WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing borrow areas

  1. Environmental Assessment Use of Existing Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operates the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The DOE needs to identify and operate onsite locations for a continued supply of raw aggregate materials [approximately 7,600,000 cubic meters (10,000,000 cubic yards) over the next 10 years] for new facility construction, maintenance of existing facilities and transportation corridors, and fill and capping material for remediation and other sites

  2. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  3. IFRS and US GAAP convergence in the area of borrowing costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An agreement from Norwalk was issued in September 2002 on the basis of negotiations of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB a International Accounting Standards Board (IASB for the elimination of restrictions in the form of two different systems of financial reporting. The aim is to ensure absolute compatibility of existing U.S. GAAP and IFRS and the coordination of work programs in the future. Document Memorandum of Understanding was issued in 2006 in the frame of ongoing process of convergence, in which the FASB and IASB confirm their intention to create high-quality and global financial reporting standards. In this document there are specified areas, which would lead to convergence of procedures.Borrowing costs have been one from the fields, which was the subject of convergence works. U.S. GAAP dictated capitalization of borrowing costs incurred in connection with the acquisition of qualifying assets, while the IAS/IFRS leaved the decision on accounting entities, how it recognize and record borrowing costs incurred in connection with the acquisition of the assets.In the beginning, the method of analysis and description is used to identify and describe the basic difference of both systems, which had existed before the initiation of convergence within the frame of “Borrowing Costs” project. The above mentioned primary analysis has served as the basis for the further comparative analysis and synthesis.The paper further presents comparative analysis of two basic methodical approaches towards the borrowing costs reporting incurred in relation to the acquisition of the qualifying assets, which was possible to apply until 31st Dec 2008 under IFRS system.The comparative analysis is based on empirical company data. The subjects are mainly the differences in the indicators, which are used for the evaluation of the company financial situation. According (Suvova, 1999, mainly the indicators of vertical analysis of property and capital structure

  4. 7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the proposed loan; (4) The borrower's financial and statistical report, the data in which shall not be... delinquency and the reasons therefor; and a certification, if not previously provided, that the borrower has...

  5. Quantifying Sediment Characteristics and Infilling Rate within a Ship Shoal Dredge Borrow Area, Offshore Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Z.; Wilson, C.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide protection to interior wetlands and maintain estuarine gradients. Mississippi River delta plain barrier islands are undergoing rapid disintegration due to high rates of subsidence and a deficit in the coastal sand supply. To mitigate for barrier island land loss, Louisiana has implemented a restoration program that intends to supplement coastal sand deficits by introducing sand from outside of the active coastal system. Inner-shelf shoals offshore Louisiana are one of the only sand resource options containing large volumes of restoration quality sand. Ship Shoal is one of these inner-shelf shoals that was produced by marine reworking of former Mississippi River Delta barrier island sediments during late Holocene time. Though indirect effects to protected areas or infrastructure adjacent to excavations have been considered, there is a paucity of observational data on their evolution. Caminada borrow area, dredged in 2013-2016 for the Caminada Headland Restoration Project, provides a valuable opportunity to validate and improve predictive models for how borrow areas evolve. In July 2017, a subbottom and bathymetric geophysical survey was conducted and sediment cores were collected to test the hypothesis that sedimentation within the excavation is affected by lateral bedload transport after initial rapid infill as slopes equilibrate. Preliminary results show the sediment within the excavation is predominantly very fine sand with isolated mud drapes. These sediments overlay older delta complex muddy strata. This contrasts strongly with other dredge pits outside of shoal areas and closer to shore, which have been infilled largely by advection of fine suspended sediments of fluvial origin. Laboratory work on cores will include laser grain size, x-ray analyses of sedimentary structures, and radiochemistry analyses for rates and age of deposition. With the knowledge of stratigraphy and sediment dynamics surrounding the dredge pit, we can quantify

  6. Sediment Transport and Slope Stability of Ship Shoal Borrow Areas for Coastal Restoration of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; Wilson, C.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sandy barrier islands along Louisiana coast are degrading rapidly due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. Ship Shoal is one of the largest offshore sand resources, and has been used as a borrow area for Caminada Headland Restoration Project. Our knowledge of sediment transport and infilling processes in this new sandy and dynamic borrow area is rather limited. High resolution sub-bottom seismic data, side scan sonar images, multi-beam bathymetry and laser sediment grain size data were used to study seafloor morphological evolution and pit wall stability in response to both physical and geological processes. The multi-beam bathymetry and seismic profiling inside the pit showed that disequilibrium conditions led to rapid infilling in the pits at the beginning, but this process slowed down after the pit slope became stable and topography became smooth. We hypothesize that the erosion of the adjacent seabed sediment by energetic waves and longshore currents, the supply of suspended sediment from the rivers, and the erodible materials produced by local mass wasting on pit walls are three main types of infilling sediments. Compared with mud-capped dredge pits, this sandy dredge pit seems to have more gentle slopes on pit walls, which might be controlled by the angle of repose. Infilling sediment seems to be dominantly sandy, with some mud patches on bathymetric depressions. This study helps us better understand the impacts of mining sediment for coastal restoration and improves sand resource management efforts.

  7. Functional requirements of the borrow area and haul route for the Waste Area Grouping projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the mission and functional requirements for the development of a borrow area and the associated haul route to support closure and/or remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other WAGs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document specifies the basic functional requirements that must be met by the borrow area and haul route developed to produce low-permeability soil for the covers or caps at WAG 6

  8. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  9. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  10. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  11. Borrowing Abroad: The Debtor's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Cooper; Jeffrey Sachs

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of external borrowing from the perspective of the borrowing country. The first section sketches a formal framework for optimal borrowing by a developing country, as seen from the planner's point of view. The next three sections use this framework for the development of three important limits on external borrowing: the problem of solvency, the problem of liquidity and the problem created by the possibility of repudiation. The fifth section relates external bor...

  12. 7 CFR 1735.14 - Borrower eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... liability company. [58 FR 66253, Dec. 20, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 50429, Sept. 17, 1999; 65 FR 42619, July... in rural areas as of October 28, 1949; and (3) Cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual..., nonprofit, limited dividend, or mutual associations. To be eligible for a loan, a borrower: (1) Must have...

  13. 75 FR 17913 - Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration Transmission Line... Corporation's mandatory vegetation management and maintenance standards (FAC-003-1) in accordance with section... Service) authorizations or issuing new authorizations to accommodate Western's vegetation management...

  14. Borrowing brainpower - sharing insecurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a vital, yet complex skill that must be developed within a doctoral training process. In addition, becoming an academic researcher is a journey of changing sense of self and identity. Through analysis of a group session, we show how the feedback of peers addresses questions...... of structure and writing style along with wider issues of researcher identity. Thus, peer learning is demonstrated as a process of simultaneously building a text and an identity as scholarly researcher. The paper advocates ‘borrowing brainpower’ from peers in order to write better texts and, at the same time......, ‘share insecurities’ during the development of the researcher identity. Based on a distributed notion of peer learning and identity, we point to the need for further research into the everyday activities of doctoral writing groups in order to understand the dynamic relationship between production of text...

  15. The potential to supply low temperature district heating to existing building area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating (LTDH) has the advantages as reduced network heat loss, improved quality match between energy supply and energy demand, and increased utilization of low-grade waste heat and renewable energy. The LTDH represents the next generation district heating (DH) system...... to supply existing building areas which are characterized with high heating demand needs to be examined. In this paper, the DH network deliverable capacity to supply LTDH to an existing building area is studied based on building thermal performance and DH network hydraulic performance simulation....

  16. Optimizing Whole House Deep Energy Retrofit Packages: A Case Study of Existing Chicago-Area Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnie Aguilar Leinartas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency of the residential building stock plays a key role in mitigating global climate change. New guidelines are targeting widespread application of deep energy retrofits to existing homes that reduce their annual energy use by 50%, but questions remain as to how to identify and prioritize the most cost-effective retrofit measures. This work demonstrates the utility of whole building energy simulation and optimization software to construct a “tool-box” of prescriptive deep energy retrofits that can be applied to large portions of the existing housing stock. We consider 10 generally representative typology groups of existing single-family detached homes built prior to 1978 in the Chicago area for identifying cost-optimal deep energy retrofit packages. Simulations were conducted in BEopt and EnergyPlus operating on a cloud-computing platform to first identify cost-optimal enclosure retrofits and then identify cost-optimal upgrades to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems. Results reveal that prescriptive retrofit packages achieving at least 50% site energy savings can be defined for most homes through a combination of envelope retrofits, lighting upgrades, and upgrades to existing HVAC system efficiency or conversion to mini-split heat pumps. The average upfront cost of retrofits is estimated to be ~$14,400, resulting in average annual site energy savings of ~54% and an average simple payback period of ~25 years. Widespread application of these prescriptive retrofit packages across the existing Chicago-area residential building stock is predicted to reduce annual site energy use by 3.7 × 1016 J and yield approximately $280 million USD in annual energy savings.

  17. Awareness Research Concerning the Existence and Implications of the Avrig – Scorei – Fagaras protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratucu G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based upon a survey conducted in the protected area of Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş from Romania. The main purpose of the article is to determine the awareness, attitudes and ways in which the inhabitants of a protected area may act towards the conservation of the area and support the community development. The research was based on a direct interview, using a questionnaire comprising 20 direct questions. The sampling method was probabilistic, with a multistage sampling, as it allows the possibility to extrapolate the results obtained for the entire research population. The systematic error is of +/-4%. The results showed a reduced awareness of the residents about the existence, functioning and support of this protected area, as well as a positive approach of the local public institutions involved in the management of the area. The local institutions have started to enforce the rules and regulations concerning the protection of the environment in this area, still with a long way to run, according to the opinions of the locals, until reaching the EU standards in this field.

  18. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumper, Andreas; Boix-Aragones, Oriol; Villafafila-Robles, Roberto; Bergas-Jane, Joan; Ramirez-Pisco, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan.

  19. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC) (Spain); Boix-Aragones, Oriol; Bergas-Jane, Joan [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETS d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Villafafila-Robles, Roberto; Ramirez-Pisco, Rodrigo [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan. (author)

  20. ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN INDONESIAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Fauzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a corpus-based study of English loan words in Bahasa Indonesia used by three foremost newspapers in Indonesia (Kompas, Koran Tempo, and Media Indonesia. There are 19,494 loan tokens of 3,538 loan types extracted from 3,671 texts published online on those media during around three months ranging from 1 April to 24 June 2012. This study compares two basic typologies of borrowing—established and non-established loans. Attestations are looked into in this study proving the evidence that the borrow ability of nouns is higher than otherword categories, linguistic typology of borrowing motivates linguistic adaptation, and word categories give a significant contribution to motivate linguistic adaptation as well. Keywords: sociolinguistics, borrowing, loanwords, morphological integration, linguistic adaptation

  1. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  2. 34 CFR 682.604 - Processing the borrower's loan proceeds and counseling borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing the borrower's loan proceeds and counseling...'s loan proceeds and counseling borrowers. (a) General. (1) This section establishes rules governing a school's processing of a borrower's Stafford or PLUS loan proceeds, and for counseling borrowers...

  3. 7 CFR 1962.46 - Deceased borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Deceased borrowers. Immediately on learning of the death of any person liable to the Agency, the County... official as directed by OGC or it will be referred by OGC to the U.S. Attorney for filing if representation... the borrower for their support at the time of the borrower's death, continuation may be approved...

  4. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of... Federal, State and territorial marine protected area programs to join the National System of Marine Protected Areas. SUMMARY: NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited Federal, State, commonwealth...

  5. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: National Marine Protected...) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with... of Marine Protected Areas of the United States (Framework), developed in response to Executive Order...

  6. 76 FR 6119 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Area. California Point Arena State Marine Reserve, Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion..., Point Reyes Special Closure, Point Resistance Special Closure, Double Point/Stormy Stack Special Closure...

  7. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined transaction cost of borrowing among small scale farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 109 randomly selected small scale farmers in the study area. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage and mean. It was found that farmers mostly ...

  8. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  9. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... criteria. The inventory is online at http://www.mpa.gov/helpful_resources/inventory.html , and potentially eligible sites are posted online at http://www.mpa.gov/pdf/national-system/nominationsummary810.pdf . As... Conservation Area. Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area. Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve. Stewarts...

  10. Existence versus extinction : Human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, A.W.C.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD dissertation examines the role of different organisations and affected communities in human-wildlife governance, with a focus on human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya. The hippo population in this area is under pressure due to human activities that impact on the wetland

  11. Borrowing Money. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module discusses several borrowing schemes to help students see more clearly the effects of borrowing money on both the lender and the borrower. They include borrowing from personal lenders, from "5-6" operators, and from credit unions. Three exercise sets with answers (one for each borrowing scheme), a short list of references, and…

  12. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52...

  13. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... managing agencies to fill key conservation gaps in important ocean areas. DATES: Comments on the... tide mark). Benefits of joining the national system of MPAs, which are expected to increase over time... federal and regional ocean conservation and management initiatives (such as integrated ocean observing...

  14. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  15. 34 CFR 685.304 - Counseling borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling borrowers. 685.304 Section 685.304 Education... Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.304 Counseling borrowers. (a) Entrance counseling. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a school must ensure that entrance counseling is conducted...

  16. Comparative analysis of informal borrowing behaviour between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tools of analyses were descriptive statistics of mean and percentages and probit model, The result of the Probit model on the variables influencing borrowing behaviour of male-headed households indicated that the coefficients of household size, farm size, purpose of borrowing, loan duration, interest rate and collateral ...

  17. 7 CFR 765.202 - Borrower responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or other security instruments; and (2) The cost of lien search reports; (d) Pay taxes on property...) Non-compliance with the provisions of loan agreements and documents, other than failure to meet... FLP loans by the borrower; (2) Borrower non-compliance will be considered by the Agency when making...

  18. 76 FR 9375 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Sealing of Abandoned Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Sampling and monitoring requirements; 75.337 Construction and repair of seals; and 75.338 Training. DATES... behind the seal must be monitored to prevent methane from reaching the explosive range. Miners rely on... correctly; certified persons conducting sampling in sealed areas are adequately trained; and the sampling...

  19. Spatial overlaps of foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes breeding in the English Channel with existing marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ponchon, A.; Aulert, C.; Le Guillou, G.; Gallien, F.; Peron, Clara; Gremillet, D.

    2017-01-01

    The English Channel is one of the most anthropized marine ecosystems due to increasing human pressures, both along the coasts and at sea. Numerous marine protected areas (MPAs) have been created in this area but their ecological relevance still needs to be demonstrated for mobile species such as seabirds. Here, we identified the at-sea foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes to quantify their spatial overlap with existing neighbouring MPAs. Using solar-powered GPS-UHF, we tracke...

  20. Fish assemblages in borrow-pit lakes of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Killgore, K. J.; Hoover, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borrow-pit lakes encompass about a third of the lentic water habitats (by area) in the active floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River, yet little is known about their fish assemblages. We investigated whether fish assemblages supported by borrow-pit lakes resembled those in oxbow lakes to help place the ecological relevance of borrow-pit lakes in context with that of natural floodplain lakes. In all, we collected 75 fish species, including 65 species in eight borrow-pit lakes, 52 species in four riverside oxbow lakes, and 44 species in eight landside oxbow lakes. Significant differences in several species richness metrics were evident between borrow-pit lakes and landside oxbow lakes but not between borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes. All three lake types differed in fish assemblage composition. Borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes tended to include a greater representation of fish species that require access to diverse environments, including lentic, lotic, and palustrine habitats; fish assemblages in landside oxbow lakes included a higher representation of lacustrine species. None of the fish species collected in borrow-pit lakes was federally listed as threatened or endangered, but several were listed as species of special concern by state governments in the region, suggesting that borrow-pit lakes provide habitat for sensitive riverine and wetland fish species. Differences in fish assemblages among borrow-pit lakes were linked to engineered morphologic features, suggesting that diversity in engineering can contribute to diversity in fish assemblages; however, more research is needed to match engineering designs with fish assemblage structures that best meet conservation needs.

  1. Consolidation of existing solid waste management plans in the Greater Toronto Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The municipalities of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) will be implementing initiatives in solid waste management, in view of the fact that current landfill capacity is nearly exhausted. A consolidation of information is provided on the solid waste management plans, programs, and facilities within the GTA. In response to environmental concerns coupled with difficulties encountered in developing new solid waste disposal facilities, waste reduction, reuse, and recycling efforts are developing rapidly. Some of the measures currently implemented and under investigation include: curbside recycling programs for newspapers, glass, metal, and plastic containers; expanding recycling efforts to apartment buildings; expanding the kinds of materials collected through the curbside programs; improving recycling services in rural areas; public education and promotional programs; promotion of home composting; household hazardous waste programs; recovery of cardboard from commercial and industrial sources, coupled with bans on cardboard at landfills; recovery of selected waste building materials such as wood and drywall, coupled with bans on these materials at landfills; recovery of paper from office buildings; and programs to assist industries in waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. The solid wastes generated in the GTA are managed in a number of facilities including recycling centers, transfer stations, and landfill sites. A 410 tonne/day energy-from-waste facility has recently been approved for Peel Region and is planned to be constructed in the coming year. 21 refs., 1 fig., 14 tabs.

  2. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  3. 34 CFR 685.206 - Borrower responsibilities and defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parent borrower, of the student, including any Federal Consolidation Loan or Direct Consolidation Loan... enrollment status, financial assistance, and employment records). (b)(1) The borrower shall promptly notify...

  4. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... where the infested avocados were grown will immediately be suspended from the export program until an... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. Specifically, we are proposing...

  5. Measuring Transit Oriented Development of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population in Indian cities is encouraging auto reliance and having unsafe economic, social and environmental consequences. Land-use-change patterns are the outcome of the complex relations between the human and the physical surroundings. To address these issues the planners are moving beyond land use planning to a sustainable development. Transit and Land use planning are important components to achieve sustainable future of urban development. TOD is a planning tool to encourage this integration. This paper discusses the land use scenario and opportunity around four Metro transit stations in Faridabad city. Different methods and various sets of indicators are considered to evaluate and measure TOD index in this study. This study will evaluate and measure the Faridabad city in the context of land use around Metro Stations to support TOD. This paper seeks to answer how to promote walkable communities, compact and transit-oriented development (TOD that incorporates mixed land use development, including neighbourhood schools, retail and business related space and a mix range of housing types within walkable distance. This paper concludes that the stations area which had a low TOD score needs to have policy for improvement. If planned efficiently, TODs can realize the sustainable development with considerable change in the urban development that focuses on pedestrian based neighbourhood planning.

  6. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  7. CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates to the dataset by the...

  8. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  9. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects

  10. Ownership Networks Effects on Secured Borrowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Constanza; Cizek, Pavel; Leon Rincon, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The secured borrowing based on sell/buy-backs agreements is studied, specifically considering both: quantity and price. The empirical evidence presented in this paper suggests that, after controlling for specific individual characteristics, group-specific effects (defined by belonging or not to a

  11. 13 CFR 120.910 - Borrower contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contributions. 120.910 Section 120.910 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development... percent, if the Project involves the acquisition, construction, conversion, or expansion of a limited or...

  12. Borrowing constraints, multiple equilibria and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.

    2007-01-01

    The appealing feature of Kiyotaki and Moore's Financial Accelerator model (Kiyotaki and Moore, 1997, 2002) is the linkage of asset price changes and borrowing constraints. This framework therefore is the natural vehicle to explore the net worth channel of the monetary transmission mechanism. In the

  13. 19 Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflexes mean 'to forge' and/or 'black-smith' (Ibid, 49). The Theory of Semantic Narrowing and Broadening in the. Realm of Lexical Borrowing ..... should be noticed that the traditional label referred to a hole on the whole of a traditional house ...

  14. Morphological assimilation of borrowed terminology (on the example of terminological units, borrowed from French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneeva Anna Vitalievna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphological assimilation is an important and mandatory problem as far as the native speaker media will be comfortable using the term of the borrowing language in the flow of speech, without considering the specific grammatical forms, largely determines its subsequent semantic assimilation, its incorporation into a particular terminology system. The analysis clearly shows the place of French borrowings in the morphological system of the Russian language, helps to identify the most significant differences between the structures of the two languages. At the same time it suggests that many French terminology borrowings morphologically assimilated fairly well, there were some groups in the Russian language, which transformed morphologically French elements falling into Russian. This makes borrowings more smooth, and loan word, provided that it actually meets the needs of the language - receptor in the host language adapts quickly and easily absorbed by native speakers

  15. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  16. 12 CFR 615.5250 - Disclosure requirements for borrower stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. 615... Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. (a) For sales of borrower stock, which for this subpart means... an at-risk investment and not a compensating balance; (ii) That the equity is retireable only at the...

  17. The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Commercial Borrower Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karceski, J.; Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the impact of bank merger announcements on borrowers' stock prices for publicly-traded Norwegian firms.In addition, we analyze how bank mergers influence borrower relationship termination behavior and relate the propensity to terminate to borrower abnormal returns.We obtain four main

  18. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings by that System bank. (b) The Financial Assistance Corporation may borrow from commercial banks with...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.653 - Borrowers in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to be in the financial interest of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. If... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.653 Borrowers in default. Any borrower not in...

  20. 42 CFR 60.10 - How much can be borrowed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school of public health, pharmacy, chiropractic, or a graduate program in health administration, clinical... pursuing a similar curriculum at that school. (b) Non-student borrower. An eligible nonstudent may borrow... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How much can be borrowed? 60.10 Section 60.10...

  1. Brazilian Credit Union Member Groups: Borrower-dominated, Saver-dominated or Neutral Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Gama Fully Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models concerning Credit Unions (CUs suggest that the type of CU domination determines the way it allocates the monetary value it generates. A borrower- (saver- dominated CU benefits borrower (saver members at the expenses of saver (borrower members, and a neutral CU equally benefits its member groups.This paper applies direct measure of monetary benefits to each member group (Patin & McNiel, 1991a to testfor the existence of dominated behavior in Brazilian CUs, and is the first to apply panel data regressions to identify the determinants of CUs behavior. We use a unique panel data with 40,664 observations taken from 533 CUs affiliated with the largest Brazilian cooperative network. Results indicate Brazilian CUs are dominated by borrowers, but behave close to neutrality. Panel regression estimates show that common or multiple bond type,size and overdue loans of a CU have no effect on its behavior, the greater the total amount of loans over social capital and adjusted equity over total assets are the more likely a CU is borrower dominated, and the greater the age and current operational expenses over total asset of a CU are the more likely a CU is saver dominated.

  2. Recognition of English and German Borrowings in the Russian Language (Based on Lexical Borrowings in the Field of Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrapova, Alsu; Alendeeva, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of a study of the influence of English and German on the Russian language during the English learning based on lexical borrowings in the field of economics. This paper discusses the use and recognition of borrowings from the English and German languages by Russian native speakers. The use of lexical borrowings from…

  3. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  4. Studying borrower level risk characteristics of education loan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the granular level risk of education loan using a cross section of data from 5000 borrowers obtained from four major public sector banks in India. The findings suggest that education loan defaults are mainly influenced by security, borrower margin, and repayment periods. The presence of guarantor or co-borrower and collateral significantly reduce default loss rates. The socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers and their regional locations also act as important factors associated with education loan defaults. The results suggest that by segmenting borrowers by probability of default and loss given default in a multidimensional scale, banks can adopt better risk mitigation and pricing strategies to resolve borrower problems.

  5. Slavic borrowings in modern Turkish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Slavic borrowings in standard Turkish language Material for this paper was excerpted from the Dictionary of Turkish Standard Language (TDK Turküe Sozluk. Excerpted data which count just about 100 words were treated within lexical-semantic groups, also with pointing to certain inconsistencies in the lexicographic treatment: some words are not marked as Slavic (e.g. kumpir, som, pogrom; after some lexemes wrong etymon is stated (e.g. kopek and some of them are left without an etymon (e.g. bocuk, gocuk.

  6. Finance Companies and Small Business Borrowers: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, George; Watts, Myles

    1996-01-01

    Finance companies have been perceived as isolated and insignificant lenders, attracting high risk borrowers and charging these borrowers relatively high prices. Using the 1988 National Survey of Small Business Finance, this study examines the relationship between finance companies and other lenders, describes the characteristics of borrowers attracted to finance companies and assesses whether finance companies charge higher loan prices and impose more stringent collateral requirements on thei...

  7. CRSMP Potential Coastal and Upland Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Upland debris basins and coastal borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates...

  8. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  9. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127] RIN 0579-AD34 Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit... rule that would relieve certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados... certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. Specifically, we proposed to...

  10. A study of graphene films synthesized on nickel substrates: existence and origin of small-base-area peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Choe, Minhyeok; Jo, Gunho; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Chun Hum

    2011-01-01

    Large-area graphene films, synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, have the potential to be used as electrodes. However, the electrical properties of CVD-synthesized graphene films fall short of the best results obtained for graphene films prepared by other methods. Therefore, it is important to understand the reason why these electrical properties are inferior to improve the applicability of CVD-grown graphene films. Here, we show that CVD-grown graphene films on nickel substrates contain many small-base-area (SBA) peaks that scatter conducting electrons, thereby decreasing the Hall mobility of charges in the films. These SBA peaks were induced by small peaks on the nickel surface and are likely composed of amorphous carbon. The formation of these SBA peaks on graphene films was successfully suppressed by controlling the surface morphology of the nickel substrate. These findings may be useful for the development of a CVD synthesis method that is capable of producing better quality graphene films with large areas.

  11. 7 CFR 1724.20 - Borrowers' requirements-architectural services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Architectural Services § 1724.20 Borrowers' requirements—architectural services... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowers' requirements-architectural services. 1724...

  12. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  13. 7 CFR 765.101 - Borrower graduation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reasonable rates and terms. (b) The Agency may require partial or full graduation. (1) In a partial... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower graduation requirements. 765.101 Section 765..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Graduation § 765.101...

  14. Lexical Borrowing from Chinese Languages in Malaysian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Tan Siew

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…

  15. Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of foreign currency borrowing by small firms, using information on the most recent loan extended to 3101 firms in 25 transition countries between 2002 and 2005. Our results suggest that foreign currency borrowing is much stronger related to

  16. 24 CFR 201.23 - Borrower's initial payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gift or a loan from some other source, the borrower must disclose the source of such gift or loan on... lender in the loan file. (b) Manufactured home purchase loans. In the case of a manufactured home purchase loan, the borrower shall make a minimum cash downpayment of at least five percent of the purchase...

  17. 7 CFR 766.104 - Borrower eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economic conditions such as low commodity prices; (iv) Damage or destruction of property essential to the farming operation; or (v) Loss of, or reduction in, the borrower or spouse's essential non-farm income. (2) The borrower does not have non-essential assets for which the net recovery value is sufficient to...

  18. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.5104 - Borrowing of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property, consideration shall be given to suitability, condition, value, extent and nature of use... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Borrowing of personal...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5104 Borrowing of personal...

  20. 7 CFR 1806.28 - Borrowers required to escrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insufficient funds to pay the flood insurance premium when due, the County Supervisor will request the borrower to pay an amount equal to the difference between the premium due and the escrow balance in a lump sum within 30 days after notification. If the borrower fails to remit the amount requested, the amount will...

  1. 7 CFR 1724.71 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1724.71 Section... Contract Forms § 1724.71 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.27 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1755.27 Section 1755.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.27 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or...

  3. 7 CFR 1726.301 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1726.301 Section... Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or loan guarantee under the... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  4. Effective Counseling, Empowered Borrowers: An Evidence-Based Policy Agenda for Informed Student Loan Borrowing and Repayment. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2016-01-01

    To manage their loans effectively, U.S. postsecondary student loan borrowers must make a variety of important decisions that require significant knowledge and financial skills and entail considerable risk. Federal law requires colleges to provide student loan counseling to their federal student loan borrowers, but there is significant room for…

  5. Results and exploitation of FP-4 and FP-5 research in the area 'Safety of existing installations'. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van; Zurita, A.; Manolatos, P.; Casalta, S.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important achievements of the research programme co-financed by the European Union (EU) in the area of LWR safety over the FP-4 and FP-5 periods from the end-users point of view. The end-users are: the contracting organisations (i.e. utilities and associated engineering companies, regulatory bodies and associated technical safety organisations, manufacturing industry and associated services), the non-contracting organisations (including decision makers and opinion leaders) and the European Commission. Besides Community research strategy and programme implementation aspects in general, this paper is focusing on the S/T achievements obtained by multi-partner projects in the - 7 clusters of multi-partner projects in Euratom FP-4 (1994-1998): AGE for structural ageing, INV and EXV for in-vessel core degradation and ex-vessel molten corium coolability, ST for radiological source term, CONT for containment integrity, AMM for accident management measures and INNO for innovative safety features - the total cost of the 67 multipartner projects comprised in this Community research was Euro 71.3 million, out of which Euro 35.9 million was contributed by the EU budget - 3 clusters of multi-partner projects in Euratom FP-5 (1998-2002): PLEM for plant life extension and management; SAM for severe accident management and EVOL for evolutionary safety concepts - the total cost of the 71 multipartner projects comprised in this Community research is Euro 85.4 million, out of which Euro 43.5 million is contributed by the EU budget. The objectives of this Community research are discussed and a number of FP-4 and FP-5 projects are selected to demonstrate to what extent the proposed objectives were indeed met. Besides technological requirements, socio-economic aspects are becoming increasingly important due to the level of public and political acceptance and to the economic pressure of deregulated electricity markets; this is also discussed. Finally the

  6. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Areas 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore sediment sources along the entire reach of the San Diego Coastal RSM Plan region were previously identified by SANDAG and used for Regional Beach Sand...

  7. Phonological Adaptation of Borrowed Terms in Duramazwi reMimhanzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Mheta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article analyses the phonological characteristics of Shona musical terms borrowed from English. It discusses the phonological processes that take place when words are borrowed directly or indi-rectly from English. Essentially, the article analyses the adoption and adaptation of Shona loan-words at phonological level. It draws examples from the dictionary of Shona musical terms Duramazwi reMimhanzi (2005. This exploration of loan-word adaptation enhances the understanding of the phonological changes that the musical terms undergo during the borrowing process.

  8. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  9. Modelling changes in small area disability free life expectancy: trends in London wards between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-12-20

    Existing analyses of trends in disability free life expectancy (DFLE) are mainly at aggregate level (national or broad regional). However, major differences in DFLE, and trends in these expectancies, exist between different neighbourhoods within regions, so supporting a small area perspective. However, this raises issues regarding the stability of conventional life table estimation methods at small area scales. This paper advocates a Bayesian borrowing strength technique to model trends in mortality and disability differences across 625 small areas in London, using illness data from the 2001 and 2011 population Censuses, and deaths data for two periods centred on the Census years. From this analysis, estimates of total life expectancy and DFLE are obtained. The spatio-temporal modelling perspective allows assessment of whether significant compression or expansion of morbidity has occurred in each small area. Appropriate models involve random effects that recognise correlation and interaction effects over relevant dimensions of the observed deaths and illness data (areas, ages), as well as major spatial trends (e.g. gradients in health and mortality according to area deprivation category). Whilst borrowing strength is a primary consideration (and demonstrated by raised precision for estimated life expectancies), so also is model parsimony. Therefore, pure borrowing strength models are compared with models allowing selection of random age-area interaction effects using a spike-slab prior, and in fact borrowing strength combined with random effects selection provides better fit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  11. Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply of steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply of additional steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the firm INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT) for the supply of additional steel structures for the LHC shafts, tunnels, caverns and experimental areas for an amount of 500 000 euros (775 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total to 6 525 745 euros (10 114 905 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  12. 34 CFR 674.49 - Bankruptcy of borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.49 Bankruptcy of borrower. (a... determination of dischargeability. (1) The institution must use due diligence and may assert any defense...

  13. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  14. Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Keywords: BORROWING, DICTIONARY COMPILATION, INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES,. LEXICON, MORPHEME, VOCABULARY, DEVELOPING LANGUAGES, LOAN WORDS, TER-. MINOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY, LEXICOGRAPHY. Opsomming: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van in- heemse Suid-Afrikaanse ...

  15. 24 CFR 201.22 - Credit requirements for borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumer credit report stating the credit accounts and payment history of the borrower and of any co-maker... months or more. (c) Evidence of delinquency, default or misrepresentation. Except with the prior approval...

  16. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Yiping; Ma, Hui

    2011-01-01

    As we know, borrowing and lending risk-free assets arise extensively in the theory and practice of finance. However, little study has ever investigated them in fuzzy portfolio problem. In this paper, the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to...

  17. 7 CFR 1951.264 - Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Analyzing Credit Needs and Graduation of Borrowers § 1951.264 Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate. (a) When borrowers with other than FCP loans fail to: (1) Provide information... appeal the decision. (b) If an FCP borrower fails to cooperate after a lender expresses a willingness to...

  18. Development of orgware of borrower - legal entity’s solvency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygovska N.G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of orgware of borrower - legal entity’s solvency analysis. The authors investigate the orgware of solvency estimation mechanism in two aspects: 1 as the aggregate of the organizational stages of solvency estimation; 2 as an organizational structure and co-operation between different structural subdivisions of bank. The paper itemizes and specifies the stages of orgware of borrower - legal entity’s solvency analysis according to such signs as the purpose of the stage; responsible for the stage; the issues studied on the stage; documenting, duration and features of the organizational stage. The documentary providing of the process organization of solvency analysis is improved, namely, the appendix to executive Summary «Estimation of off-balance sheet obligations (off-balance sheet risks of borrower on the project credited» is offered. The authors’ attention is paid to the existence (in international practice of two methods of organization process of enterprises-borrowers’ rating: 1 oriented to the external rating and 2 oriented to the internal rating, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. The article offers the algorithm of informative co-operation of basic subjects of borrower’s solvency analysis after the selected organizational stages at forming of the internal credit rating, which will be instrumental in the improvement of process of enterprises’ crediting, standardization of procedure, and decline of crediting risks.

  19. Impact Of Microcredit Programs On Higher Income Borrowers: Evidence From Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Rahman; Rafiqul Bhuyan Rafiq; Mohammad A. Momen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of microcredit on economic indicators of borrowers in Bangladesh and compare if the impact is same across borrowers having different income levels. Our estimation results show that the microcredit programs are effective in generating higher income and assets for borrowers in general. However, the impact is not found to be uniform across income levels of borrowers. Higher income borrowers seem to be better off compared to the middle and lower income bor...

  20. Prediction of the existence or fine-grained granite dykes in the Simpevarp area; Prediktering av foerekomst av finkorniga granitgaangar i Simpevarpsomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan; Triumf, Carl-Axel [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Wahlgren, Carl-Henric [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Fine-grained granite dykes associated with a high fracture frequency occur in the bedrock of the Simpevarp region. In order to avoid problems in a future storage for nuclear waste it is important to find methods to detect areas where the dykes occur frequently. The aim of this project is to test the possibility to use airborne gamma ray spectrometry in the Simpevarp region to distinguish between different areas of the bedrock containing a varying frequency of fine-grained granite dykes. Investigations were also made to test if and how plastic deformation and a thin cover of moss affect the radiometric signature of the rocks. Ground measurements with a gamma ray spectrometer were performed on the islands of Aespoe, Aevroe and at the Simpevarp peninsula on different kinds of Smaaland granite with varying frequencies of fine-grained granite dykes. Reference measurements were performed on rocks without granite dykes. The bedrock at the measurement sites was geologically characterized in connection to the measurements. Air borne radiometric data (uranium, potassium and thorium) measured by the Geological Survey of Sweden in 1986 (flight altitude 30 m, point distance 40 m, line spacing 200 m) was compared to the existing bedrock map of the area and also to existing observation sites of fine-grained granite dykes. The ground measurements with gamma ray spectrometer clearly indicate that the fine-grained granite dykes have a specific radiometric signature compared to the granite-granodiorite at Aevroe and the quartzmonzodiorite-granodiorite at Aespoe. The main difference between the dykes and the other investigated rocks is seen in the thorium content, which is typically 3-5 times greater in the fine grained granite dykes. A thin cover of moss does not seem to significantly affect the radiometric signal of the bedrock, and neither does plastic deformation. However, the number of measurements on deformed and on covered rocks is low. The radiometric anomaly pattern shown in

  1. The total costs of corporate borrowing in the loan market : dont ignore the fees

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Tobias; Saunders, Anthony; Steffen, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of US syndicated loans contain at least one fee type and contracts typically specify a menu of spread and different types of fees. We test the predictions of existing theories about the main purposes of fees and provide supporting evidence that: (1) fees are used to price options embedded in loan contracts such as the draw-down option for credit lines and the cancellation option in term loans; and (2) fees are used to screen borrowers about the likelihood of exerc...

  2. The customers borrowing behavior during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina LUCA (BRĂTUCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis determined the transition of the Romanian banking system from excess of liquidity to deficit, namely from an aggressive lending activity to a significant reduction of credit growth rate. In our country, the high indebtedness rate, especially in foreign currencies, is the main vulnerable spot of the population sector. The main objective of this paperwork is to analyze factors that influence the customers in their decision to borrow in foreign currencies or in Ron. In this matter, it was used a regional econometric model for panel data in order to see Romania’s customers borrowing preferences and to analyze if the crises have changed their behavior.

  3. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to measure investment risk. The conventional probabilistic mean variance model can be transformed to a linear programming problem under possibility distributions. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modeling idea and the impact of borrowing and lending on optimal decision making.

  4. Scared away? Discouraged borrowers and Capital market information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Hain, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    of discouraged borrowers. Implications Implications entail missed opportunities for firms, which in turn is likely to have deterrent effects on overall investments and economic growth. Financial institutions will miss out on business opportunities but will also have difficulties in fine-tuning their credit......We do the first study on discouraged borrowers in Denmark to firstly investigate the extent of this phenome-non in Denmark. Secondly, we test if characteristics of firms (age, size, innovativeness, industry) impact their likelihood of being discouraged from entering the capital markets. Thirdly...

  5. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  6. Trade credit, collateral liquidation and borrowing constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, D.; Menichini, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of collateralized bank and trade credit. Firms use a two-input technology. Assuming that the supplier is better able to extract value from existing assets and has an information advantage over other creditors, the paper derives a series of predictions. (1) Financially

  7. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  8. Constraints on morphological borrowing: evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.; Hekking, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the borrowing of morphology from Spanish by three unrelated and typologically diffferent American-Indian languages: Quechua, Guarani and Otomi. On the basis of three corpora of spontaneous speech produced by a sizeable number of informants, we will suggest that there are

  9. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  10. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    or foreign acquisition. English, for instance, is spoken in many countries on all five continents and is, therefore, able to acquire vocabulary from many lan- guages worldwide. This is coupled with the readiness and the ability of the language to acquire new terminology through borrowing, instead of following the puristic ...

  11. 24 CFR 891.740 - Responsibilities of Borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracting for services are provided in § 891.600(c). (d) Submission of financial and operating statements...) Marketing. (1) The Borrower must commence and continue diligent marketing activities not later than 90 days... homeless in the same housing market. (2) Marketing must be done in accordance with the HUD-approved...

  12. Adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing in road-covering mobile networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Li, W.; Pan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing strategies for wireless networks covering a road. In a F/TDMA-based model, road traffic prediction models are used to characterise the movement of hot spots, such as traffic jams, and subsequently to predict the teletraffic load offered to

  13. Exit Counseling Guide for Federal Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student loans, unlike grants and work-study, are borrowed money that must be repaid, with interest, just like car loans and home mortgages. You cannot have these loans canceled because you didn't like the education you received, didn't get a job in your field of study or because you're having financial difficulty. Loans are legal obligations that…

  14. 34 CFR 674.42 - Contact with the borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... debt is owed and the name and address of the official or servicing agent to whom communications should... person, by audiovisual presentation, or by interactive electronic means. The institution must ensure that... law, and litigation; (viii) Emphasize that the borrower is obligated to repay the full amount of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.441 - Borrower equity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management history vs. start-up businesses; personal/corporate guarantees offered; contractual relationships... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.441 Borrower...

  16. 42 CFR 60.15 - Other charges to the borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fails to pay all of a required installment payment or fails to provide written evidence that verifies eligibility for the deferment of the payment within 30 days after the payment's due date, the lender or holder will require that the borrower pay a late charge. A late charge must be equal to 5 percent of the...

  17. Cultural borrowing - Serbian jogurt between the east and the west

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analysis of the cultural borrowing process of the Turkish word yoğurt ‘yogurt’ in Serbian. The study begins with the analysis of the Serbian lexical material from the 19th century, when the word jogurt was marked as an exclusively foreign word. The comparison with the present status of the meaning and usage of the word jogurt in contemporary Serbian, in which the word is part of the standard language, shows two different layers of the borrowing process: the Ottoman Turkish period and the Non-Turkish one. The most recent, Post-Ottoman borrowing layer is illustrated by the usage of jogurt as an element of a proverb that is a calque from the Turk. Sutten ağzı yanan yoğurdu (veya ayranı ufleyerek yer (veya icer “who gets burned by milk, blows into yogurt as well”. Aiming to present a complex process of this cultural borrowing, the data from Serbian is compared to the relevant data from other Balkan and European languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika i br. 178009: Lingvistička istraživanja savremenog srpskog književnog jezika i izrada Rečnika srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika SANU

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING SMALLHOLDERS' TRANSACTION COST OF BORROWING FROM THE NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL AND COOPERATIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Olomola, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    In Nigeria, small-scale farmers are reluctant to borrow from formal institutions because of high transaction costs. This paper examines the components and determinants of borrowing transaction costs and argues that unless the loan administrative strategies are simplified and channels of loan delivery diversified, farmers would continue to find it difficult to use formal loans. Borrowing transaction costs are defined as the administrative expenses and transportation cost incurred by borrowers ...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.158 - Mergers with borrowers who prepaid RUS loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mergers with borrowers who prepaid RUS loans. 1717.158 Section 1717.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.158 Mergers with borrowers...

  20. 25 CFR 103.26 - What must the borrower supply the lender in its loan application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cash flow statements; (i) A detailed list of all proposed collateral for the loan, including asset... amount and offer the proposed loan collateral; and (m) If the borrower is a business entity, resolutions... permitting the borrower to borrow the loan amount and offer the proposed loan collateral. ...

  1. 12 CFR 617.7130 - What initial disclosures must a qualified lender make to a borrower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender make to a borrower? 617.7130 Section 617.7130 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... must a qualified lender make to a borrower? (a) Required disclosures—in general. A qualified lender... certificates that borrowers are required to purchase are at risk and may only be retired at the discretion of...

  2. Evaluation of the existing EIA legislation. How EIA procedures function in practice and areas needing improvement; YVA-lainsaeaedaennoen toimivuusarviointi. Ympaeristoevaikutusten arviointimenettelyn toimivuus ja kehittaemistarpeet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, J.; Hokkanen, P.

    2010-09-15

    The evaluation reviewed how the EIA legislation and EIA procedure are functioning in actual practice, as well as the realisation of the goals of the Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure. The evaluation also reviewed the role of the EIA procedure in project planning and decision-making, and the relationship between the EIA legislation and other legislation. The goal of the evaluation was to describe the current status of the legislation and its functioning in practice, and generate information on opportunities for further development of environmental impact assessment and EIA legislation. Through the application of diverse and extensive materials and consideration of various viewpoints, a comprehensive review of the strengths of the existing EIA legislation and procedure was carried out and areas needing further improvement were identified. A broad interpretation of functioning was used in the evaluation: it includes the effectiveness and practice of the EIA procedure, the acceptability of the EIA legislation and also how the legislation implements EU legislation. Overall, the goals of the EIA legislation have been reached successfully. The EIA legislation is successful in implementing EU legislation, and, as shown by the results of the evaluation, the choices made in Finland appear to be correct. Stakeholders have come to understand the role the EIA procedure plays in guiding activities and the scope of the current EIA legislation, which is under no pressure for major amendments. The project types that are subject to the EIA procedure are markedly different from each other, resulting in an EIA being implemented in widely different planning and decision-making situations. The performance of the EIA procedure, therefore, varies somewhat from one project type to another. It is important that the EIA legislation be flexible and easily adapted to various situations. The assessment procedure seem to be most effective when it is used early enough as a project

  3. The role and importance of the enterprise`s borrowed capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombrovska Sofiіa Oleksiyivna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents scientific views of researches regarding the definition of “borrowed capital”. The basic functions of borrowed capital have been submitted, its classification on various grounds is highlighted. The article describes the features of borrowed capital, its advantages and disadvantages, considers management system of borrowed capital and problems of domestic enterprises in modern conditions of economic relations. The author proposed the main directions of the management improving of borrowed capital. The information will be useful for specialists in the field of financial management.

  4. The Borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves i...

  5. Geotechnical aspects of rock borrow for large breakwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.; Fischer, J.A.; Urlich, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    The state of the art is described of investigations to secure rock borrow for the breakwaters proposed to protect offshore nuclear power plants. Considerations relating to the geological, geotechnical, and design suitability of rock are discussed within the framework of economics, and the environmental impact of quarrying and transporting rock to potential sites on the East and Gulf coasts of the U.S. is examined. The methodology outlined has application to the construction of all large rockfill breakwaters

  6. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  7. Mutual Word Borrowings between the English and the Spanish Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Rinatovna Ismagilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses growing popularity of foreign languages learning and their role in the modern society. The article is devoted to the problem of mutual borrowings from English and Spanish languages. The aim of the article is to investigate new tendencies in the English words borrowings, their establishment in the Spanish language and the other way round. The Spanish language is one of the most widespread languages in the world and it is a native language for different nationalities. On the other hand, English has borrowed quite a lot of Spanish words as well. The mutual enrichment of the languages makes the process of language teaching specific and it is important in the modern process of globalization where languages are the main resource of international cooperation. The article contains both theoretical and practical materials dedicated to the investigation of this problem. This article may be useful for a wide range of readers, students, scientists, linguists in the study of modern Spanish and English languages.

  8. Stem cell assays: Something old, something new, something borrowed : Something old, something new, something borrowed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, R.; Kamminga, Leonie; de Haan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous assays exist that measure the function of stem cells. In this article, we review in detail the history and future of existing stem cell assays. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are historically the most well studied, but new developments in stem cell research, including the claim of stem

  9. 12 CFR 617.7105 - When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effective interest rate to a borrower? 617.7105 Section 617.7105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7105 When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower? (a) Disclosure to prospective borrowers...

  10. Assessment of the effect of a windmill park at Overgaard on the existence of birds in the EU bird protection area no. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, P.; Kyed Larsen, J.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the plans to establish a windmill park at Overgaard, Denmark, an assessment has been performed of the consequences for the occurrence of water birds in the EU bird protection area no. 15 which will be very close to the park. The report concludes that for all assessed species, apart from whooper swan and golden plover, none of the proposed windmill parks are expected to have any negative influence on the species' future occurrence and status in the EU bird protection area no. 15. For the golden plover the same conclusion is reached regarding its use of the area as resting-place during daytime. It is not possible to assess the effects, if any, on the plover's use of the area as forage area during the nights. For the whooper swan the area they have been using at Overgaard will be lost. Depending on the type of windmill park the lost area amounts to about 1-2,5 % of the bird protection area. It is expected, however, that the swans will move to other fields in the protection area for foraging. (ln)

  11. Immigration, borrowing constraints and housing market volatility in general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Onshuus, Helene

    2016-01-01

    A loan-to-value borrowing constraint is a significant restriction on household behavior. All policy intervention seeks to steer agents' behavior away from what individual agents would consider optimal in the absence of restrictions. In the wake of the financial crisis in 2007-09 many regulators have turned to macroprudential tools to manage excessive risk-taking on an economy-wide level. In Norway a strict loan-to-value policy was imposed in June 2015, restricting the amount a household can b...

  12. Precautionary Borrowing and the Credit Card Debt Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druedahl, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Casper Nordal

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the credit card debt puzzle using a generalization of the buffer-stock consumption model with long-term revolving debt contracts. Closely resembling actual US credit card law, we assume that card issuers can always deny their cardholders access to new debt, but that they cannot...... to simultaneously hold positive gross debt and positive gross assets even though the interest rate on the debt is much higher than the return rate on the assets. Including a risk of being excluded from new borrowing which is positively correlated with unemployment, we are able to simultaneously explain...

  13. "Subnational Borrowing in Japan : from 'Implicit Guarantee' to Market Discipline and Fiscal Rule"

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Mochida

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, local borrowing is an important source for long-term development projects such as roads, bridges, and waterworks. Local borrowing for such projects is justified on the ground that benefit of these projects often last decades and the cost of these projects should be borne by future tax payers. However, there are serious concerns with issuance of local bonds by decentralized local governments. Local governments in Japan would not default on their borrowing because of such "im...

  14. Vegetation management in sensitive areas of the Lake Tahoe Basin: A workshop to evaluate risks and advance existing strategies and practices [Independent review panel report

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Wally Miller; Bruce Hartsough; Scott Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Elected officials, agency representatives and stakeholders representing many segments of the Lake Tahoe Basin community have all raised concerns over the limited progress in reducing excess vegetation biomass in Stream Environment Zones (SEZ) and on steep slopes (collectively referred to as sensitive areas) in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Limited access, the potential for...

  15. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  16. Lexical borrowing by Khoekhoegowab from Cape Dutch and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Haacke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article instantiates types of lexical borrowing from Afrikaans and Dutch in Namibian Khoekhoegowab (also known as “Nama”/“Damara”, but occasionally also refers to borrowings in the opposite direction. Where evidence allows, loans are traced back beyond Afrikaans to the era of Cape Dutch and contemporary interethnic contacts. Various categories ranging from adoptions to phonologically integrated loans, hybrids and calques are presented and, where possible, historical inferences are offered. The high degree of translational equivalence between Khoekhoe serial verbs and Afrikaans compound verbs leads to the consideration of some grammatical aspects including replication and relexification. Finally, reference is made to a parallel between Afrikaans and “Khoekhoe Afrikaans” syntax pointed out by den Besten (2013: Afrikaans circumlocutions like ek / sy wat Anna is (Khoekhoe: Anna.ta / Anna.s are literal equivalents of the underlying phrasal structures of Khoekhoe surface nouns #stem.pgn# in first, second or third person, as accounted for by the “desentential hypothesis” (Haacke 2006.  

  17. The genetic assimilation in language borrowing inferred from Jing People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiufeng; Zhou, Qinghui; Bin, Xiaoyun; Lai, Shu; Lin, Chaowen; Hu, Rong; Xiao, Jiashun; Luo, Dajun; Li, Yingxiang; Wei, Lan-Hai; Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2018-02-28

    The Jing people are a recognized ethnic group in Guangxi, southwest China, who are the immigrants from Vietnam during the 16th century. They speak Vietnamese but with lots of language borrowings from Cantonese, Zhuang, and Mandarin. However, it's unclear if there is large-scale gene flow from surrounding populations into Jing people during their language change due to the very limited genetic information of this population. We collected blood samples from 37 Jing and 3 Han Chinese individuals from Wanwei, Shanxin, and Wutou islands in Guangxi and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE analysis, f statistics, qpWave and qpAdm to infer the population genetic structure and admixture. Our data revealed that the Jing people are genetically similar to the populations in southwest China and mainland Southeast Asia. But compared with Vietnamese, they show significant evidence of gene flow from surrounding East Asians. The admixture proportion is estimated to be around 35-42% in different Jing groups using southern Han Chinese as a proxy. The majority of the paternal lineages of Jing people are most likely from surrounding East Asians. We conclude that the formation and language change of present-day Jing people have involved genetic assimilation of surrounding East Asian populations. The language borrowing, in this case, is not only a cultural phenomenon but has involved demic diffusion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cancer Related-Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates are produced using statistical models that combine data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, and auxiliary variables obtained from relevant sources and borrow strength from other areas with similar characteristics.

  19. Hepatitis C virus sequences from different patients confirm the existence and transmissibility of subtype 2q, a rare subtype circulating in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martró, Elisa; Valero, Ana; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Saludes, Verónica; Planas, Ramón; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma

    2011-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six genotypes and more than 70 subtypes with distinct geographical and epidemiological distributions. While 18 genotype 2 subtypes have been proposed, only 5 have had their complete sequence determined. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV isolates from three patients from the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for whom commercial genotyping methods provided discordant results. Full-length genome sequencing was carried out for 2 of the 3 patients; for the third patient only partial NS5B sequences could be obtained. The generated sequences were subjected to phylogenetic, recombination, and identity analyses. Sequences covering most of the HCV genome (9398 and 9566  nt in length) were obtained and showed a 90.3% identity to each other at the nucleotide level, while both sequences differed by 17.5-22.6% from the other fully sequenced genotype 2 subtypes. No evidence of recombination was found. The NS5B phylogenetic tree showed that sequences from the three patients cluster together with the only representative sequence of the provisionally designed 2q subtype, which also corresponds to a patient from Barcelona. Phylogenetic analysis of the full coding sequence showed that subtype 2q was more closely related to subtype 2k. The results obtained in this study suggest that subtype 2q now meets the requirements for confirmed designation status according to consensus criteria for HCV classification and nomenclature, and its epidemiological value is ensured as it has spread among several patients in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Deficit Financing of Schools? The Impact of Statutory Change on School District Borrowing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefson, Carla

    In the 70s and 80s, Ohio relaxed its balanced-budget laws to give school districts more options for borrowing over the end of the fiscal year. Two provisions that permit districts to borrow against next year's revenues in order to balance the current year's budget include the Emergency School Advancement program and the Spending Reserve. This…

  1. 7 CFR 1944.425 - Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds. 1944... Grants § 1944.425 Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds. Grantees will be required to...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's non-discrimination policies in receiving...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303... AND GUARANTEES Long-Range Financial Forecasts § 1710.303 Power cost studies—power supply borrowers. (a... facilities shall be supported by a power cost study to demonstrate that the proposed generation and...

  3. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  4. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  5. A formal account of the interaction of orthography and perception : English intervocalic consonants borrowed into Italian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; Colombo, I.E.

    This study presents a formal generative model that integrates perception and reading, and uses English intervocalic consonants borrowed into Italian as either singletons or geminates to illustrate how the model works. Consisting of words borrowed in the 20th century, our data show that the quantity

  6. 7 CFR 1781.21 - Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting, and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting... DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.21 Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting, and audits. These activities will be handled in accordance with the provisions of...

  7. 7 CFR 1942.128 - Borrower accounting methods, management reports and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Borrower accounting methods, management reports and audits. 1942.128 Section 1942.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Rescue and Other Small Community Facilities Projects § 1942.128 Borrower accounting methods, management...

  8. How Culture Matters in Educational Borrowing? Chinese Teachers' Dilemmas in a Global Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-nan; Feng, Da-ming

    2015-01-01

    Educational borrowing may cause numerous dilemmas that emerge from cross-cultural differences among teachers in the globalization. Through the case study on the flipped classroom introduced from the United States into Chinese middle schools, this article presents an examination of dilemmas that teachers encountered during educational borrowing in…

  9. 12 CFR 615.5040 - Borrowings from financial institutions other than commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from financial institutions other than commercial banks. 615.5040 Section 615.5040 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... § 615.5040 Borrowings from financial institutions other than commercial banks. The Farm Credit banks may...

  10. 12 CFR 617.7005 - When may electronic communications be used in the borrower rights process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower rights process? Qualified lenders may use, with the parties' agreement, electronic commerce (E-commerce), including electronic communications for borrower rights disclosures. Part 609 of this chapter addresses when a qualified lender may use E-commerce. Consistent with these rules, a qualified lender should...

  11. 7 CFR 1951.262 - Farm Credit Programs-graduation of borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determine their ability to graduate. (f) Sending prospectus information to lenders. (1) The Agency will... Needs and Graduation of Borrowers § 1951.262 Farm Credit Programs—graduation of borrowers. (a)-(d... must submit a year-end balance sheet, actual financial performance information for the most recent year...

  12. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  13. Qualified to Lead? A Comparative, Contextual and Cultural View of Educational Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Around the globe, education policy borrowing remains pervasive and prevalent. The strategies, interventions and innovations of education systems that perform well, in international assessments, are enthusiastically borrowed and copied in the anticipation of similar educational performance and outcomes. Purpose: This purpose of the…

  14. 34 CFR 682.301 - Eligibility of borrowers for interest benefits on Stafford and Consolidation loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stafford and Consolidation loans. 682.301 Section 682.301 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... borrowers for interest benefits on Stafford and Consolidation loans. (a) General. (1) To qualify for benefits on a Stafford loan, a borrower must demonstrate financial need in accordance with Part F of the...

  15. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  16. 13 CFR 120.712 - How does an Intermediary get a grant to assist Microloan borrowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contribution. It may only use grant funds to provide Microloan borrowers with marketing, management, and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does an Intermediary get a grant to assist Microloan borrowers? 120.712 Section 120.712 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  17. 7 CFR 1717.656 - Exemption of certain borrowers from controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. (Such borrower is eligible to ask... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.656 Exemption of...

  18. Education Policy Borrowing in China: Has the West Wind Overpowered the East Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent education reform in China reflects the global trend of education policy borrowing from Anglophone countries such as the USA. The reform in China essentially advocates shifting from knowledge reproduction and didacticism to knowledge construction by students through a learner-centredness approach. Aware of the trend of borrowing policy from…

  19. 7 CFR 3560.405 - Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Servicing § 3560.405 Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes. (a) General. The requirements of this section apply to changes in a borrower entity's organizational structure or to a change in... organizational change. The request must document that the proposed changes will not adversely affect the program...

  20. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  1. The Treatment of Borrowed Nouns in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on the lemmatisation of vowel-commencing borrowed nouns and the allo-cation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele, the first monolingual general-purpose Ndebele dictionary, and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo, the first specialised Ndebele dictionary of musical terms. It adopts a comparative approach, also highlighting the controversies surrounding the status of the initial vowel of the prefix or the pre-prefix in Ndebele and other Nguni languages. It further looks at the challenges and limitations of lemmatising the noun using either the initial vowel of the prefix or the initial letter of the noun stem. It is found that there are some inconsistencies in the lemmatisation of vowel-com-mencing borrowed nouns and the allocation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in the two dictionar-ies. These inconsistencies impact negatively on the standardisation and treatment of borrowed nouns.

  2. Understanding Indonesian People Borrowing Money from Banks and Non-Banking Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roro Hindun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s borrowing behaviours are influenced by the need to fulfil their basic needs which always change in maintaining their lifestyles. This thesis analyzes the tendency of Indonesians to borrowing money, either from banks or non-banking institutions. This research was carried out using quantitative data analysis with secondary data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey panel data versions 3 and 4. The data was analyzed using STATA 12.0 software. The results of the study show that the significant factors that affect people’s behaviour in borrowing from either banks or non-banking institutions are amount of debt, assets, income, and location; while the insignificant factors are age, religion, and number of householders.   Keywords: money borrowing, borrowing behaviour, debt, IFLS, STATA

  3. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  4. Borrowed Capital as Risk Factor for Large Construction Companies in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikova, L.; Plotnikova, E.; Zubareva, M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper investigates the features of the formation of the capital structure of large construction companies from the standpoint of the financial risks and opportunities for companies’ development. The authors compare the opportunities and risks linked with the use of the own and borrowed capital, analyze the capital structure of large Russian construction companies, identify factors affecting the capital structure and determining the ratio of own and borrowed sources of financing. In the paper the hypothesis is considered that companies use larger volumes of borrowed capital by means of their assets increase.

  5. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...

  6. External Borrowing Framework an Investment Function Model For Turkish Economy (1998-2014 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin KARATAY GÖGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External borrowing comes up as a result of savings-investment deficit. Some of belonging to the state of this debt determines budget deficit, some of belonging to the private sector of this debt determines financing needs of private sector. In terms of contribution of financing needs of private sector to fixed capital formation, external borrowing has a direct impact on economic growth and development is concerned. Borrowing from closing the budget deficit in the classic sense, rather than for Turkey's economy will be decisive in shaping the economic policies in order to finance of investments. This aim, By analyzing the 1998-2014 period for Turkey's economy if external borrowing is selected as a method of financing investment spending is investigated by using Multivariate Cointegration Analysis

  7. 18 CFR 367.4320 - Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction-Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4320 Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction—Credit. This...

  8. Opportunities for Improving Army Modeling and Simulation Development: Making Fundamental Adjustments and Borrowing Commercial Business Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John

    2000-01-01

    ...; requirements which span the conflict spectrum. The Army's current staff training simulation development process could better support all possible scenarios by making some fundamental adjustments and borrowing commercial business practices...

  9. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  10. Take the money and run: making profits by paying borrowers to stay home

    OpenAIRE

    Coco, Giuseppe; De Meza, David; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Reito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Can a bank increase its profit by subsidizing inactivity? This paper suggests this may occur, due to the presence of hidden information, in a monopolistic credit market. Rather than offering credit in a pooling contract, a monopolist bank can sort borrowers through an appropriate subsidy to inactivity. Under some conditions, sorting may avoid the collapse of the market and increases the welfare of everybody. The bank increases its profits, good borrowers benefit from lower interest rates and ...

  11. The Cost of Collateralized Borrowing in the Colombian Money Market: Does Connectedness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Martínez; Carlos León

    2014-01-01

    Under the view that the market is a weighted and directed network (Barabási, 2003), this document is a first attempt to model the Colombian money market within a spatial econometrics framework. By estimating two standard spatial econometric models, we study the cost of collateralized borrowing (i.e. sell/buy backs) among Colombian financial institutions, and its relationship with the effects induced by traditional variables (leverage, size and borrowing levels), and by spatial variables resul...

  12. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  13. Analysis and proposal of implementation effects of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lingling; Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng

    2012-01-01

    In China, northern heating region contains approximately 6.5 billion m 2 residential building areas accounting for 15% of the total residential living areas of urban and rural. About 70% of the urban residential buildings in north China are high energy consumption buildings. The task of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of 0.15 billion m 2 existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period was proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development (MOHURD) in 2007 and completed in 2010. This paper introduced both central and local governments' efforts on organization, implementation and finance, etc. Then several retrofitting effects involving improving the people's livelihood, mobilizing the enthusiasm of residents for the retrofit and driving the development of relevant industries were presented. Finally, on the basis of analyzing the issues encountered in the progress of the retrofit in the past 4 years, the paper gave some policy proposals on organization system, financing models, reward mechanism, and heating system reformation to help to promote the energy efficiency retrofit in “the 12th Five-Year Plan” period. - Highlights: ► Specific approaches of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit (HMEER) at central and local level are introduced. ► Main HMEER effects are presented. ► Analyzing several issues encountered in the progress of the HMEER. ► Corresponding proposals are provided.

  14. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  15. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.

  16. How culture matters in educational borrowing? Chinese teachers’ dilemmas in a global era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-nan Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational borrowing may cause numerous dilemmas that emerge from cross-cultural differences among teachers in the globalization. Through the case study on the flipped classroom introduced from the United States into Chinese middle schools, this article presents an examination of dilemmas that teachers encountered during educational borrowing in the global era. Based on the theoretical literature on cultural-historical activity theory, the study used interviews, field observations, and documents from six secondary schools in mainland China for one and a half years to understand comprehensively the dilemmas that teachers encountered when implementing the flipped classroom. The findings indicate that understandings of knowledge production, transmission, and the goal of education in mainland China differ from those in the west, which is the main reason for the teacher dilemmas. Because of the diversity in social culture, we suggest that teachers should be more culturally sensitive and improve compatibility in the process of educational borrowing.

  17. The Third Pillar of the Basel Accord: Evidence of borrower discipline in the Kyrgyz banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Demetrio Tovar-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We empirically study the asset side of market discipline in the banking system of the Kyrgyz Republic, examining whether borrowers are willing to pay higher interest rates to high-quality banks. Based on dynamic panel models and a dataset with bank information from 23 banks over the period 2010–2012, our findings suggest the presence of market discipline induced by borrowers. In other words, banks with higher capital ratios and liquidity charge higher interest rates on loans. This result has several implications for the banking policy in Kyrgyzstan, where we can recommend to policymakers a disclosure policy following the Third Pillar of Basel III, because not only can the bank's creditors use bank information to penalize the excessive bank risk, but borrowers can also use this information to discipline their banks.

  18. Does Consumer Confidence Forecast Household Saving and Borrowing Behavior? Evidence for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Aneta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumer confidence plays an important role in households' decision-making processes. This study investigates the effects of consumer confidence on household saving and borrowing behavior that are unsatisfactorily considered in previous discussions. The questions of interest are first, whether indexes of consumer confidence have any predictive power on their own for future household saving and borrowing rates, and second, whether they contain information about future household saving and borrowing rates aside from the information contained in other available indicators. In addition to aggregate confidence indicators, their components are used to provide more precise information. Overall, the multiple linear regression analysis (OLS technique) of Polish time-series data gives positive answers to both questions. This finding supports the recommendation of combining the strengths of objective indicators (such as economic fundamentals) and subjective indicators (such as consumer confidence) to improve household financial behavior forecasts.

  19. Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous South African Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Borrowing occurs when a language adds a word from another language to its own lexicon. Languages in neighbouring regions often borrow from each other. In South Africa, there are over nine indigenous languages, in addition to Afrikaans and English, all of which coexist. In their coexistence they borrow from one another. African language dictionaries reveal that these languages have borrowed a great deal from Afrikaans and English. However, one would expect these dictionaries to reflect some borrowing from other indigenous languages; on the contrary, they include very few such words. Although, one encounters many words from indigenous languages being used by other African languages in their spoken language and literary works, these are not included in dictionaries. This article seeks to highlight factors contributing to the failure to include words borrowed from other indigenous languages in African language dictionaries.

    OPSOMMING: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van inheemse Suid-Afrikaanse tale. Ontlening vind plaas wanneer 'n taal 'n woord uit 'n ander taal by sy eie leksikon voeg. Tale in aangrensende streke leen dikwels van mekaar. Daar is meer as nege inheemse tale in Suid-Afrika, bo en behalwe Afrikaans en Engels, wat saam bestaan. In hulle naasbestaan leen hulle van mekaar. Afrikataal-woordeboeke getuig daarvan dat hierdie tale heelwat uit Afrikaans en Engels geleen het. Daar sou egter verwag kon word dat hierdie woordeboeke sal getuig van ontlening uit ander inheemse tale; in teendeel, hulle sluit baie min van sulke woorde in. Alhoewel baie woorde van inheemse tale in ander Afrikatale gebruik word in die gesproke taal en letterkundige werke, is hierdie woorde nie in die woordeboeke opgeneem nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die faktore uit te lig wat bydra tot die versuim om leenwoorde van ander inheemse tale in die Afrikataal-woordeboeke op te neem.


    Sleutelwoorde: ONTLENING

  20. New insights in the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Imbo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview concerning the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations in mental arithmetic. The role of the executive working-memory component is discussed, alongside the contribution of the phonological and visuo-spatial working-memory components. Moreover, a broad view on various carry characteristics (such as the number of carry/borrow operations and the value of the carry and various operations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication is provided. Finally, some ideas for further research are offered.

  1. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  2. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  3. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1 there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2 in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects.

    OPSOMMING: Ontlening en leenwoorde: Die lemmatisering van nuutverworwe leksikale items in Sesotho sa Leboa. Die invloed van vreemde tale op Sesotho sa Leboa, of Noord-Sotho, het ontlening tot gevolg, wat uiteindelik lei tot 'n toename in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa. Die tale wat ontwikkelinge in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa beïnvloed, sluit onder andere Engels, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tsivend√a en die Ngunitale in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese ontleding van die voordele en nadele van die oorneem van vreemde leksikale items by die lemmatisering van die woordeskat in woordeboeke van Sesotho sa Leboa te

  4. 25 CFR 103.36 - What options and remedies does the lender have if the borrower defaults on the loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... result in the borrower curing the default. (b) The lender may make precautionary advances on the borrower... prospects do not significantly deteriorate. Items for which the lender may make precautionary advances include, for example: (1) Hazard, liability, or key man life insurance premiums; (2) Security measures to...

  5. A Time to Every Purpose: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Entrance Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan entrance counseling attempts to prepare first-time borrowers of federal student loans for this challenge; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the third in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which…

  6. From Passive to Proactive: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Exit Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan exit counseling attempts to prepare borrowers of federal student loans for the repayment process; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the second in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which researchers…

  7. 25 CFR 103.34 - What if the lender and borrower decide to change the terms of the loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identity or organizational structure of the borrower. (5) Allow any material change in the use of loan proceeds or the nature of the borrower's business. (6) Release any collateral taken as security for the loan, except items sold in the ordinary course of business and promptly replaced by similar items of...

  8. Child Bilingualism in an Immigrant Society: Implications of Borrowing in the Hebrew 'Language of Games.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Adon, Aaron

    The first waves of immigrants arriving in Palestine were faced with the problem of forming a new culture and creating a new language, actually, reviving Hebrew, an ancient language. The children were faced with creating their own traditions, games, and folklore; in so doing, through straight borrowing, spontaneous translation (loan translation),…

  9. On the rationality of borrowers' behaviour : Comparing risk-attitudes of homeowners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, P.

    2008-01-01

    Though time and depth of cycles differed from one European country to another, mortgage markets have grown in size, expanded in product variation and improved borrowers' accessibility to mortgage credit. However, this expanding range of mortgage opportunities significantly increases the search and

  10. 7 CFR 1780.47 - Borrower accounting methods, management reporting and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), unless... organization may maintain its accounting records on a basis other than accrual accounting, and make the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower accounting methods, management reporting and...

  11. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  12. State Mortgage Foreclosure Policies and Lender Interventions: Impacts on Borrower Behavior in Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael; Lam, Ken; Herbert, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rise in foreclosure filings, policymakers are increasingly concerned with helping families in financial distress keep their homes. This paper tests the extent to which distressed mortgage borrowers benefit from three types of state foreclosure polices: (1) judicial foreclosure proceedings, (2) statutory rights of redemption, and (3)…

  13. 25 CFR 103.25 - What kind of borrower is eligible under the Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the borrower is: (1) An Indian individual; (2) An Indian-owned business entity organized under Federal, State, or tribal law, with an organizational structure reasonably acceptable to BIA; (3) A tribe; or (4) A business enterprise established and recognized by a tribe. (b) To be eligible for a BIA-guaranteed...

  14. 7 CFR 1724.70 - Standard forms of contracts for borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required to use in the planning, design, and construction of their electric systems. Borrowers are not required to use these guidance contract forms in the absence of an agreement to do so. [63 FR 58284, Oct... construction, procurement, engineering services, and architectural services financed by a loan made or...

  15. Automatic for the Borrower: How Repayment Based on Income Can Reduce Loan Defaults and Manage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Carew, Diana; Fraire, Jacob; Jacks, Kay; James, Kevin; Madzelan, Daniel; Miller, Scott E.; Simmons, Barry; Thompson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    When borrowers default on a federal student loan, it can have catastrophic consequences. Their credit scores drop dramatically, severely curtailing their ability to afford a home or a car, and even limiting their ability to sign up for utilities. The cost of their loan rises as late fees pile up. Moreover, the federal government can garnish…

  16. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  17. 38 CFR 36.4309 - Transfer of title by borrower or maturity by demand or acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (iii) A transfer by devise, descent, or operation of law on the death of a joint tenant or tenant by... option to purchase; (v) A transfer to a relative resulting from the death of a borrower; (vi) A transfer... reinstatement of the loan would adversely affect the dignity of the lien or be otherwise precluded by law. A...

  18. 42 CFR 60.8 - What are the borrower's major rights and responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whole or any portion of the loan at any time without penalty. (9) The lender or holder must allow the... obligation is cancelled in the event of death or total and permanent disability. (11) To assist the borrower... reimbursements or Federal payments for health services under any Federal law in amounts up to the balance of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.102 - Borrower eligibility for different types of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS AND GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.102 Borrower eligibility for different... grid renewable energy systems. (See 7 CFR part 1712). These guarantees are normally used to finance bulk transmission and generation facilities, but they may also be used to finance distribution and...

  20. EXTERNAL BORROWING – A SOLUTION IN OVERCOMING THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pascal (căs. Andriescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The government decisions to call, in recent years, more and more reimbursable financing gave birth to fierce reactions among politicians and economy specialists. The present article aims to analyze how the external borrowing may be a solution to overcome the difficult situation where we are.

  1. 24 CFR 201.42 - Bankruptcy, insolvency or death of borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bankruptcy, insolvency or death of..., insolvency or death of borrower. (a) Bankruptcy or insolvency. The lender shall file a proof of claim with... bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, except that a proof of claim need not be filed if the court notifies...

  2. Consumption-based learning about brand quality : Essays on how private labels share and borrow reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanowski, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    CONSUMPTION-BASED LEARNING ABOUT BRAND QUALITY: ESSAYS ON HOW PRIVATE LABELS SHARE AND BORROW REPUTATION is a collection of essays exploring the process of consumer cross-brand learning in the context of brands belonging to retailers: the so-called private labels. Private labels have gradually grown

  3. Lexical Borrowing in the Speech of First-Generation Hungarian Immigrants in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Hatoss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports findings of a sociolinguistic project which investigated language contact phenomena in the speech of first-generation Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The research aimed to identify and analyze English lexical items borrowed into the spoken Hungarian of first-generation Hungarian–English bilinguals. This research had a mixed methods approach including a quantitative element (count of lexical manifestations by categories such as part of speech and a qualitative element in which the various lexical manifestations have been subjected to a linguistic analysis. The Hungarian National Corpus was used as a reference guide to determine the status of these phenomena in the lexicon of Standard Hungarian. The data were collected through semi-structured sociolinguistic interviews with 22 Hungarian Australians living in Sydney. The findings demonstrate that (a first-generation Hungarians are highly creative language users and integrate a large number of English lexical items into their speech. Most lexical borrowings belong to the derivational blends with the highest proportion of the nominal group. Lexical borrowings from English are morphologically integrated with Hungarian-derivational suffixes and inflectional case markings. This research provides original empirical data to better understand the various inter-language lexical manifestations in Hungarian–English bilingual contexts. The study adds to the relatively small body of research on Hungarian–English bilingualism in diasporic context and contributes to understanding lexical borrowing from a contact linguistic perspective.

  4. 12 CFR 617.7410 - When and how does a qualified lender notify a borrower of the right to seek loan restructuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower of the right to seek loan restructuring? 617.7410 Section 617.7410 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7410 When and how does a qualified lender notify a borrower of the right to seek... been identified as distressed and that the borrower has the right to request a restructuring of the...

  5. 7 CFR 1717.657 - Investments above the 15 percent level by certain borrowers not exempt under § 1717.656(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant. (d) Distribution and power supply borrowers. If the aggregate of the investments, loans and... investment controls under § 1717.656(a) may not make investments, loans and guarantees in an aggregate amount... (d) of this section.) (c) Power supply borrowers. (1) Power supply borrowers not exempt from RUS...

  6. UNCITRAL: Changes to existing law

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods [wholly or partly] by Sea has an ambition of replacing current maritime regimes and expands the application of the Convention to include also multimodal transport. This thesis questions what changes to existing law, in certain areas, the new Convention will bring compared to the current regimes. In the initial part, the thesis provides for a brief background and history of international maritime regulations and focus...

  7. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells

  8. Utilities must leverage existing resources and upgrade technology to avoid future blackouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, R.

    2004-01-01

    The blackout of August 14, 2003 is used as the incentive to examine transmission grid reliability, expose its deficiencies in terms of technology, standards and processes used to manage reliability, and to make recommendations for leveraging existing resources and upgrading both the technology and procedures to avoid similar breakdowns in the future. It is recommended that in the area of monitoring transmission grid reliability utilities should borrow a page from the Enterprise Risk Management Practices of the financial industry by adopting a system which looks beyond the first 'credible' contingency (the current system) and examine many more 'incredible' contingencies, and underlying events that can trigger multiple contingencies, and plan for them in their operations. Utility companies are also urged to upgrade their energy management systems (EMS) technology to be able to deal with the kinds of severely depressed voltages and overloaded circuits that many grids experience today. Investment in new capabilities in control rooms, more and better communications will be essential. EMS algorithms and models must be upgraded to operate under a broader spectrum of grid conditions and to simulate the once-in-a-lifetime outage scenarios that most operators believe could never strike their utility. Expert opinion strongly suggests that as part of this process of upgrading, contingency analysis should shift from the 'N-1' model of the present to a stochastic model that considers a wider range of possible events in a probabilistic framework

  9. Utilities must leverage existing resources and upgrade technology to avoid future blackouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, R. [KEMA Inc. Burlington, MA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The blackout of August 14, 2003 is used as the incentive to examine transmission grid reliability, expose its deficiencies in terms of technology, standards and processes used to manage reliability, and to make recommendations for leveraging existing resources and upgrading both the technology and procedures to avoid similar breakdowns in the future. It is recommended that in the area of monitoring transmission grid reliability utilities should borrow a page from the Enterprise Risk Management Practices of the financial industry by adopting a system which looks beyond the first 'credible' contingency (the current system) and examine many more 'incredible' contingencies, and underlying events that can trigger multiple contingencies, and plan for them in their operations. Utility companies are also urged to upgrade their energy management systems (EMS) technology to be able to deal with the kinds of severely depressed voltages and overloaded circuits that many grids experience today. Investment in new capabilities in control rooms, more and better communications will be essential. EMS algorithms and models must be upgraded to operate under a broader spectrum of grid conditions and to simulate the once-in-a-lifetime outage scenarios that most operators believe could never strike their utility. Expert opinion strongly suggests that as part of this process of upgrading, contingency analysis should shift from the 'N-1' model of the present to a stochastic model that considers a wider range of possible events in a probabilistic framework.

  10. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  11. PENGARUH MODIFIED AUDIT OPINION TERHADAP BORROWING CASH FLOW DAN INVESTMENT CASH FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Hardina Cahyaningrum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and analyzes the economic consequences of modified audit opinion on borrowing cash flow and investment cash flow. Panel data model was used to observe the research. The sample of this study was 247 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2008-2010. The results show that modified audit opinion, except unqualified opinion with explanatory paragraph about going concern, did not affect borrowing cash flow because audit opinion was not the only consideration for granting credit by creditors. Companies receiving modified audit opinion were proven using more operating cash flow for investing shown in investment cash flow, especially companies receiving unqualified opinion with explanatory paragraph about going concern.

  12. On the Limitations of Government Borrowing: A Framework for Empirical Testing

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Hamilton; Marjorie A. Flavin

    1985-01-01

    This paper seeks to distinguish empirically between two views on the limitations of government borrowing. According to one view, nothing precludes the government from running a permanent budget deficit, paying interest due on the growing debt load simply by issuing new debt, An alternative perspective holds that creditors would be unwilling to purchase government debt unless the government made a credible commitment to balance its budget in present value terms. We show that distinguishing bet...

  13. Does taxation on banks mean taxation on bank-dependent borrowers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Imai; Peter Hull

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the economic impacts of bank levies on bank-dependent borrowers, exploiting the surprise announcement of a bank tax by the Tokyo metropolitan government on February 7th, 2000. We find that the tax announcement had negative effects on the abnormal return of firms which depended on soon-to-be taxed banks for external funds. Moreover, the adverse economic effects of the bank tax were larger for smaller and more financially distressed firms, suggesting that bank levies are likely t...

  14. Women and microcredit in rural agrarian households of Uganda: match or mismatch between lender and borrower?

    OpenAIRE

    Namayengo, M.M.F.; Ophem, van, J.A.C.; Antonides, G.

    2016-01-01

    The alignment of microfinance programs with the context and expectations of the recipients is critical for ensuring clients' satisfaction and desired program outcomes. This study sought to investigate the extent to which the objectives and design of the BRAC microfinance program match the expectations, context and characteristics of female borrowers in a rural agrarian setting in Uganda. Quantitative and qualiative methods were used to obtain socio-demographic, personality and microenterprise...

  15. English borrowings in the French financial discourse as a feature of national character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Найдёнова

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available English, being by far the most dominant language in modern business communications, makes an undeniable impact on other languages, which are in contact with it. French financial discourse characterised by an array of English borrowings is one of the examples of this phenomenon. This article analyzes how this trend coexists with such features of the national character of the French as patriotism, pride of their country and language.

  16. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an ACS are provided in RUS Telecommunications Engineering and Construction Manual section 205. (e... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage... the borrower's records contain sufficient information as to subscriber development to enable cost...

  17. Formation of the mechanism for credit asessment of borrowers in conditions of economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the state of the credit portfolio of banks in the conditions of instability of the environment and the development of the credit rating of the borrower as a mechanism to prevent the direction of growth of bad debts. The research of the state and dynamics loan portfolio has revealed its sharp deterioration in recent years due to the instability of the external macro environment. The need to reduce the volume of bad debts requires the formation of an adequate mechanism for the borrower's credit rating. Under the mechanism defined in the article the subject-object interaction and providing subsystems have aimed at making management decisions about credit and credit determination capabilities of the enterprise. The authors propose the composition of such a mechanism from the position of a system approach with the subject-object allocation and providing subsystems. As a part of providing credit subsystems the article has allocated a methodological, methodical, information, personnel and organizational support. The article has formed the basic methodological principles of credit rating, namely a comprehensive assessment; the accuracy of the assessment; the progressiveness of the assessment; an objective assessment; professionalism; reality evaluation. Using the proposed credit assessment the mechanism in practice will enhance the effectiveness of the credit relationship between the bank and the borrower. Keywords: credit portfolio; mechanism; creditworthiness assessment; economic instability.

  18. A Calibrated Power Prior Approach to Borrow Information from Historical Data with Application to Biosimilar Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haitao; Yuan, Ying; Xia, Jielai

    2017-11-01

    A biosimilar refers to a follow-on biologic intended to be approved for marketing based on biosimilarity to an existing patented biological product (i.e., the reference product). To develop a biosimilar product, it is essential to demonstrate biosimilarity between the follow-on biologic and the reference product, typically through two-arm randomization trials. We propose a Bayesian adaptive design for trials to evaluate biosimilar products. To take advantage of the abundant historical data on the efficacy of the reference product that is typically available at the time a biosimilar product is developed, we propose the calibrated power prior, which allows our design to adaptively borrow information from the historical data according to the congruence between the historical data and the new data collected from the current trial. We propose a new measure, the Bayesian biosimilarity index, to measure the similarity between the biosimilar and the reference product. During the trial, we evaluate the Bayesian biosimilarity index in a group sequential fashion based on the accumulating interim data, and stop the trial early once there is enough information to conclude or reject the similarity. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has higher power than traditional designs. We applied the proposed design to a biosimilar trial for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  1. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  2. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  3. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  4. Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Mircea I; Kellermann, Arthur L; Hunter, Christine; Curtis, Jerri; Rice, Charles; Wilensky, Gail R

    2017-07-01

    To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. They calculated the NPV for students pursuing one of four specialties in two cities with divergent tax policies. Borrowers were assumed to have a median level of debt ($180,000), and conservative projections of inflation, discount rates, and income growth were employed. Sensitivity analyses examined different discount and income growth rates, alternative repayment strategies, and various lengths of public-sector service by scholarship recipients. For those wealthy enough to pay cash or fortunate enough to secure a no-strings scholarship, self-financing produced the highest NPV in almost every scenario. Borrowers start practice $300,000 to $400,000 behind their peers who secure a national service scholarship, but those who enter a highly paid specialty, such as orthopedic surgery, overtake their national service counterparts 4 to 11 years after residency. Those in lower-paid specialties take much longer. Borrowers who enter primary care never close the gap. Over time, the value of a medical degree offsets the high up-front cost. Debt avoidance confers substantial economic benefits, particularly for students interested in primary care.

  5. La alimentación complementaria del lactante: recomendaciones existentes en el Área V de Asturias Complementary feeding of the infant: recommendations existing in Area V of Asturias (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    V. García González; M.F. García Díaz; J.M. Fernández Menéndez; E. Lombraña Álvarez; L. Calle Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción.Las recomendaciones de la introducción de la alimentación complementaria del lactante han ido sufriendo modificaciones. Hay una percepción subjetiva de que no existe consenso entre los profesionales en cuanto a las recomendaciones dadas a los padres para la introducción de los distintos alimentos.  Objetivo. Conocer las pautas de alimentación dadas en los centros de salud del Área V de Asturias. Material y métodos.Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se recogieron y analizaron las ho...

  6. 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site clean closure soil evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korematsu-Olund, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a soil sampling and analyses study performed for the 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site (218 E-8 Demolition Site). The 218 E-8 Demolition Site is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. The site was used for the thermal treatment of discarded explosive chemical products. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the soil by 218 E-8 Demolition Site activities

  7. Borrowing to cope with adverse health events: liquidity constraints, insurance coverage, and unsecured debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Patryk; Widdows, Richard; Yilmazer, Tansel

    2013-10-01

    This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study for 1998-2010 to investigate whether households respond to the financial stress caused by health problems by increasing their unsecured debt. Results show both the probability of having unsecured debt and the amount of debt increase after an adverse health event among households with low financial assets, who are uninsured, or who have less generous health insurance. The effect of health problems on borrowing is caused by both medical expenditures and disruptions to the income stream. Unsecured debt seems to remain on some households' balance sheets for an extended period. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1975 in Sunshine Project. Studies on wide area existence of geothermal resources in great depth; 1975 nendo koiki shinbu chinetsu shigen fuson ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the following study items: (1) studies on the AFMT method, (2) observation of heat dissipation by using infrared thermal images, (3) evaluation on the annular topographic pattern in the Hachimantai area identified from the Landsat satellite images, (4) studies on the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, (5) studies on minerals transformed from the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, and (6) a method to analyze ground temperature data by using graphic display. Items 2 and 6 in the studies are on the heat balance method, and Item 3 is on remote sensing. Items 4 and 5 were performed as the study on geologic thermometry. In Item 1, a prototype AFMT method exploration device was fabricated, and field experiments were performed in the Onuma area in the Hachimantai wide-area geothermal experiment field. The experiment placed importance on finding problems in transmission and reception of signals from an artificially fluctuating magnetic field, whose result was found greatly contributive to understanding the physical phenomena. However, it was not possible to reach a level to analyze geological structures from the data. In Item 2, simple meteorological observation was performed on ground surface temperature distribution by using an infrared radiation thermometer of remote sensing type. Development was made on a method to measure natural heat dissipation amount from heat balance on the ground surface. (NEDO)

  9. Three essays on resource economics. Demand systems for energy forecasting: Practical considerations for estimating a generalized logit model, To borrow or not to borrow: A variation on the MacDougal-Kemp theme, and, Valuing reduced risk for households with children or the retired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Weifeng

    This thesis presents papers on three areas of study within resource and environmental economics. "Demand Systems For Energy Forecasting" provides some practical considerations for estimating a Generalized Logit model. The main reason for using this demand system for energy and other factors is that the derived price elasticities are robust when expenditure shares are small. The primary objective of the paper is to determine the best form of the cross-price weights, and a simple inverse function of the expenditure share is selected. A second objective is to demonstrate that the estimated elasticities are sensitive to the units specified for the prices, and to show how price scales can be estimated as part of the model. "To Borrow or Not to Borrow: A Variation on the MacDougal-Kemp Theme" studies the impact of international capital movements on the conditional convergence of economies differing from each other only in initial wealth. We found that in assets, income, consumption and utility, convergence obtains, with and only with, the absence of international capital movement. When a rich country invests in a poor country, the balance of debt increases forever. Asset ownership is increased in all periods for the lender, and asset ownership of the borrower is deceased. Also, capital investment decreases the lender's utility for early periods, but increases it forever after a cross-over point. In contrast, the borrower's utility increases for early periods, but then decreases forever. "Valuing Reduced Risk for Households with Children or the Retired" presents a theoretical model of how families value risk and then exams family automobile purchases to impute the average Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) for each type of family. Data for fatal accidents are used to estimate survival rates for individuals in different types of accidents, and the probabilities of having accidents for different types of vehicle. These models are used to determine standardized risks for

  10. Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 1978–2002, in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, from ASTER satellite data, field survey and existing inventory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gjermundsen, EF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available patches on separate peaks (Chinn, 2001). The average summit height across the range varies from 1850 m a.s.l. in Fiordland in the south to 3000 m a.s.l. in the central Southern Alps (including the country?s highest summit, Mount Cook, at 3754 m a..., these areas were not always easy to extract with automatic methods, depending on the type of snow or ice (clean snow versus dirty ice) and steepness of the slope (snow in steeper slopes tended to be harder to extract). Most of the shaded clean snow could...

  11. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  13. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of... PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766—FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in Non...

  14. Borrowed knowledge chaos theory and the challenge of learning across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Kellert, Stephen H

    2009-01-01

    What happens to scientific knowledge when researchers outside the natural sciences bring elements of the latest trend across disciplinary boundaries for their own purposes? Researchers in fields from anthropology to family therapy and traffic planning employ the concepts, methods, and results of chaos theory to harness the disciplinary prestige of the natural sciences, to motivate methodological change or conceptual reorganization within their home discipline, and to justify public policies and aesthetic judgments.Using the recent explosion in the use (and abuse) of chaos theory, Borrowed Knowledge and the Challenge of Learning across Disciplines examines the relationship between science and other disciplines as well as the place of scientific knowledge within our broader culture. Stephen H. Kellert's detailed investigation of the myriad uses of chaos theory reveals serious problems that can arise in the interchange between science and other knowledge-making pursuits, as well as opportunities for constructive...

  15. Reflections on Asia: Borrowing Lessons from the Humanities in Social Science Coursework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Sanborn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available What lessons can political science classes borrow from the humanities? This paper presents the results of a multi-year study on teaching about Asia as part of a general education program. Given the challenges of meeting common learning outcomes while also teaching discipline-specific lessons, political science courses often underperformed in assessments when compared to benchmark expectations. While our initial conclusion—that a greater focus on multimodal assignments would promote deeper learning and reflection—proved unfounded, explicitly emphasizing students’ reflection on their own process of democratic engagement, in comparison to that of their counterparts in Asia, did seem to address the shortcomings of the previous approaches by giving students context and guidance in their understanding of how democracy works at home and abroad. Data from reflective essays, collected over two years, provide evidence for this finding.

  16. A revision of the subtract-with-borrow random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibidanov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    The most popular and widely used subtract-with-borrow generator, also known as RANLUX, is reimplemented as a linear congruential generator using large integer arithmetic with the modulus size of 576 bits. Modern computers, as well as the specific structure of the modulus inferred from RANLUX, allow for the development of a fast modular multiplication - the core of the procedure. This was previously believed to be slow and have too high cost in terms of computing resources. Our tests show a significant gain in generation speed which is comparable with other fast, high quality random number generators. An additional feature is the fast skipping of generator states leading to a seeding scheme which guarantees the uniqueness of random number sequences. Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++, C, Assembler

  17. A Public Choice Approach to the Unequal Treatment of Securities Market Participants and Home Borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Macey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contrasts the protections provided to participants in U.S. securities markets with the protections provided to participants in the U.S. mortgage markets. Participants in securities markets purchase and sell equity and debt securities. Participants in the mortgage markets borrow money to buy homes, using those homes as collateral for the mortgage loans they receive. Even after Dodd-Frank, participants in securities markets are afforded significantly higher levels of protection than participants in mortgage markets. The doctrine of suitability is a prime example of this inequity. Exploring possible explanations for this odd asymmetry of treatment, I conclude that interest group politics is to blame for the anomaly.

  18. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-09-25

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on a combination of two enzymes: an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp., or Bacillus sp.) operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, yielding up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Primary alcohols were aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient cascade possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. 218-E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The 218-E-8 Demolition Site was the site of a single demolition event in November of 1984. This demolition event was a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the 218-E-8 Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations,'' Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 218-E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3, Revision 4, and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the 218-E-8 Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the 218-E-8 Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in t he demolitions at the 218-E-8 Borrow Pit site, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only.'' Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from 218-E-8 Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  20. Screening in new credit markets: can individual lenders infer borrower creditworthiness in peer-to-peer lending?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Khwaja, A.I.; Luttmer, E.F.P.; Shue, K.

    2009-01-01

    The current banking crisis highlights the challenges faced in the traditional lending model, particularly in terms of screening smaller borrowers. The recent growth in online peer-to-peer lending marketplaces offers opportunities to examine different lending models that rely on screening by multiple

  1. Book Reading, Borrowing and Buying Habits (Eighteenth Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 9-15 1968). Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, R. E. M. van den

    Investigation into the book buying, reading and borrowing habits is in many countries still in its infancy. Furthermore it is not yet possible to link up scientifically the socio-economic factors and market behavior. However it is justifiable to take the following principles: (1) the standard of economic development of a country determines the…

  2. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  3. Consolidated Student Loans. Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to the requirements of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, this report addresses the impact of the two-year-old Student Loan Consolidation Program. Principle findings of the investigation concern the higher interst costs to the borrower that are brought about by longer payment plans and the fact that the government's subsidy costs…

  4. What Are Student Loan Borrowers Thinking? Insights from Focus Groups on College Selection and Student Loan Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carrie L.; O'Neill, Barbara; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Lown, Jean M.; Bowen, Cathy F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from online focus groups collected from November 2014 to April 2015 to understand college students' decision-making processes when borrowing money to finance their education. Data were collected using an online course management system. Results suggest that (a) students relied heavily on advice from parents, guidance…

  5. 13 CFR 120.1881 - How are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the SISMBD Loan? Unless otherwise provided in the Loan Agreements for a particular SISMBD Loan, any payment on Collateral... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are payments on the Collateral...

  6. 7 CFR 1773.21 - Borrower's review and submission of the auditor's report, report on compliance and on internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower's review and submission of the auditor's... for the Submission and Review of the Auditor's Report, Report on Compliance and on Internal Control... auditor's report, report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting, and management...

  7. Educational Policy Borrowing in China: Looking West or Looking East? Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, Mainland China has been embarking on an ambitious nation-wide education reform ("New Curriculum Reform") for its basic education. The reform reflects China's propensity to borrow selected educational policies from elsewhere, particularly North America and Europe. Chinese scholars have used a local proverb "the…

  8. 26 CFR 1.465-20 - Treatment of amounts borrowed from certain persons and amounts protected against loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not increase the taxpayer's amount at risk because they are borrowed from a person who has an interest in the activity other than that of a creditor or from a person who is related to a person (other than the taxpayer) who has an interest in the activity other than that of a creditor; and (2) Amounts...

  9. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  10. Cultural Resources Investigations in the Vicinity of Fort Jackson, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana: The Proposed Solari Borrow Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tory of flora. Trees such as Virginia live oak (Quercus virginiana), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtislaevi- gata), and persimmon ( Diospyros ...bullfrog, is a human food source today and may have been prehistorically as well. The toad, however, of the genus Bufo is not normally consumed

  11. Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Existence theory in optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olech, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)

  13. The financial consequences of too many men: sex ratio effects on saving, borrowing, and spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Ackerman, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E; White, Andrew E

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of males to females in a population is an important factor in determining behavior in animals. We propose that sex ratio also has pervasive effects in humans, such as by influencing economic decisions. Using both historical data and experiments, we examined how sex ratio influences saving, borrowing, and spending in the United States. Findings show that male-biased sex ratios (an abundance of men) lead men to discount the future and desire immediate rewards. Male-biased sex ratios decreased men's desire to save for the future and increased their willingness to incur debt for immediate expenditures. Sex ratio appears to influence behavior by increasing the intensity of same-sex competition for mates. Accordingly, a scarcity of women led people to expect men to spend more money during courtship, such as by paying more for engagement rings. These findings demonstrate experimentally that sex ratio influences human decision making in ways consistent with evolutionary biological theory. Implications for sex ratio effects across cultures are discussed.

  14. The Formation of Model Assembly on the Basis of Specialization of Experts for Classification of Borrowers – Natural Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Vladyslav P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the efficiency of the use of assembly technologies to solve the task of classifying borrowers – natural entities in relation to the level of credit risk. Features of information support of the process of solving the task of classifying borrowers – natural entities were analyzed. The necessity of application of model assemblies as one of contemporary directions of processing of big data has been substantiated. The author’s own variant of algorithm of creation of an assembly on the basis of specialization of separate models-experts has been provided. The proposed approach is implemented in two versions according to the types of models used as experts. In the first variant the assembly consists of logit-regressions, in the second variant – of neural networks. An analysis of the obtained results has proved that the described assembly structure gives an opportunity to increase the accuracy of assessment of the credit risks of borrowers, and it is expedient to use neural networks as separate models-experts.

  15. The Exposure of Mortgage Borrowers to Interest Rate Risk, Income Risk and House Price Risk – Evidence from Swiss Loan Application Data

    OpenAIRE

    Guin, Benjamin; Brown, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We study the exposure of mortgage borrowers in Switzerland to interest rate, income and house price risks and examine how the households’ choice of risky mortgages is related to individual interest rate expectations and risk-aversion. Our analysis is based on a unique data set of household mortgage applications from September 2012 until January 2014. Our assessment of risk exposure among mortgage borrowers in Switzerland is highly sensitive to the underlying assumptions on mortgage costs, hou...

  16. Network meta-analysis of multiple outcome measures accounting for borrowing of information across outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achana, Felix A; Cooper, Nicola J; Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Kendrick, Denise; Jones, David R; Sutton, Alex J

    2014-07-21

    Network meta-analysis (NMA) enables simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments while preserving randomisation. When summarising evidence to inform an economic evaluation, it is important that the analysis accurately reflects the dependency structure within the data, as correlations between outcomes may have implication for estimating the net benefit associated with treatment. A multivariate NMA offers a framework for evaluating multiple treatments across multiple outcome measures while accounting for the correlation structure between outcomes. The standard NMA model is extended to multiple outcome settings in two stages. In the first stage, information is borrowed across outcomes as well across studies through modelling the within-study and between-study correlation structure. In the second stage, we make use of the additional assumption that intervention effects are exchangeable between outcomes to predict effect estimates for all outcomes, including effect estimates on outcomes where evidence is either sparse or the treatment had not been considered by any one of the studies included in the analysis. We apply the methods to binary outcome data from a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of nine home safety interventions on uptake of three poisoning prevention practices (safe storage of medicines, safe storage of other household products, and possession of poison centre control telephone number) in households with children. Analyses are conducted in WinBUGS using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Univariate and the first stage multivariate models produced broadly similar point estimates of intervention effects but the uncertainty around the multivariate estimates varied depending on the prior distribution specified for the between-study covariance structure. The second stage multivariate analyses produced more precise effect estimates while enabling intervention effects to be predicted for all outcomes, including intervention effects on

  17. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  18. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  19. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  20. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  1. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  2. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  3. Europe - space for transcultural existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamcke, Martin; Janny, de Jong; Klein, Lars; Waal, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Europe - Space for Transcultural Existence? is the first volume of the new series, Studies in Euroculture, published by Göttingen University Press. The series derives its name from the Erasmus Mundus Master of Excellence Euroculture: Europe in the Wider World, a two year programme offered by a consortium of eight European universities in collaboration with four partner universities outside Europe. This master highlights regional, national and supranational dimensions of the European democrati...

  4. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Existence Results for Incompressible Magnetoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 2615-2623 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetoelasticity * magnetostrictive solids * incompressibility * existence of minimizers * quasistatic evolution * energetic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/kruzik-0443017.pdf

  6. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  7. IFRS COMPLIANCE REGARDING INFORMATION DISCLOSED BY COMPANIES IN CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - CASE STUDY ON IAS 23 BORROWING COSTS APPLICABILITY-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragu Ioana - Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on information disclosure regarding IAS 23, being included in accounting research field. It comprises an empirical study on the correlation between information published by companies in consolidated financial statements with respect to borrowing cost policies and a series of variables that characterize a firm. The objectives of this paper involve estimating and establishing an econometric model in which is assumed that disclosure index for information required by IAS 23 depends on certain elements in the form of country of origin, sales, total assets, debt ratio, ROA and ROE. International accounting literature presents a series of studies on the subject of compliance with IAS disclosure requirements. Similar with this paper, various authors considered annual reports as starting point for data gathering in their reasearch on disclosure phenomena. The criteria used for data gathering, processing and analysing have been previously used in a successful manner by important scientists who published in accounting field. The methodology used involves Disclosure Index computation, as well as SPSS data processing, analysis and interpretation of results. Results show that the model is valid, meaning that there is correlation between information disclosure with respect to IAS 23 and the analyzed variables. According to our estimated econometric model, most of the variables maintain a certain influence on disclosure as we can observe a significant correlation level between the studied elements. This research contributes to the development of both accounting field and international accounting literature, by studying borrowing costs disclosed information in relation to certain elements that best characterize the activity of a company. Although an empirical paper, it concentrates also on accounting practices, as it uses real data extracted from annual reports and consolidated financial statements. The importance of this research relies

  8. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    of these emergent properties which are relevant to as diverse areas as clinical settings and natural systems. In this thesis, I have attempted to contribute to our knowledge on the multispecies interactions with a special focus on biofilm communities. I was especially interested in how co-existing species affect...... each other and in understanding the key mechanisms and interactions involved. In the introduction of this thesis the most important concepts of multi-species interactions and biofilm development are explained. After this the topic changes to the various ways of examining community interactions...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...

  9. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  10. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  12. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  13. “We Routinely Borrow to Survive”: Exploring the Financial Capability of Income-Poor People in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Mahasweta M

    2016-10-01

    A lack of financial capability—financial opportunities and abilities—and poverty are highly interlinked. Over 65 percent of people in India are excluded from any financial services. This article explores income-poor Indians’ experiences with financial capability through a qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 658 individuals, through focus groups (n = 566) and face-to-face interviews (n = 92). Findings show that 97 percent of respondents had the opportunity to earn an income, and 55 percent earned through financial inclusion programs, but 87 percent of respondents earned less than U.S. $2 a day. Although almost all saved and needed to borrow, 46 percent were eligible for formal savings and only 23 percent for formal loans. Financial abilities or knowledge and skills related to income, savings, and loans were higher among the few who had a stable income or had medium and high income in relation to those who had unstable and low income. Respondents experienced many challenges with their financial capabilities, including borrowing to save, fearing formal loans, and lacking clarity about loan and interest rate; banks miscalculating interest rates; and political parties influencing access to loans. Implications for social policy and social work practice are discussed.

  14. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  15. What is Done to Ensure that Funds will be Available when Needed? Positive and Negative Experiences in Existing Systems - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Finnish system: waste producer is responsible; all waste management including decommissioning is covered; fund is a guarantee and a way to include future costs in the price of electricity; fund covers future costs of existing wastes, thus liabilities are re-evaluated annually; present day technology and costs are used, no discounting segregated fund, waste producer can borrow back 75%, State can borrow the remaining 25%. Measures included in the system to ensure the sufficiency and availability of funds: uncertainties have to be accounted for; additional 10% security over the total liability is demanded; the part of liability not yet in the fund as well as loans have to be covered with securities; the profit of the fund covers the inflation; annual reviews of plans and cost estimates. Other measures to ensure the sufficiency and availability of funds: comprehensive legislation, well-defined responsibilities; well-defined policy, programme and milestones; programme proceeding in schedule => largest waste management investments will be made during NPP operation; detailed technical plans and designs, decommissioning plans updated every 5 years, cost estimates based on NPP specific plans; independent reviews of cost estimates of different waste management components. Experiences: the annual changes in the liabilities have in most cases been within the assumed uncertainties; the realised costs of the existing waste management facilities have been reasonably close to cost estimates; the demands of secure investments and above inflation profits are sometimes contradictory

  16. Functional Changes in China’s Participation in the Multilateral Development Banks: from Borrower to Creditor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leksyutina Y.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral development banks (MDBs play an important role in world economic processes and global economic governance. Since the establishment of the first multilateral development bank – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD – MDBs have emerged in three waves, each time as a response to the major changes in the world arena. The creation of the New Development Bank (NDB and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB represents the third and latest wave of MDBs. These new development banks have arisen as a consequence of an historic shift in global economic power from developed countries to emerging economies and more specifically the increase in China’s economic might. This article traces the evolution of China’s participation in MDBs, characterizes various forms of China’s engagement with MDBs in specific periods of history, and explains Beijing’s motivation in establishing new MDBs. During almost 40 years of interaction with the multilateral development banks, China has made a great leap forward from large-borrower to creditor status, from ordinary member to the initiator and creator of new MDBs under its auspices. This article identifies the scale, composition and dynamic of MDBs’ assistance to China. It points out that despite its eye-catching economic achievements, China remains one of the largest borrowers from MDBs. Yet, in the process of China’s participation in MDBs there have been two turning points: in 2004–2005 when China became a creditor, and during the 2008 global financial crisis when China set a course to promote the reform of global governance system and the creation of new China-dominated financial bodies. The creation of new financial institutions is evaluated in the article as indicating Beijing’s foreign policy ambitions to assume a leadership role in the global economic architecture, while the fact that China is acting both as a creditor and a borrower in MDBs reflects the

  17. Summary of existing uncertainty methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Horst

    2013-01-01

    A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions

  18. Does Homeownership Counseling Affect the Prepayment and Default Behavior of Affordable Mortgage Borrowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Roberto; Spader, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The lack of industry wide data on homeownership education and counseling (HEC) programs has severely limited evaluation. In particular, very little evidence exists on the relationship between HEC completion and loan prepayment, an outcome of interest to both mortgage lenders and consumer advocates. Where mortgage prepayment directly influences the…

  19. Loss-Averse Inventory and Borrowing Decisions with Constraints on Working Capital in Fashion and Textiles Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional inventory models focus on operational decisions and inventory control. Quite few models consider the financial constraint and decision bias such as loss aversion, which are the reality in today's business environment, especially for the fashion and textiles industry. In this paper we study the inventory control problem for a loss-averse retailer with financial constraint for operations in a periodic review setting in a finite horizon. We characterize the optimal inventory control policies with self-financing or with borrowing as capital-dependent base-stock policies. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the optimal base-stock level is nonincreasing in the accumulated wealth and the loss-aversion indicator.

  20. The coherence lifetime-borrowing effect in vibronically coupled molecular aggregates under non-perturbative system-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hao; Engel, Gregory S.; Kais, Sabre

    Recently it has been suggested that the long-lived coherences in some photosynthetic pigment-protein systems, such as the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, could be attributed to the mixing of the pigments' electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. In order to verify whether this is the case and to understand its underlying mechanism, a theoretical model capable of including both the electronic excitations and intramolecular vibrational modes of the pigments is necessary. Our model simultaneously considers the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom, treating the system-environment interactions non-perturbatively by implementing the hierarchical equations of motion approach. Here we report the simulated two-dimensional electronic spectra of vibronically coupled molecular dimers to demonstrate how the electronic coherence lifetimes can be extended by borrowing the lifetime from the vibrational coherences. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute.

  1. Government borrowing and the long-term interest rate: Application of an extended loanable funds model to the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending the open-economy loanable funds model, this paper finds that more government borrowing as a percent of GDP leads to a higher government bond yield, that a higher real money market rate, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher EU government bond yield, or a decrease in the Slovak nominal effective exchange rate would increase the Slovak government bond yield, and that the positive coefficient of the percent change in real GDP is insignificant at the 10% level. When the standard closedeconomy or open-economy loanable funds model is considered, except that the positive coefficient of the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP is insignificant at the 10% level, other results are similar.

  2. Sick of our loans: Student borrowing and the mental health of young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Gee, Gilbert C; Gentile, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit B-2 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lenders and Holders and Borrowers of Unfavorable Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Borrowers of Unfavorable Decision Reached at the Meeting B Exhibit B-2 to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-2 Exhibit B-2 to...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit B-1 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lender, Holders and Borrowers of Adverse Decisions Where the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Borrowers of Adverse Decisions Where the Decision Is Appealable B Exhibit B-1 to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-1 Exhibit B-1 to...

  5. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Eastern cottonwood, green ash, sugarberry. box elder, bald cypress, willow honey locust, slippery elm , overcup oak and bitter pecan. Principle...vines and understory. Woody vegetation surrounds the borrow pit and consists of American and slippery elms , silver maple, black willow, cottonwood, pin...aquatica Water elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Urtica dioica Stinging nettle Vaccinium sp. Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Vaccinum Vernonia altissima Ironweed

  6. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  7. Sediment Transport and Infilling of a Borrow Pit on an Energetic Sandy Ebb Tidal Delta Offshore of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, A.; Xu, K.; Ma, Y.; Sanger, D.; Van Dolah, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bottom-mounted instrumentation was deployed at two sites on an ebb tidal delta to measure hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed elevation. One site ('borrow site') was 2 km offshore and used as a dredging site for beach nourishment of nearby Hilton Head Island in South Carolina, and the other site ('reference site') was 10 km offshore and not directly impacted by the dredging. In-situ time-series data were collected during two periods after the dredging: March 15 - June 12, 2012('spring') and August 18 - November 18, 2012 ('fall'). At the reference site directional wave spectra and upper water column current velocities were measured, as well as high-resolution current velocity profiles and suspended sediment concentration profiles in the Bottom Boundary Layer (BBL). Seabed elevation and small-scale seabed changes were also measured. At the borrow site seabed elevation and near-bed wave and current velocities were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Throughout both deployments bottom wave orbital velocities ranged from 0 - 110 m/s at the reference site. Wave orbital velocities were much lower at the borrow site ranging from 10-20 cm/s, as wave energy was dissipated on the extensive and rough sand banks before reaching the borrow site. Suspended sediment concentrations increased throughout the BBL when orbital velocities increased to approximately 20 cm/s. Sediment grain size and critical shear stresses were similar at both sites, therefore, re-suspension due to waves was less frequent at the borrow site. However, sediment concentrations were highly correlated with the tidal cycle at both sites. Semidiurnal tidal currents were similar at the two sites, typically ranging from 0 - 50 cm/s in the BBL. Maximum currents exceeded the critical shear stress and measured suspended sediment concentrations increased during the first hours of the tidal cycle when the tide switched to flood tide. Results indicate waves contributed more to sediment mobility at

  8. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  9. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  10. 75 FR 17303 - Section 108 Community Development Loan Guarantee Program: Participation of States as Borrowers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... with access to long-term (up to 20-year) fixed-rate loans at relatively low interest rates to finance certain categories of eligible CDBG projects. Historically, section 108 guarantee authority has been... local governments in nonentitlement areas. The July 22, 2009, interim rule implemented the expansion of...

  11. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  12. 10 CFR 4.127 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 4.127 Section 4.127 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.127 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... make each of its existing facilities or every part of an existing facility accessible to and usable by...

  13. SMEs’ Access to Finance in the Euro Area; What Helps or Hampers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Öztürk; Mico Mrkaic

    2014-01-01

    The monetary transmission mechanism in the euro area has been adversely affected by the recent crises. Using survey data on thousands of euro area firms, we study factors that affect the access to finance of SMEs. We find that changes in bank funding costs and borrower leverage matter for firms’ access to finance. Increases in bank funding costs and borrowers’ debt-to-asset ratios are significantly and negatively associated with firms’ access to finance. The use of subsidies significantly imp...

  14. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  15. Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenson, Bilha

    2007-01-01

    The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...

  16. Evaluating uncertainty estimates in hydrologic models: borrowing measures from the forecast verification community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Franz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic community is generally moving towards the use of probabilistic estimates of streamflow, primarily through the implementation of Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP systems, ensemble data assimilation methods, or multi-modeling platforms. However, evaluation of probabilistic outputs has not necessarily kept pace with ensemble generation. Much of the modeling community is still performing model evaluation using standard deterministic measures, such as error, correlation, or bias, typically applied to the ensemble mean or median. Probabilistic forecast verification methods have been well developed, particularly in the atmospheric sciences, yet few have been adopted for evaluating uncertainty estimates in hydrologic model simulations. In the current paper, we overview existing probabilistic forecast verification methods and apply the methods to evaluate and compare model ensembles produced from two different parameter uncertainty estimation methods: the Generalized Uncertainty Likelihood Estimator (GLUE, and the Shuffle Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM. Model ensembles are generated for the National Weather Service SACramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA model for 12 forecast basins located in the Southeastern United States. We evaluate the model ensembles using relevant metrics in the following categories: distribution, correlation, accuracy, conditional statistics, and categorical statistics. We show that the presented probabilistic metrics are easily adapted to model simulation ensembles and provide a robust analysis of model performance associated with parameter uncertainty. Application of these methods requires no information in addition to what is already available as part of traditional model validation methodology and considers the entire ensemble or uncertainty range in the approach.

  17. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...

  18. 45 CFR 1170.32 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1170.32 Section 1170.32... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.32 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and...

  19. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...

  20. 14 CFR 1251.301 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1251.301 Section 1251... HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.301 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. (b...

  1. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...

  2. 10 CFR 611.206 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 611.206 Section 611.206 Energy... PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.206 Existing facilities. The Secretary shall, in making awards to those manufacturers that have existing facilities, give priority to those facilities that are oldest or...

  3. Is Russia Too Unique to Learn From Abroad? Elite Views on Foreign Borrowing and the West, 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera W. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than two centuries, Russia has struggled to defi ne its historical-cultural relationship with the West, as its intellectual and political elites vigorously debated whether their country should emulate Europe or follow a distinct path of development. This article uses original elite survey data to examine these two propositions. The article reaches two conclusions. First, despite Russia’s long tradition of underscoring its uniqueness, close to three-quarters of Russian bureaucrats and Duma deputies in the mid-1990s were nonetheless willing to borrow from foreign experience, particularly from the models of European welfare capitalism. Second, despite the sharp rise in anti-Western sentiments emanating from the Kremlin over the past decade, as well as Vladimir Putin’s ever-growing emphasis on Russia’s distinctiveness, Russian elites are still surprisingly willing to adopt political and economic models from the West.

  4. Financial resources for development. Capital markets in developing countries: a study on borrowing by developing countries in the emerging capital markets of the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashashibi, H S

    1980-10-01

    Private transfers of capital from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to developing countries are intended to complement private transfers from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by tapping the emerging capital markets in the Middle East. Developing countries will be able to diversify their borrowing and gain additional financing. The long-term investment of oil-producing countries will benefit and the pressures on the banking institutions to recycle funds will lessen. Middle East capital markets include international loans and international bonds. The history of the Kuwaiti dinar (KD) bond market, with its advantages for both investors and borrowers, illustrates the successful development of a capital market. Financial intermediation needs to be improved, however, if the Middle East is to become efficient enough to compete with the Euromarkets. Efficiency will require different measures and should reflect strengthening relationships among Middle East nations. (DCK)

  5. The development of in-process inventory walk-through examination system in the process at borrowing inspection between LEU fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norihito; Namekawa, Masaru; Owada, Isao; Kikuchi, Masaru; Kodani, Yoshiki; Nozawa, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Since the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) was designed the safeguards inspection organization by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in December 1999, the NMCC has been performing safeguards inspection for the Nuclear Facilities in Japan. The NMCC has carried out the safeguards inspections to LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants (FFPs) and the NMCC has improved the method of safeguards inspection as it has changed over to the integrated safeguards from the year of 2005. Concerning the Borrowing inspection between LEU FFPs, which is the precondition to change over to the integrated safeguards, it is needed to estimate the entire inventory in the facility within the limited time. Therefore, the NMCC has developed the system called IWES (In-process inventory Walk-through Examination System) to examine the inventory in process smoothly, quickly and correctly at borrowing inspection, check the entire inventory quantity and evaluate them. This report describes how IWES aiming at effective/efficient confirmation of in-process inventory has been developed and how it is applied to the borrowing inspection activities. (author)

  6. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  7. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the

  8. Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.

  9. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  10. DETECTION OF REPORTS FALSIFICATION PROVIDED TO A BANK BY A BORROWER USING THE METHOD OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lyuft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The main stop-factors in a landing were formed in the article according to the procedure of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development by the means of questioning the leading Russian banks that finance small-scale business. It is given the description of this method, also it is identified the main weaknesses of the EBRD methodology. There is a description of the main methods of the borrowing company’s analytical balance and thereupon it is made the conclusion about the necessity of the analysis of the balance’s principal factors across time. The analysis of indicators and factors in the dynamics enables us to see trends in the development of the company, and to identify deviations in the coefficients. Either materiality or difference from normal values of these coefficients may indicate the factors of the borrowers’ misconduct, and in particular it gives evidence concerning falsification of reports provided to a bank. There are stages of information processing for falsification’s detection, excluding the interest from decision-makers about the possibility of lending in the results of a transaction. The formula that determinates the value of net profit falsification has been made on basis of dynamic parameters of the analytical balance and the connection with the administrative profit-and-loss report. Further, the article provides the second method of a determination of the net profit falsification already based on data of the parameters in dynamics namely business profitability rate. The process of calculation Payment To Income - payment to income - an indicator, in order to obtain good data on who falsify net income. Are key strengths of this method of identifying and conclusions paragraph article.

  11. Describing the organisational culture of a selection of community pharmacies using a tool borrowed from social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter

    2010-02-01

    To describe the dimensions of organisational culture within a selection of community pharmacies. Community pharmacy in the New Zealand primary care sector which is partially government funded and currently undergoing major reform. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles, integrate within the wider primary care team and deliver the expectations of contemporary health policy. The mixed methods approach of concept mapping was undertaken with 10 representatives from six community pharmacies selected as case sites. The process was split into three parts (a) face to face brainstorming to generate statements describing culture, followed by (b) statement reduction, piloting and approval of statement list by participants, followed by (c) sorting the statements into 'like' groups. Multidimensional scaling analysis of participant sorting allows the development of discrete clusters of statements that describe aspects of organizational culture. A set of 105 statements were generated at the brainstorming meeting. Eight clusters of organisational culture resulted from participant sorting: leadership and staff management; valuing each other and the team; free thinking, fun and open to challenge; trusted behaviour; customer relations; focus on external integration; providing systematic advice; embracing innovation. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles and deliver and there is some evidence organisational culture of pharmacy may be a barrier. Our paper outlines the development of a survey instrument for describing organisational culture through Concept mapping, a tool borrowed from social sciences. This tool can be used for exploration of aspects of culture that may be important in the change management process for improving the effectiveness of community pharmacy as expected by contemporary primary health care policy.

  12. 47 CFR 17.17 - Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing structures. 17.17 Section 17.17... STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.17 Existing structures. (a) The requirements found in § 17.23 relating to painting and lighting of antenna structures shall not apply to those...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.72 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1040.72 Section 1040.72 Energy... § 1040.72 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate any program or activity to... facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and useable by handicapped persons. (b) Methods. A...

  14. 45 CFR 84.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 84.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity so that when each part is..., welfare, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and...

  15. Financial gap calculations for existing cogeneration 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, S.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    The Dutch SDE (abbreviation for the renewable energy incentive) subsidy scheme promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions which results from the use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. This report calculates the profitability of operation of existing CHP plants. This information can be used for decision making on the SDE subsidy for existing CHP plants in 2008 [nl

  16. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  17. Rating agencies: role and influence of their sovereign credit risk assessment in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Credit ratings have a huge impact on the access to and costs of funding, regardless whether the rated entity is a private enterprise or a sovereign borrower. Since the beginning of the financial crisis there has been a vivid and controversial debate about methods, timing and procedures used by these agencies. In this compilation of five notes provided by members of the Monetary Expert Panel the role of the rating agencies and their influence on the euro area is discussed in more detail.

  18. Phase I Marine Archeological Remote Sensing Survey of the Proposed Mississippi River Sand Borrow Sites for the Louisiana Coastal Area Barrier Shoreline Restoration Project, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Map 6) is comprised of sixteen magnetic anomalies, designated Ml08, Ml46, Ml69, Ml86, M205, M250 , M263, M265, M280, M284, M289, M300, M305, M318...high amplitudes that range from 133.6 to 4211.1 nT, except Ml69, Ml86. M205, M250 , M263, and M265 that have amplitudes ranging from 24.1 to 56.8 nT...3845173.32 20 M248 B 32 01:10.1 167.8 -M 320372.02 3846568.45 N/A M249 B 32 01:46.2 84.5 D 319642.84 3848381.28 22 M250 B 33 01:11.2 34.9 D 318099.83

  19. The existence of trajectories joining critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuxiang.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)

  20. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  1. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  2. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  3. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  4. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  5. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  6. Risk perception about medication sharing among patients: a focus group qualitative study on borrowing and lending of prescription analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotic F

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Filipa Markotic,1 Davorka Vrdoljak,2 Marijana Puljiz,3 Livia Puljak,4 1Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, 3Family Medicine Clinic, Health Centre Imotski, Kamenmost, 4Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: One form of self-medication is sharing of medications, defined as borrowing or lending medications in situations where the receiver of these drugs is not the individual to whom the medications were allocated. Objective: To explore experiences and opinions of patients about sharing prescription analgesics, reasons for sharing prescription analgesics, the way in which patients choose to share those medications, their awareness of risk regarding sharing prescription analgesics, and how they estimated the potential risk.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by focus group discussions with 40 participants led by a moderator trained in focus group methodology using a semi-structured moderator guide. Adults aged ≥18 years who had received a prescription for an analgesic at least once in a lifetime were included. Six separate focus groups were conducted to discuss participants’ perception of risks associated with sharing of prescription analgesics among patients. Additionally, participants filled out two questionnaires on demographic data, their own behavior regarding sharing analgesics, and their attitudes about risks associated with sharing prescription analgesics.Results: In a questionnaire, 55% of the participants indicated that they personally shared prescription analgesics, while subsequently in the focus group discussions, 76% confessed to such behavior. Participants recognized certain risks related to sharing of prescription analgesics, mentioned a number of reasons for engaging in such behavior, and indicated certain positive

  7. The influence of banking and borrowing under different penalty regimes in tradable green certificate markets - results from an experimental economics laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study to asses the influence of banking and borrowing under various penalty systems for tradable green certificates (TGC) is described. It was shown that at least in theory, TGC systems can be an effective and efficient means of encouraging the use of renewables. The study focused on market dynamics in situations where the obligatory demand of the market must deal with fines for non-compliance. The laboratory experiment is described in detail and flow diagrams are shown. The author claims that experiments of this type can add to the understanding of environmental and market dynamics. A list of policy implications and recommendations is given

  8. The role of lenders' trust in determining borrowing conditions for sovereign debt: An analysis of one-period government bonds with default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author considers the sovereign debt in the form of one-period government bonds with default risk, which can be purchased by and traded among domestic and foreign investors. She shows that the weight assigned to the lenders' interest by the borrowing government at the time of debt repayment, which captures the lenders' trust in the government's propensity to repay the debt and is denoted as », also determines the default risk: a higher » means a lower default risk ceteris pa...

  9. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  10. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  11. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  12. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  13. How to prove the existence of metabolons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Sequential enzymes in biosynthetic pathways are organized in metabolons. It is challenging to provide experimental evidence for the existence of metabolons as biosynthetic pathways are composed of highly dynamic protein–protein interactions. Many different methods are being applied, each with str...

  14. Conditions for the Existence of Market Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that most graduate-level economics textbooks rarely mention the need for consumers to be above their minimum wealth position as a condition for market equilibrium. Argues that this omission leaves students with a mistaken sense about the range of circumstances under which market equilibria can exist. (MJP)

  15. 22 CFR 142.16 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.16 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this part applies so that when each...., telecommunication device for the deaf) redesign of equipment, reassignment of classes or other services to...

  16. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  18. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  19. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    with a doll, a dead woman in a coffin, and a bowl of soup; the viewers of the three sequences were reported to have perceived Mozhukin’s face as expressing happiness, sadness, and hunger/thoughtfulness respectively. It is not clear, however, whether or not the socalled “Kuleshov effect” really exists...

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  1. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter subseq...

  2. Do Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiations Exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    The claim that radiations, e.g, in spas, can have biopositive actions on humans is unproven and unplausible. It also conflicts with the contents of the standard handbooks and with national legislation everywhere. Further, stimulation of plants by radiation is badly reproducible. But even if existing it need not be beneficial to the plant itself ("selfpositive"). (author)

  3. Repurposing Existing Material for Performance Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Francis A.; Nelson, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of performance support systems (PSS), describes their role in promoting productivity in agile organizations, and discusses issues related to developing effective performance support using existing orientation, training, or procedural manuals. Topics include strategic principles of agility, and adding value when incorporating…

  4. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudynski, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L 1 and in L loc 1 are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L 1 . The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions

  5. 38 CFR 18.422 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Accessibility § 18.422 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this... visits, delivery of health, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of...

  6. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  7. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  8. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  10. Adding Semantic Support to Existing UDDI Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jim; Montrose, Bruce; Kang, Myong

    2005-01-01

    .... The advantage is that it is completely backward compatible. The add-on modules only need to be installed on the clients of users who wish to take advantage of semantic markups. They can be integrated seamlessly into existing systems and operations without any modification of the infrastructure.

  11. AN ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF OPTIMAL EXTERNAL BORROWING: APPLICATION TO TURKEY FOR THE POST 1995 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.NİYAZİ ÖZKER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After placing the general analytic framework associated with widely used quantitative macro indicators, this paper aims to analyse the fluctuating variables which can be influenced by the current accounts balance in the optimum external borrowing. The capacity of a country to service external debt depends on the growth of output and of exports and imports. Exports, minimum tolerable level of imports and foreign exchange rates (or reserves provide a useful framework for the examination of optimum external borrowing. So, the most widely used quantitative indicator here is the optimum external debt ratios, which is the ratios of debt service to the level of exports of goods and services. As a suggested, indicator of the optimum external debt burden in the medium-term or in the long run, the ratio of external debt to GNP (Gross National Product or of debt service to GNP may be superior to the ratio of debt service to exports because over time sizeable changes in the level of exports and imports in GNP can occur.

  12. Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belo, Catarina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037 and Averroes (d. 1198, whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna’s metaphysical works in the 12th century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes’ criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.

    El presente artículo explora las percepciones sobre la existencia de los filósofos medievales musulmanes Avicena (m. 1037 y Averroes (m. 1198, cuyas obras se encuentran muy próximas a la filosofía de Aristóteles. Además de la influencia aristotélica, que caló en toda la filosofía islámica medieval, Avicena y Averroes estuvieron inspirados por la teología islámica, conocida en árabe como Kalām. La distinción entre esencia y existencia es uno de los más fundamentales y controvertidos aspectos de la filosofía de Avicena junto a su aseveración de que la existencia es un accidente. Averroes, en cambio, concibe de forma radicalmente diferente la existencia, identificándola con los seres existentes más que considerarla como algo en

  13. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  14. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  15. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  16. Existence and Comparability of data sources

    OpenAIRE

    KUHNIMHOF, T; ARMOOGUM, J

    2007-01-01

    The deliverable at hand comprises a comprehensive overview over existing data sources which can be used for analysis of long distance travel demand. This encompasses both national and international data sources with a focus on household travel surveys. Three types of relevant surveys were identified: - National travel surveys with focus on daily mobility - Travel survey elements dedicated to long distance mobility - Long distance travel surveys. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT

  17. Transgender Parenting: A Review of Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...

  18. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and...

  19. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  20. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  1. Development of mobile platform integrated with existing electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungAh; Kim, Sung Soo; Kang, Simon; Kim, Kyungduk; Kim, Jun

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) platform designed to manage and utilize the existing EMR and mobile application with optimized resources. We structured the mEMR to reuse services of retrieval and storage in mobile app environments that have already proven to have no problem working with EMRs. A new mobile architecture-based mobile solution was developed in four steps: the construction of a server and its architecture; screen layout and storyboard making; screen user interface design and development; and a pilot test and step-by-step deployment. This mobile architecture consists of two parts, the server-side area and the client-side area. In the server-side area, it performs the roles of service management for EMR and documents and for information exchange. Furthermore, it performs menu allocation depending on user permission and automatic clinical document architecture document conversion. Currently, Severance Hospital operates an iOS-compatible mobile solution based on this mobile architecture and provides stable service without additional resources, dealing with dynamic changes of EMR templates. The proposed mobile solution should go hand in hand with the existing EMR system, and it can be a cost-effective solution if a quality EMR system is operated steadily with this solution. Thus, we expect this example to be shared with hospitals that currently plan to deploy mobile solutions.

  2. Evaluating natural radiation level by existing airborne radioactive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingkao, Hu; Changqing, Han; Jiangqi, Fang; Zhengxin, Shen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, founded in the middle of 1950s, is a unique unit specialized in uranium exploration by airborne radioactive survey in China. Large numbers of airborne data of radioactivity and abundant experience have been accumulated for more than 40 years. All-round detailed investigation of environmental radiation levels in our country will not be completed in the near future. Thus, at present it is considered to evaluate natural radiation levels using the existing radioactive data. This paper introduces the results of analysis and study comparing airborne radioactive data for radiation environmental evaluation obtained from survey area in Gansu, China, in the 2001 with the measurement results by ground gamma ray radiation dose-rate instrument for environment. The air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 30% at radiation fields with a definite area, and the air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 60% at outcrop of granite. In 6km long profile that has various circumstances, such as desert, Gobi, farmland and residential area, minimum of air absorbed dose rate is 47nGy/h at an altitude of 1 meter above the soil plane, maximum is 68nGy/h. The inter-comparison errors are usually less than 20%, and maximum is 25.38%. This shows that it is feasible to obtain natural radiation levels rapidly if we could use the existing radioactive data adequately and make some correction, such as geology factor

  3. On channel selection and shape co-existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.

    1993-08-01

    Ambivalence with respect to a favoured shape is emerging as a ubiquitous phenomenon in nuclei. Multiple minima in the nuclear potential well occur because of the delicate balance in nuclei between the long and short-range properties of the nuclear force and the contribution specific particle orbitals make in forcing the nucleus to a decision. Exploration of the dependence of the resulting shape co-existence on particle number and orbital is a prominent area of research. Experimental aspects of spectroscopy studies using heavy ion fusion, evaporation reactions and channel selection are discussed, with focus on shape co-existence in the light Os-Pt-Hg-Pb region. 42 refs., 8 figs

  4. Existing and new techniques in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.; Cameron, J.

    1976-01-01

    The demands on uranium exploration over the next 25 years will be very great indeed and will call for every possible means of improvement in exploration capability. The first essential is to increase geological knowledge of the mode of occurrence of uranium ore deposits. The second is to improve existing exploration techniques and instrumentation while, at the same time, promoting research and development on new methods to discover uranium ore bodies on the earth's surface and at depth. The present symposium is an effort to increase co-operation and the exchange of information in the critical field of uranium exploration techniques and instrumentation. As an introduction to the symposium a brief review is presented, firstly of what can be considered as existing techniques and, secondly, of techniques which have not yet been used on an appreciable scale. Some fourteen techniques used over the last 30 years are identified and their appropriate application, advantages and limitations are briefly summarized and the possibilities of their further development considered. The aim of future research on new techniques, in addition to finding new ways and means of identifying surface deposits, should be mainly directed to devising methods and instrumentation capable of detecting buried ore bodies that do not give a gamma signal at the surface. To achieve this aim, two contributory factors are essential: adequate financial support for research and development and increased specialized training in uranium exploration and instrumentation design. The papers in this symposium describe developments in the existing techniques, proposals for future research and development and case histories of exploration programmes

  5. Does the Kuleshov Effect Really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Rédei, Anna Cabak; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2016-01-01

    to replicate Kuleshov’s original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion...... of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants’ eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than...... between the emotional conditions....

  6. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  7. Analysis of field errors in existing undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) and other third generation synchrotron light sources have been designed for optimum performance with undulator insertion devices. The performance requirements for these new undulators are explored, with emphasis on the effects of errors on source spectral brightness. Analysis of magnetic field data for several existing hybrid undulators is presented, decomposing errors into systematic and random components. An attempts is made to identify the sources of these errors, and recommendations are made for designing future insertion devices. 12 refs., 16 figs

  8. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  9. Eternally existing self-reproducing inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that the large-scale quantum fluctuations of the scalar field φ generated in the chaotic inflation scenario lead to an infinite process of self-reproduction of inflationary mini-universes. A model of eternally existing chaotic inflationary universe is suggested. It is pointed out that whereas the universe locally is very homogeneous as a result of inflation, which occurs at the classical level, the global structure of the universe is determined by quantum effects and is highly non-trivial. The universe consists of exponentially large number of different mini-universes, inside which all possible (metastable) vacuum states and all possible types of compactification are realized. The picture differs crucially from the standard picture of a one-domain universe in a ''true'' vacuum state. Our results may serve as a justification of the anthropic principle in the inflationary cosmology. These results may have important implications for the elementary particle theory as well. Namely, since all possible types of mini-universes, in which inflation may occur, should exist in our universe, there is no need to insist (as it is usually done) that in realistic theories the vacuum state of our type should be the only possible one or the best one. (author)

  10. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J

    2016-06-21

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks.

  11. Research for the safety of existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschendorff, Victor; Bruna, Giovanni B.; Gelder, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The essential role of research for maintaining the high safety standard for the existing nuclear installations is outlined in the context of internationally agreed needs. The three co-authoring Technical Safety Organisations are committed to continued safety research, recognising operational experience and new technologies as the main driving forces. The safety margin concept is introduced and new trends in traditional and new areas of safety research are identified. The importance of a sufficient experimental infrastructure and international co-operation in sustainable networks is highlighted. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 82277 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    [email protected] . A detailed electronic copy of the List of National System MPAs is available for....S.S. YSD Exempt Site H.M.C.S. Saint Francis Exempt Site French Van Gilder Exempt Site [[Page 82279...

  13. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  14. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  15. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  16. Integrating existing software toolkits into VO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Wang, Xiaoqian; Sang, Jian; Luo, Ze

    2004-09-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools. Taking advantages of the latest information technologies, it aims to provide a data-intensively online research environment for astronomers all around the world. A large number of high-qualified astronomical software packages and libraries are powerful and easy of use, and have been widely used by astronomers for many years. Integrating those toolkits into the VO system is a necessary and important task for the VO developers. VO architecture greatly depends on Grid and Web services, consequently the general VO integration route is "Java Ready - Grid Ready - VO Ready". In the paper, we discuss the importance of VO integration for existing toolkits and discuss the possible solutions. We introduce two efforts in the field from China-VO project, "gImageMagick" and "Galactic abundance gradients statistical research under grid environment". We also discuss what additional work should be done to convert Grid service to VO service.

  17. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  18. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  19. Testing Metadata Existence of Web Map Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a general user is quite common to use data sources available on WWW. Almost all GIS software allow to use data sources available via Web Map Service (ISO/OGC standard interface. The opportunity to use different sources and combine them brings a lot of problems that were discussed many times on conferences or journal papers. One of the problem is based on non existence of metadata for published sources. The question was: were the discussions effective? The article is partly based on comparison of situation for metadata between years 2007 and 2010. Second part of the article is focused only on 2010 year situation. The paper is created in a context of research of intelligent map systems, that can be used for an automatic or a semi-automatic map creation or a map evaluation.

  20. On the existence of hot positronium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, E.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of hot Ps reactions is nowadays questioned; the controversy arises from the two models (the Ore gap and the spur theories) advanced in order to explain the mechanism of the positronium formation and of its inhibition in liquids by dissolution of certain compounds. The hypothesis of the hot Ps reactions was initially advanced as an additional statement for explaining the inhibition phenomenon within the framework of the Ore gap theory, but it is not considered necessary for the spur theory. The present paper is chiefly intended as a presentation of this particular aspect of Ps chemistry to hot atom chemists unspecialized in the field. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basic physics and experimental methods used in positronium chemistry. Contents: positrons and positronium formation; inhibition and enhancement of Ps formation in solutions; positronium reactions in gases. (Auth.)

  1. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities...... management is a concept relevant to others than large companies. Managing the flows of energy and other resources is a part of facilities management, and an increased professionalism could lead to the reduction of the use of energy and water and the generation of waste and wastewater. This is, however...

  2. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  3. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  4. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a real 3 dimensional analytic variety. For each regular point p L there exists a unique complex line l p on the space tangent to L at p. When the field of complex line p l p is completely integrable, we say that L is Levi variety. More generally; let L M be a real subvariety in an holomorphic complex variety M. If there exists a real 2 dimensional integrable distribution on L which is invariant by the holomorphic structure J induced by M, we say that L is a Levi variety. We shall prove: Theorem. Let be a Levi foliation and let be the induced holomorphic foliation. Then, admits a Liouvillian first integral. In other words, if is a 3 dimensional analytic foliation such that the induced complex distribution defines an holomorphic foliation ; that is, if is a Levi foliation; then admits a Liouvillian first integral--a function which can be constructed by the composition of rational functions, exponentiation, integration, and algebraic functions (Singer 1992. For example, if f is an holomorphic function and if theta is real a 1-form on ; then the pull-back of theta by f defines a Levi foliation : f*theta = 0 which is tangent to the holomorphic foliation : df = 0. This problem was proposed by D. Cerveau in a meeting (see Fernandez 1997.Seja L Ì uma variedade real de dimensão 3. Para todo ponto regular p Î L existe uma única reta complexa l p no espaço tangente à L em p. Quando o campo de linhas complexas p l p é completamente integrável, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Mais geralmente, seja L Ì M uma subvariedade real em uma variedade analítica complexa. Se existe uma distribuição real integrável de dimensão 2 em L que é invariante pela estrutura holomorfa J induzida pela variedade complexa M, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Vamos provar: Teorema. Seja uma folheação de Levi e seja a folheação holomorfa induzida. Então tem integral primeira Liouvilliana. Em outras palavras, se é uma folheação real de

  5. How many N = 4 strings exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Possible ways of constructing extended fermionic strings with N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are reviewed. String theory constraints form, in general, a non-linear quasi(super)conformal algebra, and can have conformal dimensions ≥1. When N=4, the most general N=4 quasi-superconformal algebra to consider for string theory building is D(1, 2; α), whose linearisation is the so-called ''large'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The D(1, 2; α) algebra has su(2)sub(κ + )+su(2)sub(κ - )+u(1) Kac-Moody component, and α=κ - /κ + . We check the Jacobi identities and construct a BRST charge for the D(1, 2; α) algebra. The quantum BRST operator can be made nilpotent only when κ + =κ - =-2. The D(1, 2; 1) algebra is actually isomorphic to the SO(4)-based Bershadsky-Knizhnik non-linear quasi-superconformal algebra. We argue about the existence of a string theory associated with the latter, and propose the (non-covariant) hamiltonian action for this new N=4 string theory. Our results imply the existence of two different N=4 fermionic string theories: the old one based on the ''small'' linear N=4 superconformal algebra and having the total ghost central charge c gh =+12, and the new one with non-linearly realised N=4 supersymmetry, based on the SO(4) quasi-superconformal algebra and having c gh =+6. Both critical string theories have negative ''critical dimensions'' and do not admit unitary matter representations. (orig.)

  6. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  7. On the Possibility of the Existence of a Surface Electromagnetic Wave in the Permafrost Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhanov, V. K.; Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Advokatov, V. R.

    2018-01-01

    The results of measurements of the vertical component of electric field at a radio path with the permafrost at a frequency of 255 kHz have been interpreted. An analysis of the results has shown that the considered radio path exhibits the properties of a two-part impedance surface, i.e., it consists of two sections. At a distance of 70 km from a radiation source and at a frequency of 255 kHz of the electromagnetic wave, the field decreases with the distance R according to the power law as R -1.5 and a power index takes an intermediate value between the power indices for decreasing the field in free space R -2 and for the decrease in the field above an ideal conducting surface R -1. With further propagation at a distance of 70-220 km, the field shows the specific behavior of a surface electromagnetic wave.

  8. Sustainability of existing areas of historic cemeteries in the city organism: A Czech case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folíková Palánová, K.; Juračka, O.

    2018-04-01

    Old public cemeteries are integrated in urbanism as its obvious part what is given by its social function. The witness of these spaces express the relationship and respect to values created by generations ahead of us. There were a lot of forms of graves and cemeteries in a history. A big part of cemeteries preserved until today that we still have in our cities, were founded in 18th and 19th Century. Those burial sites that could be expanded fulfill its function till today. But some of them were closed in an urban organism and remained without use. The others were lost with an aggressive construction and were replaced by the settlements, factories or new parks in some cases, without etic rules. The story of many cemeteries is forgotten. There is a question: What is the fate of old cemeteries, which stopped fulfill their original function? What the investors, the monument care, the heads of cities would to do with it? The aim of the article is to compare the mutual influence of the urban structure of chosen cemeteries in Czech Republic and abroad. The results are obtained by analyzing and comparing the findings of the individual revitalized cemeteries that are still part of urban organism. It is necessary to specify the appropriate transformation of nonfunctional necropolis to become a full part of the city with respect to the dead, to the traditions, to the sacred space.

  9. CHANGES IN PHONETICS IN THE WORDS BORROWED BY THE KYRGYZ LANGUAGE KIRGIZ TÜRKÇESİNDE ALINTI KELİMELERDEKİ SES DEĞİŞMELERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt AKIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, the Kyrgyz people borrowed many words and concepts especially on religion and ethics as a result of their relations with the Arabs and the Arabic language. They also borrowed many words of Persian origin on commerce, husbandry and agriculture from the Uzbek and Tajik peoples due to their relations with them in those fields. As a result of their close relations with the Russians which started in the tsar period, they not only made Russian as their official language and first language in their daily life due to the high pressure, but also borrowed many political, administrative, scientific and philosophical concepts from Russian, without phonetically changing many of them. Still geographically close to the Mongol and Chinese peoples, the Kyrgyz people got close to them, and even fought them in history. And as a result of such relations, they borrowed some words related to nomadic societies.This study aims to reveal changes in phonetics in the words borrowed by the Kyrgyz language from Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, Chinese and Russian in order to show the power of purification of the Kyrgyz language by means of examining its rules that it applies on borrowed words. Kırgızlar tarihi süreçte, Araplar ve Arapça ile ilişkileri neticesinde özellikle din ve ahlaka dair çok sayıda kelime ve kavram alıntılamışlardır. Özbek ve Taciklerle olan ticarî ilişkileri, hayvancılık ve tarım alnındaki münasebetleriyle birlikte ise, bu alanlara ilişkin çok sayıda Farsça kökenli kelimeyi bünyesine katmışlardır. Ruslarla Çarlık döneminde başlayan yakın temas sonucu da, resmi dillerini Rusça yapmaya, günlük konuşmalarında Rusçayı ana dil düzeyinde kullanmaya varan yoğun baskının tesiriyle, büyük bir kısmını fonetik değişime uğratmadan benimsemek durumunda kalarak, çok sayıda siyasi, idari, bilimsel ve felsefi kelime ve kavram alıntısı yapmıştır. Moğollar ve Çinlilerle coğrafi bakımdan g

  10. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  11. Existing facilities and past practices: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.; Tonkay, D.W.; Owens, K.

    2000-01-01

    Article 12 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) requires parties to the Joint Convention to review the safety of existing radioactive waste management facilities 'to ensure that, if necessary, all reasonably practicable improvements are made to upgrade the safety of such a facility'. Also required is a review of the results of past practices to determine 'whether any intervention is needed for reasons of radiation protection' and to consider whether the benefits of the intervention or remediation are sufficient, with regard to the costs and the impact on workers, the public and the environment. This paper discusses the experience of the United States Department of Energy in terms of the lessons learned from operating radioactive waste management facilities and from undertaking intervention or remedial action, and from decision making in an international context. Overarching safety principles are discussed, including integrating safety into all work practices and minimizing the generation of waste. Safety review lessons learned with existing facilities are discussed with respect to: applying new requirements to old facilities, taking a life-cycle perspective of waste management, improving high level waste facility management, and blending current and past practices with respect to the process used to arrive at decisions for intervention. Special emphasis is placed on the need to provide for early and substantive input from the involved regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, and those citizens and groups with an interest in the decisions. Examples of intervention decisions are discussed, including examples taken from uranium mill tailings operations, from cleanup of a former uranium processing plant site, from evaluation of pre-1970 buried 'transuranic waste' sites, and from decommissioning or closure of high level waste storage tanks. The paper concludes that on the

  12. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  13. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  14. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  15. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  16. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  17. On the existence of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Langhans, W.; Romps, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the deep tropics, extensive anvil clouds produce a peak in cloud cover below the tropopause. The dominant paradigm for cloud cover attributes this anvil peak to a layer of enhanced mass convergence in the clear-sky upper-troposphere, which is presumed to force frequent detrainment of convective anvils. However, cloud cover also depends on the lifetime of cloudy air after it detrains, which raises the possibility that anvil clouds may be the signature of slow cloud decay rather than enhanced detrainment. Here we measure the cloud decay timescale in cloud-resolving simulations, and find that cloudy updrafts that detrain in the upper troposphere take much longer to dissipate than their shallower counterparts. We show that cloud lifetimes are long in the upper troposphere because the saturation specific humidity becomes orders of magnitude smaller than the typical condensed water loading of cloudy updrafts. This causes evaporative cloud decay to act extremely slowly, thereby prolonging cloud lifetimes in the upper troposphere. As a consequence, extensive anvil clouds still occur in a convecting atmosphere that is forced to have no preferential clear-sky convergence layer. On the other hand, when cloud lifetimes are fixed at a characteristic lower-tropospheric value, extensive anvil clouds do not form. Our results support a revised understanding of tropical anvil clouds, which attributes their existence to the microphysics of slow cloud decay rather than a peak in clear-sky convergence.

  18. Bibliography - Existing Guidance for External Hazard Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The bibliography of deliverable D21.1 includes existing international and national guidance documents and standards on external hazard assessment together with a selection of recent scientific papers, which are regarded to provide useful information on the state of the art of external event modelling. The literature database is subdivided into International Standards, National Standards, and Science Papers. The deliverable is treated as a 'living document' which is regularly updated as necessary during the lifetime of ASAMPSA-E. The current content of the database is about 140 papers. Most of the articles are available as full-text versions in PDF format. The deliverable is available as an EndNote X4 database and as text files. The database includes the following information: Reference, Key words, Abstract (if available), PDF file of the original paper (if available), Notes (comments by the ASAMPSA-E consortium if available) The database is stored at the ASAMPSA-E FTP server hosted by IRSN. PDF files of original papers are accessible through the EndNote software

  19. Global existence of a generalized solution for the radiative transfer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Perthame, B.

    1984-01-01

    We prove global existence of a generalized solution of the radiative transfer equations, extending Mercier's result to the case of a layer with an initially cold area. Our Theorem relies on the results of Crandall and Ligett [fr

  20. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  1. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies.

  2. Does Glocal Political Power Already Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ornaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large periods of history are usually characterized by equally important moments of change in scientific knowledge and, in particular, in the understanding of political power. We still need to study in depth whether the former provokes (almost of out necessity the latter, or whether they are “great” because they are favored by the innovation of the paradigms of knowledge. The passage from medieval universalism to the particularism of the modern age represents an extremely interesting analogy when compared to the transformations that are now underway. The example of John of Salisbury’s Policratus, the starting point of this article, is illuminating in our comprehension of the relevance of the interweaving between the persistence of the ancient forms of recognition of power and the search for new forms. The existence of glocal realities is already a fact. Even if it is relatively easy to recognize these realities (a business, a university, a humanitarian association, not a few of the same “parts” which constitute the traditional organization of the State, it is more difficult to define the specific characteristics of the power at their disposal. Moving from the widening gap between “actual” power and “potential” power, the article examines the motives for which the classical definitions of power are always becoming more insufficient in understanding the role now emerging from glocal realities. And, in particular, by looking at how the “command-obedience” relationship is changing also as a consequence of communication networks and information technology, the article analyzes that specific “contamination” within global elements and local elements, which seems to be the main base of glocal political power.

  3. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  4. Virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to explore the perspectives and strategies of virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel in order to illustrate radical changes in the concept of reality and writers' concern with the fidelity to experience. A new surge of the so-called digital realism emerges simultaneously with the increase of awareness that the line between our digital selves and our real-world selves has become blurred and difficult to explain, while new technologies are required to go beyond what our human senses can encompass and deliver. The fictional realism of the digital age will also commit itself to young or middle-aged individuals that passionately attempt to define their aims and objectives so that they could fit into a newly constructed and acquired concept of reality. This is the case with the protagonists in the novels by Ivančica Đerić, Tamara Jecić and Aleksandar Ilić, all of them questioning both their offline and online identities. Their everyday life in a postmillennial world includes many intersecting empirical and virtual realities: love, career and sex take place in a dimension which ignores geography and physical distance and ultimately alters the concepts of time and space, as well the concepts of privacy and intimacy. The paper intends to examine the ways new digital technologies contribute to representations of reality in the novels of both accomplished and aspiring authors whose novels deal with ways of life amid social networks. The novels we analyzed show that the distinction between the virtual and the real world narrows, as the narratives range from intimate confession in letters and journals to tweets, notes and statuses, introducing verbal and structural experimental practices which involve shifting points of view.

  5. Thallium exists in opioid poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Oghabian, Zohreh; Moradi, Valiallah; Afshari, Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that exists in nature. Tl poisoning (thallotoxicosis) may occur in opioid addicts. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and level of urinary Tl in opioid abusers. In addition, clinical findings were evaluated. A total of 150 subjects were examined. Cases with a history of at least 3 years of abuse were admitted in the Imam Reza Hospital as the case group; 50 non-opioid abusers from the target population were included as the control group. Twenty-four hour urinary qualitative and quantitative Tl analyses were performed on both groups. Out of the 150 subjects, 128 (85 %) were negative for qualitative urinary Tl, followed by 5 % (trace), 7 % (1+), 2 % (2+), and 1 % (3+). Mean (standard error (SE), Min-Max) quantitative urinary Tl level was 14 μg/L (3.5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L). Mean urinary Tl level in the case group was 21 μg/L (5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L) and that in the controls was 1 μg/L (0.14 μg/L, 0-26 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.001). The most frequent clinical findings were ataxia (86 %), sweating (81 %), and constipation (54 %). In all cases (n = 150), the mean (SE) value for cases with positive qualitative urinary Tl was 26.8 μg/L (0.9 μg/L) and that in the negative cases was 2.3 μg/L (0.2 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.002). This study showed that long-term opioid abuse may lead to Tl exposure. In opioid abusers with the clinical manifestation of thallotoxicosis, urinary Tl should be determined.

  6. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies

  7. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  8. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  9. MELCOR development for existing and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts in MELCOR development to address previously identified deficiencies have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.2, a much-improved version of the code. Major new models have been implemented for direct containment heating, ice condensers, debris quenching, lower plenum debris behavior, core materials interactions' and radial relocation of debris. Significant improvements have also been made in the modeling of interfacial momentum exchange and in the modeling of fission product release, condensation/evaporation, and aerosol behavior. Efforts are underway to address two-phase hydrodynamics difficulties, to improve modeling of water condensation on structures and fine-scale natural circulation within the reactor vessel, and to implement CORCON-Mod3. Improvements are also being made to MELCOR's capability to handle new features of the advanced light water reactor designs, including drainage of water films on connected heat structures, heat transfer from the external surface of the reactor vessel to a flooded cavity, and creep rupture failure of the lower head. Additional development needs in other areas are discussed

  10. Does GaH5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucas D.; Turney, Justin M.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2005-11-01

    The existence or nonexistence of GaH5 has been widely discussed [N. M. Mitzel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 3856 (2003)]. Seven possible structures for gallium pentahydride have been systematically investigated using ab initio electronic structure theory. Structures and vibrational frequencies have been determined employing self-consistent field, coupled cluster including all single and double excitations (CCSD), and CCSD with perturbative triples levels of theory, with at least three correlation-consistent polarized-valence-(cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ) type basis sets. The X˜A'1 state for GaH5 is predicted to be weakly bound complex 1 between gallane and molecular hydrogen, with Cs symmetry. The dissociation energy corresponding to GaH5→GaH3+H2 is predicted to be De=2.05kcalmol-1. The H-H stretching fundamental is predicted to be v =4060cm-1, compared to the tentatively assigned experimental feature of Wang and Andrews [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 11371 (2003)] at 4087cm-1. A second Cs structure 2 with nearly equal energy is predicted to be a transition state, corresponding to a 90° rotation of the H2 bond. Thus the rotation of the hydrogen molecule is essentially free. However, hydrogen scrambling through the C2v structure 3 seems unlikely, as the activation barrier for scrambling is at least 30kcalmol-1 higher in energy than that for the dissociation of GaH5 to GaH3 and H2. Two additional structures consisting of GaH3 with a dihydrogen bond perpendicular to gallane (C3v structure 4) and an in-plane dihydrogen bond [Cs(III) structure 5] were also examined. A C3v symmetry second-order saddle point has nearly the same energy as the GaH3+H2 dissociation limit, while the Cs(III) structure 5 is a transition structure to the C3v structure. The C4v structure 6 and the D3h structure 7 are much higher in energy than GaH3+H2 by 88 and 103kcalmol-1, respectively.

  11. PASSCLAIM - Synthesis and review of existing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P; Affertsholt, Tage; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Ake; Grossklaus, Rolf; Howlett, John; Pannemans, Daphne; Ross, Richard; Verhagen, Hans; Viechtbauer, Volker

    2003-03-01

    Several approaches to the use of health claims on foods have been made around the world, and the common theme is that any health claim will require scientific validation and substantiation. There is also broad consensus that any regulatory framework should protect the consumer, promote fair trade and encourage innovation in the food industry.This paper is based on a critical evaluation of existing international approaches to the scientific substantiation of health claims, with a view to identifying common new ideas, definitions, best practice and a methodology to underpin current and future developments. There is a clear need to have uniform understanding, terminology and description of types of nutrition and health claims. Two broad categories were defined: Nutrition Claims, i. e. what the product contains, and Health Claims, i. e. relating to health, well-being and/or performance, including well-established nutrient function claims, enhanced function claims and disease risk reduction claims. Such health claims relate to what the food or food components does or do. The categories of health claims are closely and progressively related and are, in practice, part of a continuum. Provision is also made for "generic" or well-established, generally accepted claims and for "innovative" or "product-specific" claims. Special attention was paid to reflect the health-promoting properties of a food or food component in such a way as to facilitate the making of risk reduction claims outside the medical scope of the term prevention. The paper sets out basic principles and guidelines for communication of health claims and principles of nutritional safety. The main body of the work examines the process for the assessment of scientific support for health claims on food and emphasises an evidence-based approach consisting of: Identification of all relevant studies exploring the collection of evidence, data searches, the nature of the scientific evidence, sources of scientific data

  12. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.

  13. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a singular problem with variable potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Saoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to prove some existence and nonexistence theorems for the inhomogeneous singular Dirichlet problem $$ - \\Delta_p u = \\frac{\\lambda k(x}{u^\\delta}\\pm h(x u^q. $$ For proving our results we use the sub and super solution method, and monotonicity arguments.

  14. On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2017-09-11

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.

  15. On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-01-01

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.

  16. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability

    2016-01-21

    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  17. [Popular wisdom: its existence in the university environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Alves; de Melo, Marcia Borges; Júnior, Raul Soares Silveira; Brasil, Virginia Visconde; Martins, Cleusa Alves; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, myths and superstitions are present in spite of scientific and technological developments, especially when trying to solve problems that escape human understanding. This study was aimed at determining the existence of superstitions and myths in the university community, investigating their origins, influences, adoption and credibility, correlating them with people's level of knowledge. It is a descriptive/analytical research conducted at Teaching Units in the Area of Health of the Federal University of Goiás. The technique of content analysis was utilized for data analysis. Two categories have been created: Personal Attitudes related to Superstitions and Influences and Destruction of Superstitions. It was found out that there is a clash between popular and scientific knowledge, either leading to the exclusion of popular wisdom, to its 'veiled' maintenance, or even to an alliance between the two types of knowledge.

  18. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    , construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  19. Differences exist across insurance schemes in China post-consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available In China, the basic insurance system consists of three schemes: the UEBMI (Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI (Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance, and NCMS (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, across which significant differences have been observed. Since 2009, the central government has been experimenting with consolidating these schemes in selected areas. This study examines whether differences still exist across schemes after the consolidation.A survey was conducted in the city of Suzhou, collecting data on subjects 45 years old and above with at least one inpatient or outpatient treatment during a period of twelve months. Analysis on 583 subjects was performed comparing subjects' characteristics across insurance schemes. A resampling-based method was applied to compute the predicted gross medical cost, OOP (out-of-pocket cost, and insurance reimbursement rate.Subjects under different insurance schemes differ in multiple aspects. For inpatient treatments, subjects under the URBMI have the highest observed and predicted gross and OOP costs, while those under the UEBMI have the lowest. For outpatient treatments, subjects under the UEBMI and URBMI have comparable costs, while those under the NCMS have much lower costs. Subjects under the NCMS also have a much lower reimbursement rate.Differences still exist across schemes in medical costs and insurance reimbursement rate post-consolidation. Further investigations are needed to identify the causes, and interventions are needed to eliminate such differences.

  20. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a p(x-biharmonic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem A. Afrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the following problem with Navier boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\Delta (|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u+|u|^{p(x-2}u =\\lambda |u|^{q(x-2}u +\\mu|u|^{\\gamma(x-2}u\\quad \\text{in } \\Omega,\\cr u=\\Delta u=0 \\quad \\text{on } \\partial\\Omega. }$$ where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with smooth boundary $\\partial \\Omega$, $N\\geq1$. $p(x,q(x$ and $\\gamma(x$ are continuous functions on $\\overline{\\Omega}$, $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ are parameters. Using variational methods, we establish some existence and non-existence results of solutions for this problem.

  1. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  4. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  5. The Problems of Application of the Social Role of Promotion and Borrowed Terminology in the Urban Trading Networks and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalija Kemeklienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays advertising is of significant importance. Radio and television programmes, newspapers and magazines, various texts, even streets and shops are hardly imaginable without advertising. Advertising forms individuals’ as well as public attitude to many things in life. Besides it influences the person’s behavior and way of thinking. Advertising is inseparable part of the market; it helps create new working places, increases income and discloses positive qualities of manufactured products.However to create the correct, attractive and emotional body of the advert is not easy at all. Every person involved in advertising should be aware of that. In advertising texts vocabulary rules change, loanwords pushed, their standardisation and codification are noticed. In the period of integrating into the European Union, more new technological terms are used in the Lithuanian language. The language is being operated in virtual environment. New varieties of the language are being discovered - advertisement language and -communicative language. The problems of the usage of borrowed words also appear in the language.

  6. Integration of existing systematic reviews into new reviews: identification of guidance needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937

  7. LEKSIC BORROWING FROM NOT RELATIVE LANGUAGES IN ALTAI LANGUAGE / ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЯ В АЛТАЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ИЗ НЕРОДСТВЕННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nina CAYIM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic dictionary fund of the Altay language consists from all altaic, all turc-mongolian and all turc words, but also there are in it speaking another language borrowings from unrelated languages. In article is shined the problem of indirect borrowings from a Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, Sogdian, Iranian, Persian, Arabian in the Altay language.

  8. Risks associated with borrowing and sharing of prescription analgesics among patients observed by pain management physicians in Croatia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotic F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filipa Markotic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: Understanding and improving patient safety is a key issue in medicine. One of the potential threats to patient safety is the sharing of medication among patients, which is a form of self-medication. This study analyzed experiences and attitudes of pain management physicians (PMPs about sharing prescription analgesics among patients.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by semi-structured interviews among PMPs employed in Croatian pain clinics. The study involved two researchers and 15 PMPs.Results: Among PMPs, 80% have seen patients who share their prescription analgesics with other patients for whom prescription is not intended. Most PMPs consider prescription analgesics sharing a risky and negative behavior. Some of them, however, found certain positive aspects associated to it, such as being a benevolent behavior, helping patients to get medications when they need them, and helping them cope with pain.Conclusion: The majority of physicians specialized in pain management encountered patients sharing prescription analgesics. Most of them considered this as risky behavior with a number of potential consequences. It has been noted that this problem is neglected and that physicians should inquire about medication sharing. Direct-to-consumers advertising was perceived as a factor contributing to such behavior. Patient education and more involvement of physicians in identifying this behavior were cited as potential remedies for preventing sharing of prescription analgesics. Keywords: analgesics, sharing, lending, borrowing, risks

  9. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  10. Microtunneling techniques to form an insitu barrier around existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coller, P.J.; Abbott, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of microtunneling techniques to construct underground structures has been available for many years. The technique, typically termed pipe roofing, is well proven and, to date, has been used principally to form underground access under existing structures where the use of cut and cover or conventional tunneling techniques was either impossible or too expensive. The first project involving the use of Iseki equipment, the first use of the pipe roofing technique as far as we are aware, was in 1971. This was followed by a number of projects in Japan, together with projects in Singapore and Hong Kong, totaling 12 projects. More recently, projects have been completed in Singapore and Japan and are currently in progress in Japan and Malaysia. This paper will briefly describe the use of the technique and the use of the new Iseki Unclemole for hard rock excavation to construct the largest pipe roof project ever undertaken in the world, together with other projects. The pipe roofing technique allows the construction of underground structures, in a variety of shapes and forms, by the use of remotely operated microtunnel machines. The paper will describe the potential application of this technique in the areas of hazardous and nuclear waste management

  11. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Systematic Alien... pre-existing condition based on evidence of the existence or history of certain medical or health...

  12. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR AN ELASTIC CURVED BEAM EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kovacs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of positive solutions for a sixth-order differential equations. By using the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem we give some new existence results.

  13. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  14. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  15. Existence of pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Daishi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness. By employing an existence theorem of Pareto equilibria due to Yu and Yuan([10]), several existence theorems of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for the multiobjective games are established in a similar way to Flores-B´azan.

  16. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  17. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  19. Borrowed earth, borrowed time: Healing America's chemical wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This book stresses the importance of saving the environment. It is not, however, a typical scholarly treatment of environmental issues; nor is is a list of helpful household tips on how to control environmental pollution. Instead, it portrays the history of the environmental movement by tracking the author's career from his tart as first director of the US EPA's Office of Toxic Substances from 1973 to 1977 to director of EPA's environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory from 1980 to 1985. The author makes the point that economics alone cannot steer the environmental movement, and discusses meeting the challenge of public education and interaction with environmental policy

  20. Hydraulic and Condition Assessment of Existing Sewerage Network: A Case Study of an Educational Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourabh, Nishant; Timbadiya, P. V.

    2018-04-01

    The hydraulic simulation of the existing sewerage network provides various information about critical points to assess the deteriorating condition and help in rehabilitation of existing network and future expansion. In the present study, hydraulic and condition assessment of existing network of educational Institute (i.e. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology-Surat, Gujarat, India), having an area of 100 ha and ground levels in range of 5.0-9.0 m above mean sea level, has been carried out using sewage flow simulation for existing and future scenarios analysis using SewerGEMS v8i. The paper describes the features of 4.79 km long sewerage network of institute followed by network model simulation for aforesaid scenarios and recommendations on improvement of the existing network for future use. The total sewer loads for present and future scenarios are 1.67 million litres per day (MLD) and 3.62 MLD, considering the peak factor of 3 on the basis of population. The hydraulic simulation of the existing scenario indicated depth by diameter (d/D) ratio in the range of 0.02-0.48 and velocity range of 0.08-0.53 m/s for existing network for present scenario. For the future scenario, the existing network is needed to be modified and it was found that total of 11 conduits (length: 464.8 m) should be replaced to the next higher diameter available, i.e., 350 mm for utilization of existing network for future scenario. The present study provides the methodology for condition assessment of existing network and its utilization as per guidelines provided by Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, 2013. The methodology presented in this paper can be used by municipal/public health engineer for the assessment of existing sewerage network for its serviceability and improvement in future.

  1. 7 CFR 1940.959 - Area plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and time lines based on a realistic assessment of the area, including, but not limited to, the... possibilities for industrial recruitment in the area; (5) The potential for development of tourism in the area... expansion of existing businesses; and (7) The potential to produce value-added agricultural products in the...

  2. Seismic isolation for existing masonry houses in Groningen/ NL combined with thermal upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Rijk; Teuffel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Induced earthquakes, caused by the winning of natural Gas in the North of the Netherlands (Groningen province), are causing significant damage to the existing, often relatively weak, masonry buildings. This seismic hazard and seismic rehabilitation problem in the Groningen area involves much more

  3. Existing and Proposed Child Find Initiatives in One State's Part C Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Green, Katherine B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Child Find mandate in IDEA, early detection and screening of infants and toddlers with special needs continues to remain an area in need of improvement. The authors sought to better understand existing and proposed outreach initiatives in one state's Part C Early Intervention (EI) program that ranks among the lowest nationally in the…

  4. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for... inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be made each year for the purposes of, among other...

  5. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  6. Existing roles of traditional healers (mor baan) in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Rumbold, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Traditional healers (mor baan) played an important role in Thai health long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although modern health professional play a key role of health care provider of Thai health care system, traditional healers and their practice still exist in most rural areas of Thailand. In this article, we address the roles and practices of traditional healers in southern Thailand. An ethnographic method was employed. This approach is the hallmark method used to describe the role and the practice of traditional healers and to grasp in-depth understanding of their everyday life. Participation observation and unstructured interview with 18 traditional healers were conducted. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Most of the traditional healers chose their role because they were influenced by their ancestors, although a few others chose it because of individual interests and a desire to help ill people. All are trained in multiple skills, using supernatural spirits, ceremonies and natural plant products as resources for counteracting various health problems. They refer patients to modern hospitals or other healers if they cannot adequately manage illness themselves. Their service provision is flexible and based on a holistic approach that suits people's lifestyles and needs. The role of traditional healer tends not to attract the interest of younger generations, although traditional healers have contributed greatly to people's health. Their presence improves people's access to healthcare and offers an alternative to modern medicine, which often has a limited role. We conclude that the services of traditional healers should be incorporated into contemporary healthcare provision of Thai health care system.

  7. Iterative Chat Transcript Analysis: Making Meaning from Existing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Baumgart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – In order to better contextualize library data about patron satisfaction with reference services, we analyzed an existing corpus of chat transcripts. Having conducted a similar analysis in 2010, we also compared librarian behaviors over time. Methods – Drawing from the library literature, we identified a set of librarian behaviors closely associated with patron satisfaction. These behaviors include listening to and understanding patrons’ needs, inviting patrons to use the service again, and providing instruction or completing a search for patrons. Analysis of the chat transcripts included establishing a coding schema, applying these codes to individual chat transcripts, and analyzing these codes across the corpus of transcripts for frequency and correlation with other codes. The currently presented analysis used chat transcripts from the fall of 2013 and seeks changes in librarian behavior over time in order to gauge the success of establishing best practices and improving training standardization over the last three years. Results – The analysis shows that librarian behaviors have changed over time, pointing to what campus librarians are doing well, and that implementation of best practices at a campus level after the 2010 analysis may have increased these positive behaviors. The analysis also shows opportunities for further standardization and reinforcement of best practices. Conclusion – Qualitative analysis of already-collected data serves as a model for other units and suggests areas for process improvement, including enhanced coder training and code schema design. Further analysis of chat patrons’ questions is also warranted, including investigation of the relationship between subject- and location-specific questions and referrals.

  8. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  9. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  10. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  12. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  13. Expandable External Payload Carrier for Existing Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous existing launch vehicles have excess performance that is not being optimized. By taking advantage of excess, unused, performance, additional NASA...

  14. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  15. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas

  16. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  17. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units

  18. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  19. The Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity in ABNJ: What can be achieved using existing international agreements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayfuse, R.; Ardron, J.; Warner, R.; Gjerde, K.

    2014-01-01

    While the international community debates the desirability and possible content of a new global instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, alternative approaches to improving the application and implementation of existing

  20. Tachyons imply the existence of a privileged frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, T.; Heylighen, F.

    1985-12-16

    It is shown that the existence of faster-than-light signals (tachyons) would imply the existence (and detectability) of a privileged inertial frame and that one can avoid all problems with reversed-time order only by using absolute synchronization instead of the standard one. The connection between these results and the EPR-paradox is discussed.

  1. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining

  2. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  3. The Relationship among Localization Skill, Existence Constancy and Object Permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Rosenwein, Linda

    Two component skills of object permanence were studied: existence constancy -- the infants' ability to expect that an object continues to exist after it is hidden, and localization skill -- infants' ability to search in the correct place for a hidden object. Contradictions within the literature may occur because of task lability caused by failure…

  4. 40 CFR 63.312 - Existing regulations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing regulations and requirements. 63.312 Section 63.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.312 Existing regulations and requirements. (a) The...

  5. Existence of solutions of nonlinear integrodifferential equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point ... The problem of existence of solutions of evolution equations with nonlocal ... we assume that there exists an operator E on DЕEЖИX given by the formula.

  6. The solution of location problems with certain existing facility structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that in the Euclidean distance case, the optimal minisum location of a new facility in relation to four existing facilities is at the intersection of the two lines joining two pairs of the facilities. The authors extend this concept to minisum problems having any even number of existing...... facilities and characterized by generalized distance norms...

  7. Existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sacchetti@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Computer Sciences and Mathematics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we prove the existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with smooth periodic potential and small external homogeneous electric field. Such a result extends the existence result previously obtained in the case of periodic potentials with a finite number of open gaps.

  8. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  9. Existence and attractors of solutions for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid El Ouardi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence and asymptotic behaviour results for weak solutions of a mixed problem (S. We also obtain the existence of the global attractor and the regularity for this attractor in $\\left[H^{2}(\\Omega \\right] ^{2}$ and we derive estimates of its Haussdorf and fractal dimensions.

  10. Remarks on the existence of non equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioro, C.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an existence theorem for the dynamics of an infinite system of anharmonic oscillators. They obtain another proof of the existence of the dynamics in the case of one-dimensional system of infinitely many particles interacting via a bounded potential. The case of very singular potential is also solved. (Auth.)

  11. Global existence of small solutions to semilinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Hiroyuki

    1996-01-01

    We present global existence theorem for semilinear Schrodinger equations. In general, Schrodinger-type equations do not admit the classical energy estimates. To avoid this difficulty, we use S. Doi's method for linear Schrodinger-type equations. Combining his method and L p -L q estimates, we prove the global existence of solutions with small initial data

  12. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  13. Existing knowledge related to mainstreaming IKS into Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining existing knowledge related to mainstreaming of IKS into education system. The qualitative research methodology was appropriate for this study to explore and describe the mainstreaming of IKS into the existing education system. The study included 10 school teachers (5male and 5 females) ...

  14. An existence result of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, T.

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of energy minimizers in each free homotopy class of maps between polyhedra with target space without focal points. Our proof involves a careful study of some geometric properties of Riemannian polyhedra without focal points. Among other things, we show that on the relevant polyhedra, there exists a convex supporting function. (author)

  15. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include: (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  16. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include— (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  17. Kierkegaard e a existência possível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Kahlmeyer-Mertens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A relação entre a existência e a possibilidade, objeto deste artigo, merece especial atenção quando se trata de Kierkegaard. Isso porque, estes dois conceitos ocupam papéis primordiais na filosofia do autor, constituindo, justamente, o ponto a partir do qual o pensador se distancia criticamente da tradição filosófica. Caracterizar sumariamente os conceitos de existência e possibilidade na filosofia de Kierkegaard, bem como ambientar o filósofo em sua época como um pensador da existência, para além do rótulo de “existencialista”, são nossos presentes objetivos.   Palavras-chave: Kierkegaard, filosofia da existência, existência, possibilidade

  18. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  19. Assessment of wind turbine seismic risk : existing literature and simple study of tower moment demand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Ian (University of California, San Diego, CA); Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    Various sources of risk exist for all civil structures, one of which is seismic risk. As structures change in scale, the magnitude of seismic risk changes relative to risk from other sources. This paper presents an introduction to seismic hazard as applied to wind turbine structures. The existing design methods and research regarding seismic risk for wind turbines is then summarized. Finally a preliminary assessment is made based on current guidelines to understand how tower moment demand scales as rated power increases. Potential areas of uncertainty in the application of the current guidelines are summarized.

  20. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2015-11-20

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.

  1. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    2011-09-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era.

  5. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  6. 31 CFR 370.26 - What limitations exist on liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFERS RELATING TO UNITED STATES SECURITIES Debit Entries § 370.26 What limitations exist on liability? If we sustain a loss because a financial institution fails to handle an entry in accordance with this...

  7. Protection of continued economic existence and major changes. 1. paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backherms, J.

    1980-01-01

    On the issue of protecting continued economic existence according to Sect. 18 of the Atomic Energy Law, a difference is made between changes occurring in the environment of the plant, in the existing knowledge in science and technology, and changes occurring in the safety philosophy held by the authorities. In case of conditions being subsequently imposed because of a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology, the liability of the authorities to pay compensation is ruled out according to Sect. 18, para. 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The difference made between a change in the safety philosophy held by the authorities and a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology seems to be obvious. In the first case it is a matter of changing the legal evaluation of unchanged technological findings, in the legal evaluation, however, the licence granted has to have a lasting effect on principle. (HP) [de

  8. Existence results for anisotropic discrete boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avci Avci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems. The main tools used here are the variational principle and critical point theory.

  9. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  10. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.

  11. Existence of Solutions of Nonlinear Integrodifferential Equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we prove the existence of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of Sobolev type with nonlocal condition. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  12. Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shun Chin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.

  13. On the existence and dynamics of braneworld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew Liam; Randall, Lisa; Wiseman, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Based on holographic arguments Tanaka and Emparan et al have claimed that large localized static black holes do not exist in the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. If such black holes are time-dependent as they propose, there are potentially significant phenomenological and theoretical consequences. We revisit the issue, arguing that their reasoning does not take into account the strongly coupled nature of the holographic theory. We claim that static black holes with smooth metrics should indeed exist in these theories, and give a simple example. However, although the existence of such solutions is relevant to exact and numerical solution searches, such static solutions might be dynamically unstable, again leading to time dependence with phenomenological consequences. We explore a plausible instability, suggested by Tanaka, analogous to that of Gregory and Laflamme, but argue that there is no reliable reason at this point to assume it must exist

  14. A corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated a multi-parameter corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures in chloride-laden service environments. The system was fabricated based on a prototype concrete corrosion measurement system that : had bee...

  15. Report on the Pre-existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Before the Affordable Care Act, Americans with pre-existing conditions who did not receive health coverage through their employers had few affordable options to get...

  16. Existence for a class of discrete hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rodica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a class of discrete hyperbolic systems with some nonlinear extreme conditions and initial data, in a real Hilbert space.

  17. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  18. Existence of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Fu-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a fixed point theorem in a cone to obtain the existence of positive solutions of the differential equation, , , with some suitable boundary conditions, where is a parameter.

  19. comparative performance evaluation of an existing and modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    and fan speeds of 2800 rpm as against the existing cylinder and fan speeds of 934 rpm. The performance evaluation for ... KEYWORDS: Acha, fonio, dehuller, performance evaluation, ... centrifugal force as a result of the rotation of the cylinder.

  20. Newspaper and internet display advertising: Co-existence or substitution?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Newspapers have been experiencing declining circulation figures and diminishing advertising revenues for several years – both effects might pose a threat to the continuing existence of (print) newspapers. In an earlier paper, Lindstädt & Budzinski (2011) argued from a theoretical viewpoint that industry-specific patterns exist that determine substitution or complementation effects between internet and newspaper advertising. It was argued that retail advertising, in particular, may offer a nic...