installation allows us to carry out work in existing space planning. Today is the question of the necessity of development and introduction of new technological production methods and fixtures tooling in which it is possible to conduct installation and dismantling of technological equipment in the operating production process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Rabbani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Integration of various logistical components in supply chain management, such as transportation, inventory control and facility location are becoming common practice to avoid sub-optimization in nowadays’ competitive environment. The integration of transportation and inventory decisions is known as inventory routing problem (IRP in the literature. The problem aims to determine the delivery quantity for each customer and the network routes to be used in each period, so that the total inventory and transportation costs are to be minimized. On the contrary of conventional IRP that each retailer can only provide its demand from the supplier, in this paper, a new multi-period, multi-item IRP model with considering lateral trans-shipment, back-log and financial decisions is proposed as a business model in a distinct organization. The main purpose of this paper is applying an applicable inventory routing model with considering real world setting and solving it with an appropriate method.
Modelization of a large wind farm, considering the modification of the atmospheric boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crespo, A; Gomez-Elvira, R [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Madrid (Spain); Frandsen, S; Larsen, S E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
A method is presented to adapt existing models of wind farms to very large ones that may affect the whole planetary boundary layer. An internal boundary layer is considered that starts developing at the leading edge of the farm until it reaches, sufficiently far downstream, the top of the planetary boundary layer, and a new equilibrium region is reached. The wind farm is simulated by an artificial roughness that is function of the turbine spacing, drag and height. From this model the flow conditions are calculated at a certain reference height and then are used as boundary conditions for a numerical code used to model a wind farm. Three-dimensional effects are considered by applying appropriate conditions at the sides of the farm. Calculations are carried out to estimate the energy production in large wind farms, and it is found that additional losses due to modification of the planetary boundary layer may be of importance for wind farms of size larger than about 100 km. (au)
On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.
Wagensberg, Jorge
2014-01-01
The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.
Term Croatian considered in russian context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Željka Čelić
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Term Croatian is considered in Russian context, i. e. context of Russian scientific material (which is comparable to the unwritten situation in universities. Russian scientific texts connect term Croatian, almost without an exception, with the term Serbian in words such as Serbo-Croatian. This point of view is politically approved in the period untill 1990’s, but it exists in the 21st century’s scientific material. The nature of the problem lays, at the same time, in politics, language and society; thus, the question is: what is the reason of such a context in which Croatian language is placed now? There are no arguments for it, especially if it is for Slovak language politically based and language approved to be an entity – in comparison to the Czech language; for Ukrainian (once Littlerussian – at least in principle, in comparison to the Russian, or, more convincable, Belorussian to Russian (the standard Belorussian language exists from 1905. The term Croatian is independently, even in new books, connected with terms of soil, state, nation, but not language. And though today, because of political reasons, exists an awareness of Croatian language without its Serbian mirror reflexion, the term Serbo-Croatian stays. Thus, this paper looks through the history concerning Croatian language in 19, 20 and 21st century’s Russian philology, including Juraj Križanić and Vatroslav Jagić – innovators of the Croatian word in Russia.
Existence results for impulsive evolution differential equations with state-dependent delay
Eduardo Hernandez M.; Rathinasamy Sakthivel; Sueli Tanaka Aki
2008-01-01
We study the existence of mild solution for impulsive evolution abstract differential equations with state-dependent delay. A concrete application to partial delayed differential equations is considered.
Schmidlin, Kurt; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Spoerri, Adrian
2015-05-30
Record linkage of existing individual health care data is an efficient way to answer important epidemiological research questions. Reuse of individual health-related data faces several problems: Either a unique personal identifier, like social security number, is not available or non-unique person identifiable information, like names, are privacy protected and cannot be accessed. A solution to protect privacy in probabilistic record linkages is to encrypt these sensitive information. Unfortunately, encrypted hash codes of two names differ completely if the plain names differ only by a single character. Therefore, standard encryption methods cannot be applied. To overcome these challenges, we developed the Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage (P3RL) method. In this Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage method we apply a three-party protocol, with two sites collecting individual data and an independent trusted linkage center as the third partner. Our method consists of three main steps: pre-processing, encryption and probabilistic record linkage. Data pre-processing and encryption are done at the sites by local personnel. To guarantee similar quality and format of variables and identical encryption procedure at each site, the linkage center generates semi-automated pre-processing and encryption templates. To retrieve information (i.e. data structure) for the creation of templates without ever accessing plain person identifiable information, we introduced a novel method of data masking. Sensitive string variables are encrypted using Bloom filters, which enables calculation of similarity coefficients. For date variables, we developed special encryption procedures to handle the most common date errors. The linkage center performs probabilistic record linkage with encrypted person identifiable information and plain non-sensitive variables. In this paper we describe step by step how to link existing health-related data using encryption methods to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jixue Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In Southwest China, most regions are mountainous, where traditional drill-and-blast method is adopted to excavate relatively harder rocks. However, blasting would cause vibration to adjacent structures and might result in damage or even failure. This paper considers a case where subway tunnel is overlying an existing railway tunnel, while the excavation requires blasting method. Vibration and stress distribution are calculated via Dynamic Finite Element Method (DFEM for both full-face excavation and CD method. Result shows that vibration induced by CD method is only 28% of that caused by full-face blasting with same distance. Peak vibration is located on the lining facing the blasting source, while peak tensile stress is on the other side of the contour due to the reflection of stress wave on strata boundary. And peak value of tensile stress induced by full-face blasting is capable of causing lining failure; thus full-face blasting is not suggested within 40 m beyond the underlying tunnel axis. However, CD method has shown much advantage, since blasting within 25 m is also considered safe to the underlying tunnel. But when the blasting source is as near as 12 m within the underlying tunnel, the CD method is no longer safe.
Fan, M; Wang, K; Jiang, D
1999-08-01
In this paper, we study the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems. By using the method of coincidence degree and Lyapunov functional, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments and the existence of a unique globally asymptotically stable periodic solution with strictly positive components of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition system with several delays. Some new results are obtained. As an application, we also examine some special cases of the system we considered, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Some known results are improved and generalized.
THE CONTROL VARIATIONAL METHOD FOR ELASTIC CONTACT PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea Sofonea
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We consider a multivalued equation of the form Ay + F(y = fin a real Hilbert space, where A is a linear operator and F represents the (Clarke subdifferential of some function. We prove existence and uniqueness results of the solution by using the control variational method. The main idea in this method is to minimize the energy functional associated to the nonlinear equation by arguments of optimal control theory. Then we consider a general mathematical model describing the contact between a linearly elastic body and an obstacle which leads to a variational formulation as above, for the displacement field. We apply the abstract existence and uniqueness results to prove the unique weak solvability of the corresponding contact problem. Finally, we present examples of contact and friction laws for which our results work.
An assessment of existing common traditional methods of water ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Classical water purification methods include boiling, filtration, irradiation and the use of chemicals while traditional water purification methods in use are boiling, filtration, sedimentation, long storage and solar radiation. Waterborne diseases are m ore common in the rural communities where potable water supply coverage ...
Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Shun Chin
1990-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Yuichi; Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Muramatsu, Ken
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new calculation method for considering the effect of correlation of component failures in seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) by direct quantification of Fault Tree (FT) using the Monte Carlo simulation (DQFM) and discusses the effect of correlation on core damage frequency (CDF). In the DQFM method, occurrence probability of a top event is calculated as follows: (1) Response and capacity of each component are generated according to their probability distribution. In this step, the response and capacity can be made correlated according to a set of arbitrarily given correlation data. (2) For each component whether the component is failed or not is judged by comparing the response and the capacity. (3) The status of each component, failure or success, is assigned as either TRUE or FALSE in a Truth Table, which represents the logical structure of the FT to judge the occurrence of the top event. After this trial is iterated sufficient times, the occurrence probability of the top event is obtained as the ratio of the occurrence number of the top event to the number of total iterations. The DQFM method has the following features compared with the minimal cut set (MCS) method used in the well known Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). While the MCS method gives the upper bound approximation for occurrence probability of an union of MCSs, the DQFM method gives more exact results than the upper bound approximation. Further, the DQFM method considers the effect of correlation on the union and intersection of component failures while the MCS method considers only the effect on the latter. The importance of these features in seismic PSA of NPPs are demonstrated by an example calculation and a calculation of CDF in a seismic PSA. The effect of correlation on CDF was evaluated by the DQFM method and was compared with that evaluated in the application study of the SSMRP methodology. In the application
New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr
2016-01-15
Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.
New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon
2016-01-01
Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.
Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strandstroem, Kjell; Mueller, Christian; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)
2007-12-15
Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling is since long considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. (author)
Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)
2007-12-15
Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Chuan; Guo Fanqing; Purdy, James A
2006-01-01
This paper reports a step-by-step shielding calculation recipe for a helical tomotherapy unit (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI, USA), recently installed in an existing Varian 600C treatment room. Both primary and secondary radiations (leakage and scatter) are explicitly considered. A typical patient load is assumed. Use factor is calculated based on an analytical formula derived from the tomotherapy rotational beam delivery geometry. Leakage and scatter are included in the calculation based on corresponding measurement data as documented by TomoTherapy Inc. Our calculation result shows that, except for a small area by the therapists' console, most of the existing Varian 600C shielding is sufficient for the new tomotherapy unit. This work cautions other institutions facing the similar situation, where an HT unit is considered for an existing LINAC treatment room, more secondary shielding might be considered at some locations, due to the significantly increased secondary shielding requirement by HT. (note)
Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Glasier, Anna
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND This paper explores recent developments in female contraception, using them to illustrate how adaptation of existing methods, improved service delivery and understanding contraceptive behaviour might increase contraceptive uptake and correct and consistent use, and how the development of new methods holds some promise for capitalizing on the potential non-contraceptive benefits. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Selection criteria included high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Workshop Group. RESULTS The topics discussed include: adapted regimens for combined oral contraceptive pills, non-invasive methods of female sterilization, the need to improve the awareness of pregnancy risk to increase the use of emergency contraception, improvements in the evidence base for the safety and service delivery of intrauterine methods, emphasis on the potential benefits of combined oral contraceptives for women with hirsutism and acne, the potential of female sterilization to prevent ovarian cancer, and the promise of anti-progesterones and new approaches to dual protection. CONCLUSIONS Although great strides have been made in recent years in increasing contraceptive use among women in many countries where contraceptive prevalence is low or there is a high unmet need for contraception, much more can, and needs to, be done.
The Rescue of the Aesthetic Character of Existence in Kierkegaard Philosophy.
de Feijoo, Ana Maria Lopez Calvo; Protasio, Myriam Moreira
2015-08-01
The intention of this article is to develop considerations regarding the unity in all that constitutes the multifaceted work of Soren Kierkegaard. The guides to the subject of this investigation are the stages of existence. His work is devoted to considering the unity of all spheres in their original place, which is concrete existence. To search for this unity, Kierkegaard resumes the aesthetic element of existence, which had been abandoned since the Greeks, passing by Christianity and radicalizing itself since philosophers of subjectivity, to show that this abandon provokes the suppression of the aesthetic element, without which oneness is not possible.
Peaceful Co-existence in The Light of Objectives of Sharia’h
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shayuthy Abdul Manas
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The study focuses on clarifying the concept of peaceful coexistence, and its principles in the perspective of the “Maqasid Al-Shariah, (objectives of Islamic “Shariah” because, the most important purposes of “Maqasid AlShariah” are protection of soul, family, dignity and money. And also the establishment of security and peaceful life through the peaceful coexistence by following the basic foundations which are considered as important pillars of peaceful co-existence, these are nature, justice, freedom, and equality under the multiplicity of religions, different races and colors. Therefore, according to the interdependence between the objectives of “Shariah” and co-existence which is considered an important pillar of the social system, and the development of communities,the study focuses on highlighting some of the important problems that hinder the achievement of peaceful coexistence between Muslims and non-Muslims in the “Sri Lanka” due to the lack of knowledge about the reality of “Maqasid Al-Shariah” and its relationship to peaceful co-existence.
EURATOM. Considered from an economic perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balke, Siegfried
2015-01-01
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAG-EURATOM), which was organisationally established on 1st January 1958, is not to the same degree part of an economic discussion as the European Economic Community. The EAG has a strongly accentuated technical-scientific character and is often economically considered as appendix of major economic integration efforts within Europe. Still it would be wrong not to suspect economical effective components within the European Atomic Energy Community. The opposite is already recognisable as the EAG needs to integrate itself into a system of international organisations and institutions, which are already existent in the field of a friendly exploitation of nuclear power and which embrace a larger geographical field as the six - member-states of the EURATOM, the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community. One advantage of the treaty on establishing the European community is that it considers the Atomic Energy Community as an important but not independent branch from general economic activity. The organisational bracket for all three European Treaties of Integration will be the common Parliament and - what is to be expected, in its practical impact a -not to be underestimated- joint headquarters for all three institutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred
2017-01-01
We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred, E-mail: zhaopeng.wang@mavs.uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)
2017-10-01
We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.
Jung, Ji-Young; Seo, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jung-Ryun
2018-01-04
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.
Nefedov, N. N.; Nikulin, E. I.
2018-01-01
A singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for a parabolic reaction-diffusion equation in a two-dimensional domain is studied. The case of existence of an internal transition layer under the conditions of balanced and unbalanced rapid reaction is considered. An asymptotic expansion of a solution is constructed. To justify the asymptotic expansion thus constructed, the asymptotic method of differential inequalities is used. The Lyapunov asymptotic stability of a periodic solution is investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghan Choi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation (ASDA method is proposed and applied to a heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula. The heavy rainfall case, which occurred on 26 July 2006, caused torrential rainfall over the central part of the Korean Peninsula. The mesoscale convective system (MCS related to the heavy rainfall was classified as training line/adjoining stratiform (TL/AS-type for the earlier period, and back building (BB-type for the later period. In the ASDA method, an adjoint model is run backwards with forecast-error gradient as input, and the adjoint sensitivity of the forecast error to the initial condition is scaled by an optimal scaling factor. The optimal scaling factor is determined by minimising the observational cost function of the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var method, and the scaled sensitivity is added to the original first guess. Finally, the observations at the analysis time are assimilated using a 3D-Var method with the improved first guess. The simulated rainfall distribution is shifted northeastward compared to the observations when no radar data are assimilated or when radar data are assimilated using the 3D-Var method. The rainfall forecasts are improved when radar data are assimilated using the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Simulated atmospheric fields such as horizontal winds, temperature, and water vapour mixing ratio are also improved via the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Due to the improvement in the analysis, subsequent forecasts appropriately simulate the observed features of the TL/AS- and BB-type MCSs and the corresponding heavy rainfall. The computational cost associated with the ASDA method is significantly lower than that of the 4D-Var method.
Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sameh A. El-Betar
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Dai
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to a loosely coupling characteristic, the variation of coupling coefficient will certainly affect the performance of impedance matching, therefore MPTT will fail accordingly. This paper presents an identification method of coupling coefficient for MPTT in WPT systems. Especially, the two-value issue during the identification is considered. The identification approach is easy to implement because it does not require additional circuit. Furthermore, MPTT is easy to realize because only two easily measured DC parameters are needed. The detailed identification procedure corresponding to the two-value issue and the maximum power transfer tracking process are presented, and both the simulation analysis and experimental results verified the identification method and MPTT.
On the existence of weak solutions of quantum stochastic differential ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We establish further results concerning the existence, uniqueness and stability of weak solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs). Our results are achieved by considering a more general Lipschit condition on the coefficients than our previous considerations in [1]. We exhibit a class of Lipschitzian ...
Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio
2009-01-01
We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case...
Quality factors to consider in condensate selection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.
Moqtaderi, Hamed; Esfahanian, Vahid
2011-06-13
The accuracy of solid wall treatment in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) simulation of porous structures affects different hydraulic parameters including integral properties, such as permeability, or local phenomena, such as apparent slip. Based on an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the current methods, a new technique is introduced for exact boundary extraction from binary representation. Using this technique, the LBM model can simultaneously benefit from the advantages of existing approaches, i.e. the real micro-/nanostructure obtained with X-ray computed tomography, and a reduction in the resolution requirement. To evaluate the technique, permeability and slip length on the solid walls are investigated for a porous gas diffusion layer. The results show acceptable accuracy improvement balanced with computational costs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng
2009-01-01
Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.
Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents
Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia
2017-09-01
The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.
The existence of generalized synchronisation of three bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ai-Hua, Hu; Zhen-Yuan, Xu; Liu-Xiao, Guo
2010-01-01
The existence of two types of generalized synchronisation is studied. The model considered here includes three bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems, and two of them denote the driving systems, while the rest stands for the response system. Under certain conditions, the existence of generalised synchronisation can be turned to a problem of compression fixed point in the family of Lipschitz functions. In addition, theoretical proofs are proposed to the exponential attractive property of generalised synchronisation manifold. Numerical simulations validate the theory. (general)
Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennart, J.C.
1978-01-01
The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Montserrat Filella
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Many articles published in the last few years start with the assumption that the past decades have seen an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations in the rivers and lakes of the Northern Hemisphere. This study analyses whether the existing evidence supports this claim. With this aim, we have collected published studies where long series of organic carbon concentrations (i.e., longer than 10 years were analyzed for existing trends and have carefully evaluated the 63 articles found. Information has been collated in a comprehensive and comparable way, allowing readers to easily access it. The two main aspects considered in our analysis have been the analytical methods used and the data treatment methods applied. Both are sensitive issues because, on the one hand, the difficulties associated with correctly determining organic carbon concentrations in surface waters are well known, while, on the other, dealing with real environmental data (i.e., lack of normality, censoring, missing values, etc. is an extremely intricate matter. Other issues such as data reporting and the geographical location of the systems studied are also discussed. In conclusion, it is clear that organic carbon concentrations have increased in some surface waters in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1990s. However, due to a lack of data in many parts of the world, it is not known whether this phenomenon is general and, more importantly, in the areas for which such data do exist, the reporting and methodological problems in the published studies prevent any conclusion on the existence of a general temporal behavior of organic carbon from being drawn.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hukharnsusatrue, A.
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to compare multiple regression coefficients estimating methods with existence of multicollinearity among independent variables. The estimation methods are Ordinary Least Squares method (OLS, Restricted Least Squares method (RLS, Restricted Ridge Regression method (RRR and Restricted Liu method (RL when restrictions are true and restrictions are not true. The study used the Monte Carlo Simulation method. The experiment was repeated 1,000 times under each situation. The analyzed results of the data are demonstrated as follows. CASE 1: The restrictions are true. In all cases, RRR and RL methods have a smaller Average Mean Square Error (AMSE than OLS and RLS method, respectively. RRR method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is high and also provides the smallest AMSE for all level of correlations and all sample sizes when standard deviation is equal to 5. However, RL method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is low and middle, except in the case of standard deviation equal to 3, small sample sizes, RRR method provides the smallest AMSE.The AMSE varies with, most to least, respectively, level of correlations, standard deviation and number of independent variables but inversely with to sample size.CASE 2: The restrictions are not true.In all cases, RRR method provides the smallest AMSE, except in the case of standard deviation equal to 1 and error of restrictions equal to 5%, OLS method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is low or median and there is a large sample size, but the small sample sizes, RL method provides the smallest AMSE. In addition, when error of restrictions is increased, OLS method provides the smallest AMSE for all level, of correlations and all sample sizes, except when the level of correlations is high and sample sizes small. Moreover, the case OLS method provides the smallest AMSE, the most RLS method has a smaller AMSE than
Reliability evaluation of microgrid considering incentive-based demand response
Huang, Ting-Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Jun
2017-07-01
Incentive-based demand response (IBDR) can guide customers to adjust their behaviour of electricity and curtail load actively. Meanwhile, distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) can provide time for the implementation of IBDR. The paper focus on the reliability evaluation of microgrid considering IBDR. Firstly, the mechanism of IBDR and its impact on power supply reliability are analysed. Secondly, the IBDR dispatch model considering customer’s comprehensive assessment and the customer response model are developed. Thirdly, the reliability evaluation method considering IBDR based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. Finally, the validity of the above models and method is studied through numerical tests on modified RBTS Bus6 test system. Simulation results demonstrated that IBDR can improve the reliability of microgrid.
A weighted U statistic for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity.
Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing
2016-07-20
Converging evidence suggests that common complex diseases with the same or similar clinical manifestations could have different underlying genetic etiologies. While current research interests have shifted toward uncovering rare variants and structural variations predisposing to human diseases, the impact of heterogeneity in genetic studies of complex diseases has been largely overlooked. Most of the existing statistical methods assume the disease under investigation has a homogeneous genetic effect and could, therefore, have low power if the disease undergoes heterogeneous pathophysiological and etiological processes. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneity-weighted U (HWU) method for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity. HWU can be applied to various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous) and is computationally efficient for high-dimensional genetic data. Through simulations, we showed the advantage of HWU when the underlying genetic etiology of a disease was heterogeneous, as well as the robustness of HWU against different model assumptions (e.g., phenotype distributions). Using HWU, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of nicotine dependence from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environments dataset. The genome-wide analysis of nearly one million genetic markers took 7h, identifying heterogeneous effects of two new genes (i.e., CYP3A5 and IKBKB) on nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Backtracking Method of Coloring Administrative Maps Considering Visual Perception Rules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WEI Zhiwei
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Color design in administrative maps should incorporate and balance area configuration, color harmony, and users' purposes. Based on visual perceptual rules, this paper quantifies color harmony, color contrast and perceptual balance in coloring administrative maps, and a model is suggested to evaluate the coloring quality after color template is selected. Then a backtracking method based on area balance is proposed to compute colored areas. Experiments show that this method can well meet visual perceptual rules while coloring administrative maps, and can be used for later map design.
Frequency of co-existence of dengue and malaria in patients presenting with acute febrile illness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisam, A.; Rahman, M.; Kadir, E.; Ezam, N.; Khan, M.B.
2014-01-01
To find out the frequency of co-existence of malaria and dengue fever in patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Military Hospital Rawalpindi from June to November 2012. A total of 500 patients with complaint of acute febrile illness were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preliminary data was collected on a pretested proforma. Blood samples of patients were tested for dengue serology and malaria parasite. Results were entered in respective proforma. Co-existence was considered present when a patient had both dengue serology and malaria parasite slide positive. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Result: Of the total, 349 (69.8%) were males and 151 (30.2%) females. Dengue serology was positive in 16 (3.2%); 81(16.2%) had malaria parasite slide positive; 403 (80.4%) had none of the two findings. Co-existence of both dengue and malaria was nil among the whole sample. In males, 67 (13.4%) had malaria, while 11 (2.2%) had dengue. In females, 14 (2.8%) had malaria, while 5 (1%) suffered from dengue fever. Conclusion: Co-existence of dengue and malaria was zero per cent in 500 patients visiting Military Hospital Rawalpindi. More studies shall be conducted to find out whether the reason of having zero per cent co-existence is that dengue or/and malaria epidemic did not occur in 2012 or whether there are some other factors involved. (author)
Analyzing the security of an existing computer system
Bishop, M.
1986-01-01
Most work concerning secure computer systems has dealt with the design, verification, and implementation of provably secure computer systems, or has explored ways of making existing computer systems more secure. The problem of locating security holes in existing systems has received considerably less attention; methods generally rely on thought experiments as a critical step in the procedure. The difficulty is that such experiments require that a large amount of information be available in a format that makes correlating the details of various programs straightforward. This paper describes a method of providing such a basis for the thought experiment by writing a special manual for parts of the operating system, system programs, and library subroutines.
Locational Prices in Capacity Subscription Market Considering Transmission Limitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Babaeinejad Sarookolaee
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on one of the most effective type of capacity markets named Capacity Subscription (CS market which is predicted to be widely used in the upcoming smart grids. Despite variant researches done about the mechanism and structure of capacity markets, their performances have been rarely tested in the presence of network constraints. Considering this deficiency, we tried to propose a new method to determine capacity prices in the network considering the transmission line flow limitations named Local capacity Prices (LP. This method is quite new and has not been tried before in any other similar researches. The philosophy of the proposed method is to determine capacity prices considering each consumer share of total peak demand. The first advantage of LP is that the consumers who benefit from the transmission facilities and are the responsible for transmission congestions, pay higher capacity prices than those whom their needed electricity is prepared locally. The second advantage of LP is that consumers connected to the same bus do not have to pay same capacity price due to their different shares of total peak demand. For more clarification, two other different methods named Branches Flow limit as a Global Limit (BFGL and Locational Capacity Prices (LCP are proposed and compared to the LP method in order to show LP method efficiency. The numerical results obtained from case studies show that the LP method follows more justice market procedure which results in more efficient capacity prices in comparison to BFGL and LCP methods.
Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality
van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert
1996-01-01
Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the
The shortest argument for the existence of God in Islamic philosophy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halilović Seid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The first cognitive frameworks of the undoubtedly most famous argument for the existence of God in Islamic philosophy were set by the notable Ibn Sina. Having proved the existence of God by considering existence itself, in his famous philosophical book al-Isharat he wrote that in that way he offered the 'argument of the veracious'. In the following stages of the development of this argument this syntagm will become one of the most popular scientific names in the history of philosophical and rational thought in Muslims. Numerous representatives of various schools of philosophy, dogmatic theology and doctrinal gnosis in Islam thoroughly analyzed the text of this part of the al-Isharat book and sometimes formulated new versions of the 'argument of the veracious'. In this paper we will focus on the basic cognitive milestones in the development of this argument and with a view to acquiring this we will use the method of detailed content analysis of the works of those Muslim philosophers who contributed significantly to that intellectual process. Given that scientific destiny of the 'argument of the veracious' quite attractively illustrates the various stages of the development of entire Islamic philosophy, we will try to show that in each new period Islamic philosophical heritage grew a more vital and dominant scientific discipline. On the other hand, we will conclude that throughout history Islamic philosophy and 'arguments of the veracious' have become more reminiscent of subtle intuition of Muslim gnostics and innermost spheres of the original understanding of the sacred Islamic texts and traditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anker; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne
2013-01-01
an energy label. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be used to estimate the energy demand in buildings specially dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR) and information on building regulations at construction year......The Energy Performance Directive requires energy certifications for buildings. This is implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold must have an energy performance label based on an evaluation from a visit to the building. The result is that only a small part of the existing houses has...... for the house. The result is an estimate for energy demand in each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. Then it is possible to find houses in need for thermal improvements. This method is tested for single family houses and flats. The paper...
Canards Existence in FitzHugh-Nagumo and Hodgkin-Huxley Neuronal Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Marc Ginoux
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper we have proposed a new method for proving the existence of “canard solutions” for three- and four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with only one fast variable which improves the methods used until now. The aim of this work is to extend this method to the case of four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with two slow and two fast variables. This method enables stating a unique generic condition for the existence of “canard solutions” for such four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems which is based on the stability of folded singularities (pseudo singular points in this case of the normalized slow dynamics deduced from a well-known property of linear algebra. This unique generic condition is identical to that provided in previous works. Application of this method to the famous coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo equations and to the Hodgkin-Huxley model enables showing the existence of “canard solutions” in such systems.
How to prove the existence of metabolons?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Halkier, Barbara Ann
2017-01-01
Sequential enzymes in biosynthetic pathways are organized in metabolons. It is challenging to provide experimental evidence for the existence of metabolons as biosynthetic pathways are composed of highly dynamic protein–protein interactions. Many different methods are being applied, each with str...
Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.
Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F
2016-04-01
This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically
Existence of weak solutions to stochastic evolution inclusions
Jakubowski , Adam; Kamenskii , Mikhail; Raynaud de Fitte , Paul
2005-01-01
International audience; We consider the Cauchy problem for a semilinear stochastic differential inclusion in a Hilbert space. The linear operator generates a strongly continuous semigroup and the nonlinear term is multivalued and satisfies a condition which is more heneral than the Lipschitz condition. We prove the existence of a mild solution to this problem. This solution is not "strong" in the probabilistic sense, that is, it is not defined on the underlying probability space, but on a lar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined
Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, M.C.; Hodgson, R.D.; Sabin, J.C.
1993-05-01
Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft 2 of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft 2 while new construction will cost about $50 per ft 2 . Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities
Why do interstellar grains exist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.
1986-01-01
There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included
32 CFR 169a.9 - Reviews: Existing in-house commercial activities.
2010-07-01
... either government or contractor personnel, whichever is more cost effective. Core logistics activities... review schedules. Existing in-house CAs, once reviewed shall be retained in-house without a cost.... In most cases, application of this criteria shall be made considering the wartime and peacetime...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Axby, Fredrik; Baafaelt, Martin [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Ifwer, Karin; Svensson, Niclas; Oehrstroem, Anna [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)
2006-11-15
The interest in production of electricity has increased the last years as a consequence of the increased price. A high production of electricity is of interest for all kinds of CHP-plants. For large biofuel fired CHP-plants typical electrical efficiency is 35 %, for incineration plants the electrical efficiency is about 28 %. A number of reasons why it is not higher, for example corrosion, fouling, erosion, limited and varying need for heat, flue gas condensation etc, exist. A number of these reasons have earlier been studied in different Vaermeforsk reports. The results from these studies give to some extent solutions and understanding for how the production of electricity can be increased. There is however no report that has the overall picture of what actions are realistic, most cost effective, what areas need more research and gives the most benefit of allocated funds. The aim of this report is to identify the technical limitations and propose measures for increased electricity production at CHP-plants using biofuel and waste. A method for identification of the most suitable actions for each plant is also presented. The idea is to take every conceivable factor that affects electricity production into consideration and to be able to make a relevant comparison of the factors. This report doesn't take new solutions/measures and means of control into consideration. The method used is called 'Weighted Sum Method'. Every action is assessed in the means of different criteria as for example how it affects the environment, if it is profitable, if it means more maintenance etc. An extensive checklist for different conceivable measures for increased electricity production has been created. The checklist includes measures from the fuel storage to the chimney and makes a good guidance when making a review of a biofuel or incineration CHP-plant. Some of the measures can be eliminated immediately at review since they not are applicable or have already been done
Development of Wind Farm AEP Prediction Program Considering Directional Wake Effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Kyoungboo; Cho, Kyungho; Huh, Jongchul [Jeju Nat’l Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
For accurate AEP prediction in a wind farm, it is necessary to effectively calculate the wind speed reduction and the power loss due to the wake effect in each wind direction. In this study, a computer program for AEP prediction considering directional wake effect was developed. The results of the developed program were compared with the actual AEP of the wind farm and the calculation result of existing commercial software to confirm the accuracy of prediction. The applied equations are identical with those of commercial software based on existing theories, but there is a difference in the calculation process of the detection of the wake effect area in each wind direction. As a result, the developed program predicted to be less than 1% of difference to the actual capacity factor and showed more than 2% of better results compared with the existing commercial software.
Existence of Periodic Orbits with Zeno Behavior in Completed Lagrangian Hybrid Systems
Or, Yizhar; Ames, Aaron D.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider hybrid models of mechanical systems undergoing impacts, Lagrangian hybrid systems, and study their periodic orbits in the presence of Zeno behavior-an infinite number of impacts occurring in finite time. The main result of this paper is explicit conditions under which the existence of stable periodic orbits for a Lagrangian hybrid system with perfectly plastic impacts implies the existence of periodic orbits in the same system with non-plastic impacts. Such periodic...
Sivarami Reddy, N.; Ramamurthy, D. V., Dr.; Prahlada Rao, K., Dr.
2017-08-01
This article addresses simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share the tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools between machines, to generate best optimal sequences that minimize makespan in a multi-machine Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Performance of FMS is expected to improve by effective utilization of its resources, by proper integration and synchronization of their scheduling. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) algorithm is a potent tool which is a better alternative for solving optimization problems like scheduling and proven itself. The proposed SOS algorithm is tested on 22 job sets with makespan as objective for scheduling of machines and tools where machines are allowed to share tools without considering transfer times of jobs and tools and the results are compared with the results of existing methods. The results show that the SOS has outperformed. The same SOS algorithm is used for simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools to determine the best optimal sequences that minimize makespan.
A simplified multisupport response spectrum method
Ye, Jihong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xianming
2012-03-01
A simplified multisupport response spectrum method is presented. The structural response is a sum of two components of a structure with a first natural period less than 2 s. The first component is the pseudostatic response caused by the inconsistent motions of the structural supports, and the second is the structural dynamic response to ground motion accelerations. This method is formally consistent with the classical response spectrum method, and the effects of multisupport excitation are considered for any modal response spectrum or modal superposition. If the seismic inputs at each support are the same, the support displacements caused by the pseudostatic response become rigid body displacements. The response spectrum in the case of multisupport excitations then reduces to that for uniform excitations. In other words, this multisupport response spectrum method is a modification and extension of the existing response spectrum method under uniform excitation. Moreover, most of the coherency coefficients in this formulation are simplified by approximating the ground motion excitation as white noise. The results indicate that this simplification can reduce the calculation time while maintaining accuracy. Furthermore, the internal forces obtained by the multisupport response spectrum method are compared with those produced by the traditional response spectrum method in two case studies of existing long-span structures. Because the effects of inconsistent support displacements are not considered in the traditional response spectrum method, the values of internal forces near the supports are underestimated. These regions are important potential failure points and deserve special attention in the seismic design of reticulated structures.
Lisano, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Recent literature in applied estimation theory reflects growing interest in the sigma-point (also called unscented ) formulation for optimal sequential state estimation, often describing performance comparisons with extended Kalman filters as applied to specific dynamical problems [c.f. 1, 2, 3]. Favorable attributes of sigma-point filters are described as including a lower expected error for nonlinear even non-differentiable dynamical systems, and a straightforward formulation not requiring derivation or implementation of any partial derivative Jacobian matrices. These attributes are particularly attractive, e.g. in terms of enabling simplified code architecture and streamlined testing, in the formulation of estimators for nonlinear spaceflight mechanics systems, such as filter software onboard deep-space robotic spacecraft. As presented in [4], the Sigma-Point Consider Filter (SPCF) algorithm extends the sigma-point filter algorithm to the problem of consider covariance analysis. Considering parameters in a dynamical system, while estimating its state, provides an upper bound on the estimated state covariance, which is viewed as a conservative approach to designing estimators for problems of general guidance, navigation and control. This is because, whether a parameter in the system model is observable or not, error in the knowledge of the value of a non-estimated parameter will increase the actual uncertainty of the estimated state of the system beyond the level formally indicated by the covariance of an estimator that neglects errors or uncertainty in that parameter. The equations for SPCF covariance evolution are obtained in a fashion similar to the derivation approach taken with standard (i.e. linearized or extended) consider parameterized Kalman filters (c.f. [5]). While in [4] the SPCF and linear-theory consider filter (LTCF) were applied to an illustrative linear dynamics/linear measurement problem, in the present work examines the SPCF as applied to
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.
2017-01-01
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David
2017-09-11
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
Enhanced model of photovoltaic cell/panel/array considering the direct and reverse modes
Zegaoui, Abdallah; Boutoubat, Mohamed; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Kessaissia, Fatma Zohra; Djahbar, Abdelkader; Aillerie, Michel
2018-05-01
This paper presents an improved generalized physical model for photovoltaic, PV cells, panels and arrays taking into account the behavior of these devices when considering their biasing existing in direct and reverse modes. Existing PV physical models generally are very efficient for simulating influence of irradiation changes on the short circuit current but they could not visualize the influences of temperature changes. The Enhanced Direct and Reverse Mode model, named EDRM model, enlightens the influence on the short-circuit current of both temperature and irradiation in the reverse mode of the considered PV devices. Due to its easy implementation, the proposed model can be a useful power tool for the development of new photovoltaic systems taking into account and in a more exhaustive manner, environmental conditions. The developed model was tested on a marketed PV panel and it gives a satisfactory results compared with parameters given in the manufacturer datasheet.
A numerical method to compute interior transmission eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleefeld, Andreas
2013-01-01
In this paper the numerical calculation of eigenvalues of the interior transmission problem arising in acoustic scattering for constant contrast in three dimensions is considered. From the computational point of view existing methods are very expensive, and are only able to show the existence of such transmission eigenvalues. Furthermore, they have trouble finding them if two or more eigenvalues are situated closely together. We present a new method based on complex-valued contour integrals and the boundary integral equation method which is able to calculate highly accurate transmission eigenvalues. So far, this is the first paper providing such accurate values for various surfaces different from a sphere in three dimensions. Additionally, the computational cost is even lower than those of existing methods. Furthermore, the algorithm is capable of finding complex-valued eigenvalues for which no numerical results have been reported yet. Until now, the proof of existence of such eigenvalues is still open. Finally, highly accurate eigenvalues of the interior Dirichlet problem are provided and might serve as test cases to check newly derived Faber–Krahn type inequalities for larger transmission eigenvalues that are not yet available. (paper)
Guidelines for Conducting Mixed-methods Research: An Extension and Illustration.
Venkatesh, Viswanath
2016-01-01
In this paper, we extend the guidelines of Venkatesh et al. (2013) for mixed-methods research by identifying and integrating variations in mixed-methods research. By considering 14 properties of mixed-methods research (e.g., purposes, research questions, epistemological assumptions), our guidelines demonstrate how researchers can flexibly identify the existing variations in mixed-methods research and proceed accordingly with a study design that suits their needs. To make the guide...
Analysis of forecasting methods of cargo flows in International transportation by land transport
Ponomareva, N.
2005-01-01
Advantages and disadvantages of the existing forecasting methods of cargo flows are presented. The improvement of cargo flows forecasting method in international transportation by land transport is considered on the basis of a interregional balance model to get more correct and fuller forecast.
A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.
Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng
2018-05-01
Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An Improved Optimal Slip Ratio Prediction considering Tyre Inflation Pressure Changes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoxing Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction of optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle control systems. Many studies have verified there is a definitive impact of tyre pressure change on the optimal slip ratio. However, the existing method of optimal slip ratio prediction has not taken into account the influence of tyre pressure changes. By introducing a second-order factor, an improved optimal slip ratio prediction considering tyre inflation pressure is proposed in this paper. In order to verify and evaluate the performance of the improved prediction, a cosimulation platform is developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim software packages, achieving a comprehensive simulation study of vehicle braking performance cooperated with an ABS controller. The simulation results show that the braking distances and braking time under different tyre pressures and initial braking speeds are effectively shortened with the improved prediction of optimal slip ratio. When the tyre pressure is slightly lower than the nominal pressure, the difference of braking performances between original optimal slip ratio and improved optimal slip ratio is the most obvious.
Method for assessing reliability of a network considering probabilistic safety assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cepin, M.
2005-01-01
A method for assessment of reliability of the network is developed, which uses the features of the fault tree analysis. The method is developed in a way that the increase of the network under consideration does not require significant increase of the model. The method is applied to small examples of network consisting of a small number of nodes and a small number of their connections. The results give the network reliability. They identify equipment, which is to be carefully maintained in order that the network reliability is not reduced, and equipment, which is a candidate for redundancy, as this would improve network reliability significantly. (author)
Estimation Trajectory of the Low-Frequency Floating Car Considering the Traffic Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijian Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Floating car equipped with GPS to detect traffic flow has been widely used in ITS research and applications. The trajectory estimation is the most critical and complex part in the floating vehicle information processing system. However, the trajectory estimation would be more difficult when using the low-frequency data sampling because of the high communication cost and the numerous data. Specifically, the ordinary algorithm cannot determine the specific vehicle paths with two anchor points across multiple intersections. Considering the accuracy in map matching, this paper used a delay matching algorithm and studied the trajectory estimation algorithm focusing on the issue of existence of a small road network between two anchor points. A method considering the three multiobjective factors of signal control and driving distance and number of intersections was developed. Firstly, an optimal solution set was acquired according to multiobjective decision theory and Pareto optimal principles in game theory. Then, the optimal solution set was evaluated synthetically based on the fuzzy set theory. Finally, the candidate trajectory which is the core evaluation factor was identified as the best possible travel path. The algorithm was validated by using the real traffic data in Wangjing area of Beijing. The results showed that the algorithm can get a better trajectory estimation and provide more traffic information to traffic management department.
Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability
Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.
2014-01-01
One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723
Autism Diagnosis and Screening: Factors to Consider in Differential Diagnosis
Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer; Turygin, Nicole
2012-01-01
There has been an exponential growth in assessment methods to diagnose disorders on the autism spectrum. Many reasons for this trend exist and include advancing knowledge on how to make a diagnosis, the heterogeneity of the spectrum, the realization that different methods may be needed based on age and intellectual disability. Other factors…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Mariyappan
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a special type of wireless network in which a collection of wireless mobile devices (called also nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the need of any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Currently, Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs play a significant role in university campus, advertisement, emergency response, disaster recovery, military use in battle fields, disaster management scenarios, in sensor network, and so on. However, wireless network devices, especially in ad hoc networks, are typically battery-powered. Thus, energy efficiency is a critical issue for battery-powered mobile devices in ad hoc networks. This is due to the fact that failure of node or link allows re-routing and establishing a new path from source to destination which creates extra energy consumption of nodes and sparse network connectivity, leading to a more likelihood occurrences of network partition. Routing based on energy related parameters is one of the important solutions to extend the lifetime of the node and reduce energy consumption of the network. In this paper detail literature survey on existing energy efficient routing method are studied and compared for their performance under different condition. The result has shown that both the broadcast schemes and energy aware metrics have great potential in overcoming the broadcast storm problem associated with flooding. However, the performances of these approaches rely on either the appropriate selection of the broadcast decision parameter or an energy efficient path. In the earlier proposed broadcast methods, the forwarding probability is selected based on fixed probability or number of neighbors regardless of nodes battery capacity whereas in energy aware schemes energy inefficient node could be part of an established path. Therefore, in an attempt to remedy the paucity of research and to address the gaps identified in this area, a study
Significance tests in mutagen screening: another method considering historical control frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traut, H.
1983-01-01
Recently a method has been devised for testing the significance of the difference between a mutation frequency observed after chemical treatment or iradiation and the historical ('stable') control frequency. Another test is proposed serving the same purpose. Both methods are applied to several examples (experimental frequency versus historical control frequency). The results (P values) obtained agree well. (author)
Planning Annuaulised hours when spike in demand exists
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MR Sureshkumar
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Manpower planning using annualised hours is an effective tool where seasonal demand for staff in industry exists. In annualised hours (AH workers are contracted to work for a certain number of hours per year. The workers are associated with relative efficiency for different types of tasks. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer linear Programming (MILP model to solve an annualised working hours planning problem when spike in demand exists. The holiday weeks for the workers are considered as partially individualised. If a worker has been assigned with more than one type of working week in a week, this will be compensated with one or more holiday week. The performance of the model is demonstrated with an example. It can be seen that this type of modelling helps to meet the spikes in demand with less capacity shortage compared with one working week in a week.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodrick, H.T.
1982-01-01
With the introduction of irradiation as a possible food preservation method nearly three decades ago, there was a tendency to over-emphasise the advantages to be gained with this new process to the extent that some regarded this new technique as a panacea for most of the problems experienced in the preservation of food at that time. The pendulum swung to the other extreme when irradiation did not come up to the expectations associated with a so-called 'wonder' treatment and others took a decidedly pessimistic attitude towards the future of this process. The answer obviously lies between these two extreme views and fortunately this is the attitude prevailing in many countries towards irradiation treatment at the present time. The role of irradiation can be seen as supplementary and indeed complementary to existing preservation methods instead of being regarded as directly competitive. In this paper, several preservation processes will be considered such as heat treatment, canning and refrigeration, and the effectiveness of these methods in combination with irradiation treatment will be considered with respect to shelf-life extension of several important fruits and vegetables in South Africa. The possible mechanism of the combined or synergistic effect in relation to disease control in selected biological systems will also be discussed
Using system theory and energy methods to prove existence of non-linear PDE's
Zwart, H.J.
2015-01-01
In this discussion paper we present an idea of combining techniques known from systems theory with energy estimates to show existence for a class of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE's). At the end of the paper a list of research questions with possible approaches is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, Mengfei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Chunlong; Zhu, Shuang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Monthly streamflow forecasting error is considered. • An improved parallel progressive optimality algorithm is proposed. • Forecasting dispatching chart is manufactured accompanying with a set of rules. • Applications in Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydro plants. - Abstract: Reliable streamflow forecasts are very significant for reservoir operation and hydropower generation. But for monthly streamflow forecasting, the forecasting result is unreliable and it is hard to be utilized, although it has a certain reference value for long-term hydro generation scheduling. Current researches mainly focus on deterministic scheduling, and few of them consider the uncertainties. So this paper considers the forecasting error which exists in monthly streamflow forecasting and proposes a new long-term hydro generation scheduling method called forecasting dispatching chart for Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydro plants. First, in order to consider the uncertainties of inflow, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to generate streamflow data according to the forecasting value and error distribution curves. Then the large amount of data obtained by Monte Carlo simulation is used as inputs for long-term hydro generation scheduling model. Because of the large amount of streamflow data, the computation speed of conventional algorithm cannot meet the demand. So an improved parallel progressive optimality algorithm is proposed to solve the long-term hydro generation scheduling problem and a series of solutions are obtained. These solutions constitute an interval set, unlike the unique solution in the traditional deterministic long-term hydro generation scheduling. At last, the confidence intervals of the solutions are calculated and forecasting dispatching chart is proposed as a new method for long-term hydro generation scheduling. A set of rules are proposed corresponding to forecasting dispatching chart. The chart is tested for practical operations and achieves
Use of operational data for the assessment of pre-existing software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helminen, Atte; Gran, Bjoern Axel; Kristiansen, Monica; Winther, Rune
2004-01-01
To build sufficient confidence on the reliability of the safety systems of nuclear power plants all available sources of information should be used. One important data source is the operational experience collected for the system. The operational experience is particularly applicable for systems of pre-existing software. Even though systems and devices involving pre-existing software are not considered for the functions of highest safety levels of nuclear power plants, they will most probably be introduced to functions of lower safety levels and to none-safety related applications. In the paper we shortly discuss the use of operational experience data for the reliability assessment of pre-existing software in general, and the role of pre-existing software in relation to safety applications. Then we discuss the modelling of operational profiles, the application of expert judgement on operational profiles and the need of a realistic test case. Finally, we discuss the application of operational experience data in Bayesian statistics. (Author)
Methods for Force Analysis of Overconstrained Parallel Mechanisms: A Review
Liu, Wen-Lan; Xu, Yun-Dou; Yao, Jian-Tao; Zhao, Yong-Sheng
2017-11-01
The force analysis of overconstrained PMs is relatively complex and difficult, for which the methods have always been a research hotspot. However, few literatures analyze the characteristics and application scopes of the various methods, which is not convenient for researchers and engineers to master and adopt them properly. A review of the methods for force analysis of both passive and active overconstrained PMs is presented. The existing force analysis methods for these two kinds of overconstrained PMs are classified according to their main ideas. Each category is briefly demonstrated and evaluated from such aspects as the calculation amount, the comprehensiveness of considering limbs' deformation, and the existence of explicit expressions of the solutions, which provides an important reference for researchers and engineers to quickly find a suitable method. The similarities and differences between the statically indeterminate problem of passive overconstrained PMs and that of active overconstrained PMs are discussed, and a universal method for these two kinds of overconstrained PMs is pointed out. The existing deficiencies and development directions of the force analysis methods for overconstrained systems are indicated based on the overview.
Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-11-20
We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.
Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey; Andreev, Aleksey I.
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to encourage discussions regarding the existing approaches to globalization measurement (taking mainly the form of indices and rankings) and their shortcomings in terms of applicability to developing Global Studies curricula. Another aim is to propose an outline for the globalization measurement methodology…
Empirical pillar design methods review report: Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-02-01
This report summarizes and evaluates empirical pillar design methods that may be of use during the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The methods are discussed according to category (i.e, main, submain, and panel pillars; barrier pillars; and shaft pillars). Of the 21 identified for main, submain, and panel pillars, one method, the Confined Core Method, is evaluated as being most appropriate for conceptual design. Five methods are considered potentially applicable. Of six methods identified for barrier pillars, one method based on the Load Transfer Distance concept is considered most appropriate for design. Based on the evaluation of 25 methods identified for shaft pillars, an approximate sizing criterion is proposed for use in conceptual design. Aspects of pillar performance relating to creep, ground deformation, interaction with roof and floor rock, and response to high temperature environments are not adequately addressed by existing empirical design methods. 152 refs., 22 figs., 14 tabs
Analysis of God\\\\\\'s Attributes of Act through the Notion of Vujūd-e Rābiṭ (Connecting Existence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Azizi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Depicting God's attributes of the act in a way that ascribing those attributes to Him does not contradict the belief in His absolute indivisibility is one of the most important theological issues in monotheistic religions; an issue whose solution is not possible without considering logical and philosophical bases. This article has aimed to describe the quality of existence of such attributes applying the specific definition offered for the concepts of existence and Vujūd-e Rābiṭ (connecting existence in Transcendent Wisdom. Ṣadrā changed the triple division used to be considered for all beings by dissolving the Vojūd- e RābiṭĪ (connector existence into Vujūd-e Rābiṭ (connecting existence. His main point in this issue is to explain the way that changing beings are connected to God with indivisible existence.In peripatetic school, all the beings, as the embodiment of God's attributes of act, are regarded as connector existence. Considering them as connectors assumes a sort of identity and independence for them before the existence of God. By considering the propositions as simple and indivisible, and dissolving the connector existence to connecting existence, Mullā Ṣadrā established a stable logical and philosophical structure for a great upheaval in having a different perception of all beings. Based on this view there is no independent identity for beings before God and their existence is regarded as unreal. Accordingly the existence of all beings is similar to the existence of a connecting element in a proposition which is dissolved in the existence of the subject. Such new definition would remove the contradiction available between the existence of God's attributes and the indivisibility of His essence. The most important findings of this study are: 1- Mullā Ṣadrā, by developing the MĪr Dāmād's theory in distinguishing between the connector existence and connecting existence concluded that after rejecting the
A structural behavior study of rock caverns considering the effects of discontinuities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jhin Wung; Kim, Sun Hoon; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, Kyu Seop; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, In Gil; Lee, Dong Yong
1990-06-01
The objective of this study is to understand the effects of discontinuities within rock masses on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal, and then develop a computer program for the structural analysis of rock caverns considering these effect of discontinuities. The behavior of rock masses, such as strength, deformation modes, ect., is very difficult to predict because discontinuities in the form of microcracks or joints are randomly distributed within rock masses. Discontinuties existing around the rock cavern for underground radioactive waste disposal may become the main transport pathways of radionuclides, and reduce the strength of rock masses eventually causing the rock cavern structure unstable. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties and behavior of discontinuous rock masses and an improvement of structural analysis methods are essential in order to understand the behavior of underground rock cavern structures properly in order to design safe and economic understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. Therfore, this study includes literature review on mechanical properties of and computational models for discontinuous rock masses, and on structures. Then, bases on the engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made before developing the structural analysis computer program for underground radioactive waste disposal structures. (author)
Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, Andrey
2008-01-01
Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)
A Survey on Robotic Coconut Tree Climbers - Existing Methods and Techniques
Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sakthiprasad, K. M.; Sreekanth, M. M.; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela
2017-08-01
As the coconut palm growers are struggling with the acute shortage of human coconut tree climbers to climb and harvest the coconuts, many are working towards possible alternatives to help them handle this situation. In this study paper we analyse the problems associated with the shortage of human coconut tree climbers in -depth. We also present details of various existing mechanical models available in the market and have not yet solved this issue. Along with this we discuss how robotics and automation could be a possible solution for this entire problem. In this context we discuss about the features of such robotic system and also give suggestions on various unmanned robotic models that can be designed and implemented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.
Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spletzer, B.L.
1986-01-01
A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost
A demonstrated method for upgrading existing control room interiors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brice, R.M.; Terrill, D.; Brice, R.M.
1991-01-01
The main control room (MCR) of any nuclear power plant can justifiably be called the most important area staffed by personnel in the entire facility. The interior workstation configuration, equipment arrangement, and staff placement all affect the efficiency and habitability of the room. There are many guidelines available that describe various human factor principles to use when upgrading the environment of the MCR. These involve anthropometric standards and rules for placement of peripheral equipment. Due to the variations in plant design, however, hard-and-fast rules have not and cannot be standardized for retrofits in any significant way. How then does one develop criteria for the improvement of a MCR? The purpose of this paper is to discuss, from the designer's point of view, a method for the collection of information, development of criteria, and creation of a final design for a MCR upgrade. This method is best understood by describing the successful implementation at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah nuclear plant
Generation of equipment response spectrum considering equipment-structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon
2005-01-01
Floor response spectra for dynamic response of subsystem such as equipment, or piping in nuclear power plant are usually generated without considering dynamic interaction between main structure and subsystem. Since the dynamic structural response generally has the narrow-banded shapes, the resulting floor response spectra developed for various locations in the structure usually have high spectral peak amplitudes in the narrow frequency bands corresponding to the natural frequencies of the structural system. The application of such spectra for design of subsystems often leads to excessive design conservatisms, especially when the equipment frequency and structure are at resonance condition. Thus, in order to provide a rational and realistic design input for dynamic analysis and design of equipment, dynamic equipment-structure interaction (ESI) should be considered in developing equipment response spectrum which is particularly important for equipment at the resonance condition. Many analytical methods have been proposed in the past for developing equipment response spectra considering ESI. However, most of these methods have not been adapted to the practical applications because of either the complexities or the lack of rigorousness of the methods. At one hand, mass ratio among the equipment and structure was used as an important parameter to obtain equipment response spectra. Similarly, Tseng has also proposed the analytical method for developing equipment response spectra using mass ratio in the frequency domain. This method is analytically rigorous and can be easily validated. It is based on the dynamic substructuring method as applied to the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, and can relatively easily be implemented for practical applications without to change the current dynamic analysis and design practice for subsystems. The equipment response spectra derived in this study are also based on Tseng's proposed method
Symplectic and trigonometrically fitted symplectic methods of second and third order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monovasilis, Th.; Simos, T.E.
2006-01-01
The numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems by symplectic and trigonometrically symplectic method is considered in this Letter. We construct new symplectic and trigonometrically symplectic methods of second and third order. We apply our new methods as well as other existing methods to the numerical integration of the harmonic oscillator, the 2D harmonic oscillator with an integer frequency ratio and an orbit problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Wada, Shigeru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Murayama, Yoji
2000-09-01
At the research reactor such as JRR-3M, the operation management is carried out in order to ensure safe operation, for example, the excess reactivity is measured regularly and confirmed that it satisfies a safety condition. The excess reactivity is calculated using control rod position in criticality and control rod worth measured by a positive period method (P.P method), the conventional inverse kinetic method (IK method) and so on. The neutron source, however, influences measurement results and brings in a measurement error. A new IK method considering the influence of the steady neutron sources is proposed and applied to the JRR-3M. This report shows that the proposed IK method measures control rod worth more precisely than a conventional IK method. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glen P. Martin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction models (CPMs are increasingly deployed to support healthcare decisions but they are derived inconsistently, in part due to limited data. An emerging alternative is to aggregate existing CPMs developed for similar settings and outcomes. This simulation study aimed to investigate the impact of between-population-heterogeneity and sample size on aggregating existing CPMs in a defined population, compared with developing a model de novo. Methods Simulations were designed to mimic a scenario in which multiple CPMs for a binary outcome had been derived in distinct, heterogeneous populations, with potentially different predictors available in each. We then generated a new ‘local’ population and compared the performance of CPMs developed for this population by aggregation, using stacked regression, principal component analysis or partial least squares, with redevelopment from scratch using backwards selection and penalised regression. Results While redevelopment approaches resulted in models that were miscalibrated for local datasets of less than 500 observations, model aggregation methods were well calibrated across all simulation scenarios. When the size of local data was less than 1000 observations and between-population-heterogeneity was small, aggregating existing CPMs gave better discrimination and had the lowest mean square error in the predicted risks compared with deriving a new model. Conversely, given greater than 1000 observations and significant between-population-heterogeneity, then redevelopment outperformed the aggregation approaches. In all other scenarios, both aggregation and de novo derivation resulted in similar predictive performance. Conclusion This study demonstrates a pragmatic approach to contextualising CPMs to defined populations. When aiming to develop models in defined populations, modellers should consider existing CPMs, with aggregation approaches being a suitable modelling
Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?
Ghosh, Rajashi
2016-01-01
Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…
Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belo, Catarina
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037 and Averroes (d. 1198, whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna’s metaphysical works in the 12^{th} century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes’ criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.
El presente artículo explora las percepciones sobre la existencia de los filósofos medievales musulmanes Avicena (m. 1037 y Averroes (m. 1198, cuyas obras se encuentran muy próximas a la filosofía de Aristóteles. Además de la influencia aristotélica, que caló en toda la filosofía islámica medieval, Avicena y Averroes estuvieron inspirados por la teología islámica, conocida en árabe como Kalām. La distinción entre esencia y existencia es uno de los más fundamentales y controvertidos aspectos de la filosofía de Avicena junto a su aseveración de que la existencia es un accidente. Averroes, en cambio, concibe de forma radicalmente diferente la existencia, identificándola con los seres existentes más que considerarla como algo en
Global existence of weak solutions to dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity
Bae, Hantaek; Granero-Belinchón, Rafael; Lazar, Omar
2018-04-01
We consider 1D dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity field: where is a nonlocal operator given by a Fourier multiplier. We especially consider two types of nonlocal operators: (1) , the Hilbert transform, (2) . In this paper, we show several global existence of weak solutions depending on the range of γ, δ and α. When , we take initial data having finite energy, while we take initial data in weighted function spaces (in the real variables or in the Fourier variables), which have infinite energy, when .
Xia, Quan; Wang, Zili; Ren, Yi; Sun, Bo; Yang, Dezhen; Feng, Qiang
2018-05-01
With the rapid development of lithium-ion battery technology in the electric vehicle (EV) industry, the lifetime of the battery cell increases substantially; however, the reliability of the battery pack is still inadequate. Because of the complexity of the battery pack, a reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium is proposed in this paper based on cell redundancy. Based on this method, a three-dimensional electric-thermal-flow-coupled model, a stochastic degradation model of cells under field dynamic conditions and a multi-state system reliability model of a battery pack are established. The relationships between the multi-physics coupling model, the degradation model and the system reliability model are first constructed to analyze the reliability of the battery pack and followed by analysis examples with different redundancy strategies. By comparing the reliability of battery packs of different redundant cell numbers and configurations, several conclusions for the redundancy strategy are obtained. More notably, the reliability does not monotonically increase with the number of redundant cells for the thermal disequilibrium effects. In this work, the reliability of a 6 × 5 parallel-series configuration is the optimal system structure. In addition, the effect of the cell arrangement and cooling conditions are investigated.
Gene set analysis: limitations in popular existing methods and proposed improvements.
Mishra, Pashupati; Törönen, Petri; Leino, Yrjö; Holm, Liisa
2014-10-01
Gene set analysis is the analysis of a set of genes that collectively contribute to a biological process. Most popular gene set analysis methods are based on empirical P-value that requires large number of permutations. Despite numerous gene set analysis methods developed in the past decade, the most popular methods still suffer from serious limitations. We present a gene set analysis method (mGSZ) based on Gene Set Z-scoring function (GSZ) and asymptotic P-values. Asymptotic P-value calculation requires fewer permutations, and thus speeds up the gene set analysis process. We compare the GSZ-scoring function with seven popular gene set scoring functions and show that GSZ stands out as the best scoring function. In addition, we show improved performance of the GSA method when the max-mean statistics is replaced by the GSZ scoring function. We demonstrate the importance of both gene and sample permutations by showing the consequences in the absence of one or the other. A comparison of asymptotic and empirical methods of P-value estimation demonstrates a clear advantage of asymptotic P-value over empirical P-value. We show that mGSZ outperforms the state-of-the-art methods based on two different evaluations. We compared mGSZ results with permutation and rotation tests and show that rotation does not improve our asymptotic P-values. We also propose well-known asymptotic distribution models for three of the compared methods. mGSZ is available as R package from cran.r-project.org. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
On the problem of existence of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Hayashi, M.; Nelipa, N.F.; Pukhov, E.A.
1978-01-01
Existence of quantum field theory is considered for the four-dimensional phi 3 -model. The mathematical tool of contraction mapping principle is used to investigate the question of existence of solution for the infinite system of coupled equations for the Green functions of the theory in the Euclidean region. Formulation of the problem for this model with one divergent part is interesting in itself and provides the first attempt towards the study of other renormalizable quantum field theory models with infinite number of divergent graphs. For sufficiently small values of coupling constant, the theory has a unique solution for the truncated system of equations for the Green functions. However, for the complete, infinite set of equations, the Banach fixed point theorem admits a solution only when the coupling constant tends to zero. Possible reasons for such a result are discussed. (author)
Blow-up, Global Existence and Persistence Properties for the Coupled Camassa–Holm equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Mingxuan
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider the coupled Camassa–Holm equations. First, we present some new criteria on blow-up. Then global existence and blow-up rate of the solution are also established. Finally, we discuss persistence properties of this system.
Co-existing hidden attractors in a radio-physical oscillator system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, A. P.; Kuznetsov, S. P.; Mosekilde, Erik
2015-01-01
The term `hidden attractor' relates to a stable periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic state whose basin of attraction does not overlap with the neighborhood of an unstable equilibrium point. Considering a three-dimensional oscillator system that does not allow for the existence of an equilibrium point...... frequency, describe the bifurcations through which hidden attractors of different type arise and disappear, and illustrate the form of the basins of attraction....
Existence theory for a Poisson-Nernst-Planck model of electrophoresis
Bedin, Luciano; Thompson, Mark
2011-01-01
A system modeling the electrophoretic motion of a charged rigid macromolecule immersed in a incompressible ionized fluid is considered. The ionic concentration is governing by the Nernst-Planck equation coupled with the Poisson equation for the electrostatic potential, Navier-Stokes and Newtonian equations for the fluid and the macromolecule dynamics, respectively. A local in time existence result for suitable weak solutions is established, following the approach of Desjardins and Esteban [Co...
Sasao, Toshiaki
2014-11-01
Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks
Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Fu, Pengcheng; Carrigan, Charles R.; Lu, Zhiming; Tong, Charles H.; Buscheck, Thomas A.
2013-08-01
Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective functions and constraints from forward hydraulic fracturing models, which are computationally expensive and even prohibitive in some situations. Moreover, there are a variety of uncertainties associated with the pre-existing fracture distributions and rock mechanical properties, which affect the optimized decisions for hydraulic fracturing. In this study, a surrogate-based approach is developed for efficient optimization of hydraulic fracturing well design in the presence of natural-system uncertainties. The fractal dimension is derived from the simulated fracturing network as the objective for maximizing energy recovery sweep efficiency. The surrogate model, which is constructed using training data from high-fidelity fracturing models for mapping the relationship between uncertain input parameters and the fractal dimension, provides fast approximation of the objective functions and constraints. A suite of surrogate models constructed using different fitting methods is evaluated and validated for fast predictions. Global sensitivity analysis is conducted to gain insights into the impact of the input variables on the output of interest, and further used for parameter screening. The high efficiency of the surrogate-based approach is demonstrated for three optimization scenarios with different and uncertain ambient conditions. Our results suggest the critical importance of considering uncertain pre-existing fracture networks in optimization studies of hydraulic fracturing.
Sustainability Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Roof Waterproofing Methods Considering LCCO2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sangyong Kim
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In a construction project, selection of an appropriate method in the planning/design stage is very important for ensuring effective project implementation and success. Many companies have adopted the life cycle cost (LCC method, one of the methods for analyzing economic efficiency, for appropriate decision-making in the basic/detailed design stage by estimating overall costs and expenses generated over the entire project. This paper presents an LCC method for calculating the LCC of CO2 (LCCO2, based on materials committed during the lifecycle of a structure for each roof waterproofing method and adding this cost to the LCC for comparative analysis. Thus, this technique presents the LCC that includes the cost of CO2 emission. The results show that in terms of initial construction cost, asphalt waterproofing had the highest CO2 emission cost, followed by sheet waterproofing. LCCO2 did not greatly influence the initial construction cost and maintenance cost, as it is relatively smaller than the LCC. However, when the number of durable years was changed, the LCC showed some changes.
Existence domains of dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.
2013-01-01
Using the Sagdeev potential method, the existence of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons is investigated in a plasma comprising cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, Boltzmann electrons, and non-thermal ions. This model supports the existence of positive potential supersolitons in a certain region in parameter space in addition to regular solitons having negative and positive potentials. The lower Mach number limit for supersolitons coincides with the occurrence of double layers whereas the upper limit is imposed by the constraint that the adiabatic positive dust number density must remain real valued. The upper Mach number limits for negative potential (positive potential) solitons coincide with limiting values of the negative (positive) potential for which the negative (positive) dust number density is real valued. Alternatively, the existence of positive potential solitons can terminate when positive potential double layers occur
Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.
Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping
2016-04-01
In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spline Collocation Method for Nonlinear Multi-Term Fractional Differential Equation
Choe, Hui-Chol; Kang, Yong-Suk
2013-01-01
We study an approximation method to solve nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations with initial conditions or boundary conditions. First, we transform the nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations with initial conditions and boundary conditions to nonlinear fractional integral equations and consider the relations between them. We present a Spline Collocation Method and prove the existence, uniqueness and convergence of approximate solution as well as error estimatio...
Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jinling; Yuan, Shifei; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan
2017-03-01
This paper proposes a novel parameter identification method for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) considering the electrochemical properties. An improved pseudo two-dimension (P2D) model is established on basis of partial differential equations (PDEs), since the electrolyte potential is simplified from the nonlinear to linear expression while terminal voltage can be divided into the electrolyte potential, open circuit voltage (OCV), overpotential of electrodes, internal resistance drop, and so on. The model order reduction process is implemented by the simplification of the PDEs using the Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform, Pade approximation, etc. A unified second order transfer function between cell voltage and current is obtained for the comparability with that of ECM. The final objective is to obtain the relationship between the ECM resistances/capacitances and electrochemical parameters such that in various conditions, ECM precision could be improved regarding integration of battery interior properties for further applications, e.g., SOC estimation. Finally simulation and experimental results prove the correctness and validity of the proposed methodology.
THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double
Multi-frequency direct sampling method in inverse scattering problem
Kang, Sangwoo; Lambert, Marc; Park, Won-Kwang
2017-10-01
We consider the direct sampling method (DSM) for the two-dimensional inverse scattering problem. Although DSM is fast, stable, and effective, some phenomena remain unexplained by the existing results. We show that the imaging function of the direct sampling method can be expressed by a Bessel function of order zero. We also clarify the previously unexplained imaging phenomena and suggest multi-frequency DSM to overcome traditional DSM. Our method is evaluated in simulation studies using both single and multiple frequencies.
Based on Penalty Function Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishaq Baba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The dual response surface for simultaneously optimizing the mean and variance models as separate functions suffers some deficiencies in handling the tradeoffs between bias and variance components of mean squared error (MSE. In this paper, the accuracy of the predicted response is given a serious attention in the determination of the optimum setting conditions. We consider four different objective functions for the dual response surface optimization approach. The essence of the proposed method is to reduce the influence of variance of the predicted response by minimizing the variability relative to the quality characteristics of interest and at the same time achieving the specific target output. The basic idea is to convert the constraint optimization function into an unconstraint problem by adding the constraint to the original objective function. Numerical examples and simulations study are carried out to compare performance of the proposed method with some existing procedures. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and has exhibited clear improvement over the existing approaches.
Applying new safeguards technology to existing nuclear facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, W.J.; Wagner, E.P.
1979-01-01
The application and operation of safeguards instrumentation in a facility containing special nuclear material is most successful when the installation is desinged for the operation of the specific facility. Experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory demonstrates that installation designs must consider both safeguards and production requirements of specific facilities. Equipment selection and installation design influenced by the training and experience of production operations and safeguards personnel at a specific facility help assure successful installation, reliable operation, and minimal operator training. This minimizes impacts on existing plant production activities while maximizing utility of the safeguards information obtained
Applying new safeguards technology to existing nuclear facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.E.; Wagner, E.P.
1979-01-01
The application and operation of safeguards instrumentation in a facility containing special nuclear material is most successful when the installation is designed for the operation of the specific facility. Experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory demonstrates that installation designs must consider both Safeguards and Production requirements of specific facilities. Equipment selection and installation design influenced by the training and experience of production operations and safeguards personnel at a specific facility help assure successful installation, reliable operation, and minimal operator training. This minimizes impacts on existing plant production activities while maximizing utility of the safeguards information obtained
Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaume Gine
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaofeng Zhang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to a singular semipositone boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations. By applying the fixed point index theorem, some new results for the existence of positive solutions are obtained. In addition, an example is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doke, Ryosuke; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako
2011-12-01
In the field of R and D programs of a geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, it is great importance to develop a set of investigation and analysis techniques for the assessment of long-term geosphere stability over a geological time, which means that any changes of geological environment will not significantly impact on the long-term safety of a geological disposal system. In Japanese archipelago, crustal movements are so active that uplift and subsidence are remarkable in recent several hundreds of thousands of years. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the long-term geosphere stability taking into account a topographic change caused by crustal movements. One of the factors for the topographic change is the movement of an active fault, which is a geological process to release a strain accumulated by plate motion. A beginning age of the faulting in the present faulting pattern suggests the beginning age of neotectonic activities around the active fault, and also provides basic information to identifying the stage of a geomorphic development of mountains. Therefore, the age of faulting in the present faulting pattern is important information to estimate a topographic change in the future on the mountain regions of Japan. In this study, existing information related to methods for the estimation of the beginning age of the faulting in the present faulting pattern on the active fault were collected and reviewed. A principle of method, noticing points and technical know-hows in the application of the methods, data uncertainty, and so on were extracted from the existing information. Based on these extracted information, task-flows indicating working process on the estimation of the beginning age for the faulting of the active fault were illustrated on each method. Additionally, the distribution map of the beginning age with accuracy of faulting in the present faulting pattern on the active fault was illustrated. (author)
Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.
2014-01-01
grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper......, distribution function errors are used to simulate variations between time horizons, and to measure the performance of the proposed methodology. A 33-bus distribution network with large number of distributed resources is used....
Sibbett, Ruth A; Russ, Tom C; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M
2017-07-03
Studies investigating the risk factors for or causation of dementia must consider subjects prior to disease onset. To overcome the limitations of prospective studies and self-reported recall of information, the use of existing data is key. This review provides a narrative account of dementia ascertainment methods using sources of existing data. The literature search was performed using: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo and Web of Science. Included articles reported a UK-based study of dementia in which cases were ascertained using existing data. Existing data included that which was routinely collected and that which was collected for previous research. After removing duplicates, abstracts were screened and the remaining articles were included for full-text review. A quality tool was used to evaluate the description of the ascertainment methodology. Of the 3545 abstracts screened, 360 articles were selected for full-text review. 47 articles were included for final consideration. Data sources for ascertainment included: death records, national datasets, research databases and hospital records among others. 36 articles used existing data alone for ascertainment, of which 27 used only a single data source. The most frequently used source was a research database. Quality scores ranged from 7/16 to 16/16. Quality scores were better for articles with dementia ascertainment as an outcome. Some papers performed validation studies of dementia ascertainment and most indicated that observed rates of dementia were lower than expected. We identified a lack of consistency in dementia ascertainment methodology using existing data. With no data source identified as a "gold-standard", we suggest the use of multiple sources. Where possible, studies should access records with evidence to confirm the diagnosis. Studies should also calculate the dementia ascertainment rate for the population being studied to enable a comparison with an expected rate.
The Optimal Progressive Income Tax -- The Existence and the Limit Tax Rates
Mamoru Kaneko
1981-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of optimal income taxation in the domain of progressive (convex) income tax function. This paper proves the existence of an optimal tax function and that the optimal marginal and average tax rates tend asymptotically to 100 percent as income level becomes arbitrarily high.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aura González Serna
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.
ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF EXISTING SOLUTION METHODS OF QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
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Morteza KARAMI
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP is known as one of the most difficult combinatorial optimization problems that is classified in the category of NP-hard problems. Quadratic Assignment Problem Library (QAPLIB is a full database of QAPs which contains several problems from different authors and different sizes. Many exact and meta-heuristic solution methods have been introduced to solve QAP. In this study we focus on previously introduced solution methods of QAP e.g. Branch and Bound (B&B, Simulated Annealing (SA Algorithm, Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP for dense and sparse QAPs. The codes of FORTRAN for these methods were downloaded from QAPLIB. All problems of QAPLIB were solved by the abovementioned methods. Several results were obtained from the computational experiments part. The Results show that the Branch and Bound method is able to introduce a feasible solution for all problems while Simulated Annealing Algorithm and GRASP methods are not able to find any solution for some problems. On the other hand, Simulated Annealing and GRASP methods have shorter run time comparing to the Branch and Bound method. In addition, the performance of the methods on the objective function value is discussed.
Improved Battery Parameter Estimation Method Considering Operating Scenarios for HEV/EV Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jufeng Yang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an improved battery parameter estimation method based on typical operating scenarios in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Compared with the conventional estimation methods, the proposed method takes both the constant-current charging and the dynamic driving scenarios into account, and two separate sets of model parameters are estimated through different parts of the pulse-rest test. The model parameters for the constant-charging scenario are estimated from the data in the pulse-charging periods, while the model parameters for the dynamic driving scenario are estimated from the data in the rest periods, and the length of the fitted dataset is determined by the spectrum analysis of the load current. In addition, the unsaturated phenomenon caused by the long-term resistor-capacitor (RC network is analyzed, and the initial voltage expressions of the RC networks in the fitting functions are improved to ensure a higher model fidelity. Simulation and experiment results validated the feasibility of the developed estimation method.
Non linear Euler-Poisson system. Part 1: global existence of low entropy solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordier, S.
1995-05-01
In this work a 1-D model of electrons and ions plasma is considered. Electrons are supposed to be in Maxwell-Boltzmann thermodynamic equilibrium while ions are described with an isothermal flow model of charged particles submitted to a self-consistent electric field. A collision term between neutral particles and ions simulates the presence of neutral particles. This work demonstrates the existence of low entropy solutions for this simple model with arbitrary initial conditions. Most of the paper is devoted to the demonstration of this theorem and follows the successive steps: construction of a numerical scheme, recall of the classical properties of Riemann problem solutions using Glimm method, uniform estimations for the whole variation norm, and finally, convergence of the constructed solutions towards a low entropy solution for the non-linear Euler/Poisson system. Domains of application for this type of model are listed in the conclusion. (J.S.). 18 refs
Modeling and validation of existing VAV system components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
2004-07-01
The optimization of supervisory control strategies and local-loop controllers can improve the performance of HVAC (heating, ventilating, air-conditioning) systems. In this study, the component model of the fan, the damper and the cooling coil were developed and validated against monitored data of an existing variable air volume (VAV) system installed at Montreal's Ecole de Technologie Superieure. The measured variables that influence energy use in individual HVAC models included: (1) outdoor and return air temperature and relative humidity, (2) supply air and water temperatures, (3) zone airflow rates, (4) supply duct, outlet fan, mixing plenum static pressures, (5) fan speed, and (6) minimum and principal damper and cooling and heating coil valve positions. The additional variables that were considered, but not measured were: (1) fan and outdoor airflow rate, (2) inlet and outlet cooling coil relative humidity, and (3) liquid flow rate through the heating or cooling coils. The paper demonstrates the challenges of the validation process when monitored data of existing VAV systems are used. 7 refs., 11 figs.
Sustainability in the existing building stock
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte
2005-01-01
, QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities...... management is a concept relevant to others than large companies. Managing the flows of energy and other resources is a part of facilities management, and an increased professionalism could lead to the reduction of the use of energy and water and the generation of waste and wastewater. This is, however...
Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement
Darabi, Nura
The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.
Market-based control strategy for long-span structures considering the multi-time delay issue
Li, Hongnan; Song, Jianzhu; Li, Gang
2017-01-01
To solve the different time delays that exist in the control device installed on spatial structures, in this study, discrete analysis using a 2 N precise algorithm was selected to solve the multi-time-delay issue for long-span structures based on the market-based control (MBC) method. The concept of interval mixed energy was introduced from computational structural mechanics and optimal control research areas, and it translates the design of the MBC multi-time-delay controller into a solution for the segment matrix. This approach transforms the serial algorithm in time to parallel computing in space, greatly improving the solving efficiency and numerical stability. The designed controller is able to consider the issue of time delay with a linear controlling force combination and is especially effective for large time-delay conditions. A numerical example of a long-span structure was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller, and the time delay was found to have a significant impact on the results.
Predicting chaos in memristive oscillator via harmonic balance method.
Wang, Xin; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Duan, Shukai
2012-12-01
This paper studies the possible chaotic behaviors in a memristive oscillator with cubic nonlinearities via harmonic balance method which is also called the method of describing function. This method was proposed to detect chaos in classical Chua's circuit. We first transform the considered memristive oscillator system into Lur'e model and present the prediction of the existence of chaotic behaviors. To ensure the prediction result is correct, the distortion index is also measured. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of theoretical results.
Existence of charges and mass-spliting in relativistic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal-Ezer, E.; Horwitz, L.P.
1976-01-01
The existence of charge operators associated with integrals of local densities in the (Wightman) framework of quantum field theory, in the presence of explicit symmetry breaking, can be demonstrated in certain cases. Their construction, in terms of null-plane integrals, is rather delicate. The possibility that a finite number of null-plane charges, which includes the Poincare generators, close on an algebra whose irreducible representations contain particles with different masses is considered; domain problems are shown to invalidate the basic hypotheses of the O'Raifeartaigh theorem. Null-plane Fourier transforms, which enter into the discussion of current algebra at infinite momentum, are also studied. It is shown that slns behavior is the maximal growth of high energy off mass shell amplitudes consistent with the existence of null-plane charges and null-plane Fourier transforms. Under the assumption that asymptotic states exist, these results also hold in the case of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, with massless pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons
Re-considering the Economics of Photovoltaic Power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazilian, M. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Onyeji, I. [United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Liebreich, M.; Chase, J. [Bloomberg New Energy Finance BNEF, London (United Kingdom); MacGill, I. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Shah, J. [KMR Infrastructure, Washington DC (United States); Gielen, D. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Bonn (Germany); Arent, D. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Colorado (United States); Landfear, D. [AGL Energy Limited, Sydney (Australia); Zhengrong, S. [Suntech Power Holdings, Wuxi (China)
2012-05-15
We briefly consider the recent dramatic reductions in the underlying costs and market prices of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, and their implications for decision-makers. In many cases, current PV costs and the associated market and technological shifts witnessed in the industry have not been fully noted by decision-makers. The perception persists that PV is prohibitively expensive, and still has not reached competitiveness? We find that the commonly used analytical comparators for PV vis a vis other power generation options may add further confusion. In order to help dispel existing misconceptions, we provide some level of transparency on the assumptions, inputs and parameters in calculations relating to the economics of PV. The paper is aimed at informing policy makers, utility decision-makers, investors and advisory services, in particular in high-growth developing countries, as they weigh the suite of power generation options available to them.
Doležel, Jiří; Novák, Drahomír; Petrů, Jan
2017-09-01
Transportation routes of oversize and excessive loads are currently planned in relation to ensure the transit of a vehicle through critical points on the road. Critical points are level-intersection of roads, bridges etc. This article presents a comprehensive procedure to determine a reliability and a load-bearing capacity level of the existing bridges on highways and roads using the advanced methods of reliability analysis based on simulation techniques of Monte Carlo type in combination with nonlinear finite element method analysis. The safety index is considered as a main criterion of the reliability level of the existing construction structures and the index is described in current structural design standards, e.g. ISO and Eurocode. An example of a single-span slab bridge made of precast prestressed concrete girders of the 60 year current time and its load bearing capacity is set for the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. The structure’s design load capacity was estimated by the full probability nonlinear MKP analysis using a simulation technique Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Load-bearing capacity values based on a fully probabilistic analysis are compared with the load-bearing capacity levels which were estimated by deterministic methods of a critical section of the most loaded girders.
Nunes, Sheila Elke Araujo; Minamisava, Ruth; Vieira, Maria Aparecida da Silva; Itria, Alexander; Pessoa, Vicente Porfirio; Andrade, Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de; Toscano, Cristiana Maria
2017-01-01
To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates. Costs estimates obtained via different methods were compared using the Friedman test. Cost estimates of inpatient cases of severe pneumonia amounted to R$ 780,70/$Int. 858.7 (medical record review), R$ 641,90/$Int. 706.90 (therapeutic guidelines) and R$ 594,80/$Int. 654.28 (Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates). Costs estimated via micro-costing (medical record review or therapeutic guidelines) did not differ significantly (p=0.405), while estimates based on reimbursement rates were significantly lower compared to estimates based on therapeutic guidelines (pmetodologias de custeio, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo de custo, com coleta de dados primários de uma amostra de 59 crianças com 28 dias a 35 meses de idade hospitalizadas por pneumonia bacteriana. Foram considerados custos diretos médicos e não médicos. Três metodologias de custeio foram utilizadas: microcusteio por revisão de prontuários, microcusteio considerando diretriz terapêutica e macrocusteio por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os custos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias foram comparados utilizando o teste de Friedman. Os custos hospitalares de crianças com pneumonia grave foram R$ 780,70 ($Int. 858.7) por revisão de prontuários, R$ 641,90 ($Int. 706.90) por diretriz terapêutica e R$ 594,80 ($Int. 654.28) por
Pro et con analysis of existing ranking and occupational risk assessment concepts for Nanomaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Steffen Foss; Alstrup-Jensen, Keld; Baun, Anders
2013-01-01
There is an urgent need for adaptive, transparent, easy comprehensible and communicational and yet robust scientific methods, approaches and frameworks to evaluate the potential of exposure, hazard and risk related to the production and application of nanomaterials. A number of alternatives...... and discuss various elements of the tools (input data requirements, risk evaluation and risk handling) as well as pros and cons. We find that most of the tools provide a transparent and comprehensible approach and a few include risk management and communication going well beyond what is normally considered...... in traditional risk assessment. Most of the concepts available today however, is that their input data requirements are fairly high and some of the scientific information needed in order to apply them is inconclusive at the moment or non-existing. Some of the concepts are furthermore based on purely theoretical...
INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Trubei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storck, R.
1992-01-01
Existing methods to prove safety can consider the insecurities of input data within the framework of probabilistic analyses. The results of application calculations show that inspite of considerable band widths of input data the scattering widths of radiation exposures are comparably limited, and calculated radiation exposures are clearly below acceptable limits. Moreover it can be demonstrated that in the event of an assumed brine influx into the repository radionuclides are released only if parameter combinations are unfavourable. Therefore such incident in general does not have any radiological consequences. Insecurities in model approaches can be taken into consideration only partly so far by using alternative models, or indirectly through data insecurities. (orig./DG) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Su
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal
Remark on state vector construction when flavor mixing exists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, K.; Shimomura, T.
2006-01-01
In the framework of quantum field theory, we consider the way to construct the one-particle state (with definite 3-momentum) when particle mixing exists, such as in the case of flavor-neutrino mixing. In the preceding report (Prog. Theor. Phys. 112, 901 (2004)), we have examined the structure of expectation values of the flavor neutrino charges (at time t) with respect to a neutrino-source state prepared at time t' (earlier than t). When there is no mixing, each of various contributions to the expectation value is equal, in its dominant part, to the transition probability corresponding to the respective neutrino-production process. On the basis of the assumption that such an equality holds also in the mixing case, we can find an appropriate form of one-flavor-neutrino state with 3-momentum and helicity. Along the same way, we examine the boson case when flavor mixing exists. We give remarks on the relation and difference between the ordinary and the present approaches to flavor oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mel'nichuk, D.V.; Bondarenko, O.O.; Medvedjev, S.Yu.
2002-01-01
An approach to organisation of routine individual internal dose monitoring of the personnel of the Object 'Shelter' is presented in the work, that considers individualised uncertainties. In this aspect two methods of effective dose assessment based on bioassay are considered in the work: (1) traditional indirect method at which application results of workplace monitoring are not taken into account, and (2) a combined method in which both results of bioassay measurements and workplace monitoring are considered
Sources of the Radio Background Considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.
2011-08-22
We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Zaitang; Yang Qigui
2009-01-01
The paper considers the problems of existence of quadratic mean almost periodic and global exponential stability for stochastic cellular neural networks with delays. By employing the Holder's inequality and fixed points principle, we present some new criteria ensuring existence and uniqueness of a quadratic mean almost periodic and global exponential stability. These criteria are important in signal processing and the design of networks. Moreover, these criteria are also applied in others stochastic biological neural systems.
Determination of laser cutting process conditions using the preference selection index method
Madić, Miloš; Antucheviciene, Jurgita; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan
2017-03-01
Determination of adequate parameter settings for improvement of multiple quality and productivity characteristics at the same time is of great practical importance in laser cutting. This paper discusses the application of the preference selection index (PSI) method for discrete optimization of the CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The main motivation for application of the PSI method is that it represents an almost unexplored multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method, and moreover, this method does not require assessment of the considered criteria relative significances. After reviewing and comparing the existing approaches for determination of laser cutting parameter settings, the application of the PSI method was explained in detail. Experiment realization was conducted by using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Roughness of the cut surface, heat affected zone (HAZ), kerf width and material removal rate (MRR) were considered as optimization criteria. The proposed methodology is found to be very useful in real manufacturing environment since it involves simple calculations which are easy to understand and implement. However, while applying the PSI method it was observed that it can not be useful in situations where there exist a large number of alternatives which have attribute values (performances) very close to those which are preferred.
Existence theorem for a backwards two-body problem of electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, S.P.
1975-01-01
The equations of motion for two charged particles moving in one dimension form a system of functional and delay differential equations, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. For the case of retarded potentials only, Synge has suggested a method of successive approximations for proving that specifying initial positions and velocities will determine the entire past histories of the particles. Driver has shown that such Newtonian initial data generally do not uniquely define solutions to delay differential equations. But he does prove an existence and uniqueness result for particles with like charges when certain constraints are placed on the initial data. Here the recommended method of Synge is used to prove an existence result for initial data which includes some cases not meeting the requirements demanded by Driver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.
1994-09-01
Possible ways of constructing extended fermionic strings with N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are reviewed. String theory constraints form, in general, a non-linear quasi(super)conformal algebra, and can have conformal dimensions ≥1. When N=4, the most general N=4 quasi-superconformal algebra to consider for string theory building is D(1, 2; α), whose linearisation is the so-called ''large'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The D(1, 2; α) algebra has su(2)sub(κ + )+su(2)sub(κ - )+u(1) Kac-Moody component, and α=κ - /κ + . We check the Jacobi identities and construct a BRST charge for the D(1, 2; α) algebra. The quantum BRST operator can be made nilpotent only when κ + =κ - =-2. The D(1, 2; 1) algebra is actually isomorphic to the SO(4)-based Bershadsky-Knizhnik non-linear quasi-superconformal algebra. We argue about the existence of a string theory associated with the latter, and propose the (non-covariant) hamiltonian action for this new N=4 string theory. Our results imply the existence of two different N=4 fermionic string theories: the old one based on the ''small'' linear N=4 superconformal algebra and having the total ghost central charge c gh =+12, and the new one with non-linearly realised N=4 supersymmetry, based on the SO(4) quasi-superconformal algebra and having c gh =+6. Both critical string theories have negative ''critical dimensions'' and do not admit unitary matter representations. (orig.)
Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.
Preventive Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow Considering UPFC Control Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The successful application of the unified power flow controller (UPFC provides a new control method for the secure and economic operation of power system. In order to make the full use of UPFC and improve the economic efficiency and static security of a power system, a preventive security-constrained power flow optimization method considering UPFC control modes is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an iterative method considering UPFC control modes is deduced for power flow calculation. Taking into account the influence of different UPFC control modes on the distribution of power flow after N-1 contingency, the optimization model is then constructed by setting a minimal system operation cost and a maximum static security margin as the objective. Based on this model, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize power system operating parameters and UPFC control modes simultaneously. Finally, a standard IEEE 30-bus system is utilized to demonstrate that the proposed method fully exploits the potential of static control of UPFC and significantly increases the economic efficiency and static security of the power system.
77 FR 810 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards
2012-01-06
... comments during normal business hours at the address listed above. MSHA will consider only comments... achieving the result of such standard exists which will at all times guarantee no less than the same measure... extinguisher within 500 feet of the working face will provide equivalent fire protection. (2) Anthracite coal...
Operational implications of accepting and denying whether a true value of risk exists
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozin, Igor
It is suggested to look on probabilistic risk quantities and concepts through the prism of accepting one of the views: whether a true value of risk exists or not. It will be argued that discussions until now have been primarily focused on closely related topics that are different from the suggested...... one. In general, the values of risks are not known precisely and the analyst has the option to consider that convergence to a precise value of risk is possible in the limit. That is, the true value exists but due to limited time, resources or other limitations in assessing probabilities...
Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β{sub c} of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment.
Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil
2014-01-01
The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β c of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment
Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David
2015-08-01
We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.
Ranking Method for Peak-Load Shifting Considering Different Types of Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Peng; Wen, Fushuan; Pinson, Pierre
2016-01-01
, an evaluation system for the purpose of peak-load shifting is established from three aspects: economic, social, and environmental impacts. Then a mixed-data dominance method is employed in this work to determine the comprehensive closeness degree of each user under each index, and an optimal comprehensive...
Atmospheric stability has a major effect in determining the wind energy doing work in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL); however, it is seldom considered in determining this value in emergy analyses. One reason that atmospheric stability is not usually considered is that a sui...
Jaime A. López-López; Diego A. Tejada-Arango; Jesús M. López-Lezama
2016-01-01
This paper deals with the Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP) problem. The TNEP consists of finding a set of new circuits on a power system, which is needed to attend a future demand. In its classical version, the TNEP only considers as solution candidates the addition of new lines and transformers. The main contribution of this paper consists in the inclusion of nonconventional solution candidates, namely the repowering of existing circuits and the location of capacitor banks. To ...
Greening Existing Tribal Buildings
Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.
Requirements for existing buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne
This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....
Twelve recommendations for integrating existing systematic reviews into new reviews: EPC guidance.
Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie
2016-02-01
As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.
Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E
2014-01-01
Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic Analysis of Rotor Systems Considering Ball Bearing Contact Mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jongmahn; Oh, Dongho
2013-01-01
We propose a finite element modeling method considering the ball bearing contact mechanism, and the developed method was verified through experimental and analytical results of inner and outer race-type rotor systems. A comparison of the proposed method with conventional method reveals that there is little difference in the results of the inner race-type rotor system, but there are considerable differences in the results of the outer race-type rotor system such that predictions of greater accuracy can be made. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for accurately predicting the dynamic characteristics of an outer race-type rotary machine
Congestion management considering voltage security of power systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima
2009-01-01
Congestion in a power network is turned up due to system operating limits. To relieve congestion in a deregulated power market, the system operator pays to market participants, GENCOs and DISCOs, to alter their active powers considering their bids. After performing congestion management, the network may be operated with a low security level because of hitting some flows their upper limit and some voltages their lower limit. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on the voltage stability margin sensitivities is introduced. Using the proposed method, the system operator so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its security. The proposed method not only makes the system more secure after congestion management than other methods already presented for this purpose but also its cost of providing security is lower than the earlier methods. Test results of the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better voltage stability margin and voltage profile as well as a lower security cost. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Bohomaz
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The value of drive resistance to its movement is the main parameter at calculating the drive power of bridge crane. The value of the wheel rolling friction on the rails is one of the important parts of the resistance to movement. It is necessary to determine the dependence of static (dynamic quantities of resistance to the bridge crane movement on a straight section of the track from the position of the bogie in the span, and explore the influence of the wheel flanges resistance for wear. Methodology. Using the analytical dependences for determining the rolling friction coefficient, that depends on the size of the half-width of the contact between the wheel and rail, the improved method for calculating the required drive power of the crane was proposed. Findings. With the proposed method of power calculation the characteristic curve of the crane wheel loads, the coefficient of rolling friction of the wheels and the crane resistance to movement from the position of the bogie on span were built. In the result of graphs analysis it was found that the engine power, obtained by the proposed method is higher than the recommended by the existing standards. The more precise formula for determining the total coefficient of sliding friction that takes into account the friction of wheel flanges on the rail is given. The characteristic curves of such coefficient of friction and the total resistance to movement of the position of the crane bogie were built. Originality. The scientists proposed an improved method of determining the required engine power of bridge crane, which takes into account the effect of rolling friction of the wheels on the rails and the bogie in the span. The improved formula for determining the coefficient of friction that takes into account the friction wheel flanges of the rail was given. The characteristic curve of this coefficient of friction and the total resistance movement of crane from the position of the crane bogie
The positive effect of targeted marketing on an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice.
Chrisman, Howard B; Basu, Pat Auveek; Omary, Reed A
2006-03-01
Although uterine fibroid embolization is an effective treatment option for symptomatic women, it is unclear what methods can be used to expand referrals in an already established practice. The authors tested the hypothesis that an advertising strategy focused on a defined target market can expand an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice. A market-driven planning sequence was employed. This included a determination of goals, an examination of current competition, determination of target market based on local environment and previous consumer use, pretest of product sample, and implementation of advertisement. Based on the analysis the authors determined that the target audience was professional black women aged 35 to 45. A specific weekly magazine was selected due to readership demographics. An advertisement was run for 8 consecutive weeks. The authors prospectively tracked patient inquiries, clinic visits, cases performed, and revenues generated for 3 months following the initial advertisement. All patients were seen in a fully staffed, preexisting fibroid clinic located within an urban, university-based academic practice performing 250 uterine fibroid embolizations annually. Ninety calls were received directly related to the advertisement. There were 35 clinic visits, which resulted in 17 uterine fibroid embolizations and 52 total MR imaging procedures. Eighteen patients were not considered candidates based on established protocols. The 17 extra cases performed over 3 months represented a 27% increase in case volume. Total professional cash collections for these cases (including MR imaging) were 58,317 US dollars. The cost of advertising was 8,000 US dollars. As a result of existing infrastructure, no additional costs were necessary. This resulted in a net revenue gain 50,317 US dollars and a nonannualized rate of return of approximately 625%. As Interventional Radiologists look to develop and expand existing practices, traditional marketing tools such as
Existence for stationary mean-field games with congestion and quadratic Hamiltonians
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-09-03
Here, we investigate the existence of solutions to a stationary mean-field game model introduced by J.-M. Lasry and P.-L. Lions. This model features a quadratic Hamiltonian and congestion effects. The fundamental difficulty of potential singular behavior is caused by congestion. Thanks to a new class of a priori bounds, combined with the continuation method, we prove the existence of smooth solutions in arbitrary dimensions. © 2015 Springer Basel
Statistical methods applied to gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms in nuclear security missions.
Fagan, Deborah K; Robinson, Sean M; Runkle, Robert C
2012-10-01
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a critical research and development priority to a range of nuclear security missions, specifically the interdiction of special nuclear material involving the detection and identification of gamma-ray sources. We categorize existing methods by the statistical methods on which they rely and identify methods that have yet to be considered. Current methods estimate the effect of counting uncertainty but in many cases do not address larger sources of decision uncertainty, which may be significantly more complex. Thus, significantly improving algorithm performance may require greater coupling between the problem physics that drives data acquisition and statistical methods that analyze such data. Untapped statistical methods, such as Bayes Modeling Averaging and hierarchical and empirical Bayes methods, could reduce decision uncertainty by rigorously and comprehensively incorporating all sources of uncertainty. Application of such methods should further meet the needs of nuclear security missions by improving upon the existing numerical infrastructure for which these analyses have not been conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guanwei Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the existence of positive solutions and multiplicity of nontrivial solutions for a class of quasilinear elliptic equations by using variational methods. Our obtained results extend some existing ones.
Methods to determine deer diet composition: A comparison of their efficiency and feasibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivas, S.M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present literary review is focused on examining the different methods that exist to determine deer diets composition. We considered research back ground of different deer species in several regions of the world. The aim was to compare the efficiency and feasibility of the methods. Among the aspects that were considered were the type of samples and the scope of every method to discriminate the composition of the diet up to minors’taxons as genus and species or for type of forage (pastures, herbaceous or shrubs.These studies cover Europa’s regions, Africa, Australia, North and South America. It was found that six methodologies exist: 1 Observation in field, 2 Fecal analysis, 3 Esophageal and rumen fistula techniques, 4 Stomach analysis, 5 n-alkanes in plant’s cuticles (waxes and 6 Infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The most commonly used is the micro-histological analysis of dregs, which offers the advantage of easy access of samples, as well as unlimited quantity of the same ones, and the use of not specialized equipment.
System Reliability Analysis Considering Correlation of Performances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Saekyeol; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Woochul [Mando Corporation, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
Reliability analysis of a mechanical system has been developed in order to consider the uncertainties in the product design that may occur from the tolerance of design variables, uncertainties of noise, environmental factors, and material properties. In most of the previous studies, the reliability was calculated independently for each performance of the system. However, the conventional methods cannot consider the correlation between the performances of the system that may lead to a difference between the reliability of the entire system and the reliability of the individual performance. In this paper, the joint probability density function (PDF) of the performances is modeled using a copula which takes into account the correlation between performances of the system. The system reliability is proposed as the integral of joint PDF of performances and is compared with the individual reliability of each performance by mathematical examples and two-bar truss example.
System Reliability Analysis Considering Correlation of Performances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Saekyeol; Lee, Tae Hee; Lim, Woochul
2017-01-01
Reliability analysis of a mechanical system has been developed in order to consider the uncertainties in the product design that may occur from the tolerance of design variables, uncertainties of noise, environmental factors, and material properties. In most of the previous studies, the reliability was calculated independently for each performance of the system. However, the conventional methods cannot consider the correlation between the performances of the system that may lead to a difference between the reliability of the entire system and the reliability of the individual performance. In this paper, the joint probability density function (PDF) of the performances is modeled using a copula which takes into account the correlation between performances of the system. The system reliability is proposed as the integral of joint PDF of performances and is compared with the individual reliability of each performance by mathematical examples and two-bar truss example.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed generations (DGs with intermittent and stochastic characteristics into current power distribution networks can lead to increased fault levels and degradation in network protection. As one of the key requirements of active network management (ANM, efficient power supply restoration solution to guarantee network self-healing capability with full consideration of DG uncertainties is demanded. This paper presents a joint power supply restoration through combining the DG local restoration and switcher operation-based restoration to enhance the self-healing capability in active distribution networks considering the availability of distributed generation. The restoration algorithmic solution is designed to be able to carry out power restoration in parallel upon multiple simultaneous faults to maximize the load restoration while additionally minimizing power loss, topology variation and power flow changes due to switcher operations. The performance of the proposed solution is validated based on a 53-bus distribution network with wind power generators through extensive simulation experiments for a range of fault cases and DG scenarios generated based on Heuristic Moment Matching (HMM method to fully consider the DG randomness. The numerical result in comparison with the existing solutions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed power supply restoration solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime A. López-López
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP problem. The TNEP consists of finding a set of new circuits on a power system, which is needed to attend a future demand. In its classical version, the TNEP only considers as solution candidates the addition of new lines and transformers. The main contribution of this paper consists in the inclusion of nonconventional solution candidates, namely the repowering of existing circuits and the location of capacitor banks. To take into account these last ones an AC model of the transmission network is considered. The solution of the proposed model is carried out using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm. Results are compared and validated with previous works in the technical literature. The test systems used are the Garver system and IEEE 24 bus system. The results obtained in both systems showed that the inclusion of the non-conventional candidates, proposed in this paper, allows to reduce the cost of network expansion. This fact may be useful as an indicator for the system planner to consider new possibilities in the expansion studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Akbar Hasani
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive model is proposed to design a network for multi-period, multi-echelon, and multi-product inventory controlled the supply chain. Various marketing strategies and guerrilla marketing approaches are considered in the design process under the static competition condition. The goal of the proposed model is to efficiently respond to the customers’ demands in the presence of the pre-existing competitors and the price inelasticity of demands. The proposed optimization model considers multiple objectives that incorporate both market share and total profit of the considered supply chain network, simultaneously. To tackle the proposed multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is developed that incorporates a Taguchi-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and a particle swarm optimization. A variable neighborhood decomposition search is applied to enhance a local search process of the proposed hybrid solution algorithm. Computational results illustrate that the proposed model and solution algorithm are notably efficient in dealing with the competitive pressure by adopting the proper marketing strategies.
Weckerle, Caroline S; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Leonti, Marco
2011-09-01
We introduce and explain the advantages of the Bayesian approach and exemplify the method with an analysis of the medicinal flora of Campania, Italy. The Bayesian approach is a new method, which allows to compare medicinal floras with the overall flora of a given area and to investigate over- and underused plant families. In contrast to previously used methods (regression analysis and binomial method) it considers the inherent uncertainty around the analyzed data. The medicinal flora with 423 species was compiled based on nine studies on local medicinal plant use in Campania. The total flora comprises 2237 species belonging to 128 families. Statistical analysis was performed with the Bayesian method and the binomial method. An approximated χ(2)-test was used to analyze the relationship between use categories and higher taxonomic groups. Among the larger plant families we find the Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, and Malvaceae, to be overused in the local medicine of Campania and the Orchidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Fabaceae to be underused compared to the overall flora. Furthermore, do specific medicinal uses tend to be correlated with taxonomic plant groups. For example, are the Monocots heavily used for urological complaints. Testing for over- and underused taxonomic groups of a flora with the Bayesian method is easy to adopt and can readily be calculated in excel spreadsheets using the excel function Inverse beta (INV.BETA). In contrast to the binomial method the presented method is also suitable for small datasets. With larger datasets the two methods tend to converge. However, results are generally more conservative with the Bayesian method pointing out fewer families as over- or underused. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Denoising Algorithm for CFA Image Sensors Considering Inter-Channel Correlation.
Lee, Min Seok; Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Moon Gi
2017-05-28
In this paper, a spatio-spectral-temporal filter considering an inter-channel correlation is proposed for the denoising of a color filter array (CFA) sequence acquired by CCD/CMOS image sensors. Owing to the alternating under-sampled grid of the CFA pattern, the inter-channel correlation must be considered in the direct denoising process. The proposed filter is applied in the spatial, spectral, and temporal domain, considering the spatio-tempo-spectral correlation. First, nonlocal means (NLM) spatial filtering with patch-based difference (PBD) refinement is performed by considering both the intra-channel correlation and inter-channel correlation to overcome the spatial resolution degradation occurring with the alternating under-sampled pattern. Second, a motion-compensated temporal filter that employs inter-channel correlated motion estimation and compensation is proposed to remove the noise in the temporal domain. Then, a motion adaptive detection value controls the ratio of the spatial filter and the temporal filter. The denoised CFA sequence can thus be obtained without motion artifacts. Experimental results for both simulated and real CFA sequences are presented with visual and numerical comparisons to several state-of-the-art denoising methods combined with a demosaicing method. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed frameworks outperformed the other techniques in terms of the objective criteria and subjective visual perception in CFA sequences.
Flooding PSA by considering the operating experience data of Korean PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon
2007-01-01
The existing flooding Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) was updated to reflect the Korean plant specific operating experience data into the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. Both the Nuclear Power Experience (NPE) database and the Korea Nuclear PIPE Failure Database (NuPIPE) databases were used in this study, and from these databases, only the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) data were used for the flooding frequencies of the flooding areas in the primary auxiliary building. With these databases and a Bayesian method, the flooding frequencies for the flooding areas were estimated. Subsequently, the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) for the flooding PSA of the UlChiN (UCN) unit 3 and 4 plants based on the Korean Standard Nuclear power Plant (KSNP) internal full-power PSA model was recalculated. The evaluation results showed that sixteen flooding events are potentially significant according to the screening criterion, while there were two flooding events exceeding the screening criterion of the existing UCN 3 and 4 flooding PSA. The result was compared with two kinds of cases: 1) the flooding frequency and CDF from the method of the existing flooding PSA with the PWR and Boiled Water Reactor (BWR) data of the NPE database and the Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) method and 2) the flooding frequency and CDF with the NPE database (PWR and BWR data), NuPIPE database, and a Bayesian method. From the comparison, a difference in CDF results was revealed more clearly between the CDF from this study and case 2) than between case 1) and case 2). That is, the number of flooding events exceeding the screen criterion further increased when only the PWR data were used for the primary auxiliary building than when the Korean specific data were used
WANG, Qingrong; ZHU, Changfeng; LI, Ying; ZHANG, Zhengkun
2017-06-01
Considering the time dependence of emergency logistic network and complexity of the environment that the network exists in, in this paper the time dependent network optimization theory and robust discrete optimization theory are combined, and the emergency logistics dynamic network optimization model with characteristics of robustness is built to maximize the timeliness of emergency logistics. On this basis, considering the complexity of dynamic network and the time dependence of edge weight, an improved ant colony algorithm is proposed to realize the coupling of the optimization algorithm and the network time dependence and robustness. Finally, a case study has been carried out in order to testify validity of this robustness optimization model and its algorithm, and the value of different regulation factors was analyzed considering the importance of the value of the control factor in solving the optimal path. Analysis results show that this model and its algorithm above-mentioned have good timeliness and strong robustness.
Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)
1989-09-01
Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the
Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.
1989-01-01
Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the
Evaluating the capacity value of wind power considering transmission and operational constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gil, Esteban; Aravena, Ignacio
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Discussion of power system adequacy and the capacity value of wind power. • Method for estimating capacity value of wind power is proposed. • Monte Carlo simulation used to consider transmission and operational constraints. • Application of the method to the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING). - Abstract: This paper presents a method for estimating the capacity value of wind considering transmission and operational constraints. The method starts by calculating a metric for system adequacy by repeatedly simulating market operations in a Monte Carlo scheme that accounts for forced generator outages, wind resource variability, and operational conditions. Then, a capacity value calculation that uses the simulation results is proposed, and its application to the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING) is discussed. A comparison of the capacity value for two different types of wind farms is performed using the proposed method, and the results are compared with the method currently used in Chile and the method recommended by the IEEE. The method proposed in the paper captures the contribution of the variable generation resources to power system adequacy more accurately than the method currently employed in the SING, and showed capable of taking into account transmission and operational constraints
The construction of power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance
Tang, Jihong; Wang, Canlin; Jiang, Xinfan; Ye, Jianhui; Pan, Feilai
2018-02-01
In recent years, large-scale blackout occurred at home and abroad caused widespread concern about the operation of the grid in the world, and the maintenance risk is an important indicator of grid safety. The barrier operation of the circuit breaker exists in the process of overhaul of the power grid. The operation of the different barrier is of great significance to the change of the power flow, thus affecting the safe operation of the system. Most of the grid operating status evaluation index system did not consider the risk of maintenance, to this end, this paper from the security, economy, quality and cleanliness of the four angles, build the power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Seung Ki; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun
2011-01-01
A dynamic system can be defined as a system which has a state at any given time which can be represented by a point in an appropriate state space. In order to analyze the dynamic systems, various failure mechanisms with time requirements such as the failure orders of sub-components and the changes of system states with time need to be modeled and quantitatively estimated. Since the conventional static fault tree analysis has imitations when applied to the dynamic systems, two types of dynamic fault tree methods have been developed. Dugan et al. proposed four dynamic gates to handle failure mechanisms composed of sequence-dependent events and Cepin and Mavko proposed the use of house events to handle failure mechanisms of dynamic systems which have various operating states with time. However, modeling a fault tree from a complex system is a cumbersome task even for the experts who is familiar to it, and demands a great amount of attention and caution to avoid errors. In order to model complex systems more conveniently from system block diagrams compared to the fault tree, a reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) was developed by introduction of general gates to a conventional reliability graph. The RGGG is an easy-to-modeling method as powerful as fault tree. It was also improved to analyze the dynamic failure mechanisms composed of sequence-dependent events with the addition of dynamic nodes. In this paper, unavailability assessment method for dynamic systems which have various operating states is proposed using the RGGG method. To achieve this, a novel concept of reliability matrix for the RGGG is introduced and Bayesian Networks are used for the quantification
Hysteretic Models Considering Axial-Shear-Flexure Interaction
Ceresa, Paola; Negrisoli, Giorgio
2017-10-01
Most of the existing numerical models implemented in finite element (FE) software, at the current state of the art, are not capable to describe, with enough reliability, the interaction between axial, shear and flexural actions under cyclic loading (e.g. seismic actions), neglecting crucial effects for predicting the nature of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements. Just a few existing 3D volume models or fibre beam models can lead to a quite accurate response, but they are still computationally inefficient for typical applications in earthquake engineering and also characterized by very complex formulation. Thus, discrete models with lumped plasticity hinges may be the preferred choice for modelling the hysteretic behaviour due to cyclic loading conditions, in particular with reference to its implementation in a commercial software package. These considerations lead to this research work focused on the development of a model for RC beam-column elements able to consider degradation effects and interaction between the actions under cyclic loading conditions. In order to develop a model for a general 3D discrete hinge element able to take into account the axial-shear-flexural interaction, it is necessary to provide an implementation which involves a corrector-predictor iterative scheme. Furthermore, a reliable constitutive model based on damage plasticity theory is formulated and implemented for its numerical validation. Aim of this research work is to provide the formulation of a numerical model, which will allow implementation within a FE software package for nonlinear cyclic analysis of RC structural members. The developed model accounts for stiffness degradation effect and stiffness recovery for loading reversal.
New method for determining free core nutation parameters, considering geophysical effects
Vondrák, J.; Ron, C.
2017-08-01
Context. In addition to the torques exerted by the Moon, Sun, and planets, changes of precession-nutation are known to be caused also by geophysical excitations. Recently studies suggest that geomagnetic jerks (GMJ) might be associated with sudden changes of phase and amplitude of free core nutation. We showed that using atmospheric and oceanic excitations with those by GMJ improves substantially the agreement with observed celestial pole offsets. Aims: Traditionally, the period Tf and quality factor Qf of the free core nutation (FCN) are derived from VLBI-based celestial pole offsets (CPO). Either direct analysis of the observed CPO, or indirect method using resonant effects of nutation terms with frequencies close to FCN, are used. The latter method is usually preferred, since it yields more accurate results. Our aim is to combine both approaches to better derive FCN parameters. Methods: We numerically integrated the part of CPO that is due to geophysical excitations for different combinations of Tf, Qf, using Brzeziński's broadband Liouville equations (Brzeziński 1994, Manuscripta geodaetica, 19, 157), and compared the results with the observed values of CPO. The values yielding the best fit were then estimated. The observed CPO, however, must be corrected for the change of nutation that is caused by the Tf, Qf values different from those used to calculate IAU 2000 model of nutation. To this end, we have used the Mathews-Herring-Buffet transfer function and applied it to the five most affected terms of nutation (with periods 365.26, 182.62, 121.75, 27.55 and 13.66 days). Results: The results, based on the CPO data in the interval 1986.0—2016.0 and excitations with three different models, are presented. We demonstrate that better results are obtained if the influence of additional excitations at GMJ epochs is added to excitations by the atmosphere and oceans. Our preferred values are Tf = 430.28 ± 0.04 mean solar days and Qf = 19 500 ± 200.
Variational and penalization methods for studying connecting orbits of Hamiltonian systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Nien Chen
2000-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of second order Hamiltonian systems that possess infinite or finite number of equilibria. Variational arguments will be used to study the existence of connecting orbits joining pairs of equilibria. Applying penalization methods, we obtain various patterns for multibump homoclinics and heteroclinics of Hamiltonian systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Talebitooti
Full Text Available In this paper the effect of quadratic and cubic non-linearities of the system consisting of the crankshaft and torsional vibration damper (TVD is taken into account. TVD consists of non-linear elastomer material used for controlling the torsional vibration of crankshaft. The method of multiple scales is used to solve the governing equations of the system. Meanwhile, the frequency response of the system for both harmonic and sub-harmonic resonances is extracted. In addition, the effects of detuning parameters and other dimensionless parameters for a case of harmonic resonance are investigated. Moreover, the external forces including both inertia and gas forces are simultaneously applied into the model. Finally, in order to study the effectiveness of the parameters, the dimensionless governing equations of the system are solved, considering the state space method. Then, the effects of the torsional damper as well as all corresponding parameters of the system are discussed.
A Lifetime Prediction Method for LEDs Considering Real Mission Profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qu, Xiaohui; Wang, Huai; Zhan, Xiaoqing
2017-01-01
operations due to the varying operational and environmental conditions during the entire service time (i.e., mission profiles). To overcome the challenge, this paper proposes an advanced lifetime prediction method, which takes into account the field operation mission profiles and also the statistical......The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) has become a very promising alternative lighting source with the advantages of longer lifetime and higher efficiency than traditional ones. The lifetime prediction of LEDs is important to guide the LED system designers to fulfill the design specifications...... properties of the life data available from accelerated degradation testing. The electrical and thermal characteristics of LEDs are measured by a T3Ster system, used for the electro-thermal modeling. It also identifies key variables (e.g., heat sink parameters) that can be designed to achieve a specified...
Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2016-03-15
Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)
Field Application of Cable Tension Estimation Technique Using the h-SI Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myung-Hyun Noh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates field applicability of a new system identification technique of estimating tensile force for a cable of long span bridges. The newly proposed h-SI method using the combination of the sensitivity updating algorithm and the advanced hybrid microgenetic algorithm can allow not only avoiding the trap of local minimum at initial searching stage but also finding the optimal solution in terms of better numerical efficiency than existing methods. First, this paper overviews the procedure of tension estimation through a theoretical formulation. Secondly, the validity of the proposed technique is numerically examined using a set of dynamic data obtained from benchmark numerical samples considering the effect of sag extensibility and bending stiffness of a sag-cable system. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is investigated through actual field data extracted from a cable-stayed Seohae Bridge. The test results show that the existing methods require precise initial data in advance but the proposed method is not affected by such initial information. In particular, the proposed method can improve accuracy and convergence rate toward final values. Consequently, the proposed method can be more effective than existing methods in terms of characterizing the tensile force variation for cable structures.
Existence and stability of circular orbits in general static and spherically symmetric spacetimes
Jia, Junji; Liu, Jiawei; Liu, Xionghui; Mo, Zhongyou; Pang, Xiankai; Wang, Yaoguang; Yang, Nan
2018-02-01
The existence and stability of circular orbits (CO) in static and spherically symmetric (SSS) spacetime are important because of their practical and potential usefulness. In this paper, using the fixed point method, we first prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the metric function for the existence of timelike COs in SSS spacetimes. After analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the metric, we then show that asymptotic flat SSS spacetime that corresponds to a negative Newtonian potential at large r will always allow the existence of CO. The stability of the CO in a general SSS spacetime is then studied using the Lyapunov exponent method. Two sufficient conditions on the (in)stability of the COs are obtained. For null geodesics, a sufficient condition on the metric function for the (in)stability of null CO is also obtained. We then illustrate one powerful application of these results by showing that three SSS spacetimes whose metric function is not completely known will allow the existence of timelike and/or null COs. We also used our results to assert the existence and (in)stabilities of a number of known SSS metrics.
Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart
2016-11-15
The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parshad, Rana; Kouachi, Saï d; Gutié rrez, Juan B.
2013-01-01
theapplication of the well known regularizing effect principle. Thus functional methods to deducethe global existence in time, for the system in question, are not applicable. Our techniques are based on the Lyapunov functional method. We prove global existence
Average interradicular sites for miniscrew insertion: should dental crowding be considered?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tepedino, Michele; Cattaneo, Paolo; Masedu, Francesco
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To define a map of interradicular spaces where miniscrew can be likely placed at a level covered by attached gingiva, and to assess if a correlation between crowding and availability of space exists. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs and digital models of 40 patients were selected according...
Integration of existing systematic reviews into new reviews: identification of guidance needs
2014-01-01
Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937
Green open location-routing problem considering economic and environmental costs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana M. Toro
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bi-objective vehicle routing problem that integrates the Open Location Routing Problem (OLRP, recently presented in the literature, coupled with the growing need for fuel consumption minimization, named Green OLRP (G-OLRP. Open routing problems (ORP are known to be NP-hard problems, in which vehicles start from the set of existing depots and are not required to return to the starting depot after completing their service. The OLRP is a strategic-level problem involving the selection of one or many depots from a set of candidate locations and the planning of delivery radial routes from the selected depots to a set of customers. The concept of radial paths allows us to use a set of constraints focused on maintaining the radiality condition of the paths, which significantly simplifies the set of constraints associated with the connectivity and capacity requirements and provides a suitable alternative when compared with the elimination problem of sub-tours traditionally addressed in the literature. The emphasis in the paper will be placed on modeling rather than solution methods. The model proposed is formulated as a bi-objective problem, considering the minimization of operational costs and the minimization of environmental effects, and it is solved by using the epsilon constraint technique. The results illustrate that the proposed model is able to generate a set of trade-off solutions leading to interesting conclusions about the relationship between operational costs and environmental impact.
A comparison of methods for cascade prediction
Guo, Ruocheng; Shakarian, Paulo
2016-01-01
Information cascades exist in a wide variety of platforms on Internet. A very important real-world problem is to identify which information cascades can go viral. A system addressing this problem can be used in a variety of applications including public health, marketing and counter-terrorism. As a cascade can be considered as compound of the social network and the time series. However, in related literature where methods for solving the cascade prediction problem were proposed, the experimen...
Existence and convergence theorems for evolutionary hemivariational inequalities of second order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zijia Peng
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This article concerns with a class of evolutionary hemivariational inequalities in the framework of evolution triple. Based on the Rothe method, monotonicity-compactness technique and the properties of Clarke's generalized derivative and gradient, the existence and convergence theorems to these problems are established. The main idea in the proof is using the time difference to construct the approximate problems. The work generalizes the existence results on evolution inclusions and hemivariational inequalities of second order.
A dynamic discretization method for reliability inference in Dynamic Bayesian Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Jiandao; Collette, Matthew
2015-01-01
The material and modeling parameters that drive structural reliability analysis for marine structures are subject to a significant uncertainty. This is especially true when time-dependent degradation mechanisms such as structural fatigue cracking are considered. Through inspection and monitoring, information such as crack location and size can be obtained to improve these parameters and the corresponding reliability estimates. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) are a powerful and flexible tool to model dynamic system behavior and update reliability and uncertainty analysis with life cycle data for problems such as fatigue cracking. However, a central challenge in using DBNs is the need to discretize certain types of continuous random variables to perform network inference while still accurately tracking low-probability failure events. Most existing discretization methods focus on getting the overall shape of the distribution correct, with less emphasis on the tail region. Therefore, a novel scheme is presented specifically to estimate the likelihood of low-probability failure events. The scheme is an iterative algorithm which dynamically partitions the discretization intervals at each iteration. Through applications to two stochastic crack-growth example problems, the algorithm is shown to be robust and accurate. Comparisons are presented between the proposed approach and existing methods for the discretization problem. - Highlights: • A dynamic discretization method is developed for low-probability events in DBNs. • The method is compared to existing approaches on two crack growth problems. • The method is shown to improve on existing methods for low-probability events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolde, Bernabas; Lal, Pankaj; Burli, Pralhad
2017-01-01
Because socioeconomic based approaches account for relevant limiting and motivating factors, they provide a more realistic measurement of forestland owners’ willingness to supply biomass for bioenergy production- information useful to policy makers in setting production targets and in designing relevant incentive programs. Although forestland owners can supply biomass using different means, including supplying biomass from existing stands and changing land use to establish feedstock plantation, among others, previous studies mostly focus only on a given way of supplying biomass at a time. This produces incomplete information that adversely affects its use. By presenting survey takers in Virginia and Texas three different ways of supplying biomass at the same time, we determine forestland owners’ willingness to consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously and identify the factors that predict such behavior, assess overlap in forestland owners across the different ways of supplying biomass, and assess if and how respondents’ forest management plans and sustainability concerns correspond with their supply decision. Our results show a higher and more articulated rate of willingness to supply biomass than reported in previous studies. The results also suggest that opportunities exist for synergizing programs that incentivize disparate ways of supplying biomass. - Highlights: • Forestland owners are more willing to supply biomass than previous estimated. • Forestland owners will consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Socioeconomics, sustainability concerns, and management plans predict this behavior. • Incentive programs can target multiple means of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Considerable mismatches exist between the suppliers’ preferences and existing policies.
[Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].
Längle, A
1990-01-01
Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.
Concerning an application of the method of least squares with a variable weight matrix
Sukhanov, A. A.
1979-01-01
An estimate of a state vector for a physical system when the weight matrix in the method of least squares is a function of this vector is considered. An iterative procedure is proposed for calculating the desired estimate. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the limit of this procedure are obtained, and a domain is found which contains the limit estimate. A second method for calculating the desired estimate which reduces to the solution of a system of algebraic equations is proposed. The question of applying Newton's method of tangents to solving the given system of algebraic equations is considered and conditions for the convergence of the modified Newton's method are obtained. Certain properties of the estimate obtained are presented together with an example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.
1984-04-01
The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria
2012-04-24
...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...
Analysis of God's Attributes of Act through the Notion of VujÅ«d-e RÄbiá¹ (Connecting Existence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mousa Malayeri
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Depicting God's attributes of the act in a way that ascribing those attributes to Him does not contradict the belief in His absolute indivisibility is one of the most important theological issues in monotheistic religions; an issue whose solution is not possible without considering logical and philosophical bases. This article has aimed to describe the quality of existence of such attributes applying the specific definition offered for the concepts of existence and VujÅ«d-e RÄbiá¹ (connecting existence in Transcendent Wisdom. á¹¢adrÄ changed the triple division used to be considered for all beings by dissolving the VojÅ«d- e RÄbiá¹Äª (connector existence into VujÅ«d-e RÄbiá¹ (connecting existence. His main point in this issue is to explain the way that changing beings are connected to God with indivisible existence.In peripatetic school, all the beings, as the embodiment of God's attributes of act, are regarded as connector existence. Considering them as connectors assumes a sort of identity and independence for them before the existence of God. By considering the propositions as simple and indivisible, and dissolving the connector existence to connecting existence, MullÄ á¹¢adrÄ established a stable logical and philosophical structure for a great upheaval in having a different perception of all beings. Based on this view there is no independent identity for beings before God and their existence is regarded as unreal. Accordingly the existence of all beings is similar to the existence of a connecting element in a proposition which is dissolved in the existence of the subject. Such new definition would remove the contradiction available between the existence of God's attributes and the indivisibility of His essence. The most important findings of this study are: 1- MullÄ á¹¢adrÄ, by developing the MÄªr DÄmÄd's theory in distinguishing between the connector existence and
Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh
2017-06-01
Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.
Studying Intense Pulsed Light Method Along With Corticosteroid Injection in Treating Keloid Scars
Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali
2014-01-01
Background: Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Objective: Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. Materials and Methods: 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with co...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyed, Mads
2014-01-01
The existence, uniqueness and regularity of time-periodic solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations in the three-dimensional whole space are investigated. We consider the Navier–Stokes equations with a non-zero drift term corresponding to the physical model of a fluid flow around a body that moves with a non-zero constant velocity. The existence of a strong time-periodic solution is shown for small time-periodic data. It is further shown that this solution is unique in a large class of weak solutions that can be considered physically reasonable. Finally, we establish regularity properties for any strong solution regardless of its size. (paper)
Miller, Alexander David
2015-01-01
This dissertation considers the supportive and complementary relation between Mark Johnson's embodied realism and Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do as a philosophical practice. In exploring this relationship, the emphasis on one's embodiment condition and its relationship with metaphor and self-expression are the primary focus. First, this work involves…
Chai, Qiao; He, Jie
2017-01-01
The current study investigated the stage at which Chinese preschoolers started considering recipients' material welfare and minimizing existing inequalities under both noncollaborative and collaborative contexts. Also, it analyzed how they behaved when recipients' material welfare was in conflict with merit or equality rule. Experiment 1 found…
A QFD-Based Mathematical Model for New Product Development Considering the Target Market Segment
Chen, Liang-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Nien
2014-01-01
Responding to customer needs is important for business success. Quality function deployment provides systematic procedures for converting customer needs into technical requirements to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. The existing literature mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum customer satisfaction under a budgetary limit via mathematical models. The market goal of the new product for the target market segment is usually ignored. In this study, the proposed approach thus consider...
Advanced Approach to Consider Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties for Integral Accident Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peschke, Joerg; Kloos, Martina
2013-01-01
The use of best-estimate codes together with realistic input data generally requires that all potentially important epistemic uncertainties which may affect the code prediction are considered in order to get an adequate quantification of the epistemic uncertainty of the prediction as an expression of the existing imprecise knowledge. To facilitate the performance of the required epistemic uncertainty analyses, methods and corresponding software tools are available like, for instance, the GRS-tool SUSA (Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis). However, for risk-informed decision-making, the restriction on epistemic uncertainties alone is not enough. Transients and accident scenarios are also affected by aleatory uncertainties which are due to the unpredictable nature of phenomena. It is essential that aleatory uncertainties are taken into account as well, not only in a simplified and supposedly conservative way but as realistic as possible. The additional consideration of aleatory uncertainties, for instance, on the behavior of the technical system, the performance of plant operators, or on the behavior of the physical process provides a quantification of probabilistically significant accident sequences. Only if a safety analysis is able to account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in a realistic manner, it can provide a well-founded risk-informed answer for decision-making. At GRS, an advanced probabilistic dynamics method was developed to address this problem and to provide a more realistic modeling and assessment of transients and accident scenarios. This method allows for an integral simulation of complex dynamic processes particularly taking into account interactions between the plant dynamics as simulated by a best-estimate code, the dynamics of operator actions and the influence of epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. In this paper, the GRS method MCDET (Monte Carlo Dynamic Event Tree) for probabilistic dynamics analysis is explained
Cost assessment of demo fusion reactor with considering maintenance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Kitagoh, Kazutoshi
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study is to perform cost assessment of nuclear fusion reactors in order to draw up commercial plants. A fusion reactor may have a complex configuration to achieve high beta value, which leads to low and instable availability when maintenance is taken into account. Therefore, reactor's availability must be evaluated with considering the influence of the configuration complexity. Furthermore the availability has the strong impact on COE (Cost of Electricity), that is, a fusion reactor with low availability will not be accepted as a commercial plant. Therefore, we developed a new method to calculate availabilities with random numbers, in which the complexity of reactor's configuration could become considered. In addition, we considered the reduction of superconducting coil's maintenance time by introducing remountable magnet system because the coil maintenance requires quite long time in the present technology. The results show that the availability becomes relatively large if the short maintenance time of coils could be achieved, for example, by remountable magnetic systems. (author)
Identifying best existing practice for characterization modeling in life cycle impact assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Goedkoop, Mark; Guinée, Jeroen
2013-01-01
Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a field of active development. The last decade has seen prolific publication of new impact assessment methods covering many different impact categories and providing characterization factors that often deviate from each other for the same substance...... and impact. The LCA standard ISO 14044 is rather general and unspecific in its requirements and offers little help to the LCA practitioner who needs to make a choice. With the aim to identify the best among existing characterization models and provide recommendations to the LCA practitioner, a study...... was performed for the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC). Methods Existing LCIA methods were collected and their individual characterization models identified at both midpoint and endpoint levels and supplemented with other environmental models of potential use for LCIA. No new developments...
Issues to Be Solved for Energy Simulation of An Existing Office Building
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki Uhn Ahn
2016-04-01
Full Text Available With the increasing focus on low energy buildings and the need to develop sustainable built environments, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS tools have been widely used. However, many issues remain when applying BEPS tools to existing buildings. This paper presents the issues that need to be solved for the application of BEPS tools to an existing office building. The selected building is an office building with 33 stories above ground, six underground levels, and a total floor area of 91,898 m2. The issues to be discussed in this paper are as follows: (1 grey data not ready for simulation; (2 subjective assumptions and judgments on energy modeling; (3 stochastic characteristics of building performance and occupants behavior; (4 verification of model fidelity-comparison of aggregated energy; (5 verification of model fidelity-calibration by trial and error; and (6 use of simulation model for real-time energy management. This study investigates the aforementioned issues and explains the factors that should be considered to address these issues when developing a dynamic simulation model for existing buildings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Cheng
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The existence of multiple periodic solutions of the following differential delay equation (=−((− is established by applying variational approaches directly, where ∈ℝ, ∈(ℝ,ℝ and >0 is a given constant. This means that we do not need to use Kaplan and Yorke's reduction technique to reduce the existence problem of the above equation to an existence problem for a related coupled system. Such a reduction method introduced first by Kaplan and Yorke in (1974 is often employed in previous papers to study the existence of periodic solutions for the above equation and its similar ones by variational approaches.
Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on kshell hybrid method
Namtirtha, Amrita; Dutta, Animesh; Dutta, Biswanath
2018-06-01
Influential spreaders are the key players in maximizing or controlling the spreading in a complex network. Identifying the influential spreaders using kshell decomposition method has become very popular in the recent time. In the literature, the core nodes i.e. with the largest kshell index of a network are considered as the most influential spreaders. We have studied the kshell method and spreading dynamics of nodes using Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to understand the behavior of influential spreaders in terms of its topological location in the network. From the study, we have found that every node in the core area is not the most influential spreader. Even a strategically placed lower shell node can also be a most influential spreader. Moreover, the core area can also be situated at the periphery of the network. The existing indexing methods are only designed to identify the most influential spreaders from core nodes and not from lower shells. In this work, we propose a kshell hybrid method to identify highly influential spreaders not only from the core but also from lower shells. The proposed method comprises the parameters such as kshell power, node's degree, contact distance, and many levels of neighbors' influence potential. The proposed method is evaluated using nine real world network datasets. In terms of the spreading dynamics, the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method over the other existing indexing methods such as the kshell method, the neighborhood coreness centrality, the mixed degree decomposition, etc. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be applied to large-scale networks by considering the three levels of neighbors' influence potential.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Domingues Bueno
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of algorithms for robust active vibration control in flexible structures considering uncertainties in system parameters. It became an area of enormous interest, mainly due to the countless demands of optimal performance in mechanical systems as aircraft, aerospace, and automotive structures. An important and difficult problem for designing active vibration control is to get a representative dynamic model. Generally, this model can be obtained using finite element method (FEM or an identification method using experimental data. Actuators and sensors may affect the dynamics properties of the structure, for instance, electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material must be considered in FEM formulation for flexible and lightly damping structure. The nonlinearities and uncertainties involved in these structures make it a difficult task, mainly for complex structures as spatial truss structures. On the other hand, by using an identification method, it is possible to obtain the dynamic model represented through a state space realization considering this coupling. This paper proposes an experimental methodology for vibration control in a 3D truss structure using PZT wafer stacks and a robust control algorithm solved by linear matrix inequalities.
Existence theory in optimal control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olech, C.
1976-01-01
This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)
Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shihao Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to improve digging shovel structure of a digging-pulling style cassava harvester, and nine bionic-type digging shovels were obtained with considering the impact of soil mechanics. After conducting mechanical properties comparative analysis for bionic-type digging shovels, the bionic design rules were summed up, and the optimal design scheme of digging shovel was obtained through combining the proposed comprehensive performance comparison method with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Studies have shown that bionic design method not only can improve the overall mechanical properties of digging shovel, but also can help to improve the harvesting effect of cassava harvester, which provides a new idea for crops harvesting machinery's structural optimization design.
Language as a universal form of culture’s existence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. A. Shishko
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Today it is increasingly becoming the subject of attention of philosophers, philologists, linguists, since the existence of many problems and their solutions are in the language. To any information became available to the human mind, you need to make much effort to establish links between the mind and the outside world. The author of the article analyzes the active and constructive properties of language and its ability to influence the popular culture, psychology and creative writing I. Herder, W. von Humboldt, J., L. Vaysgerbera and others. Since, it is a social phenomenon and it reflected the requirements of collectivism, the author of the article reveals its role in the development of culture through their close interrelation in modern society. It is a necessary condition and a means of socialization of the individual and no common life with other people without learning social norms, rules, culture, without development achievements created by the labor of many generations, people are not aware of themselves as part of society. The article author is considered as a unique way of educating people and a universal condition for the existence of any culture.
Seismic response of the 'Cut-and Cover' type reactor containment considering nonlinear soil behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Tahan, H.; Reddy, D.V.
1979-01-01
This paper describes some parametric studies of dynamic soil-structure interaction for the 'cut-and-cover' reactor concept. The dynamic loading considered is a horizontal earthquake motion. The high frequency ranges, which must be considered in the study of soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plants, and the nonlinearity of soil behavior during strong earthquakes are adequately taken into account. Soil nonlinearity is accounted for in an approximate manner using a combination of the 'equivalent linear method' and the method of complex response with complex moduli. The structure considered is a reinforced concrete containment for a 1100 - MWe power plant, buried in a dense sand medium. (orig.)
Potential Retrofit of Existing Sultan Ismail Parliament Building, Johor to Green Building
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasin Mohd Norazam
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The concept of retrofitting an existing building towards green building was introduced to move towards greener development. This paper investigates the benefits of retrofitting an existing building to green building. The potential retrofit of the existing Sultan Ismail Parliament building was also determined and later the elements of the building to be retrofitted were proposed. The Sultan Ismail Parliament building is one of the newest development that serves as the Johor state administrative center under Iskandar Malaysia. Therefore, this paper focuses on whether the existing building has fulfilled all of the green building elements. A set of questionnaire was distributed to the targeted respondents who were the engineers, architects, technicians, staffs and those who were involved in the development of the Sultan Ismail Parliament building. A total of 60 respondents was involved. Based on the analyzed data, it shows that the existing building has fulfilled only one of the green building elements which is the Indoor Environmental Quality. The items that scored 3.5 and above mean index under this element include the daylight glare is not bothering, the ventilation in the building is adequate, inspections are done regularly, smoking regulation is implemented and the number of openings of windows and doors is sufficient. While it shows that other elements were only partially fulfilled. The criteria that achieved below 3.5 mean index values is considered to be the potential elements that could be used for future retrofitting initiative.
General conditions for the existence of non-standard Lagrangians for dissipative dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musielak, Z.E.
2009-01-01
Equations of motion describing dissipative dynamical systems with coefficients varying either in time or in space are considered. To identify the equations that admit a Lagrangian description, two classes of non-standard Lagrangians are introduced and general conditions required for the existence of these Lagrangians are determined. The conditions are used to obtain some non-standard Lagrangians and derive equations of motion resulting from these Lagrangians.
10 CFR 4.127 - Existing facilities.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 4.127 Section 4.127 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.127 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... make each of its existing facilities or every part of an existing facility accessible to and usable by...
Khalind, Omed Saleem
2015-01-01
Unlike other security methods, steganography hides the very existence of secret messages rather than their content only. Both steganography and steganalysis are strongly related to each other, the new steganographic methods should be evaluated with current steganalysis methods and vice-versa. Since steganography is considered broken when the stego object is recognised, undetectability would be the most important property of any steganographic system. Digital image files are excellent media fo...
EVALUATION OF WEB SEARCHING METHOD USING A NOVEL WPRR ALGORITHM FOR TWO DIFFERENT CASE STUDIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Lakshmi Praba
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to web data and documents. Web content mining and web structure mining have important roles in identifying the relevant web page. Relevancy of web page denotes how well a retrieved web page or set of web pages meets the information need of the user. Page Rank, Weighted Page Rank and Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS are existing algorithms which considers only web structure mining. Vector Space Model (VSM, Cover Density Ranking (CDR, Okapi similarity measurement (Okapi and Three-Level Scoring method (TLS are some of existing relevancy score methods which consider only web content mining. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, Weighted Page with Relevant Rank (WPRR which is blend of both web content mining and web structure mining that demonstrates the relevancy of the page with respect to given query for two different case scenarios. It is shown that WPRR’s performance is better than the existing algorithms.
Incidence of infective endocarditis among patients considered at high risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj
2018-01-01
Aims: Patients with prior infective endocarditis (IE), a prosthetic heart valve, or a cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are considered to be at high risk of IE by guidelines. However, knowledge is sparse on the relative risk of IE between these three groups and compared controls. Methods...
Probabilistic risk assessment for new and existing chemicals: Example calculations
Jager T; Hollander HA den; Janssen GB; Poel P van der; Rikken MGJ; Vermeire TG; ECO; CSR; LAE; CSR
2000-01-01
In the risk assessment methods for new and existing chemicals in the EU, "risk" is characterised by means of the deterministic quotient of exposure and effects (PEC/PNEC or Margin of Safety). From a scientific viewpoint, the uncertainty in the risk quotient should be accounted for explicitly in the
Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a conjugate gradient method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faber, V.; Manteuffel, T.
1984-01-01
The authors characterize the class CG(s) of matrices A for which the linear system Ax = b can be solved by an s-term conjugate gradient method. The authors show that, except for a few anomalies, the class CG(s) consists of matrices A for which conjugate gradient methods are already known. These matrices are the Hermitian matrices, A* = A, and the matrices of the form A = e/sup i theta/(dI + B), with B* = -B. 7 references
Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division
2010-08-19
This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were
A multi-scale network method for two-phase flow in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khayrat, Karim, E-mail: khayratk@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Jenny, Patrick
2017-08-01
Pore-network models of porous media are useful in the study of pore-scale flow in porous media. In order to extract macroscopic properties from flow simulations in pore-networks, it is crucial the networks are large enough to be considered representative elementary volumes. However, existing two-phase network flow solvers are limited to relatively small domains. For this purpose, a multi-scale pore-network (MSPN) method, which takes into account flow-rate effects and can simulate larger domains compared to existing methods, was developed. In our solution algorithm, a large pore network is partitioned into several smaller sub-networks. The algorithm to advance the fluid interfaces within each subnetwork consists of three steps. First, a global pressure problem on the network is solved approximately using the multiscale finite volume (MSFV) method. Next, the fluxes across the subnetworks are computed. Lastly, using fluxes as boundary conditions, a dynamic two-phase flow solver is used to advance the solution in time. Simulation results of drainage scenarios at different capillary numbers and unfavourable viscosity ratios are presented and used to validate the MSPN method against solutions obtained by an existing dynamic network flow solver.
A multi-scale network method for two-phase flow in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khayrat, Karim; Jenny, Patrick
2017-01-01
Pore-network models of porous media are useful in the study of pore-scale flow in porous media. In order to extract macroscopic properties from flow simulations in pore-networks, it is crucial the networks are large enough to be considered representative elementary volumes. However, existing two-phase network flow solvers are limited to relatively small domains. For this purpose, a multi-scale pore-network (MSPN) method, which takes into account flow-rate effects and can simulate larger domains compared to existing methods, was developed. In our solution algorithm, a large pore network is partitioned into several smaller sub-networks. The algorithm to advance the fluid interfaces within each subnetwork consists of three steps. First, a global pressure problem on the network is solved approximately using the multiscale finite volume (MSFV) method. Next, the fluxes across the subnetworks are computed. Lastly, using fluxes as boundary conditions, a dynamic two-phase flow solver is used to advance the solution in time. Simulation results of drainage scenarios at different capillary numbers and unfavourable viscosity ratios are presented and used to validate the MSPN method against solutions obtained by an existing dynamic network flow solver.
Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johanna Lundström
Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Cheol; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.
2004-01-01
The mesh-insensitive structural stress procedure by Dong is modified to apply to the welded joints with local thickness variation and inarguable shear/normal stresses along local discontinuity surface. In order to make use of the structural stress based K solution for fatigue correlation of welded joints, a proper crack growth model needs to be developed. There exist some significant discrepancies in inferring the slope or crack growth exponent in the conventional Paris law regime. Two-stage crack growth model was not considered since its applications are focused upon the fatigue behavior in welded joints in which the load ratio effects are considered negligible. In this paper, a two-stage crack growth law considering high mean loading is proposed and proven to be effective in unifying the so-called anomalous short crack growth data
Existence and multiplicity results for homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Nien Chen
1997-03-01
Full Text Available Homoclinic orbits play an important role in the study of qualitative behavior of dynamical systems. Such kinds of orbits have been studied since the time of Poincare. In this paper, we discuss how to use variational methods to study the existence of homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems.
Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter
Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng
2018-03-01
The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.
Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend
2012-01-01
. The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area.......This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low...
Considering Interactions among Multiple Criteria for the Server Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vesna Čančer
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Decision-making about server selection is one of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM processes where interactions among criteria should be considered. The paper introduces and develops some solutions for considering interactions among criteria in the MCDM problems. In the frame procedure for MCDM by using the group of methods, based on assigning weights, special attention is given to the synthesis of the local alternatives’ values into the aggregate values where the mutual preferential independence between two criteria is not assumed. Firstly, we delineate how to complete the additive model into the multiplicative one with synergic and redundancy elements in the case that criteria are structured in one level and in two levels. Furthermore, we adapted the concept of the fuzzy Choquet integral to the multi-attribute value theory. Studying and comparing the results of the example case of the server selection obtained by both aggregation approaches, the paper highlights the advantages of the first one since it does not require from decision makers to determine the weights of all possible combinations of the criteria and it enables the further use of the most preferred MCDM methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-09-01
Since early 1994, the Department of Energy has been sponsoring studies aimed at evaluating the merits of disposing of surplus US weapons plutonium as Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in existing commercial Canadian Pressurized Heavy Water reactors, known as CANDU's. The first report, submitted to DOE in July, 1994 (the 1994 Executive Summary is attached), identified practical and safe options for the consumption of 50 to 100 tons of plutonium in 25 years in some of the existing CANDU reactors operating the Bruce A generating station, on Lake Huron, about 300 km north east of Detroit. By designing the fuel and nuclear performance to operate within existing experience and operating/performance envelope, and by utilizing existing fuel fabrication and transportation facilities and methods, a low cost, low risk method for long term plutonium disposition was developed. In December, 1995, in response to evolving Mission Requirements, the DOE requested a further study of the CANDU option with emphasis on more rapid disposition of the plutonium, and retaining the early start and low risk features of the earlier work. This report is the result of that additional work
Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen
2014-01-01
With the increasing integration of the wind power into the power system, wind farm are required to be controlled as a single unit and have all the same control tasks as conventional power plants. The wind farm central controller receives control orders from Transmission System Operator (TSO), the...... Optimization (PSO) is used to obtain the optimal wind power for each wind turbine. A case study is carried out. The available wind power of the wind farm was compared between the traditional dispatch method and the proposed dispatch method with the consideration of the wake effect....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
1995-01-01
The main object is to present a set of calibrated partial coefficients for monolithic vertical breakwater failure modes. A preliminary design of the monolithic breakwater will be considered, which will be designed from existing partial coefficients, documented in Eurocode 7 (1994). From this desi...
Asynchronous Gossip-Based Gradient-Free Method for Multiagent Optimization
Deming Yuan
2014-01-01
This paper considers the constrained multiagent optimization problem. The objective function of the problem is a sum of convex functions, each of which is known by a specific agent only. For solving this problem, we propose an asynchronous distributed method that is based on gradient-free oracles and gossip algorithm. In contrast to the existing work, we do not require that agents be capable of computing the subgradients of their objective functions and coordinating their...
Hoffrichter, André; Barrios, Hans; Massmann, Janek; Venkataramanachar, Bhavasagar; Schnettler, Armin
2018-02-01
The structural changes in the European energy system lead to an increase of renewable energy sources that are primarily connected to the distribution grid. Hence the stationary analysis of the transmission grid and the regionalization of generation capacities are strongly influenced by subordinate grid structures. To quantify the impact on the congestion management in the German transmission grid, a 110 kV grid model is derived using publicly available data delivered by Open Street Map and integrated into an existing model of the European transmission grid. Power flow and redispatch simulations are performed for three different regionalization methods and grid configurations. The results show a significant impact of the 110 kV system and prove an overestimation of power flows in the transmission grid when neglecting subordinate grids. Thus, the redispatch volume in Germany to dissolve bottlenecks in case of N-1 contingencies decreases by 38 % when considering the 110 kV grid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mabrouk Briki
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.
Reactive Power Pricing Model Considering the Randomness of Wind Power Output
Dai, Zhong; Wu, Zhou
2018-01-01
With the increase of wind power capacity integrated into grid, the influence of the randomness of wind power output on the reactive power distribution of grid is gradually highlighted. Meanwhile, the power market reform puts forward higher requirements for reasonable pricing of reactive power service. Based on it, the article combined the optimal power flow model considering wind power randomness with integrated cost allocation method to price reactive power. Meanwhile, considering the advantages and disadvantages of the present cost allocation method and marginal cost pricing, an integrated cost allocation method based on optimal power flow tracing is proposed. The model realized the optimal power flow distribution of reactive power with the minimal integrated cost and wind power integration, under the premise of guaranteeing the balance of reactive power pricing. Finally, through the analysis of multi-scenario calculation examples and the stochastic simulation of wind power outputs, the article compared the results of the model pricing and the marginal cost pricing, which proved that the model is accurate and effective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtori, Yasuki
2004-01-01
In the JEAG4601-1987 (Japan Electric Association Guide for earthquake resistance design), either the conventional deterministic method or probabilistic method is used for evaluating the stability of ground foundations and surrounding slopes in nuclear power plants. The deterministic method, in which the soil properties of 'mean ± coefficient x standard deviation' is adopted for the calculations, is generally used in the design stage to data. On the other hand, the probabilistic method, in which the soil properties assume to have probabilistic distributions, is stated as a future method. The deterministic method facilitates the evaluation, however, it is necessary to clarify the relation with the probabilistic method. In this paper, the relationship between the deterministic and the probabilistic methods are investigated. To do that, a simple model that can take into account the dynamic effect of structures and a simplified method for accounting the spatial randomness are proposed and used for the studies. As the results of studies, it is found that the strength of soil properties is most importation factor for the stability of ground structures and the probability below the safety factor evaluated with the soil properties of mean -1.0 x standard deviation' by the deterministic method is of much lower. (author)
The Methods of Stress Management and Their Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Honchar Mykhailo F.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article considers the content and classification of methods of stress management, which provides systematization of their varieties by the number of existing (character, time interval of application, direction of impact, period of action, way of account the interests of employees, level of formation, method of substantiation, content and the allocated new attributes (scale of changes in terms of stress management systems, level of novelty at enterprise, consistency, which allows to choose the appropriate types of such methods in overcoming undesirable deviations that have a significant negative impact on the functioning of economic entities. It has been determined that such methods are formed in the implementing of technology of stress-management; are the result of management activities of the steering subsystem of organization at each level of management; have alternative nature; form an information-management base for the adoption of managerial decisions in terms of the systems of stress administration. It has been specified that, with the assistance of certain methods in terms of stress management systems, managers can track existing and potential problems in the complex and dynamic environment of the organization, identify their relationships, identify «weak signals», adjust goals and tasks of management of critical undesirable deviations, determine indicators and criteria of stress-management, etc.
Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin
2016-02-01
The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..
Introduction of the EISA-PC into existing fusion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenten, W.; Bertschinger, G.; Mueller, K.D.; Reinhart, P.; Rongen, F.
1995-01-01
A general problem in the data acquisition field in fusion research is the lack of sufficient local memory for the storage of information acquired during a single discharge. While it is absolutely necessary to keep these data locally before transferring them to a central node, there has been a steadily increasing demand for more capacity. The introduction of an EISA-Personal-Computer with its vast and cheap memory resources is presenting a very interesting solution for the upgrade of existing installations and the design of new experiments. An innovative PC interface using Programmable Logic techniques was developed that allows easy and fast integration of a PC into an existing experimental setup. Several typical applications of this method are presented, that are of special interest for fusion experiments. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Takaoka, E.; Nakazawa, M.; Shikama, Y.
2002-01-01
A time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method was proposed and applied to earthquake response prediction analysis for a Large Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program in Hualien, Taiwan, in which a 1/4 scale model of a nuclear reactor containment structure was constructed on sandy gravel layer. In the analysis both of strain-dependent material nonlinearity, and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift, were considered. The 'Lattice Model' for the soil-structure interaction model was employed. An earthquake record on soil surface at the site was used as control motion, and deconvoluted to the input motion of the analysis model at GL-52 m with 300 Gal of maximum acceleration. The following two analyses were considered: (A) time history nonlinear, (B) equivalent linear, and the advantage of time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method is discussed
Assessment of existing railroad bridges to accommodate a higher speed considering Chinese practices.
2016-01-01
As the country continues to grow, the USDOT understands that the transportation system will : continue to evolve to meet the demands of the future. A balanced use of all modes of public : transportation, for both individuals and freight, will be requ...
CFD analysis of linear compressors considering load conditions
Bae, Sanghyun; Oh, Wonsik
2017-08-01
This paper is a study on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of linear compressor considering load conditions. In the conventional CFD analysis of the linear compressor, the load condition was not considered in the behaviour of the piston. In some papers, behaviour of piston is assumed as sinusoidal motion provided by user defined function (UDF). In the reciprocating type compressor, the stroke of the piston is restrained by the rod, while the stroke of the linear compressor is not restrained, and the stroke changes depending on the load condition. The greater the pressure difference between the discharge refrigerant and the suction refrigerant, the more the centre point of the stroke is pushed backward. And the behaviour of the piston is not a complete sine wave. For this reason, when the load condition changes in the CFD analysis of the linear compressor, it may happen that the ANSYS code is changed or unfortunately the modelling is changed. In addition, a separate analysis or calculation is required to find a stroke that meets the load condition, which may contain errors. In this study, the coupled mechanical equations and electrical equations are solved using the UDF, and the behaviour of the piston is solved considering the pressure difference across the piston. Using the above method, the stroke of the piston with respect to the motor specification of the analytical model can be calculated according to the input voltage, and the piston behaviour can be realized considering the thrust amount due to the pressure difference.
Ortho Image and DTM Generation with Intelligent Methods
Bagheri, H.; Sadeghian, S.
2013-10-01
Nowadays the artificial intelligent algorithms has considered in GIS and remote sensing. Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network are two intelligent methods that are used for optimizing of image processing programs such as edge extraction and etc. these algorithms are very useful for solving of complex program. In this paper, the ability and application of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network in geospatial production process like geometric modelling of satellite images for ortho photo generation and height interpolation in raster Digital Terrain Model production process is discussed. In first, the geometric potential of Ikonos-2 and Worldview-2 with rational functions, 2D & 3D polynomials were tested. Also comprehensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the viability of the genetic algorithm for optimization of rational function, 2D & 3D polynomials. Considering the quality of Ground Control Points, the accuracy (RMSE) with genetic algorithm and 3D polynomials method for Ikonos-2 Geo image was 0.508 pixel sizes and the accuracy (RMSE) with GA algorithm and rational function method for Worldview-2 image was 0.930 pixel sizes. For more another optimization artificial intelligent methods, neural networks were used. With the use of perceptron network in Worldview-2 image, a result of 0.84 pixel sizes with 4 neurons in middle layer was gained. The final conclusion was that with artificial intelligent algorithms it is possible to optimize the existing models and have better results than usual ones. Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse
Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza
2008-01-01
In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)
Global Existence Results for Viscoplasticity at Finite Strain
Mielke, Alexander; Rossi, Riccarda; Savaré, Giuseppe
2018-01-01
We study a model for rate-dependent gradient plasticity at finite strain based on the multiplicative decomposition of the strain tensor, and investigate the existence of global-in-time solutions to the related PDE system. We reveal its underlying structure as a generalized gradient system, where the driving energy functional is highly nonconvex and features the geometric nonlinearities related to finite-strain elasticity as well as the multiplicative decomposition of finite-strain plasticity. Moreover, the dissipation potential depends on the left-invariant plastic rate, and thus depends on the plastic state variable. The existence theory is developed for a class of abstract, nonsmooth, and nonconvex gradient systems, for which we introduce suitable notions of solutions, namely energy-dissipation-balance and energy-dissipation-inequality solutions. Hence, we resort to the toolbox of the direct method of the calculus of variations to check that the specific energy and dissipation functionals for our viscoplastic models comply with the conditions of the general theory.
Study on Design Optimization of Centrifugal Compressors Considering Efficiency and Weight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Younghwan; Kang, Shinhyoung; Ha, Kyunggu
2015-01-01
Various centrifugal compressors are currently used extensively in industrial fields, where the design requirements are more complicated. This makes it more difficult to determine the optimal design point of a centrifugal compressor. Traditionally, the efficiency is an important factor for optimization. In this study, the weight of the compressor was also considered. The aim of this study was to present the design tendency considering the stage efficiency and weight. In addition, this study suggested possibility of a selection of compressor design objectives at an early design stage based on the optimization results. Only a vaneless diffuser was considered in this case. The Kriging method was used with sample points from 1D design program data. The optimal points were determined in a substitute design space.
Study on Design Optimization of Centrifugal Compressors Considering Efficiency and Weight
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Younghwan; Kang, Shinhyoung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kyunggu [Hyundai Motor Group, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
Various centrifugal compressors are currently used extensively in industrial fields, where the design requirements are more complicated. This makes it more difficult to determine the optimal design point of a centrifugal compressor. Traditionally, the efficiency is an important factor for optimization. In this study, the weight of the compressor was also considered. The aim of this study was to present the design tendency considering the stage efficiency and weight. In addition, this study suggested possibility of a selection of compressor design objectives at an early design stage based on the optimization results. Only a vaneless diffuser was considered in this case. The Kriging method was used with sample points from 1D design program data. The optimal points were determined in a substitute design space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Huiying; Xia Yonghui
2008-01-01
In this paper, some sufficient conditions are obtained for checking the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for bidirectional associative memory Hopfield-type neural networks with impulse. The approaches are based on contraction principle and Gronwall-Bellman's inequality. This paper is considering the almost periodic solution for impulsive Hopfield-type neural networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
mojtaba jafarvand
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Improper posture while working is one of the most important risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to assess the posture of students studying at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences when using the existing best-selling laptop tables using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA method. Methods: This analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 male and female dormitory students in 2017. The study population was selected through stratified random sampling technique. The participants’ postures in two different work stations (tables number one and two were evaluated by means of RULA method. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using the independent sample t-test and ANOVA test. Results: According to the results, 36% and 46% of the students obtained scores of 3 and 4, respectively in case of table number one. Furthermore, regarding table number two, scores 3 and 4 were recorded for 48% and 44% of the participants, respectively. Therefore, tables number one and two were found to have 82% and 92% of level two corrective measure, respectively. In addition, a significant relationship was obtained between the demographic variables and RULA score (P<0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, table number one was a better case than table number two for fitting with different body structures since it allowed for the adjustment of the height and inclination of the work surface. However, corrective measures were necessary for both tables to provide the users with comfort, convenience, health, and productivity when using these laptop tables.
Grade 1 to 6 Thai students' existing ideas about light: Across-age study
Horasirt, Yupaporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
2018-01-01
This paper aimed to investigate Grade 1 to 6 Thai (6 - 12 years old) students' existing ideas about light, sight, vision, source of light. The participants included 36 Grade 1 to 6 students (6 students in each Grade) who studying at a primary school in Khon Kaen. The method of this study is a descriptive qualitative research design. The tools included the two-tiered test about light and open-ended question. Students' responses were categorized the students' existing ideas about light. Findings indicated that young students held various existing ideas about light that could be categorized into 6 different groups relating to sight, vision, and source of light. The paper discussed these students' existing ideas for developing constructivist learning about light in Thailand context.
Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, J.D.
1959-07-01
A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)
Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cummins, J D [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)
1959-07-15
A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay N. Nefedov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, we study a singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for the parabolic reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a weak linear advection. The case of the reactive term in the form of a cubic nonlinearity is considered. On the basis of already known results, a more general formulation of the problem is investigated, with weaker sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer to be provided than in previous studies. For convenience, the known results are given, which ensure the fulfillment of the existence theorem of the contrast structure. The justification for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer is based on the use of an asymptotic method of differential inequalities based on the modification of the terms of the constructed asymptotic expansion. Further, sufficient conditions are established to fulfill these requirements, and they have simple and concise formulations in the form of the algebraic equation w(x0,t = 0 and the condition wx(x0,t < 0, which is essentially a condition of simplicity of the root x0(t and ensuring the stability of the solution found. The function w is a function of the known functions appearing in the reactive and advective terms of the original problem. The equation w(x0,t = 0 is a problem for finding the zero approximation x0(t to determine the localization region of the inner transition layer. In addition, the asymptotic Lyapunov stability of the found periodic solution is investigated, based on the application of the so-called compressible barrier method. The main result of the paper is formulated as a theorem.
Research on uncertainty evaluation measure and method of voltage sag severity
Liu, X. N.; Wei, J.; Ye, S. Y.; Chen, B.; Long, C.
2018-01-01
Voltage sag is an inevitable serious problem of power quality in power system. This paper focuses on a general summarization and reviews on the concepts, indices and evaluation methods about voltage sag severity. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of influencing factors, damage degree, the characteristics and requirements of voltage sag severity in the power source-network-load sides, the measure concepts and their existing conditions, evaluation indices and methods of voltage sag severity have been analyzed. Current evaluation techniques, such as stochastic theory, fuzzy logic, as well as their fusion, are reviewed in detail. An index system about voltage sag severity is provided for comprehensive study. The main aim of this paper is to propose thought and method of severity research based on advanced uncertainty theory and uncertainty measure. This study may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested in the domain of voltage sag severity.
On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tam, Vivian W.Y.
2008-01-01
The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that 'Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials' and 'Propose methods for reducing waste' are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, 'Low financial incentive' and 'Increase in overhead cost' are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, 'Use of prefabricated building components' is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method
Maintainability analysis considering time-dependent and time-independent covariates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad; Markeset, Tore
2011-01-01
Traditional parametric methods for assessing maintainability most often only consider time to repair (TTR) as a single explanatory variable. However, to predict availability more precisely for high availability systems, a better model is needed to quantify the effect of operational environment on maintainability. The proportional repair model (PRM), which is developed based on proportional hazard model (PHM), may be used to analyze maintainability in the present of covariates. In the PRM, the effect of covariates is considered to be time independent. However this assumption may not be valid for some situations. The aim of this paper is to develop the Cox regression model and its extension in the presence of time-dependent covariates for determining maintainability. A simple case study is used to demonstrate how the model can be applied in a real case.
Two-dimensional fluid-hammer analysis by the method of nearcharacteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.
1975-05-01
A numerical technique based on the method of nearcharacteristics is considered for solving propagation of fluid-hammer waves in a two-dimensional geometry. The solution is constructed by relating flow conditions by compatibility equations along lines called nearcharacteristics. Three choices are considered in the numerical scheme that are accurate within an error of the order of magnitude of the time step. Since the nearcharacteristics lie in the coordinate planes, the technique provides an efficient method requiring only simple interpolations in the initial plane. On the other hand, the nearcharacteristics fall outside the characteristics cone. Thus the solution procedure directly refers to conditions outside the true domain of dependence. The effect of this is studied through numerical calculation of a simple example problem and comparison with results obtained by a bicharacteristic method. Comparison is also made with existing analytical solutions and experiments. Furthermore, the three solution schemes considered are examined for numerical stability by the vonNeumann test. Two of the schemes were found to be unstable; the third yielded a stability criterion equivalent to that of the bicharacteristic formulation. The stability-analysis results were confirmed by numerical experimentation. (auth)
Remarks on the global existence in the dynamics of a viscous, heat-conducting, one-dimensional gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Jiang
1994-01-01
We consider initial boundary value problems for the equations of the motion of a viscous, heat-conducting, one-dimensional gas which is confined to a fixed tube with impermeable ends and whose viscosity varies with density, and prove the global existence of smooth (large) solutions. (author). 17 refs
Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C
.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Technical Note Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves V. Sanil Kumar a,C3 , M.C. Deo b a OceanEngineeringDivision,NationalInstituteofOceanography,Donapaula,Goa-403004,India b Civil... of Physical Oceanography Norway, Report method for the routine 18, 1020–1034. ocean waves. Division of No. UR-80-09, 187 p. analysis of pitch and roll Conference on Coastal Engineering, 1. ASCE, Taiwan, pp. 136–149. Deo, M.C., Burrows, R., 1986. Extreme wave...
Considering opinions of the citizens in waste matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litmanen, T.
1996-01-01
Besides the technical questions, the disposal of spent nuclear fuel involves various social, ethical and political aspects. Especially people who live in the vicinity of the locations projected as disposal sites need to consider these issues. Laymen and technical specialists often have different views about the disposal of waste. A confidence gap is said to exist between laymen and experts. To cross the confidence gap, experts must take as active interest in the views expressed by local people. People are particularly apprehensive about the effects of a nuclear waste facility on everyday life in the municipality concerned. Some residents suspect that the disposal project will label the locality as a waste dump. Others think that development of the municipality will stagnate because of fear. Supporters of the disposal facility may argue, for instance, that the project would lead to new jobs and increase tax revenue. When making a decision about the disposal project, the community is at a crossroads where a direction must be chosen. The choice is made difficult by the complexity of the issues under discussion. (orig.) (2 figs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howlader, Harun Or Rashid; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Senjyu, Tomonobu
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Optimal operation of the thermal generation for the smart grid system. • Different distributed generations are considered as the power generation sources. • Forecast error of the renewable energy systems is considered. • Controllable loads of the smart houses are considered to achieve the optimal operation. • Economical benefits can be achieved for the smart grid system. - Abstract: This paper concentrates on the optimal operation of the conventional thermal generators with distributed generations for a smart grid considering forecast error. The distributed generations are considered as wind generators, photovoltaic generators, battery energy storage systems in the supply side and a large number of smart houses in the demand side. A smart house consists of the electric vehicle, heat pump, photovoltaic generator and solar collector. The electric vehicle and heat pump are considered as the controllable loads which can compensate the power for the forecast error of renewable energy sources. As a result, power generation cost of the smart grid can reduce through coordinated with distributed generations and thermal units scheduling process. The electric vehicles of the smart house are considered as the spinning reserve in the scheduling process which lead to lessen the additional operation of thermal units. Finally, obtained results of the proposed system have been compared with the conventional method. The conventional method does not consider the electric vehicle in the smart houses. The acquired results demonstrate that total power generation cost of the smart grid has been reduced by the proposed method considering forecast error. Effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by the extensive simulation results using MATLAB® software
Izie Adiana Abidin, Nur; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Siti; Sahamir, Shaza Rina; Shahzaib, Jam; Nafis Abas, Darul
2018-04-01
Campus university building is the Higher Learning Institution (HLI) involves complex activities and operations, conserving the energy has become paramount important. There are several efforts taken by universities to improve its current energy use such as policy development, education, and adaption of energy conservation solution through retrofitting. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing buildings with clean energy in order to achieve zero energy balance in buildings. The focus is given to the development of criteria for solar photovoltaic (solar PV), wind turbines and small-scale hydropower. A questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the green building expert practitioner. Factor Analysis, Factor Score, and Weightage Factor were adapted as a method of analysis in order to produce the final result with weightage output for prioritization and ranking of the relevant criteria. The result performed assists to provide the stakeholders an overview of the important criteria that should be considered especially during the decision making to retrofit the existing buildings with clean energy resources. The criteria developed are also to establish a structured decision-making process and to ensure the selection of the decision or alternatives achieve the desired outcome.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salat, A.
1981-12-01
The existence of quasi-periodic eigensolutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation with quasi-periodic coefficient f(ω 1 t,ω 2 t) is investigated numerically and graphically. For sufficiently incommensurate frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 a doubly indexed infinite sequence of eigenvalues and eigenmodes is obtained. The equation considered is a model for the magneto-hydrodynamic 'continuum' in general toroidal geometry. The result suggests that continuum modes exist at least on sufficiently irrational magnetic surfaces. (orig.)
Ni, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Feng-Liang
2018-05-01
Modal identification based on vibration response measured from real structures is becoming more popular, especially after benefiting from the great improvement of the measurement technology. The results are reliable to estimate the dynamic performance, which fits the increasing requirement of different design configurations of the new structures. However, the high-quality vibration data collection technology calls for a more accurate modal identification method to improve the accuracy of the results. Through the whole measurement process of dynamic testing, there are many aspects that will cause the rise of uncertainty, such as measurement noise, alignment error and modeling error, since the test conditions are not directly controlled. Depending on these demands, a Bayesian statistical approach is developed in this work to estimate the modal parameters using the forced vibration response of structures, simultaneously considering the effect of the ambient vibration. This method makes use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the data in a selected frequency band to identify the modal parameters of the mode dominating this frequency band and estimate the remaining uncertainty of the parameters correspondingly. In the existing modal identification methods for forced vibration, it is generally assumed that the forced vibration response dominates the measurement data and the influence of the ambient vibration response is ignored. However, ambient vibration will cause modeling error and affect the accuracy of the identified results. The influence is shown in the spectra as some phenomena that are difficult to explain and irrelevant to the mode to be identified. These issues all mean that careful choice of assumptions in the identification model and fundamental formulation to account for uncertainty are necessary. During the calculation, computational difficulties associated with calculating the posterior statistics are addressed. Finally, a fast computational algorithm
14 CFR 1251.301 - Existing facilities.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1251.301 Section 1251... HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.301 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. (b...
10 CFR 611.206 - Existing facilities.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 611.206 Section 611.206 Energy... PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.206 Existing facilities. The Secretary shall, in making awards to those manufacturers that have existing facilities, give priority to those facilities that are oldest or...
A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Paiva
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.
Sourabh, Nishant; Timbadiya, P. V.
2018-04-01
The hydraulic simulation of the existing sewerage network provides various information about critical points to assess the deteriorating condition and help in rehabilitation of existing network and future expansion. In the present study, hydraulic and condition assessment of existing network of educational Institute (i.e. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology-Surat, Gujarat, India), having an area of 100 ha and ground levels in range of 5.0-9.0 m above mean sea level, has been carried out using sewage flow simulation for existing and future scenarios analysis using SewerGEMS v8i. The paper describes the features of 4.79 km long sewerage network of institute followed by network model simulation for aforesaid scenarios and recommendations on improvement of the existing network for future use. The total sewer loads for present and future scenarios are 1.67 million litres per day (MLD) and 3.62 MLD, considering the peak factor of 3 on the basis of population. The hydraulic simulation of the existing scenario indicated depth by diameter (d/D) ratio in the range of 0.02-0.48 and velocity range of 0.08-0.53 m/s for existing network for present scenario. For the future scenario, the existing network is needed to be modified and it was found that total of 11 conduits (length: 464.8 m) should be replaced to the next higher diameter available, i.e., 350 mm for utilization of existing network for future scenario. The present study provides the methodology for condition assessment of existing network and its utilization as per guidelines provided by Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, 2013. The methodology presented in this paper can be used by municipal/public health engineer for the assessment of existing sewerage network for its serviceability and improvement in future.
Levchuk, Georgiy
2016-05-01
The cyber spaces are increasingly becoming the battlefields between friendly and adversary forces, with normal users caught in the middle. Accordingly, planners of enterprise defensive policies and offensive cyber missions alike have an essential goal to minimize the impact of their own actions and adversaries' attacks on normal operations of the commercial and government networks. To do this, the cyber analysis need accurate "cyber battle maps", where the functions, roles, and activities of individual and groups of devices and users are accurately identified. Most of the research in cyber exploitation has focused on the identification of attacks, attackers, and their devices. Many tools exist for device profiling, malware identification, user attribution, and attack analysis. However, most of the tools are intrusive, sensitive to data obfuscation, or provide anomaly flagging and not able to correctly classify the semantics and causes of network activities. In this paper, we review existing solutions that can identify functional and social roles of entities in cyberspace, discuss their weaknesses, and propose an approach for developing functional and social layers of cyber battle maps.
A simplified procedure for mass and stiffness estimation of existing structures
Nigro, Antonella; Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Salvatore Nigro, Domenico
2016-04-01
This work focuses the attention on a parametric method for mass and stiffness identification of framed structures, based on frequencies evaluation. The assessment of real structures is greatly affected by the consistency of information retrieved on materials and on the influence of both non-structural components and soil. One of the most important matter is the correct definition of the distribution, both in plan and in elevation, of mass and stiffness: depending on concentrated and distributed loads, the presence of infill panels and the distribution of structural elements. In this study modal identification is performed under several mass-modified conditions and structural parameters consistent with the identified modal parameters are determined. Modal parameter identification of a structure before and after the introduction of additional masses is conducted. By considering the relationship between the additional masses and modal properties before and after the mass modification, structural parameters of a damped system, i.e. mass, stiffness and damping coefficient are inversely estimated from these modal parameters variations. The accuracy of the method can be improved by using various mass-modified conditions. The proposed simplified procedure has been tested on both numerical and experimental models by means linear numerical analyses and shaking table tests performed on scaled structures at the Seismic Laboratory of the University of Basilicata (SISLAB). Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed procedure to estimate masses and stiffness of existing real structures with a maximum error equal to 10%, under the worst conditions. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2015 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''.
45 CFR 1170.32 - Existing facilities.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1170.32 Section 1170.32... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.32 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and...
45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...
45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...
Experiences in enhancing existing BPM Tools with BPEL Import and Export
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe
2006-01-01
The Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL) has become a de-facto standard for executable process specifications. The broad industry acceptance of BPEL forces workflow and BPM system vendors to consider respective import and export interfaces. Yet, several existing systems...... graph-based BPM tools and BPEL. Furthermore, we present a case study in which we have applied these strategies in an industry project. This case study shows that transformation strategies are helpful for implementing import and export interfaces in a systematic way, and that they can easily be extended...... to address vendor-specific aspects of a graph-based BPM tool....
Maximizing economic and environmental performance of existing coal-fired assets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartley, Pat; Foucher, Jean-Claude; Hestermann, Rolf; Hilton, Bob; Keegan, Bill; Stephen, Don
2007-07-01
In recent years, Plant Owners and innovative suppliers such as ALSTOM have come to realize that existing coal-fired assets have in many cases hidden capacity. This largely results from the conservative nature of their original design, but also from the possibility of integrating the latest advances in technology without the need to buy complete power plant components. ALSTOM's Optimized Plant Retrofit (OPR) process is a proven method to identify the full potential of existing equipment, taking a systemic and holistic approach to achieve full optimisation. OPRs are supported by ALSTOM's comprehensive portfolio of available technologies and a proven capability to integrate retrofit opportunities encompassing innovative solutions for a variety of plant components such as coal mills, boiler, air pollution control equipment, turbogenerator, feedheating and condensing plant. By teaming utility representatives with ALSTOM's technical experts we can collectively identify solutions for enhancing both heat rate and net output, to maximise the value of existing assets. This often gives a return on investment significantly better than greenfield construction for supply margin improvement. This paper introduces the OPR concept in detail and presents case studies and insights into future developments, in particular retrofitting existing assets in an emissions constrained environment. (auth)
Automatic Generalizability Method of Urban Drainage Pipe Network Considering Multi-Features
Zhu, S.; Yang, Q.; Shao, J.
2018-05-01
Urban drainage systems are indispensable dataset for storm-flooding simulation. Given data availability and current computing power, the structure and complexity of urban drainage systems require to be simplify. However, till data, the simplify procedure mainly depend on manual operation that always leads to mistakes and lower work efficiency. This work referenced the classification methodology of road system, and proposed a conception of pipeline stroke. Further, length of pipeline, angle between two pipelines, the pipeline belonged road level and diameter of pipeline were chosen as the similarity criterion to generate the pipeline stroke. Finally, designed the automatic method to generalize drainage systems with the concern of multi-features. This technique can improve the efficiency and accuracy of the generalization of drainage systems. In addition, it is beneficial to the study of urban storm-floods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Dron'
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the work an algorithm for establishing the existence of relationship between arbitrary socio-economic variables is given. The algorithm is based on the condition-consequence decomposition of events. It involves the construction of event-model and the using two classifications – types of interdependencies between events and types of relationships between their attributes.
Uncertainty Analysis with Considering Resonance Self-shielding Effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Tae Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
If infinitely diluted multi-group cross sections were used for the sensitivity, the covariance data from the evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) was directly applied. However, in case of using a self-shielded multi-group cross section, the covariance data should be corrected considering self-shielding effect. Usually, implicit uncertainty can be defined as the uncertainty change by the resonance self-shielding effect as described above. MUSAD ( Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART ) has been developed for a multiplication factor and cross section uncertainty based on the generalized perturbation theory and it, however, can only quantify the explicit uncertainty by the self-shielded multi-group cross sections without considering the implicit effect. Thus, this paper addresses the implementation of the implicit uncertainty analysis module into the code and the numerical results for the verification are provided. The implicit uncertainty analysis module has been implemented into MUSAD based on infinitely-diluted cross section-based consistent method. The verification calculation was performed on MHTGR 350 Ex.I-1a and the differences with McCARD result decrease from 40% to 1% in CZP case and 3% in HFP case. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code can reasonably produce the complete uncertainty on VHTR or LWR where the resonance self-shielding effect should be significantly considered.
Uncertainty Analysis with Considering Resonance Self-shielding Effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Tae Young
2016-01-01
If infinitely diluted multi-group cross sections were used for the sensitivity, the covariance data from the evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) was directly applied. However, in case of using a self-shielded multi-group cross section, the covariance data should be corrected considering self-shielding effect. Usually, implicit uncertainty can be defined as the uncertainty change by the resonance self-shielding effect as described above. MUSAD ( Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART ) has been developed for a multiplication factor and cross section uncertainty based on the generalized perturbation theory and it, however, can only quantify the explicit uncertainty by the self-shielded multi-group cross sections without considering the implicit effect. Thus, this paper addresses the implementation of the implicit uncertainty analysis module into the code and the numerical results for the verification are provided. The implicit uncertainty analysis module has been implemented into MUSAD based on infinitely-diluted cross section-based consistent method. The verification calculation was performed on MHTGR 350 Ex.I-1a and the differences with McCARD result decrease from 40% to 1% in CZP case and 3% in HFP case. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code can reasonably produce the complete uncertainty on VHTR or LWR where the resonance self-shielding effect should be significantly considered
34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...
Methods for determining unimpeded aircraft taxiing time and evaluating airport taxiing performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to improve the methods of determining unimpeded (nominal taxiing time, which is the reference time used for estimating taxiing delay, a widely accepted performance indicator of airport surface movement. After reviewing existing methods used widely by different air navigation service providers (ANSP, new methods relying on computer software and statistical tools, and econometrics regression models are proposed. Regression models are highly recommended because they require less detailed data and can serve the needs of general performance analysis of airport surface operations. The proposed econometrics model outperforms existing ones by introducing more explanatory variables, especially taking aircraft passing and over-passing into the considering of queue length calculation and including runway configuration, ground delay program, and weather factors. The length of the aircraft queue in the taxiway system and the interaction between queues are major contributors to long taxi-out times. The proposed method provides a consistent and more accurate method of calculating taxiing delay and it can be used for ATM-related performance analysis and international comparison.
A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter
Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin
2018-05-01
The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.
ICT support for measuring customer metrics defined by the Balanced Scorecard method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
František Dařena
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper an approach to support of strategic management process using the Balanced Scorecard method is discussed. The main focus is primarily directed to the customer perspective as the most important determining factor of today‘s strategic management. The article suggests general framework for construction of individual performance indicators from this field independently on particular implementation of existing information system in the organization. Methods of gaining necessary information from organization‘s database and from organization‘s environment using customer research are considered.
Temperature Calculation of Annular Fuel Pellet by Finite Difference Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Sun Ki; Lim, Ik Sung; Song, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-10-15
KAERI has started an innovative fuel development project for applying dual-cooled annular fuel to existing PWR reactor. In fuel design, fuel temperature is the most important factor which can affect nuclear fuel integrity and safety. Many models and methodologies, which can calculate temperature distribution in a fuel pellet have been proposed. However, due to the geometrical characteristics and cooling condition differences between existing solid type fuel and dual-cooled annular fuel, current fuel temperature calculation models can not be applied directly. Therefore, the new heat conduction model of fuel pellet was established. In general, fuel pellet temperature is calculated by FDM(Finite Difference Method) or FEM(Finite Element Method), because, temperature dependency of fuel thermal conductivity and spatial dependency heat generation in the pellet due to the self-shielding should be considered. In our study, FDM is adopted due to high exactness and short calculation time.
Identification of cutting force coefficients in machining process considering cutter vibration
Yao, Qi; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai
2018-03-01
Among current cutting force models, cutting force coefficients still are the foundation of predicting calculation combined with consideration of geometry engagement variation, equipment characteristics, material properties and so on. Attached with unimpeachable significance, the traditional and some novel identification methods of cutting force coefficient are still faced with trouble, including repeated onerous work, over ideal measuring condition, variation of value due to material divergence, interference from measuring units. To utilize the large amount of data from real manufacturing section, enlarge data sources and enrich cutting data base for former prediction task, a novel identification method is proposed by considering stiffness properties of the cutter-holder-spindle system in this paper. According to previously proposed studies, the direct result of cutter vibration is the form of dynamic undeformed chip thickness. This fluctuation is considered in two stages of this investigation. Firstly, a cutting force model combined with cutter vibration is established in detailed way. Then, on the foundation of modeling, a novel identification method is developed, in which the dynamic undeformed chip thickness could be obtained by using collected data. In a carefully designed experiment procedure, the reliability of model is validated by comparing predicted and measured results. Under different cutting condition and cutter stiffness, data is collected for the justification of identification method. The results showed divergence in calculated coefficients is acceptable confirming the possibility of accomplishing targets by applying this new method. In discussion, the potential directions of improvement are proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.
1979-11-01
Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design
Problematic gaming exists and is an example of disordered gaming.
Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Pontes, Halley M
2017-09-01
Background The recent paper by Aarseth et al. (2016) questioned whether problematic gaming should be considered a new disorder particularly because "Gaming Disorder" (GD) has been identified as a disorder to be included in the next (11th) revision of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Methods This study uses contemporary literature to argue why GD should be included in the ICD-11. Results Aarseth and colleagues acknowledge that there is much literature (including papers by some of the authors themselves) that some individuals experience serious problems with video gaming. How can such an activity be seriously problematic yet not disordered? Similar to other addictions, gaming addiction is relatively rare and is in essence a syndrome (i.e., a condition or disorder characterized by a set of associated symptoms that tend to occur under specific circumstances). Consequently, not everyone will exhibit exactly the same set of symptoms and consequences, and this partly explains why those working in the problematic gaming field often disagree on symptomatology. Conclusions Research into gaming is not about pathologizing healthy entertainment, but about pathologizing excessive and problematic behaviors that cause significant psychological distress and impairment in an individual's life. These are two related, but (ultimately) very distinct phenomena. While being aware that gaming is a pastime activity which is enjoyed non-problematically by many millions of individuals worldwide, it is concluded that problematic gaming exists and that it is an example of disordered gaming.
AUTOMATIC GENERALIZABILITY METHOD OF URBAN DRAINAGE PIPE NETWORK CONSIDERING MULTI-FEATURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Zhu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Urban drainage systems are indispensable dataset for storm-flooding simulation. Given data availability and current computing power, the structure and complexity of urban drainage systems require to be simplify. However, till data, the simplify procedure mainly depend on manual operation that always leads to mistakes and lower work efficiency. This work referenced the classification methodology of road system, and proposed a conception of pipeline stroke. Further, length of pipeline, angle between two pipelines, the pipeline belonged road level and diameter of pipeline were chosen as the similarity criterion to generate the pipeline stroke. Finally, designed the automatic method to generalize drainage systems with the concern of multi-features. This technique can improve the efficiency and accuracy of the generalization of drainage systems. In addition, it is beneficial to the study of urban storm-floods.
RESTAURANT RESERVATION MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING TABLE COMBINATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qing Miao
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a case study of table reservation practice for restaurant business within Walt Disney World. A unique feature here is to consider table combination to capture revenue potentials from different party sizes and at different time periods. For example, a party of large size can be served by combining two or more small tables. A mixed integer programming (MIP model is developed to make the reservation recommendation. We propose a rolling horizon reservation policy such that the value of a particular table is periodically evaluated and updated. This is a typical revenue management method in the airlines and other industries, the essence of which is to compare the future expected revenue with a currently offered price. Using historical data, numerical test shows a significant revenue improvement potential from our proposed model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jieming Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We establish some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions to a class of initial value problem for impulsive fractional differential equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on a fixed point theorem for mixed monotone operators. Our result can not only guarantee the existence of a unique positive solution but also be applied to construct an iterative scheme for approximating it. An example is given to illustrate our main result.
2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability
2016-01-21
Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Liu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.
Simplified discrete ordinates method in spherical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsawi, M.A.; Abdurrahman, N.M.; Yavuz, M.
1999-01-01
The authors extend the method of simplified discrete ordinates (SS N ) to spherical geometry. The motivation for such an extension is that the appearance of the angular derivative (redistribution) term in the spherical geometry transport equation makes it difficult to decide which differencing scheme best approximates this term. In the present method, the angular derivative term is treated implicitly and thus avoids the need for the approximation of such term. This method can be considered to be analytic in nature with the advantage of being free from spatial truncation errors from which most of the existing transport codes suffer. In addition, it treats the angular redistribution term implicitly with the advantage of avoiding approximations to that term. The method also can handle scattering in a very general manner with the advantage of spending almost the same computational effort for all scattering modes. Moreover, the methods can easily be applied to higher-order S N calculations
Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iermolenko Ia. O.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.
Wulandari, Asri; Asti Anggari, Ega; Dwiasih, Novi; Suyanto, Imam
2018-03-01
Very Low Frequency (VLF) measurement has been done at Pagerkandang Volcanic, Dieng Volcanic Complex (DVC) to examine the possible existence of conductive zones that related with geothermal manifestation. VLF – EM survey used tilt mode with T-VLF BRGM Iris Instrument operated with two frequencies, they are 22200 Hz from Japan (JJI) and 19800 Hz from Australia (NWC). There are five lines with distance between lines is 50 m, and distance between measure points is 20 m. The parameters measured from VLF method are tilt angle (%) and elliptisity (%). Data processed by tilt angle value with fraser and Karous – Hjelt filter used WinVLF program. Karous – Hjelt filter resulted current density contour to estimate lateral location from conductive and resistive zones. The conductive zone is interpreted as the area which have high current density value. This area located at eastern dan western of Pagerkandang Volcanic. The conductive zone related to geothermal manifestation as like as fumarol that appeared because presenced of normal fault. Whereas the resistive zone is interpreted as the area which have low current density value. This area spread almost in the middle of the Pagerkandang Volcanic. The resistive zone was caused by the high weathering in claystone.
An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao
2018-01-01
. Many SOC estimation methods have been proposed in the literature. However, only a few of them consider the real-time applicability. This paper reviews recently proposed online SOC estimation methods and classifies them into five categories. Their principal features are illustrated, and the main pros...... and cons are provided. The SOC estimation methods are compared and discussed in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computation burden. Afterward, as the most popular type of model based SOC estimation algorithms, seven nonlinear filters existing in literature are compared in terms of their accuracy...
A study on building performance analysis for energy retrofit of existing industrial facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourlis, Georgios; Kovacic, Iva
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Thermal simulation of a historical industrial hall with limited data availability. • Considering waste heat from machinery after measuring production fluctuations. • Test of retrofit alternatives for roof and skylights. • Results indicate a significant reduction in heating energy demand up to 52%. • After retrofit naturally ventilated hall can achieve thermal comfort in summer. - Abstract: Due to the strengthening of regulations and codes on building energy performance, as well as with the application of national legislations regarding energy management and efficiency, existing industrial facilities are using thermal refurbishment and renovation as impetus for increasing their overall energy efficiency. This paper analyzes a building envelope refurbishment for a case study of an existing historical industrial facility. Critical parameters affecting energy performance of industrial buildings were identified by reviewing relevant literate. Two retrofit scenarios were developed and dynamic thermal simulation using EnergyPlus was implemented to evaluate the potential for improvement. Thereby the impact of interior loads was considered, determined by measurements conducted on factory machines, occupancy and lighting operation patterns. However, information regarding constructions of the existing facility and installed technical building services is limited. There is also uncertainty in the quantification of natural ventilation air change rate for such buildings. To overcome these limitations a study of various material databases was carried out, in order to assess data for building envelope composition. Input values for missing data were provided based on literature, allowing a fair comparison between refurbishment alternatives. Simulation results showed that the heating demand of the facility could be reduced up to 52%, indicating a significant potential for energy savings. Beyond that, thermal performance against summer overheating also
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)
2010-10-15
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning head-dependent reservoirs under competitive environment. We propose a novel method, based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), for optimising power generation efficiency. This method considers hydroelectric power generation as a nonlinear function of water discharge and of the head. The main contribution of this paper is that discharge ramping constraints and start/stop of units are also considered, in order to obtain more realistic and feasible results. The proposed method has been applied successfully to solve two case studies based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, providing a higher profit at an acceptable computation time in comparison with classical optimisation methods based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). (author)
Existence for viscoplastic contact with Coulomb friction problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amina Amassad
2002-01-01
frictional contact between an elastic-viscoplastic body and a rigid obstacle. We model the frictional contact both by a Tresca's friction law and a regularized Coulomb's law. We assume, in a first part, that the contact is bilateral and that no separation takes place. In a second part, we consider the Signorini unilateral contact conditions. Proofs are based on a time-discretization method, Banach and Schauder fixed point theorems.
Comparison of three retail data communication and transmission methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MA Yue
2016-04-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of retail trade,the type and complexity of data keep increasing,and single data file size has a great difference between each other.How to realize an accurate,real-time and efficient data transmission based on a fixed cost is an important problem.Regarding the problem of effective transmission for business data files,this article implements analysis and comparison on 3 existing data transmission methods,considering the requirements on aspects like function in enterprise data communication system,we get a conclusion that which method can both meet the enterprise daily business development requirement better and have good extension ability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Joung Hoon; Yu, Dong Han
2010-01-01
According to the Generation IV (Gen IV) Technology Roadmap, Gen IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) should highlight proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) as one of the four goals along with sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Especially, physical protection (PP) is the typical important characteristic of an NES that impedes the theft of materials suitable for nuclear explosives or radiation dispersal devices (RDD) and the sabotage of facilities and transportation by subnation entities and other non-Host State adversaries. These two subjects have been studied separately. Proliferation is commonly considered as an international concern and the past work on the PR assessments can be found. On the other hands, PP is regarded as a State security concern, much of which is classified and facility-dependent. Recently, more concern has been focused on the PP design and regulation because of rapid environment changes including radiological consequences by internal sabotage and nuclear terrorism by RDDs. The current PP Regulation has been applied intensively to the existing nuclear facilities and could be a possible guidance for the future GEN-IV NESs. This paper first reviews the IAEA guide document, INFCIRC/225, which was accepted as the standard international guideline in the physical protection area. It has been updated several times up to now, and is undergoing another revision. The paper introduces current substantial changes in the document regarding PP including the national nuclear security and sabotage in the nuclear facilities. Then, it presents a conceptual framework for physical protection against sabotage considering plant-specific radiological consequence after malicious acts within certain vital areas. The framework combines the newly developed method of vital area identification, the current PSA level 2 works, and physical protection concepts. This would help to improve a design concept of new physical protection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Joung Hoon; Yu, Dong Han [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-15
According to the Generation IV (Gen IV) Technology Roadmap, Gen IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) should highlight proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) as one of the four goals along with sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Especially, physical protection (PP) is the typical important characteristic of an NES that impedes the theft of materials suitable for nuclear explosives or radiation dispersal devices (RDD) and the sabotage of facilities and transportation by subnation entities and other non-Host State adversaries. These two subjects have been studied separately. Proliferation is commonly considered as an international concern and the past work on the PR assessments can be found. On the other hands, PP is regarded as a State security concern, much of which is classified and facility-dependent. Recently, more concern has been focused on the PP design and regulation because of rapid environment changes including radiological consequences by internal sabotage and nuclear terrorism by RDDs. The current PP Regulation has been applied intensively to the existing nuclear facilities and could be a possible guidance for the future GEN-IV NESs. This paper first reviews the IAEA guide document, INFCIRC/225, which was accepted as the standard international guideline in the physical protection area. It has been updated several times up to now, and is undergoing another revision. The paper introduces current substantial changes in the document regarding PP including the national nuclear security and sabotage in the nuclear facilities. Then, it presents a conceptual framework for physical protection against sabotage considering plant-specific radiological consequence after malicious acts within certain vital areas. The framework combines the newly developed method of vital area identification, the current PSA level 2 works, and physical protection concepts. This would help to improve a design concept of new physical protection
On existence of control for a class of uncertain dynamical systems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we prove the existence of control for input bounded uncertain dynamical system, modeled on Euclidean spaces of dimensions n and m. We apply the Conjugate Gradient Method (C.G.M) in generating algorithms to compute control signals for the class of problem under consideration. Keywords: Control ...
Stochastic scheduling of renewable micro-grids considering photovoltaic source uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najibi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Taher
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Proposing a complete model for PV panels. • Suggesting a Scenario Based Method to see the uncertainties of problem. • Introduction of a new optimization algorithm for solving MG operation problem. • We propose one modification over the proposed algorithm to make it better working. - Abstract: This paper introduces a new electrical model of a PV array by simulating and tests it on one typical Micro-Grid (MG) to see its performance with regards of optimal energy management of Micro-Grids (MGS). In addition, it introduces a probabilistic framework based on a scenario-based method to overcome all the uncertainties in the optimal energy management of MGs with different renewable power sources, such as Photovoltaic (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), Micro Turbine (MT), and storage devices. Therefore, the uncertainty is considered for WT and PV output power variations, load demand forecasting error and grid bid changes at the same time. It is hard to solve MG problem with all its uncertainty for 24-h time intervals, and consider several equality and inequality at the same time. In fact, in order to resolve this issue, the problem needs one powerful technique that although it converges very fast, it escapes from the local optima. As a result, one modern Dolphin echolocation optimization algorithm (DEOA) is defined to explore all the search space globally. The DEO algorithm uses the ability of echolocation of the dolphins to find the best location. Additionally, the proposed modification method will be introduced in this paper. This method makes the algorithm work better and finds the locations faster. The proposed method is implemented on a test grid-connected MG and satisfying results can be seen after implementation
Possibility of applying the gamma-gamma method to the in situ determination of uranium-ore densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czubek, J.; Guitton, J.
1965-01-01
The principles of the gamma-gamma method are reviewed. It is shown in particular that, under certain conditions, the method makes it possible to obtain a representative measurement of the electronic density. Chemical analyses have been carried out on samples obtained from uranium deposits. The results show that an exact correlation exists between the massive and electronic densities. It is possible to consider the possibility of measuring the density of uranium-containing rocks by the gamma-gamma method. (authors) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin Zhen E-mail: jinzhn@263.net; Ma Zhien; Maoan Han
2004-10-01
In this paper, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulses. By using the method coincidence degree theorem, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one strictly positive periodic solutions. Some known results are improved and generalized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Zhen; Ma Zhien; Maoan Han
2004-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with impulses. By using the method coincidence degree theorem, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one strictly positive periodic solutions. Some known results are improved and generalized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehrad, Vahid; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua
2013-01-01
Inspection of a manufactured freeform surface can be conducted by building its surface model and comparing this manufactured surface model with the ideal design surface model and its tolerance requirement. The manufactured freeform surface model is usually achieved by obtaining measurement points on the manufactured surface, transforming these measurement points from the measurement coordinate system to the design coordinate system through localization, and reconstructing the surface model using the localized measurement points. In this research, a method was developed to estimate the locations and their variances of any selected points on the reconstructed freeform surface considering different sources of uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction processes. In this method, first locations and variances of the localized measurement points are calculated considering uncertainties of the measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the localization processes. Then locations and variances of points on the reconstructed freeform surface are obtained considering uncertainties of the localized measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the freeform surface reconstruction process. Two case studies were developed to demonstrate how these three different uncertainty sources influence the quality of the reconstructed freeform curve and freeform surface in inspection. (paper)
Methods for cost estimation in software project management
Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.
2016-02-01
The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.
Comparison of existing plastic collapse load solutions with experimental data for 90° elbows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Kuk-Hee; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Jae; Jerng, Dong Wook; Budden, Peter J.
2012-01-01
This paper compares published experimental plastic collapse loads for 90° elbows with existing closed-form solutions. A total of 46 experimental data are considered, covering pure bending (in-plane closing, in-plane opening and out-of-plane bending) and combined pressure and bending loads. The plastic collapse load solutions considered are from the ASME code, the Ductile Fracture handbook of Zahoor, by Chattopadhyay and co-workers, and by Y.-J. Kim and co-workers. Comparisons with the experimental data shows that the ASME code solution is conservative by a factor of 2 on collapse load for in-plane closing bending, 2.3 for out-of-plane bending, and 3 for in-plane opening bending. The solutions given by Kim and co-workers give the least conservative estimates of plastic collapse loads, although they provide slightly non-conservative estimates for some data. - Highlights: ► We compare published 46 experimental data of plastic collapse loads for 90° elbows with existing four different plastic collapse load solutions. ► We find that the ASME code solution is conservative by a factor of 2–3, depending on the loading mode. ► We find that the solutions given by Kim and co-workers give the least conservative estimates of plastic collapse loads.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byidasyuk, Yu.M.; Simenog, Yi.V.; Simenog, Yi.V.
2007-01-01
Conditions of the existence of a three-fermion bound state are investigated for the states with nonzero angular momentum L = 1 and a wide class of interaction potentials. It is shown that the binding of three fermions with purely attractive potentials or the standard attractive potentials at high distances and a short-range repulsion is impossible if two of the fermions are unbound. Moreover, this system is even farther from a bound state when the parameters of potentials are in agreement with the low-energy two-neutron data. The possibility for a bound state of a three-fermion system with L = 1 without bound subsystems to exist is demonstrated for the potentials with two attractive regimes. But there exists no bound trineutron for the realistic neutron-neutron interaction even with two regimes of attractions, in contrast to a tetraneutron considered in [9
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi
2017-01-01
as an example. Due to the small range of the effective wake area, it is found that the energy production is almost the same. Finally, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized according to the Maximum Energy Production (MEP) of a wind farm. Upon considering and contrasting the MPPT method...... to maximize the energy production of wind farms by considering the wake effect and the lifetime of wind turbine. It starts with the analysis of the pitch angle curve and active power curve seen from the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of individual wind turbines. Taking the wake effect into account......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...
In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity
Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.
2016-01-01
Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.
In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity
Raies, Arwa B.
2016-01-06
Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.
Keen, James P.
2014-01-01
What does student coaching involve and what considerations make sense in deciding to engage an outside contractor to provide personal coaching? The author explores coaching in light of his own professional experience and uses this reflection as a platform from which to consider the pros and cons of student coaching when deciding whether to choose…
A Multi-Objective Demand Side Management Considering ENS Cost in Smart Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Ghassemzadeh, Saeid; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein
2017-01-01
In this paper a new method is presented to achieve economic exploitation and proper usage of network capacity by exerting controlling actions over flexible loads and energy storage (ES) equipment. Multi-objective planning for demand response programs (DRP) and battery management policies is carried...... out by considering energy not supplied (ENS). In order to achieve an optimal scheduling, charge/discharge control for batteries, demand response programs and dispatch of controllable distributed generations (DGs) are also considered. Then, the balanced cost and benefits of participants are evaluated...
Existence of weak solutions to first-order stationary mean-field games with Dirichlet conditions
Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Tada, Teruo
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study first-order stationary monotone mean-field games (MFGs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. While for Hamilton--Jacobi equations Dirichlet conditions may not be satisfied, here, we establish the existence of solutions of MFGs that satisfy those conditions. To construct these solutions, we introduce a monotone regularized problem. Applying Schaefer's fixed-point theorem and using the monotonicity of the MFG, we verify that there exists a unique weak solution to the regularized problem. Finally, we take the limit of the solutions of the regularized problem and using Minty's method, we show the existence of weak solutions to the original MFG.
A classification and summarization method for analysis of research activities in an academic faculty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Rocha Loures
Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, more and more scientific research activities are carried out in different laboratories and universities, which not only play an important role in the development of science and technology, but also show a significant inference on education. The improvement of the research capability of an academic faculty can directly impact the quality of education, bring innovations to Industrial Engineering curriculum proposals, and guarantee the subjects are up to date. The investigation of the existing issues in the current research activities is usually considered as the primary and challenging step. As the output of research activities, academic articles are often considered as a kind of evidence-based resources for the investigation. Despite some methodological efforts have been made by existing article review methods, less attention has been paid to discover the implicit academic relationships among the academic staffs and to investigate their research expertise. The objective of this study is to address this existing drawback through the proposition of an Academic Information Classification and Summarization method. A case study is carried out in the Industrial and System Engineering Graduate Program (PPGEPS, PUCPR, Brazil. The result not only highlights the advantages that can be obtained from this proposition from the education perspective related to Industrial Engineering, but also can be used as evidence to balance and compare an academic staff’s research expertise and his/her teaching disciplines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czubek, J; Guitton, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
The principles of the gamma-gamma method are reviewed. It is shown in particular that, under certain conditions, the method makes it possible to obtain a representative measurement of the electronic density. Chemical analyses have been carried out on samples obtained from uranium deposits. The results show that an exact correlation exists between the massive and electronic densities. It is possible to consider the possibility of measuring the density of uranium-containing rocks by the gamma-gamma method. (authors) [French] Les principes de la methode gamma-gamma sont rappeles. En particulier, il est montre que, dans certaines conditions, la methode permet une mesure representative de la densite electronique. Des analyses chimiques ont ete effectuees sur des echantillons provenant de gisements uraniferes. Les resultats indiquent qu'il existe une correlation precise entre leur densite massique et leur densite electronique. Il est possible d'envisager la mesure de la densite des roches uraniferes par la methode gamma-gamma.
Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavko Krajcar
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir water balance is affected by decisions by both companies which are independently seeking maximal profit. Methods for water use settlement and preventing of spillage are proposed. A mixed-integer linear programming approach is used. Head effects on output power levels are also considered. Existences of dispatches that satisfy both companies are shown.
Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie
2018-03-01
This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ummenhofer Thomas
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Numerous studies at KIT prove that high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI treatment is an efficient method for increasing the fatigue strength of welded steel structures. Within different research projects it was found that HFMI-methods can be used successfully for new and existing structures in order to extend the fatigue life. This paper gives an overview of the current status of existing steel bridges in Germany regarding aspects like bridge age distributions and traffic loads. Based on that overview welded joints susceptible to fatigue failure are identified. Using component-like small scale specimens, HFMI-methods were investigated within the objective of implementing an effective application for new and existing structures. Applying the fatigue test data observed, existing design proposals are evaluated and design recommendations for HFMI-treated joints are given. As a result of the research work, a transfer into practice has been realized and different applications are illustrated using the example of bridge constructions made of steel.
Risk of early or severe pre-eclampsia related to pre-existing conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta B; Kip, Kevin E
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE), especially severe or early PE, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among mothers and infants. We estimated the population attributable fractions of severe or early PE associated with pre-existing conditions among nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.
2007-01-01
A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...... independent degrees of freedom. Some test problems are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed stacking method....
Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound
Kasimov, Aslan R.; Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem
2013-01-01
We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo's law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard A Garner
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Whilst some defenders of the minimal, limited state or government hold that the state is “a necessary evil,” others would consider that this claim that the state is evil concedes too much ground to anarchists. In this article I intend to discuss the views of some who believe that government is a good thing, and their arguments for supporting this position. My main conclusions will be that, in each case, the proponents of a minimal state, or “minarchy,” fail to justify as much as what they call government, and so fail to oppose anarchism, or absences of what they call government.
A Hyper-Heuristic Ensemble Method for Static Job-Shop Scheduling.
Hart, Emma; Sim, Kevin
2016-01-01
We describe a new hyper-heuristic method NELLI-GP for solving job-shop scheduling problems (JSSP) that evolves an ensemble of heuristics. The ensemble adopts a divide-and-conquer approach in which each heuristic solves a unique subset of the instance set considered. NELLI-GP extends an existing ensemble method called NELLI by introducing a novel heuristic generator that evolves heuristics composed of linear sequences of dispatching rules: each rule is represented using a tree structure and is itself evolved. Following a training period, the ensemble is shown to outperform both existing dispatching rules and a standard genetic programming algorithm on a large set of new test instances. In addition, it obtains superior results on a set of 210 benchmark problems from the literature when compared to two state-of-the-art hyper-heuristic approaches. Further analysis of the relationship between heuristics in the evolved ensemble and the instances each solves provides new insights into features that might describe similar instances.
Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?
Nissenson, Bilha
2007-01-01
The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VanHooren, D L; Scott, J J
1988-01-01
This report investigates methods to utilize existing bulk tobacco kilns for curing (drying) of shelled corn, peanuts, and baled hay. In recent years Ontario tobacco producers have had to reduce production levels due to a declining demand for flue-cured tobacco. Many tobacco producers are currently diversifying into other crops. Some of these crops require curing and/or storage. Because of high capital costs to purchase conventional curing and/or storage facilities, tobacco producers wish to reduce their initial diversification costs by modifying their existing tobacco kilns (tobacco drying structures) and/or tobacco storage barns for this purpose. The investigation included high profile and low profile downdraft stick kilns, bulk kilns, and tobacco storage (pack) barns. Corn, peanuts, and hay were considered in relation to bulk kiln specifications and modifications, handling, drying and storage methods, energy requirements, cost, and quality of end product. The conclusions drawn from the study of each product are presented. Results from the projects indicate that: shelled corn can be dried from about 26% moisture content (w.b.) or less; baled hay can be dried from about 27% moisture content (w.b.) or less; and peanuts cured at airflow rates ranging from 169 to 645 l/s/m/sup 3/ of peanuts exhibited no significant differences when evaluated for appearance and flavour. 1 ref., 23 figs., 15 tabs.
Earthquake response analysis considering structure-soil-structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiomi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Oguro, E.
1981-01-01
This paper proposes a numerical method of earthquake response analysis considering the structure-soil-structure interaction between two adjacent buildings. In this paper an analytical study is presented in order to show some typical features of coupling effects of two reactor buildings of the BWR-type nuclear power plant. The technical approach is a kind of substructure method, which at first evaluates the compliance properties with the foundation-soil-foundation interaction and then uses the compliance in determining seismic responses of two super-structures during earthquake motions. For this purpose, it is assumed that the soil medium is an elastic half space for modeling and that the rigidity of any type of structures such as piping facilities connecting the adjacent buildings is negligible. The technical approach is mainly based on the following procedures. Supersturcture stiffness is calculated by using the method which has been developed in our laboratory based on the Thin-Wall Beam Theory. Soil stiffness is expressed by a matrix with 12 x 12 elements as a function of frequency, which is calculated using the soil compliance functions proposed in Dr. Tajimi's Theory. These stiffness values may be expressed by complex numbers for modeling the damping mechanism of superstructures. We can solve eigenvalue problems with frequency dependent stiffness and the large-scale matrix using our method which is based on condensing the matrix to the suitable size by Rayleigh-Ritz method. Earthquake responses can be solved in the frequency domain by Fourier Transform. (orig./RW)