WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing insurance products

  1. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  2. Differences exist across insurance schemes in China post-consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available In China, the basic insurance system consists of three schemes: the UEBMI (Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI (Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance, and NCMS (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, across which significant differences have been observed. Since 2009, the central government has been experimenting with consolidating these schemes in selected areas. This study examines whether differences still exist across schemes after the consolidation.A survey was conducted in the city of Suzhou, collecting data on subjects 45 years old and above with at least one inpatient or outpatient treatment during a period of twelve months. Analysis on 583 subjects was performed comparing subjects' characteristics across insurance schemes. A resampling-based method was applied to compute the predicted gross medical cost, OOP (out-of-pocket cost, and insurance reimbursement rate.Subjects under different insurance schemes differ in multiple aspects. For inpatient treatments, subjects under the URBMI have the highest observed and predicted gross and OOP costs, while those under the UEBMI have the lowest. For outpatient treatments, subjects under the UEBMI and URBMI have comparable costs, while those under the NCMS have much lower costs. Subjects under the NCMS also have a much lower reimbursement rate.Differences still exist across schemes in medical costs and insurance reimbursement rate post-consolidation. Further investigations are needed to identify the causes, and interventions are needed to eliminate such differences.

  3. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  4. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Systematic Alien... pre-existing condition based on evidence of the existence or history of certain medical or health...

  5. Report on the Pre-existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Before the Affordable Care Act, Americans with pre-existing conditions who did not receive health coverage through their employers had few affordable options to get...

  6. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  7. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.

  8. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  9. AREAS FOR INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INSURANCE MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tretiak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the prospects for the implementation of the investment life insurance in Ukraine. The study analysed the experience of foreign countries in the investment life insurance market development. Also, an analysis of existing definitions for the "unit-linked" term is carried out; the result is the conclusion that they are limited to only a descriptive characteristic that relates to a particular aspect of the product. Upon that, a comprehensive definition is absent at all now. Methods. The study is based on a comparison of "unitlinked" products with the traditional life insurance, which exist in the world practice. Practical importance. Increase in the inflow of long-term resources in the Ukrainian economy through the implementation of an innovative unitlinked product. Transformation of the life insurance industry into the high-margin business sphere in Ukraine. Importance/originality. A technique of constructing an innovative unit-linked product depending on the specifics of the domestic insurance market performance is developed. Results. The article considers in depth the specific features of unit-linked products, which distinguish this life insurance type from the classic accumulative insurance. In addition, it highlights other important characteristics such as a high level of flexibility and transparency of all the components. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of unit-linked products are considered as compared to alternative products, its classification is held for the selected parameter group. The estimations of the unit-linked product development prospects, as well as its influence on the growth of the insurance market, are made. The study justifies the legislative consolidation of the investment life insurance along with a number of expansionary measures successfully implemented in Eastern European countries, which are similar to Ukraine. The result within the framework of this direction is the

  10. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  11. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  12. MARKETING OF INSURANCE PRODUCTS BY THE NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED, RAJAPALAYAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. H. Christy Cynthia; Dr. T. Jebasheela; V. Maheswari

    2017-01-01

    Insurance is a way of reducing uncertainty of occurrence of an event. Insurance is an investment. Its basic purpose is to derive plans to counteract the financial consequences of unfavorable events. Insurance is a social device for eliminating or reducing the cost to society to certain types of risks. Insurance is essentially a co-operative endeavor. It is the function of the insurance to protect the few against the heavy financial impact of anticipated misfortunes by spreading losses among m...

  13. Longevity Risk and Natural Hedge Potential in Portfolios Of Life Insurance Products : The Effect of Investment Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, R.S.P.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Melenberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Payments of life insurance products depend on the uncertain future evolution of survival probabilities. This uncertainty is referred to as longevity risk. Existing literature shows that the effect of longevity risk on single life annuities can be substantial, and that there exists a (natural) hedge

  14. Biodiversity, productivity, and the spatial insurance hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, David W.; Dieckmann, Ulf; Jonas, Matthias; Franklin, Oskar; Loreau, Michel; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating rates of biodiversity loss have led ecologists to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning and the flow of ecosystem services. One explanation of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning lies in the spatial insurance hypothesis, which centers on the idea that productivity and stability increase with biodiversity in a temporally varying, spatially heterogeneous environment. However, there has been little work on the impact of dispersal where environmental risks are more or less spatially correlated, or where dispersal rates are variable. In this paper, we extend the original Loreau model to consider stochastic temporal variation in resource availability, which we refer to as “environmental risk,” and heterogeneity in species dispersal rates. We find that asynchronies across communities and species provide community-level stabilizing effects on productivity, despite varying levels of species richness. Although intermediate dispersal rates play a role in mitigating risk, they are less effective in insuring productivity against global (metacommunity-level) than local (individual community-level) risks. These results are particularly interesting given the emergence of global sources of risk such as climate change or the closer integration of world markets. Our results offer deeper insights into the Loreau model and new perspectives on the effectiveness of spatial insurance in the face of environmental risks. PMID:26100182

  15. Historical extension of operational NDVI products for livestock insurance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Meroni, Michele; Shee, Apurba; Mude, Andrew G.; Woodard, Joshua; de Bie, C. A. J. M. (Kees); Rembold, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Droughts induce livestock losses that severely affect Kenyan pastoralists. Recent index insurance schemes have the potential of being a viable tool for insuring pastoralists against drought-related risk. Such schemes require as input a forage scarcity (or drought) index that can be reliably updated in near real-time, and that strongly relates to livestock mortality. Generally, a long record (>25 years) of the index is needed to correctly estimate mortality risk and calculate the related insurance premium. Data from current operational satellites used for large-scale vegetation monitoring span over a maximum of 15 years, a time period that is considered insufficient for accurate premium computation. This study examines how operational NDVI datasets compare to, and could be combined with the non-operational recently constructed 30-year GIMMS AVHRR record (1981-2011) to provide a near-real time drought index with a long term archive for the arid lands of Kenya. We compared six freely available, near-real time NDVI products: five from MODIS and one from SPOT-VEGETATION. Prior to comparison, all datasets were averaged in time for the two vegetative seasons in Kenya, and aggregated spatially at the administrative division level at which the insurance is offered. The feasibility of extending the resulting aggregated drought indices back in time was assessed using jackknifed R2 statistics (leave-one-year-out) for the overlapping period 2002-2011. We found that division-specific models were more effective than a global model for linking the division-level temporal variability of the index between NDVI products. Based on our results, good scope exists for historically extending the aggregated drought index, thus providing a longer operational record for insurance purposes. We showed that this extension may have large effects on the calculated insurance premium. Finally, we discuss several possible improvements to the drought index.

  16. Defining the key-parameters of insurance product in Islamic insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galim Zaribzyanovich Vakhitov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the range of actuarial calculations in Islamic insurance to study the main differences of the traditional and Islamic insurance to define what changes in calculations entail the above differences. Methods mathematical modeling probabilistic analysis of insurance risks adaptation of methods of actuarial mathematics to the principles of Islamic insurance. Results the mathematical form of the takafulfund models is presented the distribution is analyzed of a random variable of the resulting insurance fund or the insurance company balance in a particular fixed insurance portfolio. Scientific novelty calculation are presented of the optimal tariff rate in takaful. Islamic insurance is an innovative area of insurance industry. Actuarial calculations that meet the Sharia rules are still being developed. The authors set the new tasks of actuarial calculations including the specified changes in the calculation of the optimal tariff rate imposed by the Islamic insurance principles. Practical value the results obtained can be used in the actuarial calculations of the Islamic insurance companies. nbsp

  17. Existence and equivalence of twisted products on a symplectic manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The twisted products play an important role in Quantum Mechanics. A distinction is introduced between Vey *sub(γ) products and strong Vey *sub(γ) products and it is proved that each *sub(γ) product is equivalent to a Vey *sub(γ) product. If b 3 (W) = 0, the symplectic manifold (W,F) admits strong Vey *sub(Gn) products. If b 2 (W) = 0, all *sub(γ) products are equivalent as well as the Vey Lie algebras. In the general case the formal Lie algebras are characterized which are generated by a *sub(γ) product and it proved that the existance of a *sub(γ)-product is equivalent to the existance of a formal Lie algebra infinitesimally equivalent to a Vey Lie algebra at the first order. (Auth.)

  18. The Flowering and Bee-like Insurance, Economic Standards for the Cuban Apian’s Productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Eusebio Pérez Morejón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work grasped Cuban archipelago with the purpose of promoting the financial protection in agricultural sector, giving options of security to the country Apian’s producers against incontrollable natural risks. A study of the hurricanes in Cuba was carried out, so as evaluation of danger, vulnerability and sensitivity of the Apian’s echo-systems (AE; the analysis of occurrence frequency (OF demonstrate that in Cuba doesn’t exist low dangerous zones for the hurricanes impact. Recovery of heavy losses has delayed very variable time intervals which oscillate between 3 to 34 months. Considerable damages could be confirmed in arboreous covering of the (AE. As final results were presented the apian insurance as an economical necessity standard to transfer risks before whips of climatic changes, expressed in the increase of number and intensity of the hurricanes and long drought. It is proved that the losses in this lapse of time are assumed by the insurance enterprise in a 70 %, which economically justify the fact of protecting the apian productions to guarantees of itself and it was demonstrated that it is necessary and feasible the application of the proposal of apian insure. To the development of this work were used analysis methods statistical and survey.

  19. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage..., or a mixture thereof, or other species as shown in the Actuarial Documents. Harvest—Removal of forage... different price elections by type, in which case you may select one price election for each forage type...

  20. The influence of gender and product design on farmers' preferences for weather-indexed crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Sonia; Krupnik, Timothy J; Rossi, Frederick; Khanam, Fahmida

    2016-05-01

    Theoretically, weather-index insurance is an effective risk reduction option for small-scale farmers in low income countries. Renewed policy and donor emphasis on bridging gender gaps in development also emphasizes the potential social safety net benefits that weather-index insurance could bring to women farmers who are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change risk and have low adaptive capacity. To date, no quantitative studies have experimentally explored weather-index insurance preferences through a gender lens, and little information exists regarding gender-specific preferences for (and constraints to) smallholder investment in agricultural weather-index insurance. This study responds to this gap, and advances the understanding of preference heterogeneity for weather-index insurance by analysing data collected from 433 male and female farmers living on a climate change vulnerable coastal island in Bangladesh, where an increasing number of farmers are adopting maize as a potentially remunerative, but high-risk cash crop. We implemented a choice experiment designed to investigate farmers' valuations for, and trade-offs among, the key attributes of a hypothetical maize crop weather-index insurance program that offered different options for bundling insurance with financial saving mechanisms. Our results reveal significant insurance aversion among female farmers, irrespective of the attributes of the insurance scheme. Heterogeneity in insurance choices could however not be explained by differences in men's and women's risk and time preferences, or agency in making agriculturally related decisions. Rather, gendered differences in farmers' level of trust in insurance institutions and financial literacy were the key factors driving the heterogeneous preferences observed between men and women. Efforts to fulfill gender equity mandates in climate-smart agricultural development programs that rely on weather-index insurance as a risk-abatement tool are therefore

  1. Assessing Climate Risk on Agricultural Production: Insights Using Retrospective Analysis of Crop Insurance and Climatic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. J.; Elias, E.; Eischens, A.; Shilts, M.; Rango, A.; Steele, R.

    2017-12-01

    The collaborative synthesis of existing datasets, such as long-term climate observations and farmers' crop insurance payments, can increase their overall collective value and societal application. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Climate Hubs were created to develop and deliver science-based information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers to enable climate-informed decision-making. As part of this mission, Hubs work across USDA and other climate service agencies to synthesize existing information. The USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA) is responsible for overseeing the Federal crop insurance program which currently insures over $100 billion in crops annually. RMA hosts data describing the cause for loss (e.g. drought, wind, irrigation failure) and indemnity amount (i.e. total cost of loss) at multiple spatio-temporal scales (i.e. state, county, year, month). The objective of this paper is to link climate information with indemnities, and their associated cause of loss, to assess climate risk on agricultural production and provide regionally-relevant information to stakeholders to promote resilient working landscapes. We performed a retrospective trend analysis at the state-level for the American Southwest (SW). First, we assessed indemnity-only trends by cause of loss and crop type at varying temporal scales. Historical monthly weather data (i.e. precipitation and temperature) and long-term drought indices (e.g. Palmer Drought Severity Index) were then linked with indemnities and grouped by different causes of loss. Climatological ranks were used to integrate historical comparative intensity of acute and long-term climatic events. Heat and drought as causes of loss were most correlated with temperature and drought indicators, respectively. Across all SW states increasing indemnities were correlated with warmer conditions. Multiple statistical trend analyses suggest a framework is necessary to appropriately measure the biophysical

  2. Securitization product design for China's environmental pollution liability insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.

  3. Atomic risk insurance. Risk policy, safety production and expertise in Germany and the USA 1945 - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the following chapters: (I) Between threat and promise: Political change and the corporate perception, the burden of the atomic bomb, promise of nuclear energy risk criticism in the pre-ecological phase, nuclear risk as investment restraint; (II) Risk policy at the insurability limit: hazard knowledge, safety production and insurance expertise in the German nuclear policy (1955-1962); (III) Risk policy beyond the catastrophe, insurability interpretation, concepts and conflicts (1957-1968); (IV) Scandalization of risk policy: safety production, confidence and expertise in the nuclear controversial debate (1969 - 1979); (V) Nuclear risk policy and the challenge of the ''risk society'' (1975-1986); (VI) From safety production to hazard probe: atomic energy And the change of insurance.

  4. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  5. Research on Supply Chain Coordination of Fresh Agricultural Products under Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the current fresh agricultural products are susceptible to natural risks and the coordination of supply chain is poor, This paper constructs the supply chain profit model under the two models of natural risk and agricultural insurance, Firstly, studying the coordination function of the supply chain system under Two-part Tariff; Then discussing the setting and claiming mechanism of agricultural insurance, compares the influence of agricultural insurance on supply chain profit and supply chain coordination; Finally, giving an example to validate the model results and give decision - making opinions. Research shows that the supply chain of fresh agricultural products can coordinated under Two-part Tariff, but the supply chain cooperation is poor in the natural risk , need to further stabilize and optimize the supply chain; When the risk factor is less than the non-participation insurance coefficient, not to participate in agricultural insurance is conducive to maintaining the coordination of the supply chain system; When the risk coefficient exceeds the non-participation insurance coefficient, the introduction of agricultural insurance can not only effectively manage the natural risks, but also help to improve the coordination of the supply chain system.

  6. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  7. Willingness to pay for health insurance: an analysis of the potential market for new low-cost health insurance products in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Asfaw, Abay; van der Gaag, Jacques

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the willingness to pay for health insurance and hence the potential market for new low-cost health insurance product in Namibia, using the double bounded contingent valuation (DBCV) method. The findings suggest that 87 percent of the uninsured respondents are willing to join the proposed health insurance scheme and on average are willing to insure 3.2 individuals (around 90 percent of the average family size). On average respondents are willing to pay NAD 48 per capita per month and respondents in the poorest income quintile are willing to pay up to 11.4 percent of their income. This implies that private voluntary health insurance schemes, in addition to the potential for protecting the poor against the negative financial shock of illness, may be able to serve as a reliable income flow for health care providers in this setting.

  8. Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate

  9. Assessing the antecedents of customer loyalty on healthcare insurance products: Service quality; perceived value embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Abdelmuniem Abdelfattah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research aim to investigate the influence of service quality attributes towards customers’ loyalty on health insurance products. In addition, this research also tested the mediation role of perceived value in between service quality and customers’ loyalty on health insurance products. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the literature review, this research developed a conceptual model of customers loyalty embedded with service quality and perceived value. The study surveyed 342 healthcare insurance customers. Apart from assessing the reliability and validity of the constructs through confirmatory factor analysis, this research also used structural equation modelling (SEM approach to test the proposed hypothesis. Findings: The results from the inferential statistics revealed that the healthcare insurance customers are highly influenced by service quality followed by the perceived value in reaching their loyalty towards a particular health insurance service provider. Research limitations/implications: The sample for this study is based on health insurance customers only and it is suggested that future studies enlarge the scope to include others type of customers of different insurance products. Practical implications: In order to encourage the customers to more loyal towards their service providers, this research will add value for the mangers to understand the items of service quality and considering the perceived value of the target customers in order to optimize their loyalty. As whole, the outcome of this research will assist managers for better understanding of the customers’ loyalty antecedents under the perspective of healthcare insurance products. Originality/value: This paper has tried to provide a comprehensive understanding about customers’ loyalty under the perspective of service quality and perceived values context in the Malaysian health care insurance industry. Since there was a lack of such research in

  10. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  11. Sources of New Life Insurance Product Ideas in LIC of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furquan Uddin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present complex nature of market has created sturdy challenges before the business world in the form of designing right product, right price, right placement and right promotion. In order to survive and thrive, a marketer has to focus on these challenges. Amongst, right product is most crucial which requires good and feasible ideas in all industries including life insurance. In fact, life insurance is perceived as an unsought and complicated financial product in India. The present paper is a humble attempt to examine the sources of new life insurance product ideas in LIC of India. The findings of the present study include the sources into six groups such as key stakeholders, workforce, organizational documents and other sources, research unit, competitors, and national and international source. It may be noticed the key stakeholders like Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India, actuary, top management, and policyholders play vital role in providing ideas in the new product development process of LIC of India.

  12. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  13. Weather based risks and insurances for agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as frost, drought, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The principle of return periods or frequencies of natural hazards is adopted in many countries as the basis of eligibility for the compensation of associated losses. For adequate risk management and eligibility, hazard maps for events with a 20-year return period are often used. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar therefore requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event in the farming calendar. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. Subsequent examination of the frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and soil moisture stress in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages allows for risk profiles to be confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims. The methodology is demonstrated for arable food crops, bio-energy crops and fruit. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

  14. Land Suitability and Insurance Premiums: A GIS-based Multicriteria Analysis Approach for Sustainable Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monjurul Islam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a land suitability model for rice production based on suitability levels and to propose insurance premiums to obtain maximum returns based on the harvest index and subsidy dependence factor for the marginal and moderately suitable lands in the northern part of Bangladesh. A multicriteria analysis was undertaken and a rice land suitability map was developed using geographical information system and analytical hierarchy process. The analysis identified that 22.74% of the area was highly suitable, while 14.86% was marginally suitable, and 28.54% was moderately suitable for rice production. However, 32.67% of the area, which was occupied by water bodies, rivers, forests, and settlements, is permanently not suitable; 1.19% is presently not suitable. To motivate low-quality land owners to produce rice, there is no alternative but to provide protection through crop insurance. We suggest producing rice up to marginally suitable lands to obtain support from insurance. The minimum coverage is marginal coverage (70% to cover the production costs, while the maximum coverage is high coverage (90% to enable a maximum return. This new crop insurance model, based on land suitability can be a rational support for owners of different quality land to increase production.

  15. The role of product design in consumers' choices in the individual insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3-0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage.

  16. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  17. The Emergence of Flood Insurance in Canada: Navigating Institutional Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Flood insurance has remained unavailable in Canada based on an assessment that it lacks economic viability. In response to Canada's costliest flood event to date in 2013, the Canadian insurance industry has started to develop a framework to expand existing property insurance to cover flood damage. Research on flood insurance has overlooked why and how insurance systems transition to expand insurance coverage without evidence of economic viability. This article will address this gap through a case study on the emergence of flood insurance in Canada, and the approach to its expansion. Between 2013 and 2016, insurance industry officials representing over 60% of premiums collected in Canada were interviewed. These interviews revealed that flood insurance is being expanded in response to institutional pressure, specifically external stakeholder expectations that the insurance industry will adopt a stronger role in managing flood risk through coverage of flood damage. Further evidence of this finding is explored by assessing the emergence of a unique flood insurance model that involves a risk-adjusted and optional product along with an expansion of government policy supporting flood risk mitigation. This approach attempts to balance industry concerns about economic viability with institutional pressure to reduce flood risk through insurance. This analysis builds on existing research by providing the first scholarly analysis of flood insurance in Canada, important "empirical" teeth to existing conceptual analysis on the availability of flood insurance, and the influence of institutional factors on risk analysis within the insurance sector. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Applying Behavioral Economics Concepts in Designing Usage-Based Car Insurance Products

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral economics, a discipline combining economics and psychology to explain consumer decision making, offers insights on how best to institute transportation pricing in a manner that is acceptable to drivers and also meets public policy objectives. As an example of how to use this relatively new discipline to enhance the acceptance and benefits of transportation pricing, its application to designing usage-based or pay-as-you-drive-and-you-save (PAYDAYS) insurance products is explored. Sp...

  19. AN ANALYSIS ON THE DECISION MODEL OF SMART PLUS INSURANCE PRODUCT PURCHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitry Primadona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to analyze the decision model of Smart Plus insurance product purchase and 2 to determine the criteria, sub-criteria, and alternative priorities in Smart Plus purchase decision model. The methods utilized in the study included a survey and interview (in-depth interview by using an AHP analysis (Analytical Hierarchy Process and processing software of "Expert Choice". The result of the first analysis indicated the four marketing mixes that had been performed (Price, Product, Process, and Place; while the second one showed that the purchase of Smart Plus product is based on the factors with the level of interest as follow: benefit (36.3%, premium (35.7%, membership process (14.6%, and provider (13.4%. The result of the second analysis revealed the important sub-criteria including premium offer, additional benefits, membership card, and temporary certificate from the medical specialist.Keywords: AHP, life insurance, marketing mix, purchase decision

  20. INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.

  1. The emerging roles of agricultural insurance and farmers cooperatives on sustainable rice productions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopulisa, C.; Rismaneswati; Ramlan, A.; Suryani, I.

    2018-05-01

    Rice is the main staple food of most Asian countries including Indonesia. Most of the rice producers are constituted by small individual farmers characterized with mostly landless, have a less farming capitals and less access to pool resources and of course are confronted with various risk. Agriculture is faced with a lot of uncertainly most of which are not within the control of farmers. Global climatic change, climatic disasters, fluctuation of global economic and competitiveness of multinational company make difficulties of farmers to pursue his sustainable farming activity. The challenge and the role of government is to reduce uncertainly and to improve resiliency of the small farmer. Agriculture insurance shall focus on risk factors that are difficult to manage or cannot be managed by small farmers and it is should be viewed as just one aspect of the “holistic” risk management strategy. Technology, market, consumer, behaviour, development will always move forward, and no individual farmers can adapt this change alone, so small farmers need to corporate with each other that can optimized the resources they have. Cooperative could create possibilities, value added, shortening the supplied chain, made a product more effective and efficient, and finally can complete in domestic and global markets. Therefore, agriculture insurance as well a farmer cooperative may play an important role on sustainability of rice production in Indonesia. Nowadays and in the future agriculture sustainability is a not merely of technology problems but also a matter of economic-social-culture and politic issues within local, national, and international context.

  2. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  3. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  4. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  5. Crop insurance demand in wheat production: focusing on yield gaps and asymmetric information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castañeda-Vera, A.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Mínguez, I.; Garrido, A.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of yield gaps were conducted in the context of crop insurance and used to build an indicator of asymmetric information. The possible influence of asymmetric information in the decision of Spanish wheat producers to contract insurance was additionally evaluated. The analysis includes simulated yield using a validated crop model, CERES-Wheat previously selected among others, whose suitability to estimate actual risk when no historical data are available was assessed. Results suggest that the accuracy in setting the insured yield is decisive in farmers’ willingness to contract crop insurance under the wider coverage. Historical insurance data, when available, provide a more robust technical basis to evaluate and calibrate insurance parameters than simulated data, using crop models. Nevertheless, the use of crop models might be useful in designing new insurance packages when no historical data is available or to evaluate scenarios of expected changes. In that case, it is suggested that yield gaps be estimated and considered when using simulated attainable yields.

  6. Crop insurance demand in wheat production: focusing on yield gaps and asymmetric information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castañeda-Vera, A.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Mínguez, I.; Garrido, A.

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of yield gaps were conducted in the context of crop insurance and used to build an indicator of asymmetric information. The possible influence of asymmetric information in the decision of Spanish wheat producers to contract insurance was additionally evaluated. The analysis includes simulated yield using a validated crop model, CERES-Wheat previously selected among others, whose suitability to estimate actual risk when no historical data are available was assessed. Results suggest that the accuracy in setting the insured yield is decisive in farmers’ willingness to contract crop insurance under the wider coverage. Historical insurance data, when available, provide a more robust technical basis to evaluate and calibrate insurance parameters than simulated data, using crop models. Nevertheless, the use of crop models might be useful in designing new insurance packages when no historical data is available or to evaluate scenarios of expected changes. In that case, it is suggested that yield gaps be estimated and considered when using simulated attainable yields.

  7. Professional dental and oral surgery liability in Italy: a comparative analysis of the insurance products offered to health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano; Nugnes, Mariarosaria; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziano, Vincenzo; Niola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In Italy there has been an increase in claims for damages for alleged medical malpractice. A study was therefore conducted that aimed at assessing the content of the coverage of insurance policy contracts offered to oral health professionals by the insurance market. The sample analysed composed of 11 insurance policy contracts for professional dental liability offered from 2010 to 2015 by leading insurance companies operating in the Italian market. The insurance products analysed are structured on the "claims made" clause. No policy contract examined covers the damage due to the failure to acquire consent for dental treatment and, in most cases, damage due to unsatisfactory outcomes of treatment of an aesthetic nature and the failure to respect regulatory obligations on privacy. On entering into a professional liability insurance policy contract, the dentist should pay particular attention to the period covered by the guarantee, the risks both covered and excluded, as well as the extent of the limit of liability and any possible fixed/percentage excess. When choosing a professional liability contract, a dentist should examine the risks in relation to the professional activity carried out before signing.

  8. MILK PRODUCTIONS AT SERVAL FARM IN MURES DISTRICT, OBTAINED WITHIN THE EXISTING CONSTRUCTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BOCA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the research results performed at a farm of the Mures district, between 2005 and 2008, concerning the milk productions, obtained in the existing constructive solutions. The essential changes produced in the last decades, concerning the dairy cattle raising and exploitation technologies, food, reproduction and amelioration, at one time with the technique development witch allow the mechanization of some production processes, imposes, also, our intervention in the constructive variants of accommodation through the actual shelter modernization, existing in this farm.

  9. On the management of life insurance company risk by strategic choice of product mix, investment strategy and surplus appropriation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnert, Alexander; Gatzert, Nadine; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of management’s strategic choice of asset and liability composition in life insurance on shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. In contrast to previous work, we focus on the effectiveness of management decisions regarding the product...... mix and the riskiness of the asset side under different surplus appropriation schemes. We propose a model setting that comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts. Our numerical results show that the effectiveness of management decisions in regard to risk reduction strongly...

  10. 論健康保險之保前疾病、追溯保險與被保險人之善意 ― 相關實務見解綜合評析 Pre-existing Conditions in Health Insurance, Retrospective Insurance and Good Faith – Comments on Relevant Court Rulings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    葉啟洲 Chi-Chou Yeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 依照保險法第127條,健康保人對於被保險人在訂約時已經存在的疾病不負保險責任。所以如果被保險人帶病投保,保險人通常拒絕給付保險金。不過,許多法院判決表示,如果訂約時該疾病無外觀上可見之症狀,而被保險人並不知道自己罹患疾病者,保險人不得免責。依照判決內容及文獻說明來看,此項見解似乎是以同法第51條第1項(追溯保險)為推論依據。但在我國法上,疾病即為健康保險的保險事故,對於訂約前已經發生的保險事故,如果契約雙方當事人並未約定將承保期刊提前,似乎不能以追溯保險之原則使保險人對該項疾病負責,以追溯保險的要件來限制保險法第127條之適用,似與該條的規範目的不符,亦有違反保險法契約對價平衡原則之虞,並不妥當。 According to Article 127 of Insurance Act, the provider of health insurance is not liable for any illness that existed before the contract is formed (pre-existing conditions, Hence, in a majority of cases, the insurers would deny the insured benefit payments based on Articles 127 or similar terms in the insurance contracts. However, a number of courts have rules that, if the insured is unaware of such pre-existing conditions because the illness has no symptoms that can be observed based on appearances, then the insurer is still liable. The basis of this judgment seemingly rests on the retrospective insurance provision in Article 51(a of Insurance Act. Nevertheless, illness itself is an insured risk under health insurance, so without the insurer’s prior and explicit consent to extend coverage period retrospectively, it seems to be unfounded to hold the insurer liable for pre-existing conditions based on the retrospective insurance doctrine. To restrict the application of Article 127 with the retrospective insurance doctrine contradicts the intention of the legislature and

  11. Conformal Haag-Kastler nets, pointlike localized fields and the existence of operator product expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.; Joerss, M.

    1994-10-01

    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we construct associated pointlike localized fields. This amounts to a proof of the existence of operator product expansions. We derive the result in two ways. One is based on the geometrical identification of the modular structure, the other depends on a ''conformal cluster theorem'' of the conformal two-point-functions in algebraic quantum field theory. The existence of the fields then implies important structural properties of the theory, as PCT-invariance, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality and additivity. (orig.)

  12. JOINT OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF EXISTING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Reimann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Keen competition and increasingly demanding customers have forced companies to use their resources more efficiently and to integrate production and transportation planning. In the last few years more and more researchers have also focused on this challenging problem by trying to determine the complexity of the individual problems and then developing fast and robust algorithms to solve them. This paper reviews existing literature on integrated production and distribution decisions at the tactical and operational level, where the distribution part is modelled as some variation of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. The focus is thereby on problems that explicitly consider deliveries to multiple clients in a less-than-truckload fashion. In terms of the production decisions we distinguish in our review between tactical and operational production problems by considering lot-sizing/capacity allocation and scheduling models, respectively.

  13. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  14. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - Life Insurance Products and Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel can easily understand, and fully disclose the fundamental nature of the policy. Companies must be... shall not be marketed or sold disguised as investments. If there is a savings component to an insurance...

  16. Risk Minimization for Insurance Products via F-Doubly Stochastic Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Biagini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study risk-minimization for a large class of insurance contracts. Given that the individual progress in time of visiting an insurance policy’s states follows an F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we describe different state-dependent types of insurance benefits. These cover single payments at maturity, annuity-type payments and payments at the time of a transition. Based on the intensity of the F -doubly stochastic Markov chain, we provide the Galtchouk-Kunita-Watanabe decomposition for a general insurance contract and specify risk-minimizing strategies in a Brownian financial market setting. The results are further illustrated explicitly within an affine structure for the intensity.

  17. The underwriting process of liability insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson, S. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liability risks may embody far-reaching financial consequences for individuals, business enterprises and professional people. This paper focuses on the underwriting process which should be taken into consideration by short-term insurers when they are underwriting the main types of liability insurance, which include employer’s, householder’s, personal, product, professional and public liability insurance. The improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers when underwriting liability insurance represents the objective of this research. A study of secondary data was done to identify the existing literature, which formed the basis for compiling a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The top 10 short-term insurers which are the market leaders of liability insurance in South Africa and who received more than 85% of the annual gross written premiums for liability insurance in South Africa, represented the sample of the empirical study. This paper highlights the importance of the underwriting factors concerning liability insurance, how often the stipulations of insurance policies should be adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for the underwriting factors, as well as the problem areas which the underwriters may experience when they are underwriting liability insurance. Possible solutions to solve the problem areas were also addressed

  18. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  19. EDUCATION, WORK AND THEIR RELATIONS THROUGHOUT HISTORY OF HUMANITY IN DIFFERENT MODES OF PRODUCTION OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Cristina Kaminski Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as objective to analyze the relation between education and work throughout the history of the humanity, for in such a way, the starting point is the conceptualization of the related categories, as well as the exposition of its variations and relation in the different ways of material production of the existence human being (primitive community, slavery society, feudal system and capitalism, aiming at to apprehend the multiple influences that both exert between itself, in order to make possible a bigger understanding of the historical and social evolution of the man

  20. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  1. PV electrofinance: A proposed product for insurers in a deregulated electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordes, J.N.; Leggett, J.

    1999-01-01

    The thesis that global climate change could disrupt world-wide weather patterns is not new but the potential losses it represents have drawn attention from the financial community--particularly property-casualty insurers who are subject to large damage claims if climate change occurs. With the deregulation of the electricity sector, the specter of climate change can be transformed from a threat into an exciting opportunity for insurers, bankers and other financiers who have the need, foresight and capacity to invest in energy conservation and photovoltaics as mitigation strategies

  2. [Reimbursement of health apps by the German statutory health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor-Haack, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    A reimbursement category for "apps" does not exist in German statutory health insurance. Nevertheless different ways for reimbursement of digital health care products or processes exist. This article provides an overview and a description of the most relevant finance and reimbursement categories for apps in German statutory health insurance. The legal qualifications and preconditions of reimbursement in the context of single contracts with one health insurance fund will be discussed as well as collective contracts with national statutory health insurance funds. The benefit of a general outline appeals especially in respect to the numerous new players and products in the health care market. The article will highlight that health apps can challenge existing legal market access and reimbursement criteria and paths. At the same time, these criteria and paths exist. In terms of a learning system, they need to be met and followed.

  3. Modelling a New Product Model on the Basis of an Existing STEP Application Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-R. Hoehn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years a great range of computer aided tools has been generated to support the development process of various products. The goal of a continuous data flow, needed for high efficiency, requires powerful standards for the data exchange. At the FZG (Gear Research Centre of the Technical University of Munich there was a need for a common gear data format for data exchange between gear calculation programs. The STEP standard ISO 10303 was developed for this type of purpose, but a suitable definition of gear data was still missing, even in the Application Protocol AP 214, developed for the design process in the automotive industry. The creation of a new STEP Application Protocol or the extension of existing protocol would be a very time consumpting normative process. So a new method was introduced by FZG. Some very general definitions of an Application Protocol (here AP 214 were used to determine rules for an exact specification of the required kind of data. In this case a product model for gear units was defined based on elements of the AP 214. Therefore no change of the Application Protocol is necessary. Meanwhile the product model for gear units has been published as a VDMA paper and successfully introduced for data exchange within the German gear industry associated with FVA (German Research Organisation for Gears and Transmissions. This method can also be adopted for other applications not yet sufficiently defined by STEP. 

  4. The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

    2013-10-01

    The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a... Special Provisions. The price election you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship...: (A) Grown fresh market tomatoes for commercial sales; or (B) Participated in the management of a...

  6. The insurance and risk management industries: new players in the delivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    The insurance and risk management industries are typically considered to have little interest in energy issues, other than those associated with large energy supply systems. The historical involvement of these industries in the development and deployment of familiar loss-prevention technologies such as automobile air bags, fire prevention/suppression systems, and anti-theft devices, evidences a tradition of mediating and facilitating the use of technology to improve safety and otherwise reduce the likelihood of losses. Through an examination of the connection between risk management and energy technology, we have identified nearly 80 examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer loss-prevention benefits (such as improved fire safety). This article presents the business case for insurer involvement in the sustainable energy sector and documents early case studies of insurer efforts along these lines. We have mapped these opportunities onto the appropriate market segments (life, health, property, liability, business interruption, etc.). We review steps taken by 53 forward-looking insurers and reinsurers, 5 brokers, 7 insurance organizations, and 13 non-insurance organizations. We group the approaches into the categories of: information, education, and demonstration; financial incentives; specialized policies and insurance products; direct investment; customer services and inspections; codes, standards, and policies; research and development; in-house energy management; and an emerging concept informally known as 'carbon insurance'. While most companies have made only a modest effort to position themselves in the 'green' marketplace, a few have comprehensive environmental programs that include energy efficiency and renewable energy activities

  7. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  8. HIAA's The Business of Insurance: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anita; Lynch, Margaret E.

    This booklet is intended to help students gain a broad understanding of the meaning, characteristics, organization, products, and functions of the insurance industry. The following topics are discussed: the concept of and need for insurance; basic principles of insurance (risk assessment, insurability and insurable interest, determination of…

  9. Do retailers really profit from ambidextrous managers? : the impact of frontline mechanisms on new and existing product selling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgh, van der W.; Schepers, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    When manufacturers introduce a new product to the market, downstream retail partners are faced with inherent trade-offs. Retail sales personnel have to support the new product's introduction with substantial sales efforts but also sell the existing products in stock, before storage and devaluation

  10. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  11. Insurance industry guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects

  12. The Potential and Uptake of Remote Sensing in Insurance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global insurance markets are vast and diverse, and may offer many opportunities for remote sensing. To date, however, few operational applications of remote sensing for insurance exist. Papers claiming potential application of remote sensing typically stress the technical possibilities, without considering its contribution to customer value for the insured or to the profitability of the insurance industry. Based on a systematic search of available literature, this review investigates the potential and actual support of remote sensing to the insurance industry. The review reveals that research on remote sensing in classical claim-based insurance described in the literature revolve around crop damage and flood and fire risk assessment. Surprisingly, the use of remote sensing in claim-based insurance appears to be instigated by government rather than the insurance industry. In contrast, insurance companies are offering various index insurance products that are based on remote sensing. For example, remotely sensed index insurance for rangelands and livestock are operational, while various applications in crop index insurance are being considered or under development. The paper discusses these differences and concludes that there is particular scope for application of remote sensing by the insurance industry in index insurance because (1 indices can be constructed that correlate well with what is insured; (2 these indices can be delivered at low cost; and (3 it opens up new markets that are not served by claim-based insurance. The paper finally suggests that limited adoption of remote sensing in insurance results from a lack of mutual understanding and calls for greater cooperation between the insurance industry and the remote sensing community.

  13. INSURANCE OF KNITTED PRODUCTS QUALITY THROUGH THE ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF NON-QUALITY DURING THE OPERATIONS IN THE CUTTING ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUTIC Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available n a knitting- confection profile factory, any activity oriented toward evaluation, maintenance or improvement of products quality level is based on measuring and examining the product quality characteristics, in order to establish conformity to the quality specifications and/or naming the non-quality characteristics (establishing defects and fabrication deficiencies. We can consider non-quality as complementary to quality, although a definitive distinction cannot always be made between the two categories or states. Cutting holds a key role in insuring shape precision and pieces dimensions, determining the quality of the confection process, its structure and manual stages frequency. The quality of the cutting operation, appreciated through the precision and aspect of cut contours, existence and precision of markings, is directly reflected in the finite product’s quality, which entails knowledge of cutting instrument - fabric interactions. In compliance of the technological regime during the operations in the cutting room can determine: incorrect marking, spreading, sectioning or cutting. Non-quality of intermediate products obtained in the cutting department can be evaluated and controlled through defectologic control methods.The De – Ca – Re method (defect-cause-remedy correlation, applied in this paper, allows establishing the most important causes that generate defects, as well as preventive and corrective actions to eliminate these causes. This paper systematically presents the main defects that may occur during operations in the cutting room, causes that generate these defects, along with their preventive and corrective actions.

  14. Marketing in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  15. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN INSURANCE CASE OF JADRANSKO INSURANCE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara

    2014-01-01

    Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...

  16. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal.

  17. Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  18. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF POLISH ORGANIC SECTOR IN LIGHT OF CO-EXISTANCE BETWEEN GMO AND NON-GM PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    The perfect segregation of the different agricultural production types, namely conventional, organic or based on genetically modified organisms is not possible in practice. But the side by side functioning of this systems in agricultural production and further on of the products on the shelves requires suitable measures during cultivation, harvest, transport, storage, and processing to ensure co-existence. Consumers, food and feed industry, as well as wholesalers and retailers in European Uni...

  19. Insurance crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators

  20. CURRENT CHANGES ON INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Giorgiana MANGRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The offer of insurance products is about the requirements and needs of the consumer who must always have information regarding: the type of insurance risk covered and the excluded risks, the sum insured, the payment of premiums and their duration. The accurate information of customer requires, from the commencement of contract and throughout its duration, that he or she is aware of the obligations throughout the contractual period. Most of the Romanians are turning their attention to one of the insurance companies found in the top 10 in 2016, supervised by F.S.A. (Financial Supervision Authority, preferring to have a policy of mandatory household and goods insurance, auto liability or life insurance, but are also interested in travel health insurance when going abroad, private health insurance or private pension insurance. Romanians' reluctance regarding the conclusion of an insurance comes from their distrust in insurance companies (see the situations of companies like Astra Insurance, Carpatica Insurance etc., their personal financial situation and the fear that they will not receive protection if the risk is covered but the insured sum is insufficient

  1. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers...... in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity......, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...

  2. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  3. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  4. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  5. 75 FR 43557 - Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Products, Inc., Cleveland, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Hanger Products, Inc. Based on these findings, the Department is amending this certification to include... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,711] Wire Products Company...

  6. After all, What variables Characterize the Existence of Local Productive Arrangements and Local Roduction Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we established a distinction between the various terms used to characterize clusters of firms. Once in the literature, we identified that the terms, Local Productive Arrangements (LPA and Local Production Systems (LPS are used interchangeably. However, these terminologies refer to different stages of development of territorial agglomerations of firms. In the same way, the agglomeration of businesses belonging to a same production chain in a particular region would not necessarily characterize an LPA or LPS. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the need to combine methods and variables to draw a more accurate and comprehensive territorial productive situation allowing the classification of clusters according to their stage of development and institutional structure. For that purpose, the strength of cooperation between local professionals was considered as a major factor, which creates a competitive advantage that requires exogenous interests to make use of the endogenous capabilities strategically developed and cultivated.

  7. Vulnerabilities to agricultural production shocks: An extreme, plausible scenario for assessment of risk for the insurance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate risks pose a threat to the function of the global food system and therefore also a hazard to the global financial sector, the stability of governments, and the food security and health of the world’s population. This paper presents a method to assess plausible impacts of an agricultural production shock and potential materiality for global insurers. A hypothetical, near-term, plausible, extreme scenario was developed based upon modules of historical agricultural production shocks, linked under a warm phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO meteorological framework. The scenario included teleconnected floods and droughts in disparate agricultural production regions around the world, as well as plausible, extreme biotic shocks. In this scenario, global crop yield declines of 10% for maize, 11% for soy, 7% for wheat and 7% for rice result in quadrupled commodity prices and commodity stock fluctuations, civil unrest, significant negative humanitarian consequences and major financial losses worldwide. This work illustrates a need for the scientific community to partner across sectors and industries towards better-integrated global data, modeling and analytical capacities, to better respond to and prepare for concurrent agricultural failure. Governments, humanitarian organizations and the private sector collectively may recognize significant benefits from more systematic assessment of exposure to agricultural climate risk.

  8. INSURANCE OF KNITTED PRODUCTS QUALITY THROUGH THE ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF NON-QUALITY DURING ASSEMBLY BY STITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUTIC Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a knitting factory, any activity oriented toward evaluation, maintenance or improvement of products quality level is based on measuring and examining the product quality characteristics, in order to establish conformity to the quality specifications and/or naming the non-quality characteristics, thus noticing defects or fabrication deficiencies. The quality of the stitching operation has a particular influence on the finite product quality and is determined on side by the quality of knitted pieces, and on the other by insuring the correlation between the technological parameters of the stitching operation and the physico-mechanical characteristics of the knittings that are to be assembled through stitching. Although the product execution processes comprise of manufacturing the elements and distinct subassemblies and their ulterior assembly, they present various difference dictated by the constructive particularities of the machine, as well as fabric characteristics. Because of the multiple interactions between the material, yarn and working parts of the sawing machine, inadequacies in the technological discipline can result in negative effects on both the knitted and stitching thread as well as the machine. A part of these can be fixed by extra time consuming tasks (yarn breaks, stitching ruffling etc., while other defects appear during the usage of the product cheapening it (stitch tearing by perforating the knitted on the stitching line, pilling effect, dimensional instability etc.. This paper systematically presents, the main defects that may occur during the stitching operation of the products made out of circular knitted, as well as the causes that generate them along with preventive or corrective actions.

  9. On the existence of star products on quotient spaces of linear Hamiltonian torus actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbig, Hans-Christian; Iyengar, Srikanth B.; Pflaum, Markus J.

    2009-01-01

    that the Koszul complex on the moment map of an effective linear Hamiltonian torus action is acyclic. We rephrase the nonpositivity condition of Arms and Gotay (Adv Math 79(1):43–103, 1990) for linear Hamiltonian torus actions. It follows that reduced spaces of such actions admit continuous star products....

  10. Existence and uniqueness of the maximum likelihood estimator for models with a Kronecker product covariance structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, B.P.; Bijma, F.; de Munck, J.C.; de Gunst, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with multivariate Gaussian models for which the covariance matrix is a Kronecker product of two matrices. We consider maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters, in particular of the covariance matrix. There is no explicit expression for the maximum likelihood estimator

  11. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal... any live swine, and uses only pork or pork products which originate in regions listed in paragraph (a... paying all costs for such inspections (it is anticipated that such inspections will occur up to four...

  12. African American Social Work Faculty: Overcoming Existing Barriers and Achieving Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Holosko, Michael J.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the scholarship experiences of top-ranked African American faculty in schools of social work. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted with N = 10 top-ranked African American faculty identified as achieving considerable productivity and impact of scholarship. Findings: Four major themes were identified, each of…

  13. When can insurers offer products that dominate delayed old-age pension benefit claiming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice for public pension schemes to offer individuals the option to delay benefit claiming until after the normal retirement age, and increase the annual benefit level as a result. Existing literature shows that for non-liquidity constrained individuals, delaying benefit claiming for

  14. Comparing Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damron, James J

    2000-01-01

    .... IFSAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Ortho-Rectified Image (ORI), referred to as a magnitude image, were used to compare the data accuracy and content of the DFIRMs. This study will provide timely information needed for future DFIRM production.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Existing Conditions and Production Strategies for the Baca Geothermal System, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Charles R.; Mercer, James W.; Thomas, Stephen D.; Balleau, W. Pete

    1984-05-01

    The Baca geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico comprise an integrated hydrogeologic system. Analysis of the geothermal reservoir either under natural conditions or subject to proposed development should account for the mass (water) and energy (heat) balances of adjacent aquifers as well as the reservoir itself. A three-dimensional model based on finite difference approximations is applied to this integrated system. The model simulates heat transport associated with the flow of steam and water through an equivalent porous medium. The Baca geothermal reservoir is dominated by flow in fractures and distinct strata, but at the scale of application the equivalent porous media concept is appropriate. The geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers are simulated under both natural conditions and proposed production strategies. Simulation of natural conditions compares favorably with observed pressure, temperature, and thermal discharge data. The history matching simulations show that the results used for comparison are most sensitive to vertical permeability and the area of an assumed high-permeability zone connecting the reservoir to a deep hydrothermal source. Simulations using proposed production strategies and optimistic estimates of certain hydrologic parameters and reservoir extent indicate that a 50-MW power plant could be maintained for a period greater than 30 years. This production, however, will result in significant decreases in the total water discharge to the Jemez River.

  16. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. A METHODOLOGY FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY OF THE EXISTING SHIPBUILDING PROCESS USING MODERN PRODUCTION CONCEPTs AND THE AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venesa Stanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shipyards have been facing difficulties in controlling operational costs. To maintain continual operation of all of the facilities, a shipyard must analyze ways of utilizing present production systems for assembling interim vessel products as well as other types of industrial constructions. In the past, new machines continuously improved shipbuilding processes, including software and organizational restructuring, but management continued to search for a modern technological concept that will provide higher productivity, greater profit and overall reduction in costs. In the article the authors suggest implementing Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to apply to multi criteria decision making methods as an efficient tool for maintaining international competitiveness in the modern shipbuilding industry. This novel methodology is implemented through four phases. In the first phase, the present situation analysis is suggested for a real shipyard by establishing closest relations among production lines. The second phase presents a constraint analysis that must be evaluated when developing the design solution. The third phase involves generating a typical number of selected alternatives of the Design for Production, Design for Maintainability and Group Technology principles. In the fourth phase, the optimal design solution is selected using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. The solution incorporating this modern methodology will improve productivity, profit and lead to decreasing operational costs.

  18. Probabilistic insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  19. A review of portal screen-film technology and five radiologists' evaluations of some existing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M A; Steinheimer, D N; Weir, V A; Homco, L D; Green, R W; Morris, E L; Hess, M E

    1999-01-01

    Portal radiographs, radiographs made to document the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment fields, are typically of poor image contrast. Recently, a new portal film and screened-cassette system was marketed, the Kodak EC-L system, with the claim of greatly improved image contrast. This new EC-L system was tested on a canine cadaver exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy gamma radiation, and image quality was compared to earlier marketed Kodak portal film products. The EC-L system was found to provide portal images of improved contrast/quality.

  20. Impact and effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies on the insurability of nanomaterial production: evidences from industrial case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Enrico; Murphy, Finbarr; Poland, Craig A; Mullins, Martin; Costa, Anna L; McAlea, Eamonn; Tran, Lang; Tofail, Syed A M

    2015-01-01

    Workers involved in producing nanomaterials or using nanomaterials in manufacturing plants are likely to have earlier and higher exposure to manufactured/engineered nanomaterials (ENM) than the general population. This is because both the volume handled and the probability of the effluence of 'free' nanoparticles from the handled volume are much higher during a production process than at any other stage in the lifecycle of nanomaterials and nanotechnology-enabled products. Risk assessment (RA) techniques using control banding (CB) as a framework for risk transfer represents a robust theory but further progress on implementing the model is required so that risk can be transferred to insurance companies. Following a review of RA in general and hazard measurement in particular, we subject a Structural Alert Scheme methodology to three industrial case studies using ZrO2 , TiO2 , and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The materials are tested in a pristine state and in a remediated (coated) state, and the respective emission and hazard rates are tested alongside the material performance as originally designed. To our knowledge, this is the first such implementation of a CB RA in conjunction with an ENM performance test and offers both manufacturers and underwriters an insight into future applications. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed.

  2. Factors Affecting Consumer Purchase Decision on Insurance Product in PT. Prudential Life Assurance Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Eko Yiswa Rasti

    2015-01-01

    Marketing Mix is the main factor that could affect the whole marketing system. The absence of marketing mix analysis will affecting negatively on a marketing performance. The research aims to analyze the influence of Product, Price, Promotion, People and Process of the Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area on the Consumer Purchase Decision. Data collected through distribution of questionnaires to 100 consumer of Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area. The research used Classic Assumption test ...

  3. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  4. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN UNIT-LINKED LIFE INSURANCE AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CIUMAS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholder’s account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds.These financial products invest most of the premium paid by the insured person in the funds managed by the insurance company or an external administrator and the lower part of the premium is intended to cover the insured risk (death, disability, etc. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. This research contributes to the existing literature regarding the study of investment alternatives, with an exclusive focus on the investment in unit-linked life insurance. A special place in this study is the presentation of investments in unit-linked insurance versus other types of financial investments: deposits, treasury bills, shares (BET, currency (EURO and gold.

  6. Understanding the productive author who published papers in medicine using National Health Insurance Database: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chang, Yu; Wang, Hsien-Yi

    2018-02-01

    Many researchers used National Health Insurance database to publish medical papers which are often retrospective, population-based, and cohort studies. However, the author's research domain and academic characteristics are still unclear.By searching the PubMed database (Pubmed.com), we used the keyword of [Taiwan] and [National Health Insurance Research Database], then downloaded 2913 articles published from 1995 to 2017. Social network analysis (SNA), Gini coefficient, and Google Maps were applied to gather these data for visualizing: the most productive author; the pattern of coauthor collaboration teams; and the author's research domain denoted by abstract keywords and Pubmed MESH (medical subject heading) terms.Utilizing the 2913 papers from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, we chose the top 10 research teams shown on Google Maps and analyzed one author (Dr. Kao) who published 149 papers in the database in 2015. In the past 15 years, we found Dr. Kao had 2987 connections with other coauthors from 13 research teams. The cooccurrence abstract keywords with the highest frequency are cohort study and National Health Insurance Research Database. The most coexistent MESH terms are tomography, X-ray computed, and positron-emission tomography. The strength of the author research distinct domain is very low (Gini < 0.40).SNA incorporated with Google Maps and Gini coefficient provides insight into the relationships between entities. The results obtained in this study can be applied for a comprehensive understanding of other productive authors in the field of academics.

  7. Shortcomings of existing systems for registration and legal protection of software products and possible ways to overcome them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapidevskiy, A. V.; Petrov, A. S.; Zhmud, V. A.; Sherubneva, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reveals the shortcomings of the existing system of registration and legal protection of software products. The system has too many disadvantages and shortcomings. Explanatory examples are given. Possible ways of overcoming these shortcomings are discussed. The paper also gives possible prospects for the use of new digital technologies. Also in the paper, the information is provided about the modern software components for protecting intellectual property rights of State corporations

  8. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  9. Insurance against climate change and flood risk: Insurability and decision processes of insurers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi

    2016-04-01

    1. Background Major portions of the Asia-Pacific region is facing escalating exposure and vulnerability to climate change and flood-related extremes. This highlights an arduous challenge for public agencies to improve existing risk management strategies. Conventionally, governmental funding was majorly responsible and accountable for disaster loss compensation in the developing countries in Asia, such as Taiwan. This is often criticized as an ineffective and inefficient measure of dealing with flood risk. Flood insurance is one option within the toolkit of risk-sharing arrangement and adaptation strategy to flood risk. However, there are numerous potential barriers for insurance companies to cover flood damage, which would cause the flood risk is regarded as uninsurable. This study thus aims to examine attitudes within the insurers about the viability of flood insurance, the decision-making processes of pricing flood insurance and their determinants, as well as to examine potential solutions to encourage flood insurance. 2. Methods and data Using expected-utility theory, an insurance agent-based decision-making model was developed to examine the insurers' attitudes towards the insurability of flood risk, and to scrutinize the factors that influence their decisions on flood insurance premium-setting. This model particularly focuses on how insurers price insurance when they face either uncertainty or ambiguity about the probability and loss of a particular flood event occurring. This study considers the factors that are expected to affect insures' decisions on underwriting and pricing insurance are their risk perception, attitudes towards flood insurance, governmental measures (e.g., land-use planning, building codes, risk communication), expected probabilities and losses of devastating flooding events, as well as insurance companies' attributes. To elicit insurers' utilities about premium-setting for insurance coverage, the 'certainty equivalent,' 'probability

  10. EFFECT OF REVENUE INSURANCE ON ENTRY AND EXIT DECISIONS IN TABLE GRAPE PRODUCTION: A REAL OPTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sangtaek; Salin, Victoria; Mitchell, Paul D.; Leatham, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This study determines the entry and exit thresholds of table grape farming with irreversible investment under uncertainty. Real option approach is adopted to consider the investment and management flexibility. Also revenue insurance is introduced to consider the effect of the risk management programs on the entry and exit thresholds. Results show that revenue insurance increases the entry and exit thresholds by 1% and 4%, respectively, thus discouraging new investment and current farming, as ...

  11. Assessment of the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises in Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Olga N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers application of the taxonomic analysis for identifying the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises (in case of its voluntary form in Ukrainian regions through calculation of the taxonomy ratio (development level ratio. On the basis of the conducted study the author identifies those regions of Ukraine where the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises, in particular, their agricultural products, is characterised with positive dynamics and those regions where the tariff policy of insurance companies needs to be reconsidered. That is why the article justifies a necessity of replacing the existing tariff policy of insurance companies with a more suitable for modern conditions of farming with the aim to ensure, on the one hand, organisation of efficient management of an insurance company and, on the other hand, taking into account interests and requirements of agricultural enterprises, which are reflected in insurance tariffs.

  12. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Market-consistent valuation of a pension product with guarantee in line with Solvency II : An applied case study to improve knowledge about how rationality and stressed conditions with respect to market- and insurance risk will impact the balance sheet.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Isak; Stadig, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pension products have today been replaced by products that are linked directly to the unit value of some kind of investment portfolio. These products contribute to more vulnerable situations for insurance companies in terms of uncertainties of future obligations. This master thesis aims to create a general valuation model in line with Solvency II regulation, which is able to value the best estimate of the insurance liability. The model will use a state model, stochastic scenario g...

  14. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, I-Hsin; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may contain aristolochic acid (AA) or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs) in Taiwan. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Results Duri...

  15. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  16. Mitigation Index Insurance for Developing Countries: Insure the Loss or Insure the Signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiting; Miranda, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional agricultural index insurance indemnifies based on the observed value of a specified variable, such as rainfall, that is correlated with agricultural production losses. Typically, indemnities are paid to the policyholder after the losses have been experienced. This paper explores alternate timing for index insurance payouts. In particular, we explore the potential benefits of what we call “mitigation index insurance” in which the payouts of the insurance contract arrive before los...

  17. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INVESTMENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Honcharenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate the feasibility of expanding the scope of investment insurance in Ukraine, taking into account its advantages over other types of insurance services as well as the possibility of minimizing the possible disadvantages. Methodology. The list of the research methods of the subject under consideration includes the monographic method, analysis, techniques of the abstract-logical method, etc. Results. The urgency of the article is that the disclosure of the internal potential of the insurance market in Ukraine should take place with the introduction or activation of modern insurance products capable of meeting several financial needs at once, not only of their consumers but of the state as a whole. The development of voluntary life insurance plays an important investment role in the country’s economy, therefore, at the moment, the need to develop new financial products aimed at increasing voluntary insurance is urgent. The share of life insurance services in the insurance market of Ukraine in dynamic is analysed. The purpose and positive consequences of expanding the segment of investment insurance are substantiated. Investment insurance as a financial product has both advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include the transparent structure of the insurance product, the choice of investment strategy, the possibility of obtaining increased investment returns while preserving the benefits of the insurance contract, preferential taxation of investment income, the existence of a guaranteed amount of payment in the contract, etc.; to the drawbacks – the lack of the possibility of early termination of the contract with the receipt of all the insurance premiums paid, the absence of a guarantee fund, guaranteed income, long-term contracts, limited range of people who can be insured. To enhance the use of investment insurance in Ukraine and to minimize these shortcomings, the prospects for the development of

  18. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  19. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT AND DEMAND FOR INSURANCE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FROM NIGERIAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass, OlufemiAdebowale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.

  20. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Inflation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1989-01-01

    A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....

  2. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  3. Directions of improving information system of insurance company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, G. N.; Mustafina, A. A.; Alyakina, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a study of the information technologies impact on the insurance industry development. At present, any business, especially business in the field of financial intermediation, can count on maintaining its positions only as a technology company. For the insurance business it is now especially important. Other segments of the financial market - the stock and credit market - are actively developing and applying IT-technologies. The insurance business at present is getting opportunities for a technological breakthrough. There is a growing demand for traditional insurance products - property insurance, motor insurance, health insurance. There is a rapidly growing demand for life insurance and insurance against cyber risks. To implement insurance protection in new conditions, the insurance company should actively use information systems. The article presents a possible variant of systematization of the insurer's business processes within the information system of the insurance company.

  4. Atomic risk insurance. Risk policy, safety production and expertise in Germany and the USA 1945 - 1986; Die Versicherung der Atomgefahr. Risikopolitik, Sicherheitsproduktion und Expertise in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und den USA 1945-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Christoph [Dokumentations- und Forschungsstelle der Sozialversicherungstraeger, Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book covers the following chapters: (I) Between threat and promise: Political change and the corporate perception, the burden of the atomic bomb, promise of nuclear energy risk criticism in the pre-ecological phase, nuclear risk as investment restraint; (II) Risk policy at the insurability limit: hazard knowledge, safety production and insurance expertise in the German nuclear policy (1955-1962); (III) Risk policy beyond the catastrophe, insurability interpretation, concepts and conflicts (1957-1968); (IV) Scandalization of risk policy: safety production, confidence and expertise in the nuclear controversial debate (1969 - 1979); (V) Nuclear risk policy and the challenge of the ''risk society'' (1975-1986); (VI) From safety production to hazard probe: atomic energy And the change of insurance.

  5. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  6. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  7. Environmental insurance: research information support

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  8. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  9. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  11. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  12. Environmental pollution risk and insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia

    2002-01-01

    We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...

  13. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch

  14. Export insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions

  15. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  16. Possible existence of cosmological cosmic rays I. the framework for light-element and gamma-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of the existence of cosmological cosmic rays (CCR), in the framework of big-bang cosmology. The model assumes a total energy spectrum similar to that observed at Earth at high energies, a composition of protons and α-particles only, with α/p=0.1. Following Stecker, the CCR are assumed to be born in a burst at some (high) redshift z/sub s/. Gamma-rays originate from π 0 decay resulting from interactions of the high-energy part of the CCR, and light elements are produced via (pα)+(pα) reactions by the low-energy part, both of them by collisions with the ambient matter (of density corresponding to a deceleration parameter q 0 ).The 1--100 MeV γ-ray background spectrum and the lithium abundance are considered as observational constraints on the possible CCR flux intensity. To this end, a theoretical framework is set for simultaneous γ-ray and light-element production by solving a system of coupled time-dependent transport equations, taking ionization and expansion losses into account. The absolute lithium abundance is calculated by normalizing the CCR flux to the observed γ-ray background spectrum; numerical results will be given and discussed in a separate paper, as a function of q 0 and z/sub s/

  17. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  18. Financial management of insurance companies in the context of the new regime Solvency II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istrate Costin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring consumer protection. The responsible authority at EU level with the implementation of the new solvency regime is EIOPA - European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, which dealt in previous periods of testing the European market insurance through organizing quantitative impact studies (last exercise - QIS5, organized in 2011. The main standards derived from Solvency II and also the new IFRS accounting provisions, intended to increase the transparency of risk management and investment, in order to pricing insurance products and profitability of the different classes of insurance rates. Solvency II brings both challenges and opportunities for companies, changing the concept of building protection programs for insured and generating additional concerns about capital requirements in the determination of own funds (basic, auxiliary and surplus that can be used to meet this requirement. Also estimate realistic and prudent risk assumed by insurance contracts concluded transposed to the insurance companies by recording every technical reserves represent a very important element in order to establish an optimal balance of financial resources. Given the significant overlap between IFRS and Solvency II, insurers will have to improve disclosure requirements of additional information and adjust planning and forecasting. All these measures will increase the efficiency of financial management, a series of operational measures and by providing documented and tested

  19. THE ROLE OF THE WORLD INSURANCE MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Sholoiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to define a role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Tasks of the study are the next: to consider the dynamics of development of the world insurance market from 2012 to 2016; to define groups of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; to characterize elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Methodology. These tasks are done because of using such methods as: grouping of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; a collection of information about elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; generalization to define role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Results. World insurance premiums were increasing and decreasing from 2012 to 2016 and did not exceed 6.3% of Gross Domestic Product. Lots of factors influence global insurance premium volume as an indicator of the development of world insurance market. One of them is an activity of the elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. It is necessary to divide them into some groups: A International insurance associations (associations of organizations connected with insurance but members of such associations do not provide insurance services – International Association of Insurance Supervisors, International Association of Insurance Fraud Agencies, Global Federation of Insurance Associations, International Insurance Foundation; B International associations of insurers (includes associations of insurers and other organizations in a certain area of insurance – International Association of Deposit Insurers, International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, International Association of Agricultural Production Insurers, International Group of P&I Clubs, International Union of Aerospace Insurers, International Union of Marine Insurance, International Association of Engineering Insurers; C International associations of insurance experts

  20. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  1. Life insurance, financial development and economic growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector may contribute to economic growth by its very mechanism of savings mobilisation and thereby performing an intermediation role in the economy. This ensures that capital is provided to deficient units who are in need of capital to finance their working capital requirements and invest in technology thereby resulting in an increase in output. In this way, it could be argued that life insurance development spurs financial development. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the life insurance sector, financial development and economic growth in South Africa for the period 1990 to 2012. We make use of life insurance density as the proxy for life insurance development, real per capita growth domestic product as the proxy for economic growth and real broad money per capita as the proxy for financial development. We test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the Johansen procedure and then proceed to test for Granger causality based on the vector error correction model (VECM. Our results confirm the existence of at least one cointegrating relationship amongst the variables. The results indicate that the direction of causality runs from the economy to the life insurance sector which is consistent with the “demand-following” insurance-growth hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality running from the economy to financial development which is consistent with the “demand following” finance-growth hypothesis. The results also reveal that life insurance complements economic growth in bringing about financial development further lending credence to the “complementarity” hypothesis

  2. SOLVENCY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MIRABELA FLOREA IANC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The insurance companies operating in a competitive and dynamic economic climate, so solvency is a very important problem. The guarantee funds protect policyholders against situations where insurers can not meet its contractual obligations, and supervisors constant attention is how to regulate the insurance business. Overall solvency of insurance companies show that has been achieved relative success in this area due to regulations adopted. Although in recent years the number of insolvency cases increased worrying emphasis on solvency control should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of such cases and the increased safety offered by insurance products.

  3. The Financial Market of the Cross and Up-Selling Insurers from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita-Maria Filip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest threat for the worldwide financial system is the recession at global level, which wouldhave a major impact on the insurance industry. The differences between the results of European companiesduring the crisis, had a close connection with the aggressive or defensive investment strategies. Although thebank assurance agreements exist and they are developing further, the partnerships of this type didn’t have theexpected success in Romania, so far. Once with the market penetration from Romania of some insurers ofEuropean size, more specialized companies have launched bank assurance partnerships with banks, especiallyin the view of distribution of life insurances, and more recently, of the promoting the package of currentaccount, products of savings – credit in the housing domain, pension funds, credits for small companies,mortgages and the one of personal needs. The success of this type of sale is still to come and put in doubt, atthis point, the efficiency of promoting the banking products by insurers.

  4. METHODICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF INSURANCE PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdechna Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the considerable arsenal of developments in the issues of assessing the management of the insurance portfolio remains unresolved. In order to detail, specify and further systematize the indicators for the indicated evaluation, the publications of scientists are analyzed. The purpose of the study is to analyze existing methods by which it is possible to formulate and manage the insurance portfolio in order to achieve its balance, which will contribute to ensuring the financial reliability of the insurance company. Results. The description of the essence of the concept of “management of insurance portfolio”, as the application of actuarial methods and techniques to the combination of various insurance risks offered for insurance or are already part of the insurance portfolio, allowing to adjust the size and structure of the portfolio in order to ensure its financial stability, achievement the maximum level of income of an insurance organization, preservation of the value of its equity and financial security of insurance liabilities. It is determined that the main methods by which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed is the selection of risks; reinsurance operations that ensure diversification of risks; formation and placement of insurance reserves, which form the financial basis of insurance activities. The method of managing an insurance portfolio, which can be both active and passive, is considered. Conclusions. It is determined that the insurance portfolio is the basis on which all the activities of the insurer are based and which determines its financial stability. The combination of methods and technologies applied to the insurance portfolio is a management method that can be both active and passive and has a number of specific methods through which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed. It is substantiated that each insurance company aims to form an efficient and

  5. The aplication of electronic commerce in the distribution of insurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljan Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the importance of information and communication technology for the development of the insurance companies, with special emphasis on the current development and potential for further development of marketing, and the distribution of insurance products in particular, which relies on information and communication technologies, especially the Internet. A special place here is reserved for the internet marketing as the most common of Internet uses among insurance companies. Transforming business processes so that they comply with the principles of electronic commerce will in the neaar future become common even in smaller businesses, formerly conservative financial institutions, e.g. insurance companies, are increasingly turning to e-insurance which, despite high costs of its introduction and initial problems in the operation, are to be relied upon in the near future. Therefore, in many countries, it is becoming accepted, to a greater or lesser extent. Mobile communication brings the biggest changes in electronic commerce. Even today, its prevalence among consumers offers great opportunities for service providers. Insurance companies in our country at this moment do not offer their services through this specific communication channel, but in the very near future changes can be expected in this field, due to the fact that the prerequisites for that exist in Serbia. This is supported by information that some insurance companies in the neighboring countries have already activated their first applications for smart phones and similar applications in the Serbian banking industry already exist.

  6. Supplementary insurance as a switching cost for basic health insurance: Empirical results from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria

    2017-10-01

    Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health insurance--a challenge in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswala, R G

    2004-01-01

    In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.

  8. Nuclear insurance and third-party liability. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair

    1986-04-01

    As for any other insurance policy, nuclear insurance involves two parties, the insurer and the insured. The coverage provided for can be against any misfortune or peril; material or physical losses, financial losses, third party liability or even the insured himself as in the case of life or personal insurance. In property and liability insurance, the element of certainty does not exist. Accidents cannot be predicted, the insured will only be able to financially recover the present worth of the property insured as evaluated at the time of the accident and to the extent of the damage arising from the event insured against, which in most cases will be lower than the full value of the property.

  9. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  10. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  11. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  12. Disability, and social and economic inclusion: who is in and out of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme?

    OpenAIRE

    Cebulla, Andreas; Zhu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A new National Disability Insurance Scheme is being trialled in Australia, following criticism of the fragmented and inequitable nature of existing disability supports (e.g. in the 2009 ‘Shut Out’ report by the National People with Disabilities and Carer Council) and reform recommendations made by the Australian Government's Productivity Commission in 2011. The Insurance Scheme distinguishes between people living with disability who will be eligible for different types of supports: either mai...

  13. Corporate insurance and debt capacity: Empirical evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Santoboni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In banks/enterprises relationships a key role is played by Basel II Framework, which accurately correlates banks’ capital requirement to risks, by stimulating a more precise creditworthiness assessment. As known, the containment of risks inherent in bank financing can be carried out ex ante, through an adequate screening, which allows the proper assessment of enterprises’ economic and financial situation and a sound composition of the total loan portfolio, and ex post, through guarantees, which allow benefiting from a loss reduction only after insolvency has occurred. From this perspective, Basel II Framework brings important changes, since life insurance and surety policy are “eligible” guarantees for Credit Risk Mitigation. Nevertheless, banks could offer a better pricing to borrowers not because they are less risky, but because the whole operation would need a lower capital requirement. Therefore, corporate risks reduction – which would allow, in the absence of credit rationing, a more profitable debt capacity – is necessarily achieved through an appropriate “umbrella insurance”, able to cope with both direct and indirect loss. This work aims at investigating the existence of a “virtuous” relationship among corporate insurance purchases, credit risk and debt capacity. Such aim has been pursued through different steps: review of literature, to identify the reasons of corporate demand for insurance; analysis of Italian enterprises’ corporate insurance purchases; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main insurance companies working in Italy, intended to identify what kind of role they play in the relation with enterprises and which insurance products they offer; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main banks working in Italy, intended to investigate whether and how the possession of corporate insurance is taken into consideration in the determination of enterprises

  14. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  16. Analysis of existing structure and emissions of wood combustion plants for the production of heat and electricity in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed analysis of the existing structure of all Bavarian wood burning plants for the generation of heat and electricity as well as the determination of the resulting emission emissions in 2013. The number of wood burning plants in the single-chamber fireplaces, wood central heating and wood-fired heating plants which are in operation in the year 2013 were determined, and how many plants are existing in the various areas like pellet stoves, traditional ovens, wood-burning fireplace, pellet central heating systems, wood chips central heating systems, fire-wood central heating systems, wood combined heat and power plant (electricity and heat) and wood power plants (heat). In addition, the regional distribution of the wood burning plants in the Bavarian governmental districts is investigated as well as the type and amount of energy produced by them (heat, electricity). [de

  17. Competitive Cyber-Insurance and Internet Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Nikhil; Schwartz, Galina; Felegyhazi, Mark; Walrand, Jean

    This paper investigates how competitive cyber-insurers affect network security and welfare of the networked society. In our model, a user's probability to incur damage (from being attacked) depends on both his security and the network security, with the latter taken by individual users as given. First, we consider cyberinsurers who cannot observe (and thus, affect) individual user security. This asymmetric information causes moral hazard. Then, for most parameters, no equilibrium exists: the insurance market is missing. Even if an equilibrium exists, the insurance contract covers only a minor fraction of the damage; network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Second, we consider insurers with perfect information about their users' security. Here, user security is perfectly enforceable (zero cost); each insurance contract stipulates the required user security. The unique equilibrium contract covers the entire user damage. Still, for most parameters, network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Although cyber-insurance improves user welfare, in general, competitive cyber-insurers fail to improve network security.

  18. Evaluation of the Potential for the Production of Lignocellulosic Based Ethanol at Existing Corn Ethanol Facilities: Final Subcontract Report, 2 March 2000 - 30 March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Subcontract report on opportunities to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. The goals of this study were: (1) To provide the opportunity to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. (2) To take advantage of the grain-processing infrastructure by investigating the co-location of additional biomass conversion facilities at an existing plant site.

  19. Regulated Medicare Advantage And Marketplace Individual Health Insurance Markets Rely On Insurer Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  1. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  2. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  3. Co-existing concepts of management control : The containment of tensions due to the implementation of lean production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Sandra; van der Steen, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the implementation of lean production and similar inno-vations is not always successful. One of the explanations provided is that elements of tradi-tional control systems may frustrate the transformation process. Although various studies have investigated the

  4. A Study of Contributing Factors in Islamic Motor Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Asri Wan Abdul Aziz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the government servant‟s perception toward Islamic Motor Insurance named as takaful. The product based on syariah rules for general insurance provided by Insurance Company in Malaysia. This study emphasizes on four factors, which product knowledge, awareness, advertising and benefit of the product. The purpose of this study is to measure the level of perception of Islamic Motor insurance and to identify whether there is a relationship between the independent variables (four factors with the dependent variable (perception. The respondents are the government servants who are using Motor insurance. This research is carried out through the finding of multiple regression and Pearson correlation analysis where the relationship between knowledge, awareness, advertising and benefit of the product toward perception of Islamic Motor Insurance among government servants. From the findings, the respondents show very good perception toward Islamic Motor Insurance. The findings showed customers‟ perception levels are very positive towards Islamic Motor insurance

  5. Optimal reinsurance with one insurer and multiple reinsurers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.; Tan, K.S.; Zhuang, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a one-period optimal reinsurance design model with n reinsurers and an insurer. For very general preferences of the insurer, we obtain that there exists a very intuitive pricing formula for all reinsurers that use a distortion premium principle. The insurer determines its

  6. Extending the Scope of Services in the Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    von Watzdorf, Stephan; Gebauer, Heiko; Staake, Thorsten; Fleisch, Elgar

    2011-01-01

    The study at hand explores the influence of value-added services offered in addition to a motor insurance product on the customer's preference structure. It addresses the need of insurance companies to extend their core business with different types of supplementary services. A choice-based conjoint analysis is conducted which considers the price for the insurance product, the insurance franchise, the non-claims bonus as well as post-accident services and value-added services. Based on the re...

  7. Evolution of seismic risk management for insurance over the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Haresh C.; Dong, Weimin; Stojanovski, Pane; Chen, Alex

    2018-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been spectacular growth in the use of risk analysis and risk management tools developed by engineers in the financial and insurance sectors. The insurance, the reinsurance, and the investment banking sectors have enthusiastically adopted loss estimation tools developed by engineers in developing their business strategies and for managing their financial risks. As a result, insurance/reinsurance strategy has evolved as a major risk mitigation tool in managing catastrophe risk at the individual, corporate, and government level. This is particularly true in developed countries such as US, Western Europe, and Japan. Unfortunately, it has not received the needed attention in developing countries, where such a strategy for risk management is most needed. Fortunately, in the last five years, there has been excellent focus in developing "InsurTech" tools to address the much needed "Insurance for the Masses", especially for the Asian Markets. In the earlier years of catastrophe model development, risk analysts were mainly concerned with risk reduction options through engineering strategies, and relatively little attention was given to financial and economic strategies. Such state-of-affairs still exists in many developing countries. The new developments in the science and technologies of loss estimation due to natural catastrophes have made it possible for financial sectors to model their business strategies such as peril and geographic diversification, premium calculations, reserve strategies, reinsurance contracts, and other underwriting tools. These developments have not only changed the way in which financial sectors assess and manage their risks, but have also changed the domain of opportunities for engineers and scientists. This paper will address the issues related to developing insurance/reinsurance strategies to mitigate catastrophe risks and describe the role catastrophe risk insurance and reinsurance has played in managing

  8. Insuring Care: Paperwork, Insurance Rules, and Clinical Labor at a U.S. Transgender Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Marieke

    2017-12-01

    What is a clinician to do when people needing medical care do not have access to consistent or sufficient health insurance coverage and cannot pay for care privately? Analyzing ethnographically how clinicians at a university-based transgender clinic in the United States responded to this challenge, I examine the U.S. health insurance system, insurance paperwork, and administrative procedures that shape transgender care delivery. To buffer the impact of the system's failure to provide sufficient health insurance coverage for transgender care, clinicians blended administrative routines with psychological therapy, counseled people's minds and finances, and leveraged the prestige of their clinic in attempts to create space for gender nonconforming embodiments in gender conservative insurance policies. My analysis demonstrates that in a market-based health insurance system with multiple payers and gender binary insurance rules, health care may be unaffordable, or remain financially challenging, even for transgender people with health insurance. Moreover, insurance carriers' "reliance" on clinicians' insurance-related labor is problematic as it exacerbates existing insurance barriers to the accessibility and affordability of transgender care and obscures the workings of a financial payment model that prioritizes economic expediency over gender nonconforming health.

  9. On the existence of another source of heat production for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum

    2013-01-01

    Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface heat flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) heat production is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another heat production in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced heat flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the heat generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's heat balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating.

  10. Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The contribution of nucleation to the global CCN budget spans a relatively large uncertainty range, which, together with our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions, results in major uncertainties in the radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. In order to better quantify the role of atmospheric nucleation in CCN formation and Earth System behavior, more information is needed on (i the factors controlling atmospheric CCN production and (ii the properties of both primary and secondary CCN and their interconnections. In future investigations, more emphasis should be put on combining field measurements with regional and large-scale model studies.

  11. District Costs for Teacher Health Insurance: An Examination of the Data from the BLS and Wisconsin. The Productivity for Results Series No. 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Rising health insurance costs have been a source of fiscal distress for school districts. In this paper, I closely examine data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to address a few basic questions: (1) Are district costs for teachers' health insurance higher, on average, than employer costs for…

  12. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  13. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  14. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  15. The decrease in nonsplenic interleukin-6 (IL-6) production after splenectomy indicates the existence of a positive feedback loop of IL-6 production during endotoxemia in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeniralam, H. S.; Bemelman, W. A.; Endert, E.; Koopmans, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The spleen is involved in endotoxin-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. To quantitate the relative contribution of the spleen to endotoxin-induced IL-6 production, we studied the effect of endotoxin (1.0 microg/kg of body weight) in control dogs (n = 7) and splenectomized dogs (n = 7). Blood

  16. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chang-Hsing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs may contain aristolochic acid (AA or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs in Taiwan. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Results During the 7-year study period, 78,644 patients were prescribed with AA-CHPs; most patients were females, or middle-aged, or both. A total of 526,867 prescriptions were made to use 1,218 licensed AA-CHPs. Over 85% of the AA-exposed patients took less than 60 g of AA-herbs; however, about 7% were exposed to a cumulated dose of over 100 g of Radix et Rhizoma Asari (Xixin, Caulis Akebiae (Mutong or Fructus Aristolochiae (Madouling. Patients of respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases received most of the AA-CHP prescriptions. The most frequently prescribed AA-CHPs Shujing Huoxie Tang, Chuanqiong Chadiao San and Longdan Xiegan Tang, containing Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Caulis Akebiae, respectively. Conclusion About one-third of people in Taiwan have been prescribed with AA-CHPs between 1997 and 2003. Although the cumulated doses were not large, further actions should be carried out to ensure the safe use of AA-CHPs.

  17. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, I-Hsin; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-10-23

    Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may contain aristolochic acid (AA) or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs) in Taiwan. A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. During the 7-year study period, 78,644 patients were prescribed with AA-CHPs; most patients were females, or middle-aged, or both. A total of 526,867 prescriptions were made to use 1,218 licensed AA-CHPs. Over 85% of the AA-exposed patients took less than 60 g of AA-herbs; however, about 7% were exposed to a cumulated dose of over 100 g of Radix et Rhizoma Asari (Xixin), Caulis Akebiae (Mutong) or Fructus Aristolochiae (Madouling). Patients of respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases received most of the AA-CHP prescriptions. The most frequently prescribed AA-CHPs Shujing Huoxie Tang, Chuanqiong Chadiao San and Longdan Xiegan Tang, containing Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Caulis Akebiae, respectively. About one-third of people in Taiwan have been prescribed with AA-CHPs between 1997 and 2003. Although the cumulated doses were not large, further actions should be carried out to ensure the safe use of AA-CHPs.

  18. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  19. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  20. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  1. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  2. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  3. THE MODEL OF INTERACTION BETWEEN INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES AND INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ASSURANCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kudriavska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the

  4. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  5. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  6. Continuing Professional Education of Insurance and Risk Management Practitioners: A Comparative Case Study of Customer Service Representatives, Insurance Agents and Risk Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, George E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how selected insurance practitioners learn and developed in their practices setting. The selected insurance practitioners (collectively customer service representatives, insurance agents, and risk managers) are responsible for the counseling and placement of insurance products and the implementation of…

  7. Comparison of the new Japanese legislation for expedited approval of regenerative medicine products with the existing systems in the USA and European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Yoji; Yano, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki

    2018-02-01

    Legislation for expedited-approval pathways and programmes for drugs, biologics or medical devices has been enacted for rapid commercialization of innovative products in the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU). However, less innovative products are increasingly benefitting from these expedited-approval pathways, and obligations to collect and report post-marketing data on approved products are being bypassed frequently. The Japanese government recently enacted legislation for a new conditional and time-limited approval pathway dedicated to regenerative medicine products. The current study examines this new legislation and compares it with existing US and EU regulatory frameworks, with a particular focus on how it addresses the limitations of existing systems. Regulations, guidance documents and approval information were gathered from the websites of the respective authorities in the USA, the EU and Japan, and the systems were categorized through qualitative analysis. The pathways and programmes from each region were categorized into four groups, based on the requirement of pre- or post-marketing clinical data. Expedited-approval pathways in the USA and the EU provide similar qualification criteria, such as severity of target disease; however, such criteria are not specified for the new pathway in Japan. Only the Japanese pathway stipulates a time limitation on exceptional approval, requiring post-marketing study for conditional and time-limited products. Continuous improvement is necessary to solve previously addressed issues within the expedited-approval pathways and programmes and to ensure that innovative medical products are rigourously screened, but also readily available to patients in need. The time limitation of conditional approval could be a potential solution to some of these problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Tissue Engineering Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Tissue

  8. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  9. Pensions as Retirement Income Insurance.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodie, Zvi

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...

  10. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  11. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked...

  12. Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalane, P.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; James, L.T.; Jarrett, J.H.; Lundgren, R.A.; Manatt, D.R.; Niederauer, G.F.; Olivos, J.D.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Starodubtsev, G.S.; Suda, S.C.; Tittemore, G.W.; Zatorsky, Y.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  13. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  14. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T. [and others

    1997-11-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

  15. The Intra-Industry Effects of Life Insurance Company Demutualizaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Meador

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of demutualization announcements by 13 life insurance companies during 1996-2000 on the value of existing stock-owned life insurance companies and companies in other segments of the insurance industry. Demutualization announcements are associated with negative stock price reactions in the days around the announcement, and with larger and positive stock price reactions in the days following announcement. Overall, the results support the contention that life insurance company demutualizations signal favorable future industry conditions and/or increased likelihood of future acquisitions for all segments of the insurance industry. Active-minded investors may use these results to develop alpha-generating investment strategies.

  16. 77 FR 52614 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... program, program benefits, program oversight, program funding, coordination with state laws and programs... relief from removal by exercising deferred action on a case-by-case basis with respect to certain... of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano, at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/s1-exercising...

  17. 78 FR 30218 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... require immediate and ongoing medical treatment including severe or life threatening conditions such as..., work, risk and resources of the service. (Hereafter, we generally refer to this pricing methodology as..., facilities and providers will be prohibited from ``balance billing'' enrollees in the federally-administered...

  18. MARKET INSURANCE AND RISKS IN THIS FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Catrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The insurance market can be considered a market where all sorts of anomalies can be encountered or a current acquisition for a situation considered to be certain or relative future, depending on the type of insurance. For the most part, assurance is based on a premise, a hypothesis that is generally based on several factors of influence. Generally, the most important factors in making such a decision are generated by the human-sensitive factor or the economicprotective. Therefore, by joining the insurance market and purchasing any kind of insurance, we must also take into account the risks that arise from these products. Generally, most people perceive these insurance policies in different areas as a future guarantee without considering additional elements that can highlight risk elements that may alter the expected outcome of the acquirer. An important element to mitigate these risks would be the implementation and use of internal control over the supply chain, control that would make a difference between an activity under normal, predictable and legal conditions and a random activity with many elements of risk that can cause major damage to those involved, and to the insurer and the insured. Through this paper, the author aimed to highlight the importance of internal control in insurance companies, as well as the consequences of the lack of internal control within these societies

  19. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.; Bielza, J.; Garrido, A.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk. (Author)

  20. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk.

  1. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON CREDIT INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidean Viorela-Ligia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The insurance domain is one of the most complex and extensive areas of the market. However this field is very risk exposed especially in this period of economic instability. One of the most non-performant insurance products at this time is the credit insurance. Due to inability to pay and increasing bad loans, insurance companies have decided to remove these products from their portfolio. We believe that the signs that led to this situation have been very visible for a long time, but the insurance market players refused to give too much importance to them because they based their operations on the artificial strength of the whole system. In this paper we want to show how things have evolved on the credit insurance market as compared to the general insurance market, and if the present situation could have been anticipated and avoided.

  2. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  3. INSURANCE MARKETING OF INNOVATIONS IN THE REGIONAL MARKET OF SERVICES UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS: STRATEGIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative development of insurance activities must be directed towards creation of new insurance products. Up-to-date innovative insurance marketing should be carried out on the basis of an efficient innovative process management system. For a big insurance company with a largeclient base, high service standards may be warranted only through implementation of innovations linked with newest information technologies.

  4. Differences between insurance organizations: do consumers perceive differences in important areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hendriks, M.; Brouwer, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Competition on the insurance market assumes that insurance organizations differ in what they offer, that the consumers of insurance products perceive differences, and that information about differences is available in a transparent way. With the introduction of the insurance reform in

  5. Nonlife Insurance Pricing:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.

  6. Efficiency Assessment in the Automobile Insurance Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mar Molinero, Cecilio; Segovia, Maria-Manuela; Contreras, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Insurance companies have to take risk and cost into account when pricing car insurance policies in order to design new products to cover the risk of private use of cars. In this paper we use data from 80,000 car insurance policies in\\ud order to assess, once risk and cost have been taken into account, the policies that generate the highest returns for the company. After different profiles of clients are identified, including among the characteristics the regional\\ud location of the clients, w...

  7. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance and reinsurance industry is famous for its traditionalism, that is uninventiveness and neglecting of marketing as business concept and function and by doing so, neglecting opportunities for optimal combination of different distribution channels. However, having in mind Drucker's thesis that only marketing and innovations produce results and that everything else are costs, that applies to all businesses including insurance and reinsurance companies, it is clear that they need to change their way of managing business. Keeping current and attracting new customers, by using optimal combination of marketing mix elements and within its scope by creating optimal mix of distribution channels, as business requirement and objective of insurance and reinsurance companies with strong marketing orientation that leads them to fulfillment of primary objective of their existence - making profit, is becoming specially emphasized with opening of domestic insurance and reinsurance market to foreign competitors with long history of gaining high level of customers' loyalty. Besides that, issues of successful distribution channels' management of insurance and reinsurance services are not treated holistically in domestic literature. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services, as this study shows, are of critical importance for business success of insurance and reinsurance companies.

  8. Nuclear property insurance: status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The report addresses the problem of the unavailability of adequate levels of property insurance for commercial power reactors to pay for decontamination and cleanup costs arising from accidents. The report is designed to answer six questions, as follows: (1) What has been the development of each principal source of nuclear property insurance used as of early 1982 by nuclear utilities in the United States; (2) What are some of the distinguishing features of nuclear property insurance as offered by the principal sources; (3) How much nuclear property insurance was offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1982; (4) Assuming that present plans came to fruition, how much nuclear property insurance is likely to be offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1983; (5) What, if any, principal sources of nuclear property insurance are likely to emerge in the private sector by January 1, 1983; (6) What problems serious enough to warrant action of the NRC exist with respect to nuclear property insurance and what action should NRC take in response to each problem

  9. Catastrophic risks and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1988-01-01

    This short communication deals with compensation for nuclear damage and compensation for environmental pollution through industrial activities and compress both systems and their insurance coverage [fr

  10. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Healthcare Management, Insurance & Bills, Your Health ResourcesTags: brand name, co-pay, drug, formulary, generic, isurance, medicine, ...

  11. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2003-01-01

    analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health......This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....

  12. The insurance of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)

  13. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  14. Effect of Health Insurance on Demand for Outpatient Medical Care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahavugimana

    objective of this paper is to examine factors influencing outpatient care demand in ..... Endogeneity of health insurance arises because the decision to purchase health ... insurance plan, or by purchasing privately a generous coverage. Existing ...

  15. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  16. Insuring against Health Shocks: Health Insurance and Household Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...

  17. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  18. Social health insurance

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.

  19. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  20. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  1. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  2. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2001-01-01

    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  3. Employer-provided health insurance and the incidence of job lock: a literature review and empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Inas; Sarpong, Eric

    2008-12-01

    The incidence of 'job lock' in the health insurance context has long been viewed as a potential problem with employer-provided health insurance, a concept that was instrumental in the passage of the United States Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986, and later, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in 1996. Several recent developments in healthcare in the USA include declining healthcare coverage and a noticeable shift in the burden of medical care costs to employees. If these developments cause employees with employer-provided health insurance to feel locked into their jobs, optimal job matches in the labor force may not take place. A summary of the seminal papers in the current literature on the topic of job lock is given, followed by an empirical exercise using single individuals from the National Health Interview Survey (1997-2003) and the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1989-2000). Econometric methods used include difference in differences, ordinary least squares and individual fixed effects models, in gauging the potential effect that employer-provided health insurance may have on job tenure and voluntary job departure. Our findings are consistent with recent assertions that there is some evidence of job lock. Individuals with employer-provided health insurance stay on the job 16% longer and are 60% less likely to voluntarily leave their jobs than those with insurance that is not provided by their employers. Productivity may not be optimal if incentives are altered owing to the existence of fringe benefits, such as health insurance. Further research in this area should determine whether legislation beyond the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act laws is needed.

  4. Determinants of Health Insurance Coverage among People Aged 45 and over in China: Who Buys Public, Private and Multiple Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan

    2016-01-01

    Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320

  5. Insurer Provide Rating Software and Competitive Advantage: An Evaluation Based on BOP Insurance Applications at Wisconsin Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Aiuppa; William E. Wehrs

    1993-01-01

    This research examines whether a competitive advantage exists for insurers which provide independent agencies with rating software to generate price quotes. Data relative to the Business Owners line of insurance were collected from several Wisconsin agencies which represent several BOP insurers, some of which provide software for rating BOP applications. The results indicate that providing rating software did not increase insurers’ business volumes, but may decrease their underwriting costs. ...

  6. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  7. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  8. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl V. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of “gateway effects”, in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product. Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  9. Insurance brokers market dynamics in Poland before deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Krajewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focus on insurance broker profession in connection with second part of professions deregulations. It briefly presents modifications in polish law in this domain. Next part concerns the insurance brokers market dynamics analysis. The results shows permanent increase in brokers quantity in spite of existing regulations. Presented paper makes start point to following analysis.

  10. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  11. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  12. Impacts of crop insurance on water withdrawals for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Konar, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, crop insurance may have unintended consequences for water resources sustainability, as the vast majority of freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture. The causal impact of crop insurance on water use in agriculture remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation water withdrawals in the United States. Importantly, we use an instrumental variables approach to establish causality. Our methodology exploits a major policy change in the crop insurance system - the 1994 Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act - which imposed crop insurance requirements on farmers. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, with most coming from groundwater aquifers. We identify farmers growing more groundwater-fed cotton as an important mechanism contributing to increased withdrawals. A 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.624% increase in cotton acreage, or 95,602 acres. These results demonstrate that crop insurance causally leads to more irrigation withdrawals. More broadly, this work underscores the importance of determining causality in the water-food nexus as we endeavor to achieve global food security and water resources sustainability.

  13. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  15. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-14] Cooperative Share Loan... comments on the subject proposal. New guidance for cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA...

  16. An application of Fuzzy DEMATEL electronic life-insurance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Tabatabaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, e-commerce has generated competitive advantage for many industries especially in insurance industry where people could apply for any sort of insurance, very easily. In fact, insurance industry has become one of the most important sectors in the world. E-commerce, on the other hand, has absorbed various people in insurance industry to develop economic growth. However, applying e-commerce for insurance firms may encounter serious obstacles and it is important to know them properly and setup appropriate actions to remove them. In this paper, we present a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM technique based on DEMATEL with an adaptation of fuzzy logic to find important factors impacting implementation of e-commerce for life insurance industry. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some insurance experts and then we analyze them using fuzzy DEMATEL technique. Findings indicate that “lack of designing death table based on the existing statistics of population death in Iran”, “lack of variety in protections of life insurance in proportionate to society individual’s requirements by means of low level income of society individuals” and “lack of extensive advertisements for developing the culture of life insurance in country” are the most important factors influencing insurance industry for enhancing e-business.

  17. Big Data and Insurance: Advantageous Selection in European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976 argued that people signal their risk profile through their insurance demand, i.e. individuals with a high risk profile would buy insurance as much as they can, while people who are not going to buy any insurance are the ones with a lower risk profile. This issue is commonly known as adverse selection. Even if their prediction seems to work quite well in a lot of different markets, Cutler et al. (2008 proved that there exist some insurance markets in United States in which the expected result is completely different. In the wake of this study, we provide empirical evidences that there are some European insurance markets in which the low risk profile agents are the ones who buy more insurance.

  18. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  19. Group life insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  20. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  1. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  2. M. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom

  3. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  4. HUD Insured Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...

  5. Deductibles in health insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.

    2009-11-01

    This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.

  6. Prevention in insurance markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  7. The claims handling process of engineering insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C. de Beer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to technological developments, the complicated world of engineering and its associated products are continuously becoming more specialized. Short-term insurers provide engineering insurance to enable the owners and operators of engineering assets to combat the negative impact of the associated risks. It is, however, a huge challenge to the insurers of engineering insurance to manage the particular risks against the background of technological enhancement. The skills gap in the short-term insurance market and the engineering environment may be the main factor which inhibits the growth of the engineering insurance market. The objective of this research embodies the improvement of financial decision-making concerning the claims handling process of engineering insurance. Secondary as well as primary data were necessary to achieve the stated objective. The secondary data provided the background of the research and enabled the researchers to compile a questionnaire for the empirical survey. The questionnaire and a cover letter were sent to the top 10 short-term insurers in South Africa that are providing engineering insurance. Their perceptions should provide guidelines to other short-term insurers who are engaged in engineering insurance, as they are regarded as the market leaders of engineering insurance in South Africa. The empirical results of this research focus on the importance of various claims handling factors when assessing the claims handling process of engineering insurance, the problem areas in the claims handling process concerned, as well as how often the stipulations of engineering insurance policies are adjusted to take the claims handling factors into account.

  8. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  9. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-02-11

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  11. Adoption and impact of index-insurance and credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marr, Ana; Winkel, Anne; Asseldonk, van Marcel; Lensink, Robert; Bulte, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent scientific literature on the determinants explaining the demand for index-insurance, the impact of index-insurance and the existing links between insurance and credit. In this meta-analysis, the authors identify key discoveries on

  12. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  13. SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂRĂCINE MIHAELA SIMONA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of corporate social responsibility has increased significantly nowadays. The studies conducted have shown that consumers are increasingly no longer interested only in buying good quality and reliable products, but they are also interested whether they were produced in a socially responsible manner. In the recent years investors have increasingly realised that investing in social responsibility regarding the social and environmental areas, greatly contributes to the growth of the internal and external image of management. This paper aims at presenting a number of interesting issues related to social responsibility manifested by the insurance companies.

  14. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  15. Cancer insurance policies in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Weinberg, P D; Lieberman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Cancer care in the United States often results in financial hardship for patients and their families. Standard health insurance covers most medical costs, but nonmedical costs (such as lost wages, deductibles, copayments, and travel to and from caregivers) are paid out of pocket. Over the course of treatment, these costs can become substantial. Insurance companies have addressed the burden of these out-of-pocket costs by offering supplemental cancer insurance policies that, upon diagnosis of cancer, pay cash benefits for items that usually require out-of-pocket expenditures and are distinct from reimbursements made by traditional health insurance. Limitations associated with managed care have fostered increased consumer awareness and interest in the United States for cancer insurance and its ability to defray treatment expenditures that usually require out-of-pocket payments. Marketing campaigns are becoming more aggressive, and the number of cancer insurance policies sold has been steadily rising. While cancer insurance is only recently gaining popularity in the United States, it has been a successful product in Japan for over twenty years. In Japan, approximately one-quarter of the population own cancer insurance, and ten-year retention rates are estimated at 75%. As a result, individuals are afforded good access to nonmedical cancer services. Understanding the factors that led to the success of cancer insurance in Japan may assist policymakers in evaluating cancer insurance policies as they become more prevalent in the United States.

  16. The Swedish Insurance Contracts Act 2005 – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmarsson, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    On 1 January 2006 a new Insurance Contracts Act (Försäkringsavtalslag (SFS 2005:104)) entered into force in Sweden, replacing the Insurance Contracts Act 1927 and the Consumer Insurance Act 1980. The Act is in many ways a modern and interesting product and merits an introduction in English, in the context of the current process of reform undertaken by the Law Commissions of England & Wales and Scotland as well as in the context of expected European initiatives for insurance contract law r...

  17. Green financing - Are European banks and insurers contributing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelgarn, Yona; Blanc, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of the public communication of the 32 largest banking and insurance groups led to the following observations. Awareness of the role of the financial sector in the transition to a low-carbon economy has grown since 2012, and companies are increasingly conducting environmental risk analysis. But these practices are more akin to risk management policies - initiated to limit exposure to the most controversial projects - than to real reallocation strategies contributing to the transition to a low-carbon economy. Information on green financing is developing but focuses more on image than on business activities. The companies in the sample are communicating more on their green financing, and in particular on their contribution to renewable energy projects. But the indicators are very heterogeneous, are not monitored over time and cannot be compared between companies. Generally speaking, banks and insurers have not committed to increase their allocations to green financing and fail to discuss the financing of fossil fuels. Information on environmental and social risk management policies is becoming more structured. Process consists in introducing sector-based policies, setting forth minimum standards below which companies do not invest, notably in the energy sector, as well as developing environmental and social (ES) risk analysis tools for transactions. Analyses theoretically encompass the environmental impact of financed activities, but little information exists on the type of criteria used. These practices, developed initially for project finance, have since been extended to other banking activities and, more recently, to insurance activities. Reporting on the environmental impact of financed products remains rudimentary. Over three-quarters of the companies in the sample acknowledge the environmental responsibility stemming from their business activities, but measures continue to focus on the impact of premises and business travel. While almost all the

  18. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES: Insurance for Insurers

    OpenAIRE

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...

  19. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  20. Business Storytelling and Leadership in the Insurance Companies from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Păuș

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research addresses a new concept introduced into the managerial practice of the insurance industry from Romania and it aims to test the hypothesis that success, performance and competitiveness of the organizations in the insurance industry depend also on the quality of the leadership and the leaders’ ability to use storytelling, taking into account the intangibility of the insurance products. The main tool that this exploratory, qualitative research has used is the structured interview with three target groups, which we considered to be relevant: CEOs/managers of insurance companies and insurance brokerage firms, public relations specialists and economic journalists. The results of our research endeavours may be of interest for both the managers, employees and communication specialists in the insurance industry and the business world in general, for which the introduction of storytelling in the leadership practices might increase the attractiveness not only for employees, but also for stakeholders and customers.

  1. [Increased financial risks for health insurers: a challenge for providers of mental health care in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daansen, P J; van Schilt, J

    2014-01-01

    As from 2014 Dutch health insurance companies will bear the full financial risk for their clients in mental health care. Over the next years the existing risk settlement shared between insurance companies will gradually be brought to a close. Municipalities and the Ministry of Justice are already responsible for or will soon become responsible for financing health care for adolescents, patients with severe psychiatric disorders and forensic psychiatric patients. As a result, the health insurance companies are beginning to impose ever stricter conditions regarding the care 'product' they are 'buying'. To study the possible consequences, for mental health care institutions, of the increased risk to be borne by health care insurers. Use was made of relevant marketing literature and literature relating to mental health care. Studies of Dutch mental health care literature indicate that in the future the purchasing procedure will no longer consider the immediate treatment outcome as the sole performance indicator but will also take into account additional factors such as long-term improvements in patients' health, customer satisfaction and degree of patient participation, patient empowerment and autonomy. In formulating the details of their health products and business strategies, health care providers will now have to take into account not only the efficacy of the treatment they provide but also the purchasing policy and strategy of the health insurance companies.

  2. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  3. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternating or mixed pattern. Marketable. Pear production acceptable for processing or other human consumption... irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during the insurance period. (b) In... provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable. 13. Pear Quality Adjustment Endorsement (a) This...

  4. Health insurance and health care in India: a supply-demand perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    India’s health care and health financing provision is characterized by too little Government spending on health, meager health insurance coverage, declining public health care use contrasted by highest levels of private out-of-pocket health spending in the world. To understand the interconnectedness of these disturbing outcomes, this paper envisions a theoretical framework of health insurance and health care revisits the existing health insurance schemes and assesses the health insurance cove...

  5. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  6. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  7. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Mirjana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  8. Immigrants' access to health insurance: no equality without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzúrová, Dagmar; Winkler, Petr; Drbohlav, Dušan

    2014-07-14

    The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants' access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants' access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.

  9. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: Gaps and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.

  10. Immigrants’ Access to Health Insurance: No Equality without Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dzúrová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.

  11. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  12. Links between communication strategies and personal insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A communication strategy plays a crucial role in understanding these conceptions and effecting the desired change. Hence there is need for insurance sales agents and employees to be properly trained and well equipped with product knowledge and the necessary communication skills to put this knowledge across.

  13. Nuclear insurance and indemnity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief account is given of insurance protection in the nuclear industry, and the legislation involved. Aspects discussed are: third part liability and the role of government in setting the maximum amount of compensation; the development and concept of channelling the liability exclusively to the operator; the development of nuclear insurance facilities in Europe and the USA; and the emergence in Europe of international agreements on third party liability for protection of neighbouring countries in the event of a major accident. The development of liability law in the USA from the time of the Price Anderson Act of 1957 through subsequent legislation is described. (U.K.)

  14. American nuclear insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear liability insurance covers liability for damages directly caused by the nuclear energy hazard. This coverage includes offsite bodily injury and property damage sustained by members of the general public, and bodily injury to onsite third party personnel. Recent nuclear liability claims allege bodily injury and property damage resulting from releases or radioactive materials to the environmental and occupational radiation worker exposures. Routine reactor operations involving radioactive waste have the potential to result in such claims. The nuclear insurance Pools believe that one way such claims can be minimized is through the implementation of an effective radioactive waste management program

  15. Lectures on insurance models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, S

    2009-01-01

    Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.

  16. Counseling as an Insured Benefit: Perspectives from the Insurance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Wallace C.

    1974-01-01

    Article discusses the feasibility of marriage counseling as an insurance benefit in the future. It is suggested that the physician be used as a marriage counselor in that insurance companies will pay for medical services. (EK)

  17. Analytical assessment of current insurance as part of management of consequences of emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Yu. Polyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the current state of the insurance system as a component of managing the consequences of emergencies. The researches are presented in the following areas: the insurance against accidents and fire risks and risks of natural disasters; property insurance (property, goods and agricultural products; the insurance of transport (by modes; liability insurance (by liability. So, the author made the statistical and analytical assessment of consequences of emergencies that was learned through the study of modern insurance system, which enabled to identify the complex of accounting objects in the management of consequences of emergencies.

  18. Disability Insurance and Health Insurance Reform: Evidence from Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand

    2014-01-01

    As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...

  19. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  20. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    is on the relation between household preferences and the related optimal product design. Optimal decisions of a household are considered in continuous-time stochastic control theory models. Within a standard expected utility framework we investigate the eects of dierences between household members as well as tax......Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  1. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  2. Insurance: Covering the bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses steps to take to improve the economics and risk profiles for independent power projects. The topics discussed in the article include the results of competition in the power industry, custom packages and the lack of competition among insurers in the power industry, mitigating risk through providing technical information, and developing programs

  3. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...

  4. Trends in pension insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shterev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system

  5. Business intelligence for insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    IGNATIUK A.

    2016-01-01

    The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  6. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  7. An Auto Telematics System For Insurance Premium Rating amp Pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irode Philip Luvuga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes and profile location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

  8. Insurances in the petroleum industry; Seguros na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Juliana S.F. [IRB-Brasil Resseguros, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work shows an overview, focused mainly Brazil, of the insurance branch that deals with the upstream activities. The oil industry represents a substantial exposition for insurance international market because of the catastrophic nature of its risks, that entails a capacity dependency. The most of Insurance split into several insurers and reinsurer and are distributed into several markets and several regions of the world. The oil and gas branch of insurance covers: physical damage to equipment (platforms, vessels, drill ship etc), build, operation and liability in consequence of claims. The contract of insurance is complex because it is specific and demands much negotiation of rates and conditions. Moreover it is needed to find reliable insurers which want to accept the risk. There are alternatives to insurance market created by oil companies such as Captive and Mutual companies. The insurance international market built a complex and customized structure in order to be able to offer coverage to upstream risks and to participate in the amounts related to oil and gas production. (author)

  9. Ways and means of insuring against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell Miles, A.

    1975-01-01

    Despite stringent safety requirements imposed upon nuclear installations, the need for adequate insurance cover is motivated by the consideration that a nuclear accident could lead to very grave consequences. To marshal the large insurance capacity required, national pools were formed in many countries, which may enter into arrangements with other similar national pools to increase their own capacity with a view to an appropriate spread of the risks involved. In the absence of a national nuclear pool, application for nuclear insurance would normally be made to the national insurance market association concerned. Virtually every type of nuclear risk is insurable; various forms of material damage and liability insurances are available. The financial liability of nuclear operators is established by national legislation on the basis of international conventions. Insurance coverage is linked to the operator's amount of liability established by law. A third party nuclear liability insurance policy usually consists of three parts: Part I covers the operator's liability under his domestic nuclear legislation; Part II provides non-nuclear power for accidents on the site up to a separate liability limit selected by the operator; and Part III provides cover for costs. Other types of insurance deal with damage to the site and the installation (material damage), consequential losses, contingent liabilities of suppliers of goods and services (products liability), nuclear material in transit and nuclear-propelled ships. (author)

  10. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  11. The unending deposit insurance mess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, E J

    1989-10-27

    The thrift institution deposit insurance mess is rooted in defects in political and bureaucratic accountability. Under existing incentives, covering up evidence of poor regulatory performance and relaxing binding capital requirements are rational governmental responses to widespread industry insolvency. Similarly, aggressive industry risk taking is a rational response by thrift managers to regulatory forbearances. Far from acknowledging these incentive defects, the Bush plan for cleaning up the mess adopts theories that spotlight other causes: specifically, poor thrift management and the deregulation of thrift institution activities and of deposit interest rates. To end the mess, politicians and regulators must jettison these comfortable theories and surrender discretion that permits them to finesse the need to budget for governmental financial commitments.

  12. Property flood resilience database: an innovative response for the insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvin Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The property flood resilience database (PFR-d has been created through a research feasibility study undertaken by the Building Research Establishment, AXA Insurance and Lexis Nexis Risk Solutions in the UK. The project was funded by Innovate-UK and was undertaken over the period of May 2014 to August 2015. There has been a growing realisation that flood management has to move from a position where flood defence (e.g. major river barriers and drainage infrastructure is the only solution to flood risk to one of flood resilience. This shift requires an increase in responsibility for a variety of stakeholders, including property owners. The PFR-d was conceived as a product that code fit within the existing insurance frameworks and systems. The PFR-d is a ‘missing piece of data’ for insurers that could assist in providing more appropriate insurance pricing in high flood risk areas, or where properties have suffered repeat flooding events.

  13. Estimation of customer lifetime value of a health insurance with interest rates obeying uniform distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawan, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Henintyas, Permana, D.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays some firms, including insurer firms, think that customer-centric services are better than product-centric ones in terms of marketing. Insurance firms will try to attract as many new customer as possible while maintaining existing customer. This causes the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) becomes a very important thing. CLV are able to put customer into different segments and calculate the present value of a firm's relationship with its customer. Insurance customer will depend on the last service he or she can get. So if the service is bad now, then customer will not renew his contract though the service is very good at an erlier time. Because of this situation one suitable mathematical model for modeling customer's relationships and calculating their lifetime value is Markov Chain. In addition, the advantages of using Markov Chain Modeling is its high degree of flexibility. In 2000, Pfeifer and Carraway states that Markov Chain Modeling can be used for customer retention situation. In this situation, Markov Chain Modeling requires only two states, which are present customer and former ones. This paper calculates customer lifetime value in an insurance firm with two distinctive interest rates; the constant interest rate and uniform distribution of interest rates. The result shows that loyal customer and the customer who increase their contract value have the highest CLV.

  14. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  15. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  16. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thofelt, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains some facts about the Swedish nuclear energy production system and about the nuclear operators liability with the important issues. The nuclear insurance of Sweden is also explained in short terms. (author)

  17. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and ... Potential candidates include China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mali and South ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  18. Avoiding the known prior acts exclusion when insuring newly acquired entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, J P; Passannante, W G

    1998-09-01

    Adding a new entity to an organization's existing insurance program can be problematic if the existing policy contains a known prior acts exclusion clause. By purportedly excluding claims that a policyholder "could have reasonably foreseen or discovered," the known prior acts exclusion allows the insurer to reject those claims after a lawsuit has been filed policyholders should have known prior acts exclusion clauses removed from their policies or work with their insurers on language that will clarify the policy regarding this exclusion.

  19. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  20. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  1. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...

  2. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  3. Examining the types and payments of the disabilities of the insurants in the national farmers' health insurance program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hung-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to the considerable body of literature concerning the disabilities of the general population, little information exists pertaining to the disabilities of the farm population. Focusing on the disability issue to the insurants in the Farmers' Health Insurance (FHI program in Taiwan, this paper examines the associations among socio-demographic characteristics, insured factors, and the introduction of the national health insurance program, as well as the types and payments of disabilities among the insurants. Methods A unique dataset containing 1,594,439 insurants in 2008 was used in this research. A logistic regression model was estimated for the likelihood of received disability payments. By focusing on the recipients, a disability payment and a disability type equation were estimated using the ordinary least squares method and a multinomial logistic model, respectively, to investigate the effects of the exogenous factors on their received payments and the likelihood of having different types of disabilities. Results Age and different job categories are significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving disability payments. Compared to those under age 45, the likelihood is higher among recipients aged 85 and above (the odds ratio is 8.04. Compared to hired workers, the odds ratios for self-employed and spouses of farm operators who were not members of farmers' associations are 0.97 and 0.85, respectively. In addition, older insurants are more likely to have eye problems; few differences in disability types are related to insured job categories. Conclusions Results indicate that older farmers are more likely to receive disability payments, but the likelihood is not much different among insurants of various job categories. Among all of the selected types of disability, a highest likelihood is found for eye disability. In addition, the introduction of the national health insurance program decreases the

  4. Catalytic water co-existing with a product peptide in the active site of HIV-1 protease revealed by X-ray structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Prashar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that HIV-1 protease is an important target for design of antiviral compounds in the treatment of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. In this context, understanding the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme is of crucial importance as transition state structure directs inhibitor design. Most mechanistic proposals invoke nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule. But such a water molecule coexisting with any ligand in the active site has not been found so far in the crystal structures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here the first observation of the coexistence in the active site, of a water molecule WAT1, along with the carboxyl terminal product (Q product peptide. The product peptide has been generated in situ through cleavage of the full-length substrate. The N-terminal product (P product has diffused out and is replaced by a set of water molecules while the Q product is still held in the active site through hydrogen bonds. The position of WAT1, which hydrogen bonds to both the catalytic aspartates, is different from when there is no substrate bound in the active site. We propose WAT1 to be the position from where catalytic water attacks the scissile peptide bond. Comparison of structures of HIV-1 protease complexed with the same oligopeptide substrate, but at pH 2.0 and at pH 7.0 shows interesting changes in the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions from the catalytic aspartates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The structure is suggestive of the repositioning, during substrate binding, of the catalytic water for activation and subsequent nucleophilic attack. The structure could be a snap shot of the enzyme active site primed for the next round of catalysis. This structure further suggests that to achieve the goal of designing inhibitors mimicking the transition-state, the hydrogen-bonding pattern between WAT1 and the enzyme should be replicated.

  5. Catalytic water co-existing with a product peptide in the active site of HIV-1 protease revealed by X-ray structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Vishal; Bihani, Subhash; Das, Amit; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Hosur, Madhusoodan

    2009-11-17

    It is known that HIV-1 protease is an important target for design of antiviral compounds in the treatment of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In this context, understanding the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme is of crucial importance as transition state structure directs inhibitor design. Most mechanistic proposals invoke nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule. But such a water molecule coexisting with any ligand in the active site has not been found so far in the crystal structures. We report here the first observation of the coexistence in the active site, of a water molecule WAT1, along with the carboxyl terminal product (Q product) peptide. The product peptide has been generated in situ through cleavage of the full-length substrate. The N-terminal product (P product) has diffused out and is replaced by a set of water molecules while the Q product is still held in the active site through hydrogen bonds. The position of WAT1, which hydrogen bonds to both the catalytic aspartates, is different from when there is no substrate bound in the active site. We propose WAT1 to be the position from where catalytic water attacks the scissile peptide bond. Comparison of structures of HIV-1 protease complexed with the same oligopeptide substrate, but at pH 2.0 and at pH 7.0 shows interesting changes in the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions from the catalytic aspartates. The structure is suggestive of the repositioning, during substrate binding, of the catalytic water for activation and subsequent nucleophilic attack. The structure could be a snap shot of the enzyme active site primed for the next round of catalysis. This structure further suggests that to achieve the goal of designing inhibitors mimicking the transition-state, the hydrogen-bonding pattern between WAT1 and the enzyme should be replicated.

  6. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Löf, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  7. Financing and insurance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurenge, M.-T.

    1975-01-01

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned [fr

  8. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  9. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.

  10. A different kind of 'new federalism'? The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, L M; Blumberg, L J

    1998-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 has been praised and criticized for asserting federal authority to regulate health insurance. We review the history of federalism and insurance regulation and find that HIPAA is less of a departure from traditional federal authority than it is an application of existing tools to meet evolving health policy goals. This interpretation could clarify future health policy debates about appropriate federal and state responsibilities. We also report on the insurance environments and the HIPAA implementation choices of thirteen states. We conclude with criteria for judging the success of HIPAA and the evolving federal/state partnership in health insurance regulation.

  11. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U

    1997-01-01

    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  12. The development of new diagnostic test-systems and improvement of the existed radio immunochemical kits in the industrial production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A.M.

    2002-04-01

    The highly effective method had been developed for HBsAg preparing and purification that allowed to use as the raw material a plasma of donors with low content of the target product and based on the application of the stepped fractionation by Ammonium Sulphate and affinity chromatography. The use efficiency of the produced HBsAg preparations had been shown for laboratory animals immunization with the purpose of antiserum production that was the intermediate product for component manufacture needed for high sensitive kit creation; for preparation of affinity immunosorbent with the purpose of highly specific anti-HBs preparing. The method had been developed for production of anti-HBs preparations with standard immunoreactivity from donkey serum by means of specific antibodies fractionation on affinity immunosorbent. The work was done to finish the method for 125 I incorporation into the monoclonal mouse antibody molecules resulting maximum high biological activity. It was determined that the highest quality provided by approach of the isotope introduction by means of Chloraimine T reagent. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the modified highly sensitive kit 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I' for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with use of monoclonal antibodies with the help of which it was managed to increase the stability and sensitivity and to standardize the technology of the kit. The technology had been developed and completed the laboratory and clinical testing of the kits of reagents 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I', 'ELISA-HBsAg', 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' that had shown the high specificity and reproduction of the analysis results. Immunoenzymetic kit 'ELISA-HBsAg' of the third generation for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with the sensitivity not less than 0.5 ng/ml was introduced into industrial production. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the highly sensitive immunoenzymetic test-system 'Recombinant

  13. Ecological strategies shapes the insurance potential of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eMatias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is thought to provide insurance for ecosystem functioning under heterogeneous environments, however, such insurance potential is under serious threat following unprecedented loss of biodiversity. One of the key mechanism underlying ecological insurance is that niche differentiation allows asynchronous responses to fluctuating environments; although, the role of different ecological strategies (e.g. specialists vs generalists has yet to be formally evaluated. We combine here a simple model and experimental study to illustrate how different specialization-performance strategies shape the biodiversity-insurance relationship. We assembled microcosm of generalists and specialist bacteria over a gradient of salinity and found that, bacterial communities made up of generalists were more productive and more stable over time under environmental fluctuations. We argue that beyond species richness itself, it is essential to incorporate the distribution of ecological strategies across relevant environmental gradients as predictors of the insurance potential of biodiversity in natural ecosystems.

  14. OFFERS FOR INDEXATION MECHANISM OF INSURANCE PENSION IN MANDATORY PENSION INSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sil'chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of mandatory pension insurance system is lack of monetary resources on payment of pensions. One of the key mechanisms of ensuring of financial stability of the system is indexation insurance pensions, so long as through indexation it is possible to regulate the stream of monetary resources of both budget of pension fund and federal budget's transfer payments.Objectives. The aim of this work is to form a suggestion upon settlement of indexation of insurance pension for ensuring of financial stability of the pension system.Methodology. Writing the article applied methods used in economic studies: analysis, analytical, comparative, induction.Results. The author finds the basic problems of existent mechanism of indexation of pensions and gives suggestions about development of indexation mechanism.Conclusions and Relevance. New approach can be easily applicable in any macroeconomic and demographic terms and allow to manage federal budget expenditures inclusive of its resource possibilities.

  15. Insurance of operators liability: the reality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, J.

    2000-01-01

    The author's observations commence with -an overview of the principal amendments proposed in relation to the revision of the Paris Convention, in particular the inclusion of preventive measures, the definition of nuclear damage, the notion of reasonableness in respect of preventive measures and measures of reinstatement, increased liability amounts and extended prescription periods. He examines to what extent the insurance industry of today would be able to cover such risks, and the problems or doubts that it may encounter in doing so. This presentation also raises other questions which as yet remain unanswered, in particular the question of priorities and the role that complementary funding, namely the Brussels Supplementary Convention, will play in compensating victims. The author concludes by commenting on the current state of the insurance market. He suggests that before making irreversible political decisions in this field, Contracting Parties should, inter alia, carry out detailed analyses on the adequacy of the financial guarantees, in order to attain existing objectives and eliminate the obstacles which prevent the nuclear insurance market from being a competitive one. The author suggests that it might be in the interests of European nuclear operators to promote an insurance mechanism along the same lines as their American colleagues. (author)

  16. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  17. Development of the agricultural insurance market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vávrová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threate­ning the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.

  18. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  19. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  20. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  1. The Dynamics of Market Insurance, Insurable Assets, and Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...

  2. Adoption and impact of index-insurance and credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marr, Ana; Winkel, Anne; van Asseldonk, Marcel; Lensink, Robert; Bulte, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent scientific literature on the determinants explaining the demand for index-insurance, the impact of index-insurance and the existing links between insurance and credit. In this meta-analysis, the authors identify key discoveries on the

  3. 77 FR 52587 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... authorizes FCIC to waive collection of administrative fees from limited resource farmers. FCIC believes this... recommended that due to lack of records in a new orchard (or transferred orchards) and along with the desire of producers to insure fruit for fresh production, a new eligible producer or a new orchard, should...

  4. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  5. ETHICS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriletea Marius

    2008-01-01

    The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...

  6. Existing Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Exposures to Chemical- and Product-Based Risk and Their Applicability to Diet-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Knopman, Debra S

    2018-04-17

    We aimed to identify and categorize the types of policies that have been adopted to protect Americans from harmful exposures that could also be relevant for addressing diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines and categorizes the rationales behind government regulation. Our interest in the historical analysis is to inform judgments about how best to address newly emergent risks involving diet-related chronic disease within existing regulatory and information-based frameworks. We assessed exemplars of regulation with respect to harmful exposures from air, water, and food, as well as regulations that are intended to modify voluntary behaviors. Following the comparative analysis, we explored how exposures that lead to diet-related chronic diseases among the general population fit within models of regulation adopted for other comparable risks. We identified five rationales and five approaches that protect people from harmful exposures. Reasons for regulation include: protection from involuntary exposure to risk, high risk of death or chronic illness, ubiquity of risk, counteraction to limit compulsive behaviors, and promotion of population health. Regulatory approaches include: mandatory limits on use, mandatory limits on exposure, mandatory controls on quality, mandatory labeling, and voluntary guidance. In contrast to the use of mandates, the prevention of diet-related chronic diseases thus far has largely relied on information-only approaches and voluntary adoption of guidelines. There is ample precedent for mandatory regulatory approaches that could address harms related to exposure to unhealthy diets, but several barriers to action would need to be overcome. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Innovative insurance plan promises to leverage green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    This article explains the gap between customers of green power signing short term (1-2 year) contracts and the banks wanting power purchase agreements for ten or more years before lending on new projects. Details are given of a new initiative from the US green power industry for a green premium for green power marketeers with the idea of an insurance product to take some of the risk and bridge the gap. Examples of coverage under the green power insurance proposal are discussed, and the funding and implementation of the scheme, and the effect of the insurance are considered

  8. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  9. REINSURANCE FORM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PROPERTY INSURANCE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The most significant means by which insurance markets operate to spread risks beyond like risk pools is reinsurance. The reinsurance operation has the advantage that the original insured can increase his financial capacity in order to cover the risks that he cannot bear alone. The risks are therefore spread and the danger of insolvency or of decreasing the financial capacities either disappears or is reduced. The reinsurance involves a new insurance, carried out by a new policy, for the same original insured risk, for the purpose of compensating the insured persons for the previously concluded insurances. Both contracts exist at the same time. By reinsurance the reinsurer receives reinsurance premiums, in return for which it contributes, according to the obligations assumed, to bearing the indemnities that the reinsured pays on the occurrence of the risk subject to reinsurance; the reinsured cedes reinsurance premiums, in return for which the reinsurer contributes, according to the obligations assumed, to bearing the indemnities that the reinsured pays on the occurrence of the risk subject to reinsurance. The reinsurance does not terminate the insurer’s obligations and does not establish any legal relationship between the insured and the reinsurer. This paper offers an introduction to key features of reinsurance, and some of the sources of complexity in the legal issues that arise

  10. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  12. [Analysis of the decision to buy medicine in light of the existence of generic products: a study in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Caissa Veloso E; Mesquita, Jose Marcos Carvalho de; Lara, José Edson

    2013-11-01

    The scope of this study is to identify the factors that influence the consumer's decision when buying medicine. Prior to the Generics Act (Lei dos Genéricos), consumers had at their disposal two product purchase options in the private market, namely buying a reference drug and a similar one. Generic drugs are part of a public policy which was intended to broaden access to medication by the general population at more accessible costs, while maintaining the same quality as the reference drug, as ensured by bioequivalence tests from the national health surveillance agency ANVISA. Nevertheless, a question arises as to whether the potential consumer knows the difference between generic, similar and reference drugs, especially when taking into account the decision at the moment of purchase. In order to fulfill the proposed objective, a survey was conducted with 403 residents in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The data gathered was tabulated and analyzed using factor analysis and crosstab. The results made it possible to infer that there is a strong predisposition among consumers to accept the suggestions of the pharmacists and/or salesman, and a significant portion of the population is confused at the moment of purchase.

  13. A High Diversity in Chitinolytic and Chitosanolytic Species and Enzymes and Their Oligomeric Products Exist in Soil with a History of Chitin and Chitosan Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampally, Malathi; Rajulu, M B Govinda; Gillet, Dominique; Suryanarayanan, T S; Moerschbacher, Bruno B

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs) have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering.

  14. A High Diversity in Chitinolytic and Chitosanolytic Species and Enzymes and Their Oligomeric Products Exist in Soil with a History of Chitin and Chitosan Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampally, Malathi; Rajulu, M. B. Govinda; Gillet, Dominique; Suryanarayanan, T. S.; Moerschbacher, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomolecules on earth, and its partially de-N-acetylated counterpart, chitosan, is one of the most promising biotechnological resources due to its diversity in structure and function. Recently, chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes (CCMEs) have gained increasing interest as tools to engineer chitosans with specific functions and reliable performance in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In a search for novel CCME, we isolated chitinolytic and chitosanolytic microorganisms from soils with more than ten-years history of chitin and chitosan exposure and screened them for chitinase and chitosanase isoenzymes as well as for their patterns of oligomeric products by incubating their secretomes with chitosan polymers. Of the 60 bacterial strains isolated, only eight were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic, while 20 out of 25 fungal isolates were chitinolytic and/or chitosanolytic. The bacterial isolates produced rather similar patterns of chitinolytic and chitosanolytic enzymes, while the fungal isolates produced a much broader range of different isoenzymes. Furthermore, diverse mixtures of oligosaccharides were formed when chitosan polymers were incubated with the secretomes of select fungal species. Our study indicates that soils with a history of chitin and chitosan exposure are a good source of novel CCME for chitosan bioengineering. PMID:26273652

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  16. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  17. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  18. 78 FR 52780 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  19. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  20. Demand for voluntary basic medical insurance in urban China: panel evidence from the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yan, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the key factors associated with the demand for Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), which was established in 2007 and aims to cover all Chinese urban residents. Two waves of longitudinal household survey data are used, and a three-level random-intercept logit model is used for the analysis. Two different sets of explanatory variables were identified for adults and children, separately. Results suggest for both the adult and the child samples that income, health status, age and health risk behaviours are key influencing factors for basic medical insurance demand. The household head's characteristics are also significantly related to other household members' medical insurance demands. Specifically, household heads who are more educated or retired are more likely to purchase medical insurance for their children. These findings suggest that an expansion of the special subsidy to the poor or, probably more important, a risk-adjusted benefit package may be needed for voluntary basic medical insurance in China. In addition, adverse selection consistently exists and is a major challenge for the sustainability of medical insurance financing. To expand insurance coverage for children, especially those under school age, special efforts (possibly through health education or health promotion) should be focused on the household head, particularly those engaging in risky health behaviours.

  1. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  2. Motor Third Party Liability Insurance in Russia: Gaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Rogozin, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    The report identifies which factors of service-based offerings are of utmost importance for customers, considers the areas of MTPL insurance that may contain a potential sources for differentiation, and stresses importance of knowing customer needs and requirements. This report should assist the insurance company to categorise and systematise relevant information so as to develop a product position, which may give a competitive advantage.

  3. MAIN TENDENCIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Poplyko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance market plays an important role in the economic development and has a special significance in the countries with economy of the transition period. In spite of its positive influence exerted on the development of national economy the level of  insurance service spreading is still rather low.  The paper considers main results of the activity of the Belarusian insurance organizations. Usage of statistic evaluation methods makes it possible to break them in separate groups. The conducted analysis of organizations’ financial flows (receipts, payments and profits for the period of 2005–2007 testifies to their dynamic development. Economic management subjects of non-state ownership take leading positions in this matter.Further growth of commercial insurance market greatly depends on the government efficiency to regulate the given sphere of activity. Removal of existing negative factors including creation of equal competitive conditions for all participants of the market, its demonopolization, will favor its development. 

  4. Transparency, Trust and Security: An Evaluation of the Insurer's Precontractual Duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparency in insurance law attaches to the rights and duties of the parties, the relationships between insurers, insurance intermediaries such as agents and brokers, insurance supervisory law and insurance dispute resolution procedures. Regarding the rights and duties of the insurer and the prospective policyholder, it requires insurers to disclose precontractual information in a timely manner that is clear, understandable, legible and unambiguous. Transparency as a value is incredibly important in insurance contracts. This contribution focuses exclusively on the insurer's duty of disclosure during precontractual negotiations. Although the insured's duty of disclosure has enjoyed more attention in the past, the duty clearly applies to the insurance proposer as well as the insurer. The purpose of this contribution is to evaluate the nature and extent of the insurer's transparency duties as informed by both common and statutory laws. The insurer's duty is derived primarily from the statutory rights of access to information in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the Promotion of Access to Information Act. It is furthermore supported by specific insurance consumer protection law found in the detailed provisions on mandatory disclosures in the Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act, the Long-term Insurance Act, the Short-term Insurance Act and, finally, the Policyholder Protection Rules issued in accordance with these acts. Strict rules on advertising can be found in the General Code of Conduct issued under the FAIS Act. The Act furthermore specifically targets the activities of insurance intermediaries in precontractual disclosures. The fact that insurance products and services have been exempted from the scope of the Consumer Protection Act from 28 February 2014 should not diminish the insured's right to rely on universal consumer protection principles as envisaged by South African

  5. Analysis on the Intention to Purchase Weather Index Insurance and Development Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Jung, J.; Shin, J.; Kim, B.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze how to revitalize weather insurance. Current state of weather insurance market is firstly described, and the necessity of insurance products and intention to purchase are analyzed based on the recognition survey regarding weather insurance focusing on the weather index insurance. The result of intention to purchase insurance products were examined with Ordered Logit Analysis (OLA), indicating that the amount of damages, the impacts of weather change, and experience of damage and loss have a positive relationship with the intention to purchase weather insurance. In addition, recognition of the amount of acceptable payment for insurance (i.e. willingness to pay) was analyzed for both the group who wants to purchase insurance (Group 1) and the group who does not want to (Group 2). The results demonstrate that Group 1 shows statistically higher significance than Group 2. Based on the results above with the increase in abnormal weather phenomena, we could predict that the amount of damages and losses will be rapidly increasing. The portion of weather insurance market is also expected to consistently develop and expand. This study could be a cornerstone for drawing a plan to revitalize weather insurance.

  6. Financial management of insurance companies in the context of the new regime Solvency II

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate Costin; Badea Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring con...

  7. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... insurance industry traces its roots back to England, where, in 1696, the first mutual fire insurer was... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD89 Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

  8. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  9. Your Insurance Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…

  10. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  11. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 13 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...

  13. MATHEMATICAL METHODS USED FOR CALCULATE INSURANCE PREMIUM TO THE PROPERTY INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN-LUCIAN ACHIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important task of the actuarial department is to provide well grounded charges for specialized departments and sales departments subsequently. For the stringency of these calculations will depend in future the economic performance of an insurer, by a mathematical estimate as close to reality existence.The method presented in this work is a quantitative one, later charges will support certain adjustments in terms of quality.

  14. Medico-economic evaluation of healthcare products. Methodology for defining a significant impact on French health insurance costs and selection of benchmarks for interpreting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Biot, Claire; Blachier, Corinne; Braun, Eric; Debroucker, Frédérique; Detournay, Bruno; Ferretti, Carine; Granger, Muriel; Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Lussier, Marie-Dominique; Meyer, Arlette; Muller, Sophie; Pigeon, Martine; De Sahb, Rima; Sannié, Thomas; Sapède, Claudine; Vray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Decree No. 2012-1116 of 2 October 2012 on medico-economic assignments of the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) significantly alters the conditions for accessing the health products market in France. This paper presents a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies and summarises the facts available in France for developing benchmarks that will be used to interpret incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. This literature review shows that it is difficult to determine a threshold value but it is also difficult to interpret then incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) results without a threshold value. In this context, round table participants favour a pragmatic approach based on "benchmarks" as opposed to a threshold value, based on an interpretative and normative perspective, i.e. benchmarks that can change over time based on feedback. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Some Thoughts on Sustainability, Insurability and Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Walter R Stahel

    1997-01-01

    There are clear indications that the present “old” industrial economy needs a serious adjustment to become compatible with the aims of a sustainable society. The main issues involved are the time factor, resource productivity and socio-cultural ecology.-the time factor: sustainability is a long-term societal vision concerned with the stewardship of natural resources and assets in order to safeguard the opportunities and choices of future generations. The industrial economy is often limited to...

  16. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  17. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  18. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  19. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  20. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  1. Insurance and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act is discussed, which establishes procedures for insuring nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants). The act was enacted with the dual purpose of protecting the public and encouraging the development of a private nuclear energy industry. Criticisms that can generally be grouped into four categories regarding the Act are presented, the most controversial aspect being that should an accident occur, the aggregate liability of the reactor operator, the NRC, or any others who might be at fault is limited to $560 million. Lawsuits for amounts in excess of $560 million are prohibited. The 1975 renewal of the Price-Anderson Act does provide that damages in excess of the $560 million prompt Congress to review the particular incident and take action to protect the public from the consequences of a disaster of such magnitude

  2. Risk management in crop production based on the regional index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokot Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional index insurance is one of the newer instruments for reducing losses in crop production. The regional index indicates the average yield or average production value in a region, representing the basis for the premium calculation and insurance benefits. The main advantage of this insurance model is that it does not require the damage assessment, which is one of major problems in the relationship between the insured and insurer. In the case of corn, wheat and sunflower production as the most important crops in the region of Ada municipality, the authors describe the methodology of application of the analysed insurance system. Implementation of this contemporary form of insurance in Serbia would reduce the negative financial consequences in agricultural production. The abovementioned model of insurance can be seen as a significant alternative to conventional insurance, which can increase insured area and number of insured, and trust and confidence in insurance companies would also be restored.

  3. The effects of the vegetable prices insurance on the fluctuation of price: Based on Shanghai evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunhong; Li, Huishang; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Xuebiao; Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Taking Shanghai as an example, the influence of the vegetable price insurance on the fluctuation of prices was analyzed in the article. It was found that the sequence of seasonal fluctuations characteristics of leafy vegetable prices was changed by the vegetable cost-price insurance, the period of price fluctuation was elongated from 12-to-18 months to 37 months, and the influence of random factors on the price fluctuations was reduced in some degree. There was still great space for innovation of the vegetable prices insurance system in Shanghai. Some countermeasures would be suggested to develop the insurance system to better to play the role of insurance and promote the market running more smoothly in Shanghai such as prolonging the insurance cycle, improving the price information monitoring mechanism and innovating income insurance products and so on.

  4. Imperfect Tests and Natural Insurance Monopolies

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...

  5. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  6. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  7. 76 FR 64174 - Public Input on the Report to Congress on How To Modernize and Improve the System of Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... submit views on: 1. Systemic risk regulation with respect to insurance; 2. Capital standards and the... risk; 3. Consumer protection for insurance products and practices, including gaps in State regulation... general creditor claims; iii. In the case of life insurance companies, on the loss of the special status...

  8. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  9. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  11. PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the

  12. An investigation into onshore captive insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Le Roux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provided by captive insurers is one of various forms of risk financing.  The nature and main types of captive insurance companies are discussed.  This is followed by the results of an empirical study that focused on South African onshore captive insurance companies.  The objectives in establishing and operating a captive insurer, the factors which determine the decision of the parent company to establish and operate a captive insurer and the future and usefulness of insurance provided by captive insurers are some of the aspects that are addressed.

  13. What new policies should South Africa's life insurance industry adopt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G

    1996-12-01

    By February 1996, the South African life insurance industry had paid out more than R75 million in AIDS-related claims. This situation requires imposition of controls that will make economic sense while reflecting the social responsibility of the insurance companies. AIDS mortality rates suggest that for each 10% of the infected insured population, the risk premium rates should increase 400%. Thus, without controls, the life insurance sector may collapse. While it has been charged that HIV testing associated with the provision of life insurance discriminates against infected individuals, failure to test compromises the rights of uninfected individuals in the individual assurance market. HIV test protocols can be used that protect applicants from false positive results, prevent fraud, and preserve confidentiality. Proposals to require five-year retesting have also been criticized but would protect the interests of uninfected individuals who want life insurance to remain affordable. In an innovative move, South Africa now includes "full-blown AIDS" among the list of "dreaded diseases" that trigger an immediate pay-out. While purchasing life insurance may fall low on the list of priorities of an infected person, demand continues, and two companies offer expensive products to those with Stage I and II disease. Medical insurance is also threatened by the increased costs associated with HIV/AIDS, and treatment protocols may be the only way to control medical expenses and assure the future of medical insurance. At this stage of the epidemic, no one seems prepared to meet their share of the costs associated with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Performance Measurement Of Public Sector Insurance Units After De-Tariffication

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Seema; Sikidar, Dr. Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Insurance sector in India was privatised to publicise insurance products. After privatisation of this industry in India in the year 2000, the next important step taken in the general insurance industry was the removal of tariffs on the non-life insurance products with effect from January1, 2007. The introduction of the free price regime has provided an impetus to the non-life sector. Before the introduction of de-tariffication almost 70% of the business of the non-life sector was driven by va...

  15. MOTOR THIRD PARTY LIABILITY INSURANCE – POLISH MARKET IN CONNECTIONS TO EUROPEAN TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kwiecień

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance, despite continuous product development, are still in most European countries, the predominant group of products sold by non-life Insurers. In the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is about 2/3 of the insurance written premiums. In the article authors analyze the areas and factors affecting the development of this class of insurance and current market changes in Poland in comparison to the European trends. The main attention has been devoted to number of accidents and road safety, frequency and amount of claims, other macroeconomics and legal factors. Also the financial issues, such as premium and profitability, were discussed.

  16. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    paying the insurance premiums within 6-10% of their income and employment status, are entitled to use the services. Providing services to the insured are performed by indirect forms. Payments to the service providers for the fee of inpatient and outpatient services are conservative and the related diagnostic groups system. Paying attention to the importance of modification of the fragmented health insurance system and financing the country's healthcare can reduce much of the failure of the health system, including the access of the public to health services. The countries according to the degree of development, governmental, and private insurance companies and existing rules must use the appropriate structure, comprehensive approach to the structure, and financing of the health social insurance on the investigated basis and careful attention to the intersections and differentiation. Studied structures, using them in the proposed approach and taking advantages of the perspectives of different beneficiaries about discussed topics can be important and efficient in order to achieve the goals of the health social insurance.

  17. The insurance of climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauthier, Alice

    2015-06-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies

  18. Performance of the Life Insurance Industry Under Pressure : Efficiency, Competition, and Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates efficiency and competition in the Dutch life insurance market by estimating unused scale economies and measuring efficiency-market share dynamics during 1995-2010. Large unused scale economies exist for small- and medium-sized life insurers, indicating that further

  19. Model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim E. SLOBODYANYUK

    2009-01-01

    In the article considered a model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature, showed architecture, macro flowchart of information flow in model, components (modules) and their functions. Described calculation method of costs on interactive cargo insurance via proposed system, represented main characteristics and options of existing transport management systems, conceptual cost models.

  20. Model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. SLOBODYANYUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered a model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature, showed architecture, macro flowchart of information flow in model, components (modules and their functions. Described calculation method of costs on interactive cargo insurance via proposed system, represented main characteristics and options of existing transport management systems, conceptual cost models.

  1. 7 CFR 457.122 - Walnut crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quarantine, boycott, or refusal of any person to accept production. 10. Duties in the Event of Damage or Loss... production on insured acreage that you intend to abandon or no longer care for, if you and we agree on the... do not agree with our appraisal, we may defer the claim only if you agree to continue to care for the...

  2. Development and perspectives of principles of european insurance contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keglević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL provides for a set of principles, definitions and model rules exclusively addressing general law for insurance contract. This work has been preformed within greater project for the creation of Common frame of reference on European contract law initiated by the Commission in 2003. PEICL is essentially designed to perform two basic functions. It would improve the quality of the EU acquis in the area of contract law, remove differences and achieve higher degree of divergences between contract laws of the Member states, and even help the national legislators when enacting legislation or Courts with the possible interpretation of the acquis. On the other hand PEICL could be adopted as an optional instrument, thus offering the common platform for contracting in the area of insurance law on the EU level. Possible Optional instrument would exist parallel with, rather instead of, national insurance contract laws. European Parliament resolution of 2011 on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses and corresponding Green Paper of 2010 show positive tendency towards optional instrument in the legal form of Regulation. This would suit the requirements of the insurance sector. However, there are numerous signals showing adversely. For that reason this paper analyses the development and the status of Principles of European Insurance Contract Law particularly the status and perspectives of Principles within the project for the creation of European contract law.

  3. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  4. The role of insurance services scope in the economy of the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses peculiarities of forming the contribution of the region’s insurance sector into the gross regional product (GRP. The algorithm and the stages of cash flows transformation in the system of insurance, services reproduction and the GRP forming have been considered. It has been found that value added, which is formed at the stage of creating the insurance product, is quantitatively formed in the process of value distribution. Certain suggestions have been formulated to improve the methodology of contribution assessment of the “Financial Corporations” sector and the “Insurance Corporations and Pension Funds” subsection. The following main trends of increasing “the share of insurance in GRP” have been marked out: creating conditions for contributions to increase the number of resident insurance companies, mutual insurance societies and insurance mediators (insurance agents and brokers; making the techniques of more accurate GRP working out while combining these with perfecting statistical, accounting and tax reporting by the subjects of insurance; creating attractive investment conditions in the regions.

  5. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  6. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  7. Switching insurer in the Irish voluntary health insurance market: determinants, incentives, and risk equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Conor; Teljeur, Conor; Turner, Brian; Thomas, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The determinants of consumer mobility in voluntary health insurance markets providing duplicate cover are not well understood. Consumer mobility can have important implications for competition. Consumers should be price-responsive and be willing to switch insurer in search of the best-value products. Moreover, although theory suggests low-risk consumers are more likely to switch insurer, this process should not be driven by insurers looking to attract low risks. This study utilizes data on 320,830 VHI healthcare policies due for renewal between August 2013 and June 2014. At the time of renewal, policyholders were categorized as either 'switchers' or 'stayers', and policy information was collected for the prior 12 months. Differences between these groups were assessed by means of logistic regression. The ability of Ireland's risk equalization scheme to account for the relative attractiveness of switchers was also examined. Policyholders were price sensitive (OR 1.052, p sensitivity declined with age. Age (OR 0.971; p Consumers appear price-responsive, which is important for competition provided it is based on correct incentives. Risk equalization payments largely eliminated the profitable status of switchers, although further refinements may be required.

  8. Optimization of products and processes in petrochemical industry through modifications in the existing agitation systems: Case studies; Otimizacao de processos/produtos da industria petroquimica atraves de modificacoes nos sistemas de agitacao existentes. Estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Luis Carlos Morais de; Martini Junior, Luiz Carlos de; Moreira, Carlos Alberto Lopes [Nitriflex S.A., Duque de Caxias, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Nowadays, mixing is one of the most powerful tools for the process and products optimization in chemical process industries. The available technology can help in achieving almost any desired outcomes related to the process-side of the systems. This paper presents a practical methodology to improve existing agitation systems in order to overcome the constraints previously identified in the process. Well succeed real cases using this methodology in a petrochemical plant (Nitriflex S.A.) are presented. (author) 13 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 7 CFR 3560.105 - Insurance and taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Windstorm Coverage. (ii) Earthquake Coverage. (iii) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. (3) For... the coverage amount. (v) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. The deductible for sinkhole.... (10) Deductible amounts (excluding flood, windstorm, earthquake and sinkhole insurance or mine...

  10. Exploring fraud and abuse in National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored patterns of fraud and abuse that exist in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) claims in the Awutu-Effutu-Senya District using data mining techniques, with a specific focus on malaria-related claims. The study employed quantitative research approach with survey design as a strategy of enquiry.

  11. Insurance market penetration and economic growth in Eurozone countries: Time series evidence on causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Dash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between insurance market penetration and per capita economic growth in 19 Eurozone countries for the period 1980–2014. We use three different indicators of insurance market penetration (IMP, namely life insurance penetration, non-life insurance penetration, and total (both life and non-life insurance penetration. We particularly emphasize on whether Granger causality exists between these variables both ways, one way, or not at all. Our empirical results perceive both unidirectional and bidirectional causality between IMP and per capita economic growth. However, these results are mostly non-uniform across the Eurozone countries during this selected period. The policy implication is that the economic policies should recognize the differences in the insurance market and per capita economic growth in order to maintain sustainable growth in the Eurozone. Keywords: IMP, Per capita economic growth, Granger causality, Eurozone countries, JEL codes: L96, O32, O33, O43

  12. Informal networks and resilience to climate change impacts: A collective approach to index insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the understanding of how to proceed with the development of index-insurance in order to reach extended population coverage with the insurance. The approach is applied to an example from a region in Tanzania. One of the main coping strategies that resource-poor households...... networks become insufficient since the majority of risk-sharers will be affected by the shock at the same time. This paper proposes a collective approach to index-insurance in which the members of an informal network will be insured as one insurance taker. The paper raises a conceptual argument...... that targeting households through existing informal networks will remove a number of prevailing barriers to the takeup of insurance and consequently the approach has the potential to increase households’ resilience to climate change impacts. The policy implications of the conclusions are significant since...

  13. Consolidating the social health insurance schemes in China: towards an equitable and efficient health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin

    2015-10-10

    Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information ...

  15. Actuarial modeling of cost of voluntary pension insurance of the population of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova Svetlana Sergeevna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In article approach to determination of net value of the contract of pension insurance for the man's and female population, considering regional demographic features is offered. Results of actuarial calculation of the size pure net - rates of individual pension insurance are presented, "sensitivity" of cost of insurance is defined by methods of statistical modeling to key parameters of a pension product for the region population.

  16. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  17. Pricing of temperature index insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mohd Imran Che Taib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.

  18. HUD Insured Multifamily Properties (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  19. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  20. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  1. 78 FR 71476 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...

  2. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  3. THE ROLE OF REINSURANCE IN INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies carry out risk spreading through the co-insurance and reinsurance mechanism, consisting of the participation of more companies in the provision of high-value assets. Reinsurance is a form of insurance whereby an insurance organization can transfer to another reinsurer, partly or fully, its payment obligations arising from the insurance contracts that it has concluded. In the reinsurance ratios, the insurance companies appear in a double position - giving other insurance companies some of the risks assumed under direct insurance, being reinsured, but receiving different risks to reinsurance, acquiring the quality of reinsurers. Reinsurance intends to satisfy some multiple needs of the direct insurer and can provide means to counteract the risks associated with the fluctuations in compensation costs, the reinsurer will contribute to the payment of compensations on behalf of the reinsurer. Life insurance has characteristics that influence reinsurance: the average life of the insurance, the insurance is concluded for a fixed amount insured, the capital accumulation. In life reinsurance, almost all reinsurance arrangements are proportional agreements, and the largest share have the "surplus" agreements. Reinsurance plays an important role because it fulfills the following functions: it confers capacity, creates stability, helps to consolidate financial strength. The adjustment of the client portfolio in terms of the changes of reinsurance agreement, required by the reinsurer, can only be done by concluding the insurance contracts. In life insurance, reinsurance contracts contain provisions that meet the need of the insurer to have long-term protection.

  4. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...

  5. 24 CFR 266.612 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his or her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit...

  6. 24 CFR 207.259 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... Contract of Insurance § 207.259 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Upon either an assignment of the... of mortgage. If the mortgage is assigned to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall be paid in...

  7. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  8. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  9. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  10. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  12. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  13. Social insurance for health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1997-06-01

    Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.

  14. Role of nuclear insurance in US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardes, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Private insurance companies developed means to provide first-tier nuclear coverage to operators of power plants and other nuclear facilities; US Government initially provided second tier. US insurance companies chose 'pooling' technique as means to provide large amounts of insurance capacity by spreading the risk over a number of insurance companies. Classic example of nuclear risk that presents low frequency, high severity loss potential. Insurers usually spread their risk over a large, fairly stable premium base, as with automobile insurance. The American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and its roles are introduced in this article

  15. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  16. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  17. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  18. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  19. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  20. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  1. INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN ERITREA - ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This pap...

  2. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  3. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  4. A design of mathematical modelling for the mudharabah scheme in shariah insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyandari, R.; Mayaningsih, D.; Sukono

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian Shariah Insurance Association (AASI) believes that 2014 is the year of Indonesian Shariah insurance, since its growth was above the conventional insurance. In December 2013, 43% growth was recorded for shariah insurance, while the conventional insurance was only hit 20%. This means that shariah insurance has tremendous potential to remain growing in the future. In addition, the growth can be predicted from the number of conventional insurance companies who open sharia division, along with the development of Islamic banking development which automatically demand the role of shariah insurance to protect assets and banking transactions. The development of shariah insurance should be accompanied by the development of premium fund management mechanism, in order to create innovation on shariah insurance products which beneficial for the society. The development of premium fund management model shows a positive progress through the emergence of Mudharabah, Wakala, Hybrid (Mudharabah-Wakala), and Wakala-Waqf. However, ‘model’ term that referred in this paper is regarded as an operational model in form of a scheme of management mechanism. Therefore, this paper will describe a mathematical modeling for premium fund management scheme, especially for Mudharabah concept. Mathematical modeling is required for an analysis process that can be used to predict risks that could be faced by a company in the future, so that the company could take a precautionary policy to minimize those risks.

  5. THE RISK INSURANCE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lobova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of business activity insurance in the agricultural sector is grounded in this article. Different types of agricultural risks are described. The principles, on which the efficiency of agricultural insurance is based, are determined. Such as: voluntary; the farmers interest; risk management; multivariate product line; promote farmers efficient; equal access to subsidies from farmers; balance; transparency and coordination of the subsidies transfer; creating a reliable and multi-level system of insurance coverage; binding institute of independent examination. The different ways to determine the effectiveness of insurance are considered.

  6. Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek TAHA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.

  7. 77 FR 25349 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...

  8. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  9. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  10. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  11. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691

  12. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  13. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  14. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    CERN Document Server

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  15. Evaluating EML Modeling Tools for Insurance Purposes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As with any situation that involves economical risk refineries may share their risk with insurers. The decision process generally includes modelling to determine to which extent the process area can be damaged. On the extreme end of modelling the so-called Estimated Maximum Loss (EML scenarios are found. These scenarios predict the maximum loss a particular installation can sustain. Unfortunately no standard model for this exists. Thus the insurers reach different results due to applying different models and different assumptions. Therefore, a study has been conducted on a case in a Swedish refinery where several scenarios previously had been modelled by two different insurance brokers using two different softwares, ExTool and SLAM. This study reviews the concept of EML and analyses the used models to see which parameters are most uncertain. Also a third model, EFFECTS, was employed in an attempt to reach a conclusion with higher reliability.

  16. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit L to Subpart A of... - Insured 10-Year Home Warranty Plan Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... is an insurer which is licensed in one state and is authorized, under the Products Liability Risk... insurance commission or regulatory agency challenges the legal authority of such group, FmHA or its...

  18. 12 CFR 14.60 - Qualification and licensing requirements for insurance sales personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification and licensing requirements for insurance sales personnel. 14.60 Section 14.60 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... insurance product or annuity in any part of its office or on its behalf, unless the person is at all times...

  19. Modeling & Analysisng of Economic Behaviour of Insurance Acceptance of Wheat crop by using of Thinking System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid balali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainability and precarious conditions of agricultural production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In this study, the thinking system approach by using of I Think software is used for analyzing and modeling of the effects of different alternatives of policies on wheat insurance acceptance. The results show that the decision making process of insurance acceptance is function of some variables including of probability of brooz khesarat, amount of brooz khesarat, share of farmer’s insurance payment, gross return of fermers and maximum tahood of bimegar payments. Also, by increasing of the probability of brooz khesarat the number of insurance acceptance will increaseal production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In .

  20. From Risk to Opportunity. How Insurers Can Proactively and Profitably Manage Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Lecomte, E.

    2006-08-01

    Last year's USD 45 billion of insured losses from Hurricane Katrina was only the latest reminder of why investors and consumers are concerned about the impacts of climate change on the insurance industry. Twelve months after the devastating storm hit New Orleans, insurers and their shareholders are still feeling the ripples. Record insured losses, rating downgrades, coverage pullbacks and class-action lawsuits are just a few of the reverberations that have been felt across the industry. Meanwhile, consumers are feeling the combined sting of price shocks and reduced availability. So serious is the issue that 20 leading investors, representing over $800 billion in assets, called on the nation's largest insurance companies to disclose their financial exposure from climate change and steps they are taking to reduce those financial impacts. But, while most of the attention is focused on the growing risks, climate change also creates vast business opportunities to be part of the solution to global warming. Just as the industry has historically asserted its leadership to minimize risks from building fires and earthquakes, insurers have a huge opportunity today to develop creative loss-prevention products and services that will reduce climate-related losses for consumers, governments and insurers, while trimming the emissions causing global warming. This report focuses on the encouraging progress made by insurers to develop these new products and services. It identifies more than 190 concrete examples available, or soon-to-be-available, from dozens of insurance providers in 16 countries. In addition to benefiting insurers' core business and investment activities, these programs afford insurers the opportunity to differentiate their products from their competitors, while also enhancing their reputation with customers who are increasingly looking for all sectors of the industry to come forward with effective responses to the threats caused by climate change. More than half

  1. [The state and health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrave, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.

  2. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  3. Insurance Salespeople's Attitudes towards Collusion: The Case of Taiwan’s Car Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Ming Tseng; Wen-Pin Su

    2014-01-01

    Insurance researchers believe that the increase in insurance fraud may be associated with the unethical decisions made by some insurance salespeople. However, to date, research that has empirically investigated the link between insurance salespeople and collusion is scant. Using the car insurance industry in Taiwan as an example, this paper explores the impact of the opportunity to obtain the fraudulent claim and that of the size of actual loss on car insurance salespeople's attitudes towards...

  4. People's willingness to pay for health insurance in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars

    2008-08-11

    The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the

  5. Multivariate Frequency-Severity Regression Models in Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Frees

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In insurance and related industries including healthcare, it is common to have several outcome measures that the analyst wishes to understand using explanatory variables. For example, in automobile insurance, an accident may result in payments for damage to one’s own vehicle, damage to another party’s vehicle, or personal injury. It is also common to be interested in the frequency of accidents in addition to the severity of the claim amounts. This paper synthesizes and extends the literature on multivariate frequency-severity regression modeling with a focus on insurance industry applications. Regression models for understanding the distribution of each outcome continue to be developed yet there now exists a solid body of literature for the marginal outcomes. This paper contributes to this body of literature by focusing on the use of a copula for modeling the dependence among these outcomes; a major advantage of this tool is that it preserves the body of work established for marginal models. We illustrate this approach using data from the Wisconsin Local Government Property Insurance Fund. This fund offers insurance protection for (i property; (ii motor vehicle; and (iii contractors’ equipment claims. In addition to several claim types and frequency-severity components, outcomes can be further categorized by time and space, requiring complex dependency modeling. We find significant dependencies for these data; specifically, we find that dependencies among lines are stronger than the dependencies between the frequency and average severity within each line.

  6. Identification of the Level of Financial Security of an Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozmenko Serhiy M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical aspects of identification of financial security of the insurer. The article justifies urgency of identification of the level of financial security of the insurer and its qualitative assessment. It offers a scientific and methodical approach to identification of the level of financial security of the insurer on the basis of the conducted analysis of advantages and shortcomings of the existing approaches. The basis of the developed methods is a generalised assessment of the level of financial security of the insurer, which is offered to be carried out on the basis of calculation of statistical and dynamic integral indicators of financial security of the insurance company. The obtained integral assessments allow making a conclusion about efficiency of the selected strategy of the insurer and its ability to oppose to negative influence of threats to financial security. Results of calculation of integral indicators of financial security of the insurer allow identification of influence of fraud as the main threat to financial security of domestic insurance companies. The proposed approach was realised in practice of Ukrainian insurers and proved its efficiency.

  7. The impact of race, income, drug abuse and dependence on health insurance coverage among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of drug abuse/dependence on health insurance coverage, especially by race groups and income levels. In this study, we examine the disparities in health insurance predictors and investigate the impact of drug use (alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence) on lack of insurance across different race and income groups. To perform the analysis, we used insurance data (8057 uninsured and 28,590 insured individual adults) from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2011). To analyze the likelihood of being uninsured we performed weighted binomial logistic regression analyses. The results show that the overall prevalence of lacking insurance was 19.6 %. However, race differences in lack of insurance exist, especially for Hispanics who observe the highest probability of being uninsured (38.5 %). Furthermore, we observe that the lowest income level bracket (annual income <$20,000) is associated with the highest likelihood of being uninsured (37.3 %). As the result of this investigation, we observed the following relationship between drug use and lack of insurance: alcohol abuse/dependence and nicotine dependence tend to increase the risk of lack of insurance for African Americans and whites, respectively; illicit drug use increases such risk for whites; alcohol abuse/dependence increases the likelihood of lack of insurance for the group with incomes $20,000-$49,999, whereas nicotine dependence is associated with higher probability of lack of insurance for most income groups. These findings provide some useful insights for policy makers in making decisions regarding unmet health insurance coverage.

  8. Health insurance in India: what do we know and why is ethnographic research needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, Tanja; Nichter, Mark; Pillai, Gopukrishnan

    2016-01-01

    The percentage of India's national budget allocated to the health sector remains one of the lowest in the world, and healthcare expenditures are largely out-of-pocket (OOP). Currently, efforts are being made to expand health insurance coverage as one means of addressing health disparity and reducing catastrophic health costs. In this review, we document reasons for rising interest in health insurance and summarize the country's history of insurance projects to date. We note that most of these projects focus on in-patient hospital costs, not the larger burden of out-patient costs. We briefly highlight some of the more popular forms that government, private, and community-based insurance schemes have taken and the results of quantitative research conducted to assess their reach and cost-effectiveness. We argue that ethnographic case studies could add much to existing health service and policy research, and provide a better understanding of the life cycle and impact of insurance programs on both insurance holders and healthcare providers. Drawing on preliminary fieldwork in South India and recognizing the need for a broad-based implementation science perspective (studying up, down and sideways), we identify six key topics demanding more in-depth research, among others: (1) public awareness and understanding of insurance; (2) misunderstanding of insurance and how this influences health care utilization; (3) differences in behavior patterns in cash and cashless insurance systems; (4) impact of insurance on quality of care and doctor-patient relations; (5) (mis)trust in health insurance schemes; and (6) health insurance coverage of chronic illnesses, rehabilitation and OOP expenses.

  9. Pet insurance--essential option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!

  10. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  11. 76 FR 20727 - National Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... of choosing investments for the Replacement Portfolio. In addition, Fidelity Research & Analysis... of the Money Market Portfolio (the ``Replacement Portfolio'') of the Variable Insurance Products Fund V (``VIPFV'') for shares of the Money Market Fund (the ``Substituted Portfolio'') of the Sentinel...

  12. Hedging effectiveness of weather index-based insurance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelka, N.; Musshoff, O.; Finger, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Maize production in China is exposed to pronounced yield risks, in particular weather risk, which is one of the most important and least controllable sources of risk in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent to which weather index-based insurance can contribute to

  13. What Can Massachusetts Teach Us about National Health Insurance Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A., Ed.; Joyce, Theodore J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the most significant health policy legislation since Medicare in 1965. The need to address rising health care costs and the lack of health insurance coverage is widely accepted. Health care spending is approaching 17 percent of gross domestic product and yet 45 million Americans remain…

  14. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  15. Pricing general insurance with constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Emms, P.

    2006-01-01

    Deterministic control theory is used to find the optimal premium strategy for an insurer in order to maximise a given objective. The optimal strategy can be loss-leading depending on the model parameters, which may result in negative premium values. In such circumstances, it is optimal to capture as much of the market as possible before making a profit towards the end of the time horizon. In reality, the amount by which an insurer can lower premiums is constrained by borrowing restrictions an...

  16. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  17. Public Health Insurance in Vietnam towards Universal Coverage: Identifying the challenges, issues, and problems in its design and organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Matsushima; Hiroyuki Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is attempting to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2014. Despite great progress, the country faces some challenges, issues and problems. This paper reviewed official documents, existing reports, and related literature to address: (1) grand design for achieving universal health coverage, (2) current insurance coverage, (3) health insurance premium and subsidies by the government, (4) benefit package and payment rule, and (5) organizational practices. From the review, it be...

  18. No survival benefit to gaining private health insurance coverage for post-lung transplant care in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; Foraker, Randi E; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2016-03-01

    The use of public insurance is associated with diminished survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) following lung transplantation. No data exist on benefits of gaining private health insurance for post-transplant care among such patients previously using public insurance. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify first-time lung transplant recipients participating in Medicare or Medicaid, diagnosed with CF, and transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Survival outcomes were compared between recipients gaining private insurance after transplantation and those maintaining public coverage throughout follow-up. Since implementation of the lung allocation score, 575 adults with CF received lung transplantation funded by Medicare or Medicaid and contributed data on insurance status post-transplant. There were 128 (22%) patients who gained private insurance. Multivariable analysis of time-varying insurance status found no survival benefit of gaining private insurance (HR = 0.822; 95% CI = 0.525, 1.286; p = 0.390). Further analysis demonstrated that resuming public insurance coverage was detrimental, relative to gaining and keeping private insurance (HR = 2.315; 95% CI = 1.020, 5.258; p = 0.045). Survival disadvantages of lung transplant recipients with CF who have public health insurance were not ameliorated by a switch to private coverage for post-transplant care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exploring health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social

  20. Index-based Crop Insurance for Climate Adaptation in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; Carriquiry, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Weather has always presented a challenge to small-scale farmers, particularly in regions where poverty and lack of infrastructure has restricted the development of financial instruments to limit risk. New 'index' insurance innovations in agriculture are beginning to enable even the poorest farmers to unlock major productivity gains (e.g. insuring loans for improved seeds). Although index insurance has the potential to greatly improve productivity in developing country agriculture, the principal technical challenge to up-scaling this product is "data poverty," the absence of weather data in low-income areas needed to design robust and affordable insurance products. Earth science, particularly remote sensing, has the potential to ameliorate data poverty. However, raw use of earth science model output leads to non-optimal indexes and many obstacles remain to transform earth science products into insurance solutions. Estimation uncertainty, limited availability of consistent time series, and difficulties of predicting loses based on remote observations are reviewed in this article. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches addressing the needs of stakeholders in simple to understand indexes is highlighted. The successful use of Earth science data to support the index insurance industry in currently poor and isolated communities in the developing world would transform the ability of small farmers to increase yields, household incomes and regional economies, if the growing gap between earth science and index insurance can be closed.

  1. BANCASSURANCE – MAIN INSURANCE DISTRIBUTION AND SALE CHANNEL IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina BOLOVAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the emergence of the crisis, banks’ incomes were preponderantly oriented towards the lending activity, which activity is unsustainable in these circumstances. With the financial crisis, banks have diversified revenues and identified the benefits of sustainable partnerships with insurance institutions (the bancassurance, achieving convergence towards common platforms. The driving factor of the bancassurance system must also be sought in the common need of banks and insurance companies to optimize the structure and efficiency of the distribution channels. Thus, if credit institutions seek to obtain additional revenue by capitalizing the potential of regional networks, initially configured based on own marketing policies, insurance companies are interested in diversifying without significant capital investment, the traditional distribution methods, so that the products and services offered have access to a large number of potential customers

  2. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.

  3. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  4. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  5. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of good practice to be used as a design aid by engineers. ..... an ethical and professipnal atmosphere. It is also essential for the local ..... If your answer is no, please write the reason/sf or not purchasing insurance policies? 10. What types of ...

  6. Insurance and the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.P.R. da.

    1981-01-01

    The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt

  7. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  8. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  9. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    S V Martynenko

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  10. Healthcare.gov Insurance Finder Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...

  11. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  12. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  13. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  14. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  15. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  16. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  17. The Normative Foundations of (Social) Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions......). The analysis of (public) insurance has however remained marginal in political theory because insurance is often perceived as a simple tool for pursuing equality, i.e. a tool without any moral significance proper. This text proposes an alternative view by drawing a continuum between insurance as a technology......, which is the common interpretation in economics, and insurance as a social practice, which characterizes social theory. The goal is to underline how the technology of insurance alters social practices by, for instance, promoting equal standing or transforming the paradigm of individual responsibility...

  18. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TH E INSURANCE INDU STRY FACING WITH IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete Mária FARKASNÉ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the financial risk the insurance industry are facing with in association with climate change, there are also opportun ities to the sector to develop new markets and provide coverage against weather related risks. This study presents a possible method to examine the potential for introducing a new insurance product, namely an agricultural flood insurance scheme in the United Kingdom. The investigation included the calculation of agricultural flood damage costs, the possible changes in flood risk, the description of farmers’ risk attitude and interests in insurance. In a small scale survey, farmers were asked their experiences related to flooding, farm management practices and thei r willingness to pay for flood insurance using a contingent valuation method. Using statistical analysis it was found the insurance demand is positively correlated with the damage cost predicted and association is likely between farm types and WTP for insurance. Linear regression model suggests that the demand for flood insurance is low amongst farmers in the present risk level. The findi ngs of this research highlight that there is little evidence for the viability of a farmer financed agricultural flood insurance scheme at the moment in the United Kingdom.

  19. Health insurance for Users and other Associated Members of the Personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    A new health insurance option for Associated Members of the Personnel (including users): Allianz Worldwide Care Healthcare Plan for CERN MPAs.   Based on a survey conducted by the Users’ Office and a request by the Advisory Committee of CERN Users (ACCU), CERN has looked into health insurance products on the market and has identified a health insurance for MPAs and their accompanying family members which covers the financial consequences of illness and accidents and which is deemed adequate in CERN’s Host States. This insurance may be a useful option for MPAs who may not have adequate coverage in place from their home institution or who choose not to or cannot enrol in the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). For the time being the insurance company can only offer limited duration policies to MPAs. We hope that this restriction can be removed in the future. The health insurance is offered by the insurance company Allianz WorldWide Care for a monthly fee of 139 euros per insure...

  20. The Social Life of Health Insurance in Low- to Middle-income Countries: An Anthropological Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Amy; Nichter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The following article identifies new areas for engaged medical anthropological research on health insurance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Based on a review of the literature and pilot research, we identify gaps in how insurance is understood, administered, used, and abused. We provide a historical overview of insurance as an emerging global health panacea and then offer brief assessments of three high-profile attempts to provide universal health coverage. Considerable research on health insurance in LMICs has been quantitative and focused on a limited set of outcomes. To advance the field, we identify eight productive areas for future ethnographic research that will add depth to our understanding of the social life and impact of health insurance in LMICs. Anthropologists can provide unique insights into shifting health and financial practices that accompany insurance coverage, while documenting insurance programs as they evolve and respond to contingencies. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. The Complexity of E-Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GAVRILETEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance and increasing role of Internet in nowadays business area are officially recognized. No matter the industry a company is operating in, the distribution channels include direct sales through Internet. Following this idea, also the insurance companies decided to sell their insurance policy online. In this paper we analyze the advantages of Internet for insurance companies, the threats and the actual situation for Romanian insurers

  2. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  3. Medical Progress and Supplementary Private Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner Leidl

    2003-01-01

    In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...

  4. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  5. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. 76 FR 20298 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers; Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than...

  7. 76 FR 41138 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... passenger motor vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss... information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating rules used by the insurer to establish... companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of...

  8. 75 FR 34966 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any...

  9. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  10. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  11. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelici, C.

    1980-03-01

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr

  12. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  13. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... assumed responsibility. The cost of this insurance to the carrier shall be part of the transportation cost...

  14. Global loss diversification in the insurance sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheremet, O.; Lucas, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the possibility for international diversification of catastrophe risk by the insurance sector. Adopting the argument that large insurance losses may be a 'globalizing factor' for the industry, we study the dependence of geographically distant insurance markets via equity returns. In

  15. 7 CFR 1427.166 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The seed cotton must be insured at the full loan value against loss or damage by fire. ...

  16. Statistical tools for non-life insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.

    2008-01-01

    Within the actuarial profession a major challenge can be found in the construction of a fair tariff structure. In light of the heterogeneity within, for instance, a car insurance portfolio, an insurance company should not apply the same premium for all insured risks. Otherwise the so-called concept

  17. Consumer price sensitivity in Dutch health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:

  18. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  20. 24 CFR 200.100 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commitment for insured advances, initial endorsement of the credit instrument shall occur before... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 200.100... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and...